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1.
Infectio ; 25(1): 22-27, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154397

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La antibiótico-resistencia es un fenómeno por el cual las bacterias logran sobrevivir al tratamiento con antimicrobianos; con incidencia en ambientes intra y extrahospitalarios como: fuentes hídricas, sector agrario/ganadero y fómites. Objetivo: Describir bacterias presentes en fómites de alta circulación en una región centro-occidental de Colombia junto a su perfil de sensibilidad fenotípica y presencia de genes para betalactamasas tipo TEM-full, OXA-3 y SHV-full. Metodología: Se aislaron cepas bacterianas de billetes, pasamanos de escaleras eléctricas y botones de cajeros automáticos; se evaluó su perfil de sensibilidad fenotípica por medio de concentración mínima inhibitoria-técnica automatizada/Vitek2® y genes para betalactamasas tipo TEM-full, OXA-3 y SHV-full mediante PCR convencional. Resultados: Se obtuvo 30 aislados; Acinetobacter baumannii complex, fue la más común; el fómite con mayor aislados y resistencia fueron los billetes; el 53% portó al menos uno de los genes estudiados. Se identificaron bacterias gramnegativas con resistencia frente a: Imipinem, Piperacilina/Tazobactam, Colistina, Ceftazidima, Tigeciclina y Ceftriaxona; bacterias grampositivas con resistencia frente a: Quinupristina/Dalfopristina, Minociclina, Tetraciclina, Teicoplanina, Nitrofuratoina, Oxacilina, Clindamicina, Trimetropina-sulfametoxazol, y Minociclina. Conclusión: Teniendo en cuenta la circulación de cepas con estas resistencias, es importante la educación en la comunidad para evitar la adquisición o propagación de infecciones por manipulación inadecuada de fómites.


Abstract Introduction: Antibiotic-resistance is a phenomenon by which bacteria manage to survive antimicrobial treatment; with incidence in intra and extra hospital environments such as: water sources, agricultural / livestock sector and fomites. Aim: To describe bacteria present in high circulation fomites in a central-western region of Colombia, with their phenotypic sensitivity profile and presence of genes beta-lactamases (TEM, OXA3 and SHV). Methodology: We isolate bacterial strains from banknotes, escalator handrails and ATM buttons. We evaluated its phenotypic sensitivity profile by minimal inhibitory concentration automated technique using Vitek 2® and presence of genes for beta-lactamases type TEM-full, OXA-3 and SHV-full by conventional PCR. Results: A total of 30 isolates were obtained; Acinetobacter baumannii complex, was the most common; banknotes were the form with the highest number of isolates and resistance. Of the total isolates, 53% carried at least one of the genes studied. Phenotypically, gram-negative bacteria were identified with resistance against: Imipinem, Piperacillin / Tazobactam, Colistin, Ceftazidime, Tigecycline and Ceftriaxone; Gram-positive bacteria with resistance to: Quinupristin / Dalfopristin, Minocycline, Tetracycline, Teicoplanin, Nitrofuratoin, Oxacillin, Clindamycin, Trimethropine-sulfamethoxazole, and Minocycline. Conclusion: Taking into account the circulation of strains with these resistances, it is important to educate the community to avoid the acquisition or spread of infections due to the inappropriate handling of this type of inanimate elements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteria , Colombia , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Elevators and Escalators , Fomites , Infections , Anti-Infective Agents , Anti-Bacterial Agents
2.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(4): e970, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144515

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El estetoscopio se ha descrito como un fómite capaz de transmitir patemas de tipo infeccioso a los trabajadores de la salud Objetivo: Caracterizar la presencia de contaminación microbiana en estetoscopios utilizados por proveedores de salud. Métodos: Estudio transversal en 50 muestras microbiológicas obtenidas de estetoscopios pertenecientes a proveedores de salud que laboran en el Hospital Pediátrico Cerro, de junio-octubre de 2019. Se aplicó una encuesta para evaluar variables demográficas y epidemiológicas de sus titulares relacionadas con la aplicación de medidas descontaminantes. Se examinaron los resultados mediante el análisis porcentual y prueba de Ji-cuadrada para buscar asociación significativa (p≤0,05) con los hábitos higiénicos. Resultados: El 100 por ciento de los estetoscopios están contaminados. Los aislamientos más frecuentes fueron: Staphylococcus alba 40,3 por ciento, Staphylococcus aureus 32,6 por ciento y Klebsiella pneumoniae 3,8 por ciento. Las áreas de mayor contagio fueron las de misceláneas (44,2 por ciento) y de respiratorio (36,5 por ciento). El personal con notable contaminación en sus equipos fueron los alumnos (81,4 por ciento) y los especialistas (14,8 por ciento). Las causas que determinaron no practicar la desinfección en los alumnos fue la falta de enseñanza (45,4 por ciento); en los especialistas, la carencia de hábitos (33,3 por ciento) y la falta de desinfectante (66,3 por ciento). Las bacterias gramnegativas fueron sensibles en su mayoría a los aminoglucósidos y Staphylococcus aureus a la clindamicina, vancomicina, ciprofloxacino y cloranfenicol. Conclusiones: Existe alta frecuencia de contaminación en los estetoscopios utilizados por los proveedores de salud motivado por la falta de hábito de desinfección en médicos y su desconocimiento en alumnos(AU)


Introduction: Stethoscopes has been described as a fomite which is able to transmit infectious agents to health care workers. Objective: To describe the presence of microbial contamination in stethoscopes used by health care providers. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 50 microbiological samples obtained from stethoscopes belonging to health care providers whom worked in Cerro Pediatric Hospital from June to October, 2019. It was applied a survey to evaluate demographic and epidemiologic variables of the owners related with the implementation of disinfection measures. The results were examined through percentage analysis and the Ji-square test to look for significative relation (p≤0,05) with hygene habits. Results: 100 percent of the stethoscopes were contamined. The most frequent isolated agents were: Staphylococcus alba 40.3 percent, Staphylococcus aureus 32.6 percent and Klebsiella pneumoniae 3.8 percent. The hospital areas with more contagion were: Miscellany (44.2 percent) and Respiratory (36.5 percent). The personnel with more contamination in their equipments were: students (81.4 percent) and specialists (14.8 percent). The cause of not doing the disinfection processes in the students was the lack of knowledge (45.4 percent); and in the specialists was the lack of hygene habits and the lack of disinfectant solutions (66.3 percent). Negative Gran bacteria were mostly sensitive to aminoglycosides and Staphylococcus aureus to clindamycin, vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and cloramphenicol. Conclusions: There is high frequency of contamination in the stethoscopes used by health care providers, mainly motived by the lack of disinfection habits in physicians and lack of knowledge on it in the students(AU)


