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Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(2): 165-170, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131064


ABSTRACT Objective To determine the optimal cut-off value for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) to predict the outcome of microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Subjects and methods We included a total number of 180 patients with NOA. The serum level of FSH was determined and all the subjects underwent micro-TESE. We determined the optimal cut-off value for FSH and assessed whether the test could be effectively used as a successful predictor of sperm retrieval by calculating the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) area under the curve. Results Overall we included a total number of 171 patients with mean age of 34.3 ± 8.6 years. The micro-TESE was considered to be successful in 79 (43.8%) while it failed in 92 (56.2%) patients. We found that the mean level of serum FSH was significantly higher in group those with failed micro-TEST compared to successful group (p < 0.001). The cut-off value for FSH was calculated to be 14.6 mIU/mL to predictive the outcome of micro-TESE with a sensitivity of 83.5% [73.5%-90.9%] and a specificity of 80.3% [69.5%-88.5%]. At this value, the other parameters were calculated to be PPV, 81.5%; NPV, 82.4; LR+, 4.23; and LR-, 0.21. Conclusions The results of the current study indicate that FSH plasma levels above 14.6 mIU/mL can be considered to be the failure predictor of the micro-TESE in NOA patients.

Humans , Male , Adult , Azoospermia/blood , Sperm Retrieval , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Microsurgery/methods , Reference Values , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(2): 81-89, Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098853


Abstract Objective The present study aimed to analyze cardiac autonomic modulation via spectral and symbolic analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who were subjected to two consecutive tilt tests. Methods A total of 64 women were selected and divided into 2 groups: control (without PCOS), and PCOS. Concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, estradiol, homocysteine, sex hormone-binding globulin, thyroid stimulating hormone, fasting insulin, testosterone, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels, triglycerides, free androgen index (FAI), and homeostasis assessment model (HOMA-IR) were assessed. Cardiac autonomic modulation was evaluated by spectral and symbolic analyses during two consecutive tilt tests (two moments) and supine moments before, between and after (three moments) the tilt tests. Results Women with PCOS had higher fasting insulin, HOMA-IR indexes, testosterone and FAI. Additionally, we observed that the PCOS group had greater sympathetic autonomic cardiac modulation in supine 2, tilt 1, and supine 3 moments compared with controls. Conclusion Women with PCOS had higher autonomic sympathetic cardiac modulation even after a second tilt test. No adaptation to this provocative test was observed. Spectral analysis was more sensitive for identifying differences between groups than the symbolic analysis.

Resumo Objetivo O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a modulação autonômica cardíaca por análise espectral e simbólica da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC) em mulheres com síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP) que foram submetidas a dois testes consecutivos de inclinação. Métodos Um total de 64 mulheres foram selecionadas e divididas em 2 grupos: controle (sem SOP) e SOP. Concentrações de hormônio folículo-estimulante, hormônio luteinizante, prolactina, estradiol, homocisteína, globulina de ligação a hormônios sexuais, hormônio estimulante da tireóide, insulina em jejum, testosterona e androstenediona e níveis de 17-hidroxiprogesterona, triglicerídeos, índice de andrógeno livre (FAI) e homeostase modelo de avaliação (HOMA-IR) foram avaliados. A modulação autonômica cardíaca foi avaliada por análises espectrais e simbólicas durante dois testes de inclinação consecutivos (dois momentos) e momentos supinos antes, entre e após (três momentos) os testes de inclinação. Resultados Mulheres com SOP apresentaram insulina em jejuM, índices HOMA-IR, testosterona e FAI mais altos. Além disso, observamos que o grupo PCOS apresentou maior modulação cardíaca autonômica simpática nos momentos supino 2, inclinado 1 e supino 3 em comparação aos controles. Conclusão Mulheres com SOP apresentaram modulação cardíaca simpática autonômica mais alta mesmo após um segundo teste de inclinação. Nenhuma adaptação a esse teste provocativo foi observada. A análise espectral foi mais sensível para identificar diferenças entre os grupos do que a análise simbólica.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/blood , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Case-Control Studies , Tilt-Table Test , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 4-10, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088773


ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to explore the relationship between body fat percentage and metabolic markers. Subjects and methods Sedentary women were assigned to PCOS (N = 60) and CONTROL (N = 60) groups. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to body fat percentage (22-27%, 27-32% and 32-37%). The protocol consisted of assessments of glucose, insulin, androgens, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results The PCOS subgroups showed higher concentrations of androgens, LH and 17-OHP. Leptin showed direct relationship with increased body fat percentage, whereas adiponectin showed the inverse effect. However, both were unaffected by PCOS. TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in PCOS women and showed a direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Glucose showed direct relationship with body fat percentage, whereas insulin presented higher values in PCOS women and direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Conclusions Our findings indicate that PCOS and body fat percentage directly influence concentrations of insulin, TNF-α and IL-6, whereas leptin and adiponectin are influenced only by the increase in body fat percentage in these women. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):4-10