Subject(s)
Disinfection/methods , Stethoscopes/microbiology , Fomites/microbiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Biological Contamination/prevention & control
4.
MedUNAB ; 23(3): 434-440, 26/11/2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141195

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La contaminación enteroparasitaria en autobuses por parte de usuarios infectados con malas conductas sanitarias potencia el riesgo de infección del resto de los pasajeros con el subsecuente peligro del desarrollo de patologías gastrointestinales. Por esto se evaluó la frecuencia de contaminación de autobuses con el fin de aportar datos que son desconocidos en Venezuela e inexistentes en Latinoamérica. Metodología. El trabajo fue descriptivo, transversal, con muestra no probabilística y accidental, donde la obtención de la muestra consistió en frotar el pasamanos de cada autobús (100 vehículos examinados) tres veces con un hisopo impregnado en solución salina isotónica 0.85%, resuspendiendolo en un tubo de ensayo con 10 ml de solución salina. La muestra se centrifugó a 3000 rpm por diez minutos para luego observar el sedimento al microscopio. Resultados. El 16% de las muestras presentaron contaminación, encontrándose solo dos especies de enteroparásitos, Blastocystis spp. (14% del total de muestras examinadas) y Endolimax nana (5%). Discusión. La abundancia del potencial patógeno Blastocystis sp., se relaciona con lo descrito en exámenes de heces de habitantes de Barquisimeto y del estado Lara, demostrando que los usuarios enfermos con malas conductas higiénicas convierten a los autobuses en un foco de infección que debe ser controlado. Conclusión. La falta de aseo constante en unidades de transporte público y la ausencia de conciencia sanitaria de algunos pasajeros infectados facilitan la transmisión de enteroparásitos endémicos potencialmente productores de enfermedades gastrointestinales. Cómo citar: Traviezo, L. Frecuencia de contaminación por enteroparásitos en pasamanos de autobuses de Barquisimeto, Venezuela. MedUNAB. 2020;23(3):434-440 doi: doi.org/10.29375/01237047.3913


Introduction. Enteroparasite contamination by infected users with poor sanitary habits in buses increases other passengers' risk of infection, with the subsequent danger of developing gastrointestinal pathologies. For this reason, bus contamination frequency was evaluated in order to provide data that is unknown in Venezuela and non-existent in Latin America. Methodology. The work was descriptive and cross-sectional, with non-probability and accidental sampling. The sample was obtained by rubbing each bus' handrail (100 examined vehicles) three times with a swab permeated with a 0.85% isotonic saline solution, resuspending it in a test tube with 10 ml of saline solution. The sample was centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for ten minutes to then observe the sediment under a microscope. Results. Sixteen percent of samples were contaminated, observing only two species of enteroparasites, Blastocystis sp. (14% of total examined samples) and Endolimax nana (5%). Discussion. The abundance of the potential pathogen, Blastocystis sp. is related to what has been described in feces exams on the inhabitants of Barquisimeto and the state of Lara, demonstrating that sick users with poor hygiene habits make buses a point of infection that must be controlled. Conclusion. The lack of constant cleaning in public transportation units and the absence of some infected passengers' sanitary awareness facilitates transmitting endemic enteroparasites that could potentially produce gastrointestinal diseases. Cómo citar: Traviezo, L. Frecuencia de contaminación por enteroparásitos en pasamanos de autobuses de Barquisimeto, Venezuela. MedUNAB. 2020;23(3):434-440 doi: doi.org/10.29375/01237047.3913


Introdução. A contaminação enteroparasitária em ônibus por usuários infectados com comportamentos sanitários inadequados aumenta o risco de infecção do resto dos passageiros com o consequente perigo de desenvolvimento de patologias gastrointestinais. Por isso, avaliou-se a frequência de contaminação de ônibus, a fim de fornecer dados até agora desconhecidos na Venezuela e inexistentes na América Latina. Metodologia. O trabalho foi descritivo, transversal, com amostra não-probabilística e acidental, em que a obtenção da amostra consistiu em esfregar o corrimão de cada ônibus (100 veículos examinados) três vezes com um cotonete impregnado em solução salina isotônica 0.85%, ressuspendendo-o em um tubo de ensaio com 10 ml de solução salina. A amostra foi centrifugada a 3,000 rpm por dez minutos para posteriormente observar o sedimento ao microscópio. Resultados. 16% das amostras apresentaram contaminação, sendo encontradas apenas duas espécies de enteroparasitas, Blastocystis sp. (14% do total das amostras examinadas) e Endolimax nana (5%). Discussão. A abundância do potencial patógeno Blastocystis sp., está relacionada ao que foi descrito em exames de fezes de moradores dos estados de Barquisimeto e Lara, mostrando que usuários doentes e com comportamentos sanitários inadequados fazem do ônibus um foco de infecção que deve ser controlado. Conclusão. A falta de limpeza constante nas unidades de transporte público e a falta de conscientização sobre a saúde de alguns passageiros infectados facilitam a transmissão de enteroparasitos endêmicos potencialmente produtoras de doenças gastrointestinais. Cómo citar: Traviezo, L. Frecuencia de contaminación por enteroparásitos en pasamanos de autobuses de Barquisimeto, Venezuela. MedUNAB. 2020;23(3):434-440 doi: doi.org/10.29375/01237047.3913


Subject(s)
Parasites , Venezuela , Blastocystis , Endolimax , Fomites
5.
Rev. MED ; 27(1): 17-27, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115216

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El presente artículo busca determinar la prevalência de Enterobius vermicularis y variables asociadas en población preescolar y escolar del área urbana del municipio de Chaguaní y dos jardines en Cajicá, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Para esto se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal con toma única de muestra en la población mencionada en 44 y 42 participantes, respectivamente, cuyos padres aceptaron participar voluntariamente firmando un consentimiento para desarrollar una encuesta epidemiológica estructurada, que indagó condiciones socioeconómicas, epidemiológicas y medioambientales. El diagnóstico parasitológico se realizó con la técnica de Graham. Los participantes se distribuyeron por grupo etario: el primero estuvo conformado por 76 niños (88,4 %) con edades entre 1,5 y 8 años; el segundo, por 7 niños mayores de 8 años (8,1%), y el tercero, por 3 niños (3,5 %) sin información al respecto. La variable con significancia estadística (p≤0.05) y posible asociación protectora fue la asistencia médica trimestral y como posible riesgo el contacto con fómites. Así, se encontró que la oxiuriasis es una parasitosis prevalente en la población preescolar y escolar, asociada a condiciones higiénico-sanitarias deficientes.


Abstract: This article seeks to determine the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis and associated variables in preschool and school population in the urban area of the municipality of Chaguaní and two kindergartens in Cajicá, Cundinamarca, Colombia. To this end, a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted by taking a single sample from 44 and 42 participants from such populations, respectively, whose parents agreed to participate voluntarily by signing a consent to respond to a structured epidemiological survey. This survey inquired into their socioeconomic, epidemiological, and environmental conditions. Parasitological diagnosis was made using Graham's test. Participants were distributed by age group: the first one was made up of 76 children (88.4%) between 1.5 and 8 years old; the second one, of seven children (8.1 %) over 8; and the third one, of three children (3.5 %) with no age information. A statistically significant variable (p ≤ 0.05) and possible protection factor was quarterly medical care. A possible risk factor was contact with fomites. Therefore, it was found that oxyuriasis is a prevalent form of parasitosis in preschool and school population associated with poor hygienic and sanitary conditions.


Resumo: Este artigo pretende determinar a prevalência de Enterobius vermicularis e de variáveis associadas em população pré-escolar e escolar da área urbana do município de Chaguaní e de dois jardins de infância em Cajicá, Cundinamarca, Colômbia. Para isso, foi realizado um estudo descritivo, de corte transversal, com tomada única de amostras na população em 44 e 42 participantes, respectivamente, cujos responsáveis aceitaram a participar de forma voluntária e assinaram o consentimento para responder a um questionário epidemiológico estruturado, que indagou sobre condições socioeconómicas, epidemiológicas e meio ambientais. O diagnóstico parasitológico foi realizado com a técnica Graham. Os participantes foram distribuídos por grupo de idade: o primeiro formado por 76 crianças (88,4%) entre 1,5 e 8 anos; o segundo, por 7 crianças com maios de 8 anos (8,1%), e o terceiro, por 3 crianças (3,5%) sem informação a respeito. A variável com significância estatística (p≤0,05) e possível associação protetora foi a assistência médica trimestral e, como possível risco, o contato com fômites. Assim, foi verificado que a oxiuriase é uma parasitose prevalente na população pré-escolar e escolar, associada a condições higiênico-sanitárias deficientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Enterobius , Oxyuriasis , Parasitology , Epidemiologic Factors , Fomites
6.
Ethiop. j. health dev. (Online) ; 33(2): 128-141, 2019. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1261806

ABSTRACT

Background: Health care workers' fomites are highly predisposed to bacterial contamination in the health care setting and are potential sources of hospital-acquired infections. However, there is scarcity of data on the status of bacterial contamination and antibiogram of isolates from HCWs' fomites in Ethiopia. This study determined the bacterial contamination and antibiogram of isolates from health care workers' fomites at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2017 in different wards of the hospital. From 422 health care workers' fomites, surface samples were swabbed using a simple-rinse method. Data from participants were collected by face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Bacterial colonies were counted and species were identified using standard bacteriological techniques. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using a disk diffusion technique. Chi-square test was computed to ascertain the association between variables. Regression analysis was computed to identify the independent risk factors. Results: Overall, 243 (57.6%) fomites were contaminated with aerobic bacteria. Working in medical (AOR=5.2, 95% CI=1.85-14.8) and gynecology (AOR=3.1, 95% CI=1.5-6.43) wards and intensive care units (AOR=16, 95% CI=2.1-17.9), and poor laundering of HCWs' uniforms (AOR=1.3, 95% CI=1.34-3.72), were significantly associated with bacterial contamination. Staphylococcus aureus (19.2%) was the predominant pathogen, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.4%). The proportion of K. pneumoniae (P<0.001) and E. coli (P=0.014) was significantly highest in mobile phones and white coats, respectively. S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin (82.7%) and co-trimoxazole (53.1%). K. pneumoniae isolates were 100% resistant to ampicillin. E. coli isolates were 87.5% resistant to co-trimoxazole. Overall, 204 (88.3%) of the isolates were multidrug-resistant. The overall multidrug-resistant rates among S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates were 88.9%, 92.6% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Bacterial contamination of health care workers' fomites is a major health care problem in the study area. Multidrug-resistant isolates are alarmingly high in pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, hospital HCWs need to implement proper handling of fomites to reduce contamination and the spread of drug-resistant pathogens


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Ethiopia , Fomites , Food Safety , Health Personnel , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
7.
Rev. patol. trop ; 48(3): 170-178, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097052

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites in public transport buses in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazil, as well as to compare the frequency of these enteroparasites according to the bus lines, collection sites within the vehicles, and presence of pathogenic and nonpathogenic parasites in the samples. This is a cross-sectional analytical study carried out between February and April 2019, in which 320 samples were analyzed, from 5 bus lines, 8 buses each, collected from 8 different surfaces inside the vehicles, according to Graham's method. Subsequently, the statistical test was performed to evaluate the differences between the variables, considering p ? 0.05. The results indicated that 7.8% of the samples were parasitized and the right handrail presented the highest prevalence of parasites, namely 2.2%. The pathogenic parasites corresponded to 26.7% and the non-pathogenic 73.3%. The non-pathogenic parasite most commonly found was Entamoeba coli totaling 50%, whereas the only pathogenic parasite was Giardia intestinalis in 26.7%. Thus, the presence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic parasites reflects the precarious hygiene of users of this type of transport, presenting a public health issue which needs to be addressed.