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Adipose Tissue/anatomy & histology , Metabolic Diseases/blood , Insulin Resistance , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/blood , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Glucose/analysis , Androgens/blood , Insulin/blood
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879931


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Chinese medicine Wubi Shanyao pills on sexual function of kidney-yang-deficiency mice induced by hydrocortisone.@*METHODS@#Male Kunming mice were injected with hydrocortisone for 10 days to prepare the kidney-yang-deficiency model, and administrated with Wubi Shanyao pills (0.91, 1.82, 2.73 g/kg) for 9 weeks. The general behaviors of mice (autonomous activity, grasping power) were observed; sexual behaviors (capture, straddle, ejaculation frequency and incubation period) of mice were detected by mating experiment. The serum levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E@*RESULTS@#Wubi Shanyao pills increased the number of independent activities, grasping power, capture frequency of model mice and shortened the capture latency (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#Wubi Shanyao pills can improve the sexual function of mice with kidney-yang-deficiency induced by hydrocortisone, which may be related to regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), promoting the proliferation of testicular cells, and inhibiting cell apoptosis.

Animals , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Hydrocortisone , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Male , Mice , Pituitary-Adrenal System/drug effects , Random Allocation , Sexual Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Yang Deficiency/drug therapy
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(5): 1043-1054, Sept.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040070


ABSTRACT Objective Anacyclus Pyrethrum (AP) and Tribulus Terrestris (TT) have been reported as male infertility treatment in several studies; however, in Iranian traditional medicine these two plants are prescribed simultaneously. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of AP and TT extracts both separately and simultaneously on the male Wistar rat fertility parameters. Materials and Methods 32 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Control, TT, AP, and AT treated groups. Treatment continued for 25 days and rats were weighed daily. Their testes were dissected for histological studies. Sperm analysis including sperm count, viability and motility were performed. Serum was obtained to evaluate testosterone, LH and FSH levels. Histological studies were conducted to study Leydig, and Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatid cell numbers, and to measure seminiferous diameter and epithelium thickness. Results Sperm count increased in all the treatment groups. Sperm viability and motility in AT and AP groups were elevated. TT and AT groups showed significantly increased testosterone level compared to control group (P=004, P=0.000, respectively) and TT, AP and AT treatment groups showed increased LH level (P=0.002, P=0.03 and P=0.000, respectively) compared to control, while only AT group showed increased FSH (p=0.006) compared to control. Histological studies showed significant increase of spermatogonia, Leydig and Sertoli cell numbers and epithelial thickness in AT group compared to other groups. All the treatment groups had higher number of Leydig, spermatogonia and spermatid cells. Conclusion TT and AP improved sexual parameters; however, their simultaneous administration had higher improving effects on studied parameters.

Humans , Animals , Male , Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Tribulus/chemistry , Infertility, Male/drug therapy , Organ Size , Reference Values , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Testosterone/blood , Body Weight , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Fertility/drug effects , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(1): 38-44, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989971


ABSTRACT Introduction: The main cause of slightly elevated human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) after successful treatment of male germ cell tumors is considered to be pituitary-derived HCG. It is well known that pituitary-derived HCG is frequently detected in postmenopausal women. We evaluated the status of serum HCG in men with elevated gonadotropins, which were induced by androgen deprivation therapy, using commercially available assays. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 44 patients with prostate cancer, who underwent luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone agonist treatment. We measured serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), serum luteinizing hormone (LH), serum total HCG, serum free HCG-β subunit, and urine total HCG 3 times per patient, on the day of treatment initiation, the next day, and 3 months after. Results: On the day after treatment initiation, serum and urine HCG was detected in 61% and 73% of patients, respectively. Markedly strong correlations were observed between serum/urine HCG and FSH/LH. In particular, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated excellent area under the curve (0.977, 95% confidence interval 0.951-1.003)) for serum HCG-detectable LH. At the cutoff value of 21.07 mIU/mL for serum HCG-detectable LH, the sensitivity and specificity were 96.7% and 95.3%, respectively. Serum HCG-β was not detectable at any times in any patients. Conclusions: Suggested pituitary-derived HCG can be frequently detected in patients with elevated gonadotropins, and there is a firm association between HCG detection and gonadotropin levels.

Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Testosterone/blood , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Chorionic Gonadotropin/biosynthesis , Chorionic Gonadotropin/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human/urine , Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human/blood , Androgen Antagonists/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
Clinics ; 74: e1205, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039542


OBJECTIVE: There are no doubts about the clinical benefits of treatment with GnRH analogs for patients diagnosed with central precocious puberty (CPP). However, laboratory monitoring of CPP is still a matter of considerable controversy in the literature. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the cut-off values of stimulated LH that determine gonadotrophic suppression. METHODS: Twenty-four girls, on treatment with leuprorelin acetate (LA) at 3.75 mg IM every 28 days, were studied. The clinical parameters used to indicate clinical effectiveness were regression or maintenance of sexual characteristics according to the Tanner stage, growth velocity reduction, reduction or maintenance of the difference between bone age and chronological age and maintenance or improvement of the final height prediction. For the laboratory effectiveness test, basal estradiol, LH, and FSH levels were collected before and 1 and 2 h after the administration of 3.75 mg LA. RESULTS: Eleven girls showed improvement in all clinical parameters, and their effectiveness tests were compared to those of the other patients to calculate the cut-off values, which were ≤3.64 IU/L (p=0.004*) for LH after 1 h and ≤6.10 IU/L (p<0.001*) for LH after 2 h. CONCLUSION: The LH response after the LA stimulation test, associated with clinical data and within a context of CPP, constitutes a reliable and feasible resource and can assist in monitoring the effectiveness of treatment.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Puberty, Precocious/drug therapy , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/therapeutic use , Leuprolide/therapeutic use , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Puberty, Precocious/blood , Case-Control Studies , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/analogs & derivatives , Treatment Outcome
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(1): 69-75, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894102


Abstract Objective: Diagnosis of central precocious puberty has always been challenging in clinical practice. As an important method in the diagnosis of central precocious puberty, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test is complex and time-consuming. In many cases, clinical traits are inconsistent with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test results, therefore not reliable for diagnosis. In this study, the authors intended to find an indicator that predicts the results of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test among subjects with early pubertal signs. Methods: Cases of 382 girls with early breast development before 8 years old and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test before 9 years old were included and underwent follow-up tests. Patients with peak luteinizing hormone level ≥5 IU/L were considered positive in the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test. Anthropometric data, body mass index, bone age evaluation, blood hormones levels of luteinizing hormone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, and uterine and ovarian volumes were analyzed. Results: Subjects with positive results in the initial test demonstrated early bone maturation, accelerated growth, and elevated basal blood luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, when compared with subjects with negative results in the initial test. Subjects with positive results in the follow-up test presented a more advanced bone age and more accelerated linear growth, when compared with subjects with negative results in the follow-up test. Conclusions: According to the statistical analysis, advanced bone age is the most effective predictor of the result of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation test.

Resumo Objetivo: O diagnóstico da puberdade precoce central sempre foi complicado na prática clínica. Como um importante método no diagnóstico de puberdade precoce central, o teste de estimulação do hormônio liberador do hormônio luteinizante é complexo e demorado. Em muitos casos, as características clínicas são incompatíveis com os resultados do teste de estimulação do hormônio liberador do hormônio luteinizante e, assim, não são confiáveis para o diagnóstico. Neste estudo, visamos constatar um indicador que previsse os resultados do teste de estimulação do hormônio liberador do hormônio luteinizante entre indivíduos com sinais puberais precoces. Métodos: Foram incluídos casos de 382 meninas com desenvolvimento precoce das mamas antes dos 8 anos de idade e teste de estimulação do hormônio liberador do hormônio luteinizanteantes dos 9 anos e elas foram submetidas a testes de acompanhamento. Os resultados das pacientes com nível máximo de hormônio luteinizante ≥ 5 IU/L foram consideradas positivos no teste de estimulação do hormônio liberador do hormônio luteinizante. Foi feita uma análise dos dados antropométricos, do índice de massa corporal, da avaliação da idade óssea, dos níveis sanguíneos de hormônio luteinizante, volumes uterinos e ovarianos de estradiol (E2) e do hormônio folículo-estimulante. Resultados: Os indivíduos com resultado positive no teste inicial demonstraram maturação precoce do osso, crescimento acelerado e níveis sanguíneos elevados de hormônio luteinizante, estradiol e hormônio folículo-estimulante, em comparação aos indivíduos com resultados negativos no teste inicial. Os indivíduos com resultados positivos no teste de acompanhamento apresentaram um maior avanço na idade óssea e crescimento linear mais acelerado, em comparação aos indivíduos com resultados negativos no teste de acompanhamento. Conclusões: De acordo com a análise estatística, a idade óssea avançada é o indicador mais efetivo do resultado do teste de estimulação do hormônio liberador do hormônio luteinizante.