Subject(s)
Parasites , Dysentery, Amebic , Fomites , Intestinal Diseases
8.
Rev. Fundac. Juan Jose Carraro ; 22(42): 36-40, 2017. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-908169

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: evaluar el nivel de contaminación por Candida spp, post uso del instrumental de ortodoncia que se utiliza intrabucalmente en pacientesColombianos y Argentinos. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron pacientesentre 16 y 65 años, de ambos sexos, con armado de brackets superior e inferior. Criterios de Exclusión: pacientes con brackets de autoligado, con enfermedades autoinmunes, con enfermedades sistémicas con manifestaciones en el periodonto, pacientes fumadores, menores de 16 años y con armado de brackets en un solo maxilar. Se analizaron los alicates de corte distal Hu Friedy luego de ser utilizados para seccionar el arco por distal del último tubo presente enboca. Se estudiaron 80 pacientes agrupados en: Grupo A 40 pacientesColombianos, Grupo B 40 pacientes argentinos. Se realizó una primer tomaintrabucal con un hisopo estéril y se llevó a un tubo con medio de Stuart. Se cortaron las 4 secciones distales de los arcos en boca tardando al menos 1 minuto. Con un segundo hisopo estéril se frota toda la superficie del alicate post uso y se llevaron a otro tubo. Se sembraron en Chromagar Candida y se realizaron pruebas microbiológicas convencionales. Resultados: Las pinzas estériles aparecen contaminadas post corte distal delos alambres en el 95% de los casos en ambos países. Hubo diferencia entrelos pacientes colombianos y los argentinos respecto a las especies, ya que enlos primeros la especie con mayor prevalencia fue Candida tropicalis tanto en lapinza como en la cavidad bucal, mientras que en los argentinos fue Candidaalbicans. Conclusión: las pinzas de ortodoncias se contaminan con Candidaspp post utilización en boca y son un fómite a partir del cual puede generarsediseminación sistémica así como infección cruzada.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida tropicalis/isolation & purification , Dental Instruments/adverse effects , Dental Instruments/microbiology , Orthodontic Brackets/adverse effects , Orthodontic Brackets/microbiology , Argentina , Colombia , Culture Media , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Fomites , Statistical Analysis
9.
Rev. méd. hered ; 27(2): 83-88, abr.-jun. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-982860

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Determinar el grado de contaminación bacteriana con bacterias patógenas de los estetoscopios del personal médico en un hospital general de Lima, Perú. Material y métodos: Estudio de tipo observacional,descriptivo y transversal, realizado en el Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza, entre los meses de enero y juniodel 2013. Se estudiaron 124 muestras de estetoscopios del personal médico en las siguientes áreas: UCI 20; neonatología 13; quemados 3; medicina 52; emergencia 36. Se recolectaron las muestras con hisopos humedecidos,en condiciones estériles (En presencia de un mechero de vidrio para alcohol) y luego fueron introducidos en tuboscon preparado de caldo BHI (Infusión cerebro corazón) para ser incubados por 24 horas a 37°C; se cultivó en Agarsangre, Agar MacConkey, Agar manitol y Agar cetrimidepara su posterior determinación de bacterias patógenaspor procedimientos bioquímicos ,luego se identificó la susceptibilidad bacteriana con la técnica de Kirby- Bauer...


Objectives: To determine the degree of contamination with pathogenic bacteria by stethoscopes used for medical personnel in a general hospital in Lima, Peru. Methods: Cross sectional study carried-out at Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loaya between January and June 2013. A total of 124 samples were evaluated from the following areas: 20 from the ICU, 13 from the neonatology service, 3 from the burn unit; 52 from medicine wards, and 36 from the emergency room. The samples were collected using a moist cotton swab in sterile conditions (using a alcohol bunser burner) and introduced in tubes containing brain-heart infusion to be incubated at 37C for 24 hours. The determination of pathogenic bacteria used MacConkey and manitol agar with specific biochemical methods. The Kirby-Bauer method was used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern...


Subject(s)
Humans , Equipment Contamination , Fomites/microbiology , Noxae , Stethoscopes , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Observational Study
10.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 37(spe): e20160039, 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-845202

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Análise do conhecimento de idosos acerca da síndrome e do vírus da imunodeficiência humana. Métodos Estudo descritivo, transversal e quantitativo envolvendo 457 idosos da Unidade de Atenção ao Idoso de Uberaba, Minas Gerais, durante 3 meses. Foram aplicados os instrumentos Mini Exame do Estado Mental e o questionário sobre o vírus da imunodeficiência humana para terceira idade e, para a análise, foram usadas medidas de frequência. Resultados A maioria dos participantes eram mulheres (74%), entre 60 a 69 anos (51%). O maior índice de acertos obteve a transmissão por agulhas 96,2% e o menor (45,3%), a transmissão pela picada de mosquito e se a pessoa com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana sempre apresenta sintomas (49,6%). 88,2% deles relataram nunca usar camisinha. Conclusões O nível geral de conhecimento pode ser considerado bom, respondendo ao nosso objetivo. No entanto, foram identificadas lacunas decorrentes da falta de campanhas voltadas exclusivamente para tal público, bem como na conscientização de profissionais.


RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar el conocimiento de ancianos sobre HIV/ SIDA. Métodos Estudio descriptivo, transversal, cuantitativo, con 457 ancianos de la Unidad de Atención al Anciano de Uberaba - Minas Gerais, por 3 meses. Se aplicó el Mini-examen del Estado Mental, el cuestionario sobre el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana para los ancianos, y medidas de frecuencia para el análisis. Resultado La mayoría eran mujeres (74%), entre 60 y 69 años (51%). La pregunta sobre la transmisión por jeringas/agujas tuvo el mayor número de respuestas correctas (96,2%), mientras las otras (45.3%) fueron sobre la transmisión por picaduras de mosquito, y si alguien con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana siempre presenta síntomas (49,6%). El 88,2% de ellos nunca utiliza condones. Conclusión El nivel general de conocimiento puede ser considerado bueno, respondiendo a nuestra meta. Sin embargo, se identificaron brechas en el conocimiento, en consecuencia de la falta de campañas exclusivas para este público, así como de la sensibilización de los profesionales.


ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the knowledge of elders regarding HIV/AIDS. Methods Descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative study, with 457 elders from the Unit for the Care of Elders in Uberaba – Minas Gerais, lasting 3 months. The instruments used were the Mental State Mini-exam and a questionnaire on the human immunodeficiency virus for elders, together with frequency measures for their analysis. Results Most participants were female (74%), between 60 and 69 y/o (51%). The question with the most correct answers was about syringe/needle transmission (96.2%) and the ones with the least (45.3% and 49.6%, respectively) were regarding AIDS transmission through mosquito bites and whether a person with the human immunodeficiency virus always presents symptoms (49.6%). 88.2% of participants never use condoms. Conclusion The general level of knowledge can be considered good, responding to our goal. However, gaps in knowledge were identified due to the lack of campaigns aimed exclusively at such public, as well as to the lack of awareness of professionals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Aged/psychology , HIV Infections/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Services for the Aged , Sexual Behavior , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Needlestick Injuries/virology , Condoms/statistics & numerical data , Safe Sex/statistics & numerical data , Educational Status , Fomites/virology , Symptom Assessment , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Income , Insect Bites and Stings/virology , Middle Aged , Culicidae/virology
11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(2): 126-132, Mar-Apr/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744301

ABSTRACT

Impression cytology (IC) has been widely used as a method for evaluating the ocular surface and superficial cells layers in the diagnosis and follow-up after treatment of several ocular surface tumors of both epithelial and melanocytic origin. Information regarding this can be found in the English-language literature since 1992. Using either cellulose acetate or Biopore membranes for specimen collection, a high correlation has been found between IC and tissue histology. Compared with exfoliative cytology with spatula, IC is less traumatic to the patient’s eye, provides a precise location of the area being studied, and allows accurate observation of the cells the way they exist in vivo. The additional advantage of IC is the preservation of limbal stem cells responsible for continuous corneal epithelium renewal; these can be affected after incisional or excisional biopsy at the corneoscleral limbus, which is the most frequent site of appearance of tumors in the stratified epithelium. Treatment for ocular surface squamous neoplasia has historically included surgery, but nonsurgical interventions have also been adopted. Hence, in certain cases, ophthalmologists may prefer interventions less invasive than surgical biopsy such as of impression cytology for both initial diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of treatment for ocular surface lesions. Nevertheless, it should be considered that IC may be less helpful if the results conflict with the clinical picture or if the clinical diagnosis is uncertain and results are negative. In such cases, surgical biopsy is required for accurate diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to examine the published literature on the utilization of IC for the diagnosis and management of ocular surface tumors and to discuss the requirement for further investigation on the subject.


A citologia de impressão (CI) tem sido amplamente utilizada como um método de avaliação da superfície ocular e das camadas de células superficiais no diagnóstico e no seguimento após tratamento de vários tumores da superfície ocular de origem epitelial ou melanocítica. As informações podem sem encontradas na literatura em língua inglesa desde 1992. Utilizando-se de membranas de acetato de celulose ou Biopore na coleta dos espécimes, uma alta correlação tem sido encontrada entre a CI e a histologia do tecido. Comparando-se com a citologia esfoliativa, a citologia de impressão é menos traumática para o olho do paciente, fornece uma localização precisa da área estudada e permite ver as células da forma como elas organizam-se in vivo. A vantagem adicional da citologia de impressão é a preservação das células- tronco germinativas responsáveis pela renovação contínua do epitélio da córnea. Elas podem ser afetadas após biópsia cirúrgica na região do limbo que é o sítio mais frequentemente acometido pelos tumores do epitélio estratificado. O tratamento para a neoplasia escamosa da superfície ocular tem sido historicamente a cirurgia, mas intervenções não cirúrgicas também foram adotadas. Por esta razão, em certos casos, oftalmologistas podem recorrer a formas menos invasivas que a biópsia cirúrgica (como a citologia de impressão) tanto para o diagnóstico inicial quanto para o monitoramento terapêutico das lesões da superfície ocular. No entanto, deve-se ter em mente que a citologia de impressão deixa de ser útil quando seu resultado não coincide com o quadro clínico ou quando o diagnóstico clínico é incerto e o resultado da citologia de impressão negativo. Nesses casos, a biópsia cirúrgica deve ser realizada para o diagnóstico. O objetivo desta revisão é examinar a literatura sobre a utilização da citologia de impressão no diagnóstico e tratamento dos tumores da superfície ocular bem como discutir a necessidade de uma investigação mais aprofundada sobre o assunto.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Equipment Contamination , Infection Control , Intensive Care Units , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Contact Tracing , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/transmission , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , France , Fomites/microbiology , Glycopeptides/pharmacology , Hospitals, University , Oximetry/instrumentation , Retrospective Studies , Staphylococcal Infections/prevention & control , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(3): 274-279, jun. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-716978

ABSTRACT

We conducted a clinical trial to determine the impact of coating surfaces with copper in reducing hospital-acquired infections, mortality associated with nosocomial infections and antimicrobial costs in the UCI. The study took place at Carlos Van Buren Hospital, Valparaíso, Chile. No differences in the frequency of nosocomial infections were found. Not in rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (p = 0.9), nor in catheter- associated urinary tract infection (p = 0.9) or in central venous catheter associated bacteremia (p = 0.3). There were no differences in infection-free survival (p = 0.9). There were less costs of antimicrobials in patients in which copper was used. The fact that the sample size was not completed could explain that no significant differences in infections were found. Conclusion: The use of copper as a surface in the ICU showed no statistically significant differences in rates of nosocomial infections during the study period, however, these results could be related to the sample size.


Introducción: Las infecciones nosocomiales incrementan la mortalidad y costos en las instituciones de salud. El revestimiento con cobre, de superficies de alto contacto en la unidad clínica en torno a los pacientes, reduce la colonización bacteriana de las mismas. Objetivo: Determinar el impacto del revestimiento de las superficies con cobre en la disminución de las infecciones intrahospitalarias, la mortalidad asociada a las infecciones intrahospitalarias y los costos en antimicrobianos en pacientes hospitalizados en UCI adultos en el Hospital Carlos Van Buren. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, comparativo, mayo de 2011-mayo de 2012. Asignación aleatoria de pacientes adultos ingresados en UCI, que permanecieran al menos por 24 h en dicha unidad, a unidades de aislamiento recubiertas (n: 7) o no recubiertas con cobre (n: 7). Resultados: Ingresaron al estudio 440 pacientes, 217 pacientes (49,3%) en el grupo sin cobre y 223 en el grupo con cobre (50,7%). No se encontraron diferencias en la frecuencia de infecciones intrahospitalarias en ambos grupos. Tampoco se encontraron diferencias significativas en las tasas de neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica (p = 0,9), infección urinaria asociada a catéter urinario (p = 0,9) y bacteremias asociada a catéter venoso central (p = 0,3). Tampoco se encontraron diferencias en la sobrevida libre de infección (p = 0,9). Se encontró un gasto menor de antimicrobianos en pacientes atendidos en unidades revestidas con cobre. Durante el período del estudio no se completó el tamaño de muestra y las diferencias no significativas podrían deberse a este hecho. Conclusión: El uso del cobre como revestimiento de las superficies hospitalarias en UCI, mostró diferencia en la tasa de bacteriemia asociada a dispositivos venosos, aunque no significativa, y no mostró diferencia en neumonías e infecciones urinarias. Las diferencias no significativas pueden deberse a que no se completó el tamaño de la muestra. Se observó un mayor gasto de antimicrobianos en pacientes de unidades no cobrizadas, lo que plantea una nueva área de investigación.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Copper , Cross Infection , Infection Control/methods , Bacteremia/economics , Bacteremia/mortality , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Chile/epidemiology , Cross Infection/economics , Cross Infection/mortality , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Fomites/microbiology , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/economics , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/mortality , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Urinary Catheterization/adverse effects , Urinary Tract Infections/economics , Urinary Tract Infections/mortality , Urinary Tract Infections/prevention & control
14.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(2): 218-227, abr.-jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-712404

ABSTRACT

Introducción. No se han descrito las fuentes potenciales de infección por Blastocystis sp . en Colombia. Objetivos. Estimar la frecuencia de Blastocystis sp . y explorar posibles asociaciones entre la infección, las manifestaciones clínicas y algunas fuentes ambientales. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo con una población de 1.993 menores de 5 años (lactantes y preescolares) de estratos socioeconómicos 1 y 2, atendidos en hogares infantiles de Calarcá, Colombia. Se calculó una muestra de 275 y se seleccionó aleatoriamente a los participantes en 10 % de los hogares infantiles. Se practicaron exámenes coprológicos y encuestas y se tomaron muestras para la identificación del parásito en heces, uñas, animales domésticos y algunas fuentes ambientales. Se hicieron preparaciones en fresco con lugol al 1 % y se utilizó una técnica de concentración con formol-éter. Se estimaron prevalencias y razones de momios; para las variables cualitativas se utilizó el test de ji al cuadrado y, para las cuantitativas, la prueba t de Student. Resultados. La prevalencia de infección en los niños fue de 57,5 %. Hubo asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la presencia del parásito en heces y su hallazgo en recipientes de agua de panela (OR=1,70; IC 95% 1,05-2,79), en los pisos de madera o de tierra en la vivienda (OR=3,43; IC 95% 1,12-10,48), y en alimentos diferentes a la leche en el tetero (OR=3,23; IC 95% 1,41-4,41); y se encontró una prevalencia alta sin asociación en muestras de uñas (OR=1,62; IC 95% 0,99-2,67). La diarrea fue más frecuente en niños con Blastocystis sp. (45 %) que en aquellos sin el parásito (33 %) (OR: 1,95; IC 95% 0,99-2,77) (p<0,05). Conclusiones. Blastocystis sp . se asoció significativamente con síntomas de diarrea en los niños menores de 5 años y se encontró distribuido ampliamente en el ambiente y en el agua. Se requeriría determinar si hay huéspedes específicos para genotipos patógenos por medio de técnicas moleculares.