Humans , Female , Child , Puberty, Precocious/diagnosis , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Age Determination by Skeleton , Estradiol/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Puberty, Precocious/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
Clinics ; 73: e86, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890760


OBJECTIVE: The ideal dosage of cross-sex hormones remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, estradiol and prolactin levels after low-dose estrogen therapy with or without cyproterone acetate in transgender women. METHODS: The serum hormone and biochemical profiles of 51 transgender women were evaluated before gonadectomy. Hormone therapy consisted of conjugated equine estrogen alone or combined with cyproterone acetate. The daily dose of conjugated equine estrogen was 0.625 mg in 41 subjects and 1.25 mg in 10 subjects, and the daily dose of cyproterone acetate was 50 mg in 42 subjects and 100 mg in one subject. RESULTS: Estrogen-only therapy reduced the testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels from 731.5 to 18 ng/dL, 6.3 to 1.1 U/L and 9.6 to 1.5 U/L, respectively. Estrogen plus cyproterone acetate reduced the testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels from 750 to 21 ng/dL, 6.8 to 0.6 U/L and 10 to 1.0 U/L, respectively. The serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, estradiol and prolactin in the patients treated with estrogen alone and estrogen plus cyproterone acetate were not significantly different. The group receiving estrogen plus cyproterone acetate had significantly higher levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase than the group receiving estrogen alone. No significant differences in the other biochemical parameters were evident between the patients receiving estrogen alone and estrogen plus cyproterone acetate. CONCLUSION: In our sample of transgender women, lower estrogen doses than those usually prescribed for these subjects were able to adjust the testosterone and estradiol levels to the physiological female range, thus avoiding high estrogen doses and their multiple associated side effects.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Testosterone/blood , Cyproterone Acetate/administration & dosage , Estradiol/blood , Estrogens/administration & dosage , Transgender Persons , Androgen Antagonists/administration & dosage , Prolactin/blood , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Retrospective Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Estrogens/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood
Säo Paulo med. j ; 135(4): 355-362, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904091


ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: There is no register of breast cancer cases among indigenous populations in Brazil. The objective here was to evaluate the association of clinical and demographic characteristics with mammographic density among indigenous women. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study conducted in indigenous territories in the state of Amapá, Brazil. METHODS: Women were recruited from three indigenous territories and underwent bilateral mammography and blood collection for hormonal analysis. They were interviewed with the aid of an interpreter. Mammographic density was calculated using computer assistance, and was expressed as dense or non-dense. RESULTS: A total of 137 indigenous women were included in this study, with an average age of 50.4 years, and an average age at the menarche of 12.8 years. Half (50.3%) of the 137 participants had not reached the menopause at the time of this study. The women had had an average of 8.7 children, and only two had never breastfed. The average body mass index of the population as a whole was 25.1 kg/m2. The mammographic evaluation showed that 82% of women had non-dense breasts. The clinical characteristics associated with mammographic density were age (P = 0.0001), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (P < 0.001) and estrogen levels (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the indigenous women had non-dense breasts. Age, menopausal status and FSH and estrogen levels were associated with mammographic density.

RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Não há registro de casos de câncer de mama em populações indígenas no Brasil. O objetivo foi avaliar a associação de características clínicas e demográficas com a densidade mamográfica em mulheres indígenas. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal, analítico, realizado em territórios indígenas no estado do Amapá, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Mulheres foram recrutadas de três territórios indígenas e submetidas a mamografia bilateral e a coleta de sangue para análise hormonal. As participantes foram entrevistadas com a ajuda de um intérprete. A densidade mamográfica foi calculada com assistência de computador, e expressa como densa ou não densa. RESULTADOS: 137 mulheres foram incluídas no estudo, com média de 50,4 anos e média de idade à menarca de 12,8 anos. Metade (50,3%) das 137 participantes não havia entrado na menopausa no momento do estudo. As mulheres tinham em média 8,7 filhos, e duas nunca haviam amamentado. O índice de massa corpórea médio da população como um todo foi de 25,1 kg/m2. A análise mamográfica mostrou que 82% das mulheres tinham mamas não densas. As características clínicas associadas com a densidade mamográfica foram idade (P = 0.0001), hormônio folículo-estimulante (FSH, P < 0,001) e níveis de estrogênio (P < 0,01). CONCLUSÕES: A maioria das indígenas tinha mamas não densas. Idade, status menopausal e níveis de estrógeno e FSH foram associados com a densidade mamográfica.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Indians, South American/statistics & numerical data , Breast Density/physiology , Brazil , Mammography , Forests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Estrogens/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(4): 354-360, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887572


ABSTRACT Objectives To analyze the role of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in mediating the relationship between central adiposity and immune and metabolic profile in postmenopausal women. Materials and methods Cross-sectional study comprising 49 postmenopausal women (aged 59.26 ± 8.32 years) without regular physical exercise practice. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasting blood samples were collected for assessment of nonesterified fatty acids, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), adiponectin, insulin and estimation of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Physical activity level was assessed with an accelerometer (Actigraph GTX3x) and reported as a percentage of time spent in sedentary behavior and MVPA. All analyses were performed using the software SPSS 17.0, with a significance level set at 5%. Results Sedentary women had a positive relationship between trunk fat and IL-6 (rho = 0.471; p = 0.020), and trunk fat and HOMA-IR (rho = 0.418; p = 0.042). Adiponectin and fat mass (%) were only positively correlated in physically active women (rho = 0.441; p = 0.027). Physically active women with normal trunk fat values presented a 14.7% lower chance of having increased HOMA-IR levels (β [95%CI] = 0.147 [0.027; 0.811]). Conclusions The practice of sufficient levels of MVPA was a protective factor against immunometabolic disorders in postmenopausal women.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise , Interleukin-6/blood , Postmenopause/metabolism , Obesity, Abdominal/blood , Body Composition , Insulin Resistance , Absorptiometry, Photon/instrumentation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fasting/blood , Postmenopause/blood , Abdominal Fat/metabolism , Adiponectin/blood , Adiposity , Fatty Acids/blood , Sedentary Behavior , Protective Factors , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(6): 1190-1194, Nov.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828942