Introduction: There are no reports of the potential sources of Blastocystis sp . in Colombia. Objectives: To estimate the frequency of Blastocystis sp . and explore possible associations among infection, clinical manifestations and environmental sources. Materials and methods: A descriptive study was conducted; a representative sample was calculated from a population of 1,993 children less than 5 years old of the lowest socioeconomic levels (1 and 2) attending day care centers in Calarcá, Colombia. The calculated sample size was 275 children, who were selected randomly in 10 % of the centers. Stool testing, questionnaires and sampling to identify the parasite in feces, nails, pets and environmental sources, were performed. Fresh preparations were made with 1% iodine solution, and a concentration technique with formalin-ether was used. Prevalence and odd ratios were estimated; the chi-square test was utilized for qualitative variables, and Student´s t for the quantitative ones. Results: The prevalence of infection in children was of 57.5%. A statistically significant association was found between the Blastocystis sp . positive stool tests and the presence of the parasite in containers of sugar cane beverage (OR=1.70; 95% CI: 1.05-2.79), wood or ground floors (OR=3.43; 95% CI: 1.12-10.48) and in foods other than bottled milk (OR=3.23; 95% CI: 1.41-4.41) . A non-significant high prevalence was found in nails (OR=1.62; 95% CI: 0.99-2.67), as well as a significantly higher prevalence of diarrhea (OR=1.95; 95% CI: 0.99-2.77) in children with Blastocystis sp . (45%) as compared with those without the parasite (33%; p<0.05). Conclusions: Blastocystis sp . showed a significant association with diarrhea symptoms in children 0 to 5 years old and was widely distributed in the environment and in water. It is necessary to determine if there are specific hosts with pathogenic potential through molecular techniques.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Blastocystis Infections/epidemiology , Child Day Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Blastocystis Infections/parasitology , Blastocystis Infections/transmission , Colombia , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Fomites , Food Parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Giardiasis/epidemiology , Housing , Nails/parasitology , Oocysts , Poverty , Prevalence , Pets/parasitology , Sampling Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Water/parasitology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter spp. is an important nosocomial pathogen for which increasing resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents has been observed. Prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter spp. in the intensive care unit (ICU) at a teaching hospital in Korea started to increase in 2008. The aim of this study was to determine the source of pathogen spread and to characterize the emerging strains at an early stage of outbreak. METHODS: Samples from respiratory instruments and fomites in the ICUs, as well as from the healthcare workers, were cultured to identify the sources of MDR Acinetobacter spp. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the CLSI disk diffusion method. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for clinical and environmental isolates in order to determine clonality. Carbapenemase genes were detected by multiplex PCR. Infection control measures including peer-monitoring of hand washing, environmental cleaning and standard precautions were enforced. RESULTS: Among the samples from the ICU tools (105) and healthcare worker's hands (44), 31 (30%) and 2 (5%) respective samples yielded MDR Acinetobacter spp. Among the environmental samples, 90% were from respiratory-related equipment. The majority of clinical and environmental MDR Acinetobacter spp. (44/55) belonged to the pulsotype A. baumannii and carried both bla(OXA-51)-like and bla(OXA-23)-like genes. Even though infection-control measures were enforced, prevalence of MDR Acinetobacter spp. continues to increase. CONCLUSION: An outbreak of MDR Acinetobacter spp. in a Korean hospital was caused by A. baumannii carrying the bla(OXA-23)-gene and was correlated with contaminated respiratory-related instruments in the ICUs. More intensive measures for nosocomial infection control are needed for successful prevention of Acinetobacter spread in hospitals.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter , Anti-Infective Agents , Cross Infection , Delivery of Health Care , Diffusion , Disease Outbreaks , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Fomites , Hand , Hand Disinfection , Hospitals, Teaching , Infection Control , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-102298

ABSTRACT

Dental professionals are repeatedly exposed to many microorganisms present in both blood and saliva. Thus, dental professionals are at a greater risk of acquiring and spreading infections, and the implementation of infections control guidelines is necessary. Cellular phones have become a necessary device for communicating in hospitals. Cellular phones contaminated with bacteria may serve as a fomite in the transmission of pathogens by the hands of medical personnel. Nevertheless, studies about rate and levels of bacterial contamination of cellular phones have been extremely limited with regards to dental personnel. The purpose of this study was to identify bacterial flora on the cellular phones of dentists by a molecular biological method using the 16S rRNA cloning and sequencing method. We acquired total 200 clones from dentists' cell phones and identified the bacterial species. Pseudomonas (34.6%), Lactobacillus (18.5%), Azomonas (11.5%), and Janthinobacterium (6%) were the dominant genera on dentists' cell phones. The oral bacteria identified were Anaerococcus lactolyticus, Gibbsiella dentisursi, Lactobacills leiae, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oligofermentans, and Streptococcus sanguinis. Pathogenic bacteria and opportunistic pathogens such as Carnobacterium funditum, Raoultella planticola, Shigella flexneri, Lactobacillus iners, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were also identified.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Carnobacterium , Cell Phone , Clone Cells , Cloning, Organism , Dentists , Fomites , Hand , Humans , Lactobacillus , Pseudomonadaceae , Pseudomonas , Saliva , Shigella flexneri , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Streptococcus , Streptococcus mitis
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91558

ABSTRACT

Molluscum contagiosum is a viral infection of the skin and mucous membranes which is caused by a DNA virus from the poxvirus family. It is usually transmitted by direct skin contact, autoinoculation or fomites. Children are generally affected, and adults who are immunocompromised or sexually active may also be afflicted. Although molluscum lesions can be presented on any skin surface of the body, its occurrence on the sole is unusual. Molluscum contagiosum virus appears to have a particular affinity for follicular epithethelium and it may explain its lack of sole involvement. A 30-year-old male had a small pea sized nodule on his right sole that had been present for several days. Histological examination showed numerous molluscum bodies within the epithelium. Herein, we report a rare case of solitary molluscum contagiosum on the right sole of a healthy male patient.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , DNA Viruses , Epithelium , Fomites , Humans , Male , Molluscum Contagiosum , Molluscum contagiosum virus , Mucous Membrane , Peas , Skin
18.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2013. ^c82.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-750226

ABSTRACT

Nas últimas décadas, os Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo, têm sido considerados como patógenos verdadeiros, sendo um dos principais grupos bacterianos responsáveis pelas infecções relacionadas a assistência a saúde (IRAS). O presente estudo teve como objetivo geral: avaliação da relação entre a resistência a oxacilina e a produção de biofilme de amostras Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo de origem comunitária e hospitalar. Neste sentido, foram desenvolvidos os seguintes objetivos específico: identificar ao nível de espécie os Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo; analisar por técnica fenotípica (Ágar vermelho do Congo) a produção de slime; avaliar quantitativamente, a produção de biofilme; correlacionar a produção de polissacarídeos extracelulares (slime) com a produção de biofilme; avaliar a relação da resistência a oxacilina como indicador da presença do gene mecA; avaliar a relação entre a concentração inibitória mínima e a concentração bactericida mínima para oxacilina; pesquisar a presença dos genes mecA, icaAD e atlE, pela técnica de PCR. Foi estudado um total de 150 amostras, sendo 50 isoladas de fômites, 50 isoladas de sangue e 50 isoladas de comunidade. Independente da origem, foram identificadas 14 espécies de Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo, sendo mais frequentes S. epidermidis 42,6%, S. haemolyticus 13,3% e S. cohnii cohnii 10,7%. A análise geral da expressão fenotípica de slime mostrou que 64% das amostras avaliadas eram produtoras de slime. Das 150 amostras testadas neste estudo, 95,3% foram produtoras de biofilme. Ao considerarmos a análise da quantificação do biofilme em relação às origens das amostras estudadas não encontramos diferenças significativas e a maioria das amostras foi considerada moderadamente produtora de biofilme. O gene mecA foi detectado em 6 amostras comunitárias, 34 amostras de fômites e 34 amostras de sangue. Não houve diferença significativa entre as amostras de fômites e sangue...