ABSTRACT Objective: Previous series have demonstrated that Clomiphene Citrate (CC) is an effective treatment to increase Total Testosterone (TT) in Late Onset Hypogonadism (LOH) patients. However, what happens to TT levels after ending CC treatment is still debatable. The objective of this study is to evaluate TT levels 3 months after the discontinuation of CC in patients with LOH who were previously successfully treated with the same drug. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with LOH that were successfully treated (achieved TT levels >11nmol/l) with CC 50mgs daily for 50 days were prospectively recruited in our Andrological outpatient clinic. CC was then stopped for 3 months and TT levels were measured at the end of this period. Results: Mean TT level before discontinuation of CC was 22.7±8.1nmol/L (mean±SD). Three months after discontinuation, mean TT level significantly decreased in all patients, 10.2±3.9nmol/l (p<0.01). Twenty-one patients (78%) decreased TT levels under 11nmol/L. Six patients (22%) had TT levels that remained within the normal recommended range (≥11nmol/l). No statistical significant differences were observed between both groups. Conclusion: In the short term LOH does not seem to be a reversible condition in most patients after CC treatment. More studies with longer follow-up are needed to evaluate the kinetics of TT in LOH.

Humans , Adult , Aged , Testosterone/blood , Clomiphene/therapeutic use , Estrogen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Hypogonadism/therapy , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Clomiphene/administration & dosage , Estrogen Antagonists/administration & dosage , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Hypogonadism/surgery , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 75(5): 380-384, sept.-out. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-798073


ABSTRACT Purpose: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Hormonal changes can affect tear function. This study evaluates tear function and impact of hyperandrogenism on it in PCOS patients. Methods: Fifty patients with PCOS and thirty control volunteers were examined for tear break-up time, Schirmer-I and tear osmolarity. Also, serum levels of total testosterone, FSH, LH and AMH were determined in venous blood samples in the early follicular phase. PCOS patients were divided into two groups by plasma total testosterone level: Group A with normal (≤0.513 ng/ml;n=27), Group B with higher hormone level (>0.513 ng/ml;n=23). Healthy control group indicated as Group C (n=30). Results: LH, total testosterone levels were higher in the PCOS group than in the control group (p=0.012; p=0.025). Mean values of tear break-up time and Schirmer-I were different between groups and especially Group A and C were near to each other differing from B (p>0.05). Tear osmolarity results were higher in Group B, compared to A and C (p=0.049; p=0.033). No significant difference detected in tear osmolarity value means of Group A and C (p=0.107). AMH levels were higher in Group B, compared to A and C (p=0.002; p=0.001). AMH levels in Group A were higher than that of C (p=0.002). Positive correlation between levels of total testosterone and AMH was detected in all PCOS patients (n=50;Pearson's r=0.579; p<0.001). Conclusion: Tear function can be affected in PCOS patients with hyperandrogenism. Tear osmolarity is the most sensitive and objective assessment method for ocular surface changes in PCOS.

RESUMO Objetivo: A síndrome do ovário policístico (SOP) é uma doença endócrina caracterizada por anovulação crônica e hiperandrogenismo. As alterações hormonais podem afetar a função cardíaca. Este estudo avalia a função lacrimal e o impacto do hiperandrogenismo sobre ela em pacientes com SOP. Métodos: Cinquenta pacientes com SOP e trinta voluntárias de controle foram examinadas para tempo de ruptura lacrimal, Schirmer-I e osmolaridade lacrimal. Além disso, os níveis séricos de testosterona total, FSH, LH e HAM foram determinados em amostras de sangue venoso na fase folicular precoce.As pacientes com SOP foram divididas em dois grupos por nível de testosterona plasmática total: Grupo A com nível normal (≤0.513 ng/ml; n = 27), Grupo B com nível superior de hormônio (> 0,513 ng/ml; n = 23). Grupo de controle saudável indicado como Grupo C (n = 30). Resultados: Os níveis de LH e testosterona total foram maiores no grupo com SOP do que no grupo controle (p = 0,012; p = 0,025). Os valores médios de tempo de ruptura lacrimal e Schirmer-I foram diferentes entre os grupos, e especialmente os Grupos A e C estavam próximos um do outro, diferente do B (p > 0,05). Os resultados de osmolaridade lacrimal foram maiores no Grupo B, em comparação com A e C (p = 0,049; p = 0,033). Não houve diferença significativa detectada em valor médio de osmolaridade lacrimal nos Grupos A e C (p = 0,107). Os níveis de HAM foram maiores no Grupo B, em comparação com A e C (p = 0,002; p = 0,001). Os níveis de AMH no Grupo A foram superiores aos de C (p = 0,002). Uma correlação positiva entre os níveis de testosterona total e AMH foi detectada em todas as pacientes com SOP (n = 50; Pearson's r = 0,579; p < 0,001). Conclusão: a função lacrimal pode ser afetada em pacientes com SOP com hiperandrogenismo. A osmolaridade lacrimal é o método de avaliação mais sensível e objetivo para alterações da superfície ocular em SOP.

Humans , Female , Adult , Osmolar Concentration , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Tears/physiology , Hyperandrogenism/complications , Meibomian Glands/physiology , Tears/metabolism , Testosterone/blood , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Dry Eye Syndromes/etiology , Hyperandrogenism/etiology , Anti-Mullerian Hormone/blood , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(2): 365-372, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782851


ABSTRACT Objectives: To study the impact of obesity, age and varicocele on sexual hormones fof adult and elderly men. Materials and Methods: 875 men who were screened for prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. Data recorded comprised age, body mass index (BMI), serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH). Patients were divided in groups according to their BMI in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese grades 1, 2 or 3. First, it was studied the association between age, BMI, and hormone profile. Then, clinical varicocele was evaluated in 298 patients to assess its correlation to the others parameters. Results: Obese patients had lower levels of TT, FT and SHBG (p<0.001) compared to underweight or normal weight patients. There were no differences in age (p=0.113), FSH serum levels (p=0.863) and LH serum levels (p=0.218) between obese and non-obese patients. Obese grade 3 had lower levels of TT and FT compared to obese grade 1 and 2 (p<0.05). There was no difference in the SHBG levels (p=0.120) among obese patients. There was no association between varicocele and BMI; and varicocele did not impact on testosterone or SHBG levels. Conclusions: Men with higher BMI have a lower serum level of TT, FT and SHBG. The presence of clinical varicocele as well as its grade has no impact on hormone profile in elderly men.

Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Testosterone/blood , Varicocele/blood , Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin/analysis , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Obesity/blood , Reference Values , Varicocele/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Middle Aged , Obesity/physiopathology
IJFS-International Journal of Fertility and Sterility. 2016; 10 (1): 22-28
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178862


Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS] is one of the most common endo-crinological disorders among women of reproductive age and the leading cause of female infertility. This study intends to evaluate the lipid profile, hormonal levels [free T3 [fT3], free T4 [fT4], thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH], insulin, luteinizing hormone [LH], follicle stimulating hormone [FSH], and prolactin] in PCOS women from Nellore and its surrounding districts of Andhra Pradesh, India

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 80 newly diagnosed PCOS women and an equal number of age and body mass index [BMI] matched healthy controls. We used the photometry methods to determine serum glucose levels and the lipid profile. An immunoturbidometry method was employed to measure high sensitive C-reactive protein [hsCRP]. All hormonal parameters were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassays. Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] method. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 20.0

Results: The PCOS patients presented statistically higher levels of total cholesterol [TC], triglycerides [TG] and low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c, P<0.0001] when compared to those of controls. PCOS patients had elevated fasting glucose, hsCRP, fasting insulin, TSH, LH and prolactin levels [P0.001]. An increased LH/FSH ratio [>1.5] was seen in women with PCOS compared with control women. In addition, we observed a direct correlation between fasting insulin with fasting glucose and HOMA-IR. LH was inversely proportional to BMI

Conclusion: The present study showed a higher prevalence of insulin resistance, dyslipi-demia, and hypothyroidism in PCOS women. Furthermore this study showed increased LH concentrations, a higher LH/FSH ratio, and higher prolactin levels in PCOS women

Humans , Women , Middle Aged , Adult , Insulin Resistance , Cross-Sectional Studies , Thyrotropin , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Insulin/blood
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(1): 00701, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-765009