In recent decades, coagulase-negative Stapphylococci have been considered as true pathogen, one of the major bacterial groups responsible for hospital infection. The present study aimed to: assess the relationship between oxacillin resistance and biofilm production samples coagulase-negative Stapphylococci of community and hospital. In this sense, we have developed the following specific objectives: to identify to species level coagulase-negative Staphylococci; analyze by phenotypic test (Congo red Agar) slime production, evaluate quantitatively the biofilm production; correlate the production of extracellular polysaccharides (slime) with biofilm production; evaluate the relationship of resistance to oxacillin as an indicator of the presence of the mecA gene; evaluate the relationship between minimal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration for oxacillin; investigate the presence of the mecA gene, atlE and icaAD, by PCR. We studied a total of 150 samples, 50 were isolated from fomites, 50 from community and 50 isolated from blood. Regardless of origin, 14 species of coagulase-negative Stapphylococci were identified , being more frequent 42.6% S.epidermidis, 13.3% S. haemolyticus and 10.7% S. cohnii cohnii. A general analysis of the phenotypic expression of slime showed that 64% of the samples were slime producers...


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Biofilms/growth & development , Coagulase/blood , Oxacillin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Staphylococcus/pathogenicity , Fomites/microbiology , Polysaccharides/supply & distribution , Blood/microbiology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81820

ABSTRACT

Dermatophytosis is one of the major public health problems in tropical countries, especially the chronic recurrent type. Tinea imbricata (TI), a dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton concentricum (TC), is endemic in several remote and isolated areas in Indonesia. This dermatophytosis is unique due to its predominant genetic predisposition, which leads to chronic recurrent conditions among the affected. Moreover, hot and humid climate, low socio-economic conditions, lack of hygiene, inadequate treatment due to difficult access to health care facilities, and persistent source of re-infections, are among other factors that maintain the chronic-recurrent state. Studies on TI in Indonesia have been done since the 1960s, encompassing the epidemiology, clinical features, and efficacy of antifungal treatment. Griseofulvin is still the mainstay treatment, but relapse rates are high. The latest effort in reducing relapse includes the training of healthcare providers and provision of fungal disinfectant for clothing and bedding to patients in West Papua in addition to standard treatment. Higher cure rate was achieved at the end of treatment and the four-month follow-up in comparison to previous studies. Parallel studies on the same patient populations showed that: 1. clothing and bedding were fomites and potential sources of re-infections; 2. sodium hypochlorite worked well as a fungal disinfectant, followed by anionic detergent and pine oil containing cleaner; 3. terbinafine was the most effective antifungal agent for TC in vitro, followed by griseofulvin; itraconazole, and fluconazole were less effective. In conclusion, to eradicate TI in endemic areas, appropriate and affordable antifungal treatment, concurrent with health education and efforts to identify and eradicate the source of re-infections are very important.


Subject(s)
Climate , Clothing , Detergents , Fluconazole , Follow-Up Studies , Fomites , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Griseofulvin , Health Education , Health Personnel , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Hygiene , Indonesia , Itraconazole , Naphthalenes , Public Health , Recurrence , Sodium Hypochlorite , Tinea , Trichophyton
20.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 45(1): 153-160, mar. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-579747

ABSTRACT

O estudo realizou a análise bacteriológica de sabões líquidos utilizados para lavagem das mãos dos profissionais de saúde. Trata-se de estudo exploratório transversal, desenvolvido nas unidades de internação de hospital de médio porte em Fortaleza/CE. Os dados foram colhidos no período de maio a julho de 2007. Do total de 59 frascos com sabão líquido, 33 continham os seguintes microorganismos: Burkholderia cepacia (n=14), Pseudomonas putidas (9), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3), Enterobacter cloacae (2), Pseudomonas luteola (2). As unidades com maior número de amostras contaminadas foram a clínica cirúrgica (n=7) e a clínica dermatológica (n=4). A contaminação também foi verificada em frasco original do mesmo lote de sabão líquido usado para abastecer as saboneteiras. Podemos concluir ser necessário disciplinar e controlar a qualidade desses produtos nas linhas de produção tanto quanto nas fases de uso nos serviços de saúde, sobretudo porque sua utilidade se presta à prevenção de infecção hospitalar.


This study performed a bacteriological analysis of the liquid soap in dispensers that health professionals use for hand washing. This exploratory, cross-sectional study was developed at the hospitalization units of a medium-sized hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Data were collected between May and July 2007. Fifty-nine liquid soap dispensers were analyzed, of which 33 contained the following microorganisms: Burkholderia cepacia (14), Pseudomonas putidas (9), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3), Enterobacter clocae (2), and Pseudomonas luteola (2). The units with the largest number of contaminated samples were the surgical (n=7) and the dermatological clinics (n=4). Contamination was also found in an original flask of the same lot of liquid soap used to fill up the dispensers. In conclusion, there is a need to regulate and control the quality of these products in the production lines as well as during use in hospital services, mainly because they are used to prevent hospital infection.


El estudio realizó el análisis bacteriológico de jabones líquidos utilizados para lavado de manos de los profesionales de salud. Se trata de un estudio exploratorio transversal, desarrollado en las unidades de internación de hospital mediano en Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. Los datos fueron recolectados en el período de mayo a julio de 2007. Del total de 59 frascos con jabón líquido, 33 contenían los siguientes microorganismos: Burkholderia cepacia (n=14), Pseudomonas putidas (9), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3), Enterobacter cloacae (2), Pseudomonas luteola (2). Las unidades con mayor número de muestras contaminadas fueron la de clínica quirúrgica (n=7) y la clínica dermatológica (n=4). Se verificó también contaminación en frasco original del mismo lote de jabón líquido usado para abastecer las jaboneras. Podemos concluir en que es necesario disciplinar y controlar la calidad de estos productos en las líneas de producción, tanto como en las fases de uso en los servicios de salud, sobre todo porque su utilidad apunta a la prevención de infecciones hospitalarias.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Fomites/microbiology , Soaps , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospital Units , Hospitals
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