Whether sleep problems of menopausal women are associated with vasomotor symptoms and/or changes in estrogen levels associated with menopause or age-related changes in sleep architecture is unclear. This study aimed to determine if poor sleep in middle-aged women is correlated with menopause. This study recruited women seeking care for the first time at the menopause outpatient department of our hospital. Inclusion criteria were an age ≥40 years, not taking any medications for menopausal symptoms, and no sleeping problems or depression. Patients were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), modified Kupperman Index (KI), and Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). A PSQI score of <7 indicated no sleep disorder and ≥7 indicated a sleep disorder. Blood specimens were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels. A total of 244 women were included in the study; 103 (42.2%) were identified as having a sleep disorder and 141 as not having one. In addition, 156 (64%) women were postmenopausal and 88 (36%) were not menopausal. Follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels were similar between the groups. Patients with a sleep disorder had a significantly higher total modified KI score and total MRS score (both, P<0.001) compared with those without a sleep disorder. Correlations of the PSQI total score with the KI and MRS were similar in menopausal and non-menopausal women. These results do not support that menopause per se specifically contributes to sleep problems.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Estrogens/blood , Menopause/blood , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Behavior Rating Scale , Depression/diagnosis , Estradiol/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Hot Flashes/complications , Outpatients , Postmenopause/blood , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sweating , Symptom Assessment , Sleep Wake Disorders/blood , Sleep Wake Disorders/diagnosis , Sleep Wake Disorders/physiopathology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 61(3): 215-219, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753174


Summary Objective: Objective: to compare clinical and laboratory parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using metformin or combined oral contraceptive (COC) after 6 months. Methods: retrospective study analyzing records of patients with PCOS using the Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (AE-PCOS) Society criteria. The groups were: I-COC (21 tablets, pause of 7 days; n=16); II-metformin (850mg 12/12h, n=16); III-COC plus metformin (n=9). Body mass index (BMI), acne (% of improvement), modified Ferriman-Gallway index and menstrual cycle index (MCI), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), total testosterone (TT), androstenedione (A) and homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were assessed Results: isolated use of COC compared to metformin was better regarding to acne, Ferriman index, MCI, LH, TT and A levels. On the other hand, metformin was better in the HOMA-IR index (4.44 and 1.67 respectively, p=0.0007). The association COC plus metformin, compared to metformin alone shows the maintenance of improvement of acne, Ferriman index, MCI, and testosterone levels. The HOMA-IR index remained lower in the metformin alone group (4.19 and 1.67, respectively; p=0,046). The comparison between COC plus metformin and COC alone, in turn, shows no difference in the improvement of acne, Ferriman index, MCI, LH, TT and A levels, indicating that the inclusion of metformin did not lead to additional benefits in these parameters. Still, the HOMA-IR index was similar in both groups (4.19 and 4.44 respectively; p=0.75), showing that the use of metformin associated with COC may not improve insulin resistance as much as it does if used alone. Conclusion: our data suggest that the combination of metformin and contraceptive does not improve insulin resistance as observed with metformin alone. .

Resumo Objetivo: comparar parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais de mulheres com síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP) em uso de metformina ou contraceptivo hormonal oral (CHO) após 6 meses. Casuística e métodos: estudo retrospectivo com análise do prontuário de pacientes com SOP (pelos critérios da Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society [AE-PCOS Society]), divididos em 3 grupos: (I) CHO (21 comprimidos e pausa de 7 dias; n=16), (II) metformina (850 mg a cada 12 horas; n=16) e (III) CHO associado com metformina (n=9). Foram avaliados: índice de massa corpórea (IMC), acne (% de melhora), índice de Ferriman-Gallway modificado, índice de ciclos menstruais (ICM), LH, FSH, testosterona total (TT), androstenediona (A) e resistência a insulina (HOMA-IR, do inglês homeostatic model assessment: insulin resistance). Resultados: o uso isolado de CHO comparado ao de metformina foi melhor em relação a acne, índice de Ferriman, ICM, níveis de LH, TT e A. Por outro lado, a metformina foi melhor para HOMA-IR (4,44 e 1,67; p=0,0007). O uso do CHO e metformina, em comparação com o de metformina isolada, manteve a melhora da acne, do índice de Ferriman, do ICM e dos níveis da TT. O índice de HOMA-IR manteve-se menor no grupo metformina isolada (4,19 e 1,67; p=0,046). Por sua vez, a melhora na acne, Ferriman, ICM, LH, TT e A são semelhantes nos grupos CHO associado com metformina e CHO isolado, indicando que a adição de metformina não trouxe benefícios nesses parâmetros. Ainda, o HOMA-IR foi semelhante nos dois grupos (4,19 e 4,44; p=0,75), mostrando que o uso de metformina em associação com o contraceptivo pode não melhorar a resistência insulínica como ocorre no uso isolado. Conclusão: os dados sugerem que a associação de metformina e contraceptivo não melhora a resistência insulínica como ocorre no uso da metformina isolada. .

Female , Humans , Contraceptives, Oral, Combined/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin Resistance , Metformin/therapeutic use , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/metabolism , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Body Mass Index , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Menstrual Cycle/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , Testosterone/blood
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(3): 187-193, 03/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741204


Gait variability is related to functional decline in the elderly. The dual-task Timed Up and Go Test (TUG-DT) reflects the performance in daily activities. Objective To evaluate the differences in time to perform the TUG with and without DT in elderly women with different ages and levels of education and physical activity. Method Ninety-two elderly women perfomed the TUG at usual and fast speeds, with and without motor and cognitive DT. Results Increases in the time to perform the TUG-DT were observed at older ages and lower educational levels, but not at different levels of physical activity. More educated women performed the test faster with and without DT at both speeds. When age was considered, significant differences were found only for the TUG-DT at both speeds. Conclusion Younger women with higher education levels demonstrated better performances on the TUG-DT. .

Alterações da marcha são indícios de declínio funcional em idosos. O TUG com dupla tarefa (TUG-DT) reflete o desempenho das atividades do cotidiano. Objetivo Avaliar as diferenças no tempo de execução do TUG com e sem DT em idosas com diferentes faixas etárias, e níveis de escolaridade e atividade física. Método Noventa e duas idosas foram avaliadas pelo TUG nas velocidades usual e máxima, sem e com DT cognitiva e motora. Resultados Houve aumento no tempo de execução do TUG-DT em idosas com maior faixa etária e menor escolaridade, mas não para diferentes níveis de atividade física. Aquelas com maior escolaridade realizaram o teste mais rápido com e sem DT nas duas velocidades. Com relação à faixa etária, foram obervadas diferenças apenas nos testes com DT nas duas velocidades. Conclusão Idosas mais jovens com maior escolaridade demonstraram um melhor desempenho no TUG com DT. .

Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Azoospermia/diagnosis , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Inhibins/blood , Spermatogenesis , Testis/physiology , Azoospermia/blood , Infertility, Male/blood , Infertility, Male/diagnosis , Oligospermia
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(1): 57-66, jan-feb/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742867


Purpose To evaluate the relationship between unilateral or bilateral criptorchidism, patient age, primary location of the gonad and modality of treatment with testicular volume and hormonal status at 18 years in patients diagnosed and treated for cryptorchidism during childhood. Materials and Methods Testicular volume, LH, FSH, and testosterone were evaluated in 143 young men at 18 years treated in childhood for unilateral (n=103) or bilateral (n=40) cryptorchidism. Results Unilateral cryptorchidism: Location of testis was prescrotal in 36 patients, inguinal in 52 and non-palpable in 15. The mean volume was 9.7 mL compared to 16.2 mL. for the spontaneously descended testicle in unilateral cryptorchidism. However, 22 patients who received HCG had a significantly bigger testis (11.8 mL.) than those treated with primary surgery (9.2 mL). The results showed a significant positive correlation between testicular volume and patient age at treatment. Bilateral cryptorchidism Location of testis was prescrotal in 34 cases, inguinal in 40 and 6 patients with non-palpable testicles. Mean volume at 18 years was 12.9 mL, greater than unilateral cryptorchid testis (9.7 mL) but smaller than healthy contralateral in unilateral cases (16.2 mL). There were significant differences in the testicular growth for bilateral patients with testicular descent after being treated with HCG (14.4 mL) in respect with those untreated (11.1 mL) or those who underwent primary surgery (11.4 mL). There was a significant positive correlation between the testicular volume and palpable (12.4 mL) or non-palpable testis (10.4 mL). There was a correlation between unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism and levels of FSH. Conclusions Testicular volume and hormonal function at 18 years for patients diagnosed and treated for cryptorchidism during childhood are strongly influenced by whether the undescended testis was unilateral or bilateral. Location of the testes at diagnosis or ...

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Male , Cryptorchidism/pathology , Cryptorchidism/therapy , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Testis/pathology , Testosterone/blood , Age Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chorionic Gonadotropin/therapeutic use , Cryptorchidism/blood , Organ Size , Statistics, Nonparametric , Treatment Outcome , Testis/metabolism
IJFS-International Journal of Fertility and Sterility. 2015; 9 (1): 27-32
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-161838


Anti-Mullerian hormone [AMH] is secreted by the granulosa cells of growing follicles during the primary to large antral follicle stages. Abnormal levels of AMH and follicle stimulating hormone [FSH] may indicate a woman's diminished ability or inability to conceive. Our aim is to investigate the changes in serum AMH and FSH concentrations at different age groups and its correlation with ovarian reserves in infertile women. This cross-sectional study analyzed serum AMH and FSH levels from 197 infertile women and 176 healthy controls, whose mean ages were 19-47 years. Sample collection was performed by random sampling and analyzed with SPSS version 16 software. There were significantly lower mean serum AMH levels among infertile women compared to the control group. The mean AMH serum levels from different ages of infertile and control group [fertile women] decreased with increasing age. However, this reduction was greater in the infertile group. The mean FSH serum levels of infertile women were significantly higher than the control group. Mean serum FSH levels consistently increased with increasing age in infertile women; however mean luteinizing hormone [LH] levels were not consistent. We have observed increased FSH levels and decreased AMH levels with increasing age in women from 19 to 47 years of age. Assessments of AMH and FSH levels in combination with female age can help in predicting ovarian reserve in infertile women

Humans , Female , Age Factors , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Infertility, Female , Cross-Sectional Studies