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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243628, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249260

ABSTRACT

Abstract Flavoring additives are of great technological importance for the food industry. However, there is little information regarding the toxicological properties of these micro-ingredients, especially at the cellular level. The present study used meristematic root cells of Allium cepa L. to evaluate the toxicity of a liquid, aroma and flavor synthetic chocolate additive, manufactured and widely marketed throughout Brazil and exported to other countries in South America. The flavoring concentrations evaluated were 100.00; 50.00; 25.00; 1.00; 0.50 and 0.25 µL/L, where the highest concentration established was one-hundred times lower than that commercially suggested for use. The concentration 100 µL/L substantially reduced cell division of meristems within 24- and 48-hours exposure. Concentrations from 100.00 to 0.50 µL/L resulted in a significant number of prophases to the detriment of the other phases of cell division, indicating an aneugenic activity, and induced a significant number of cellular changes, with emphasis on micronuclei, nuclear buds and chromosomal breaks. Under the established analysis conditions, with the exception of concentration 0.25 µL/L, the flavoring of chocolate caused cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity to root meristems.


Resumo Os aditivos aromatizantes têm grande importância tecnológica para a indústria de alimentos. Contudo, poucas são as informações quanto as propriedades toxicológicas desses microingredientes, especialmente, em nível celular. No presente estudo avaliou-se, sobre as células meristemáticas de raízes de Allium cepa L., a toxicidade de um aditivo sintético líquido de aroma e sabor de chocolate, fabricado e amplamente comercializado em todo Brasil, e exportado para outros países da América do Sul. As concentrações de aromatizante avaliadas foram 100,00; 50,00; 25,00; 1,00; 0,50 e 0,25 µL/L, onde a maior concentração estabelecida foi cem vezes menor que a sugerida comercialmente para uso. Com base na interpretação dos resultados, a concentração 100 µL/L reduziu substancialmente a divisão celular dos meristemas nas 24 e 48 horas de exposição. As concentrações 100,00 a 0,50 µL/L demonstraram número significativo de prófases em detrimento as outras fases da divisão celular, indicando ação aneugênica, e induziram número significativo de alterações celulares, com ênfase a micronúcleos, broto nucleares e quebras cromossômicas. Nas condições de análises estabelecidas, com exceção a concentração 0,25 µL/L, o aromatizante de chocolate causou citotoxicidade, genotoxicidade e mutagenicidade aos meristemas radiculares.


Subject(s)
Chocolate , Mutagens/toxicity , DNA Damage , Brazil , Plant Roots , Onions , Food Additives
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1225-1236, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345275

ABSTRACT

As an essential trace element for animals, copper significantly contributes to the growth and health of animals. Compared to inorganic trace elements, organic trace elements are better supplements; notably, they are acquired through microbial transformation. Therefore, we screened for copper-enriched microorganisms from high copper content soil to obtain organic copper. Sodium diethyldithio carbamate trihydrate was applied as a chromogenic agent for determining micro amounts of intracellular copper through spectrophotometry. In total, 50 fungi were isolated after the successful application of the screening platform for copper-rich microbes. Following morphological and molecular biology analyses, the N-2 strain, identified as Aspergillus niger sp. demonstrated showed better copper enrichment potential than others. Notably, the strain tolerance to copper was nearly thrice that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, up to 1600mg/L. The content of the organic bound copper was 22.84mg Cu/g dry cell. Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) response surface method, we optimized the fermentation condition (inoculation amount, 13%; temperature, 28(C; pH, 5.0). Compared to the original strain results under the single factor fermentation condition, we reported an increase by 24.18% under the optimized conditions. Collectively, these findings provide a reference for uncovering new and low-cost organic copper additives.(AU)


Como elemento traço essencial para os animais, o cobre contribui significativamente para o crescimento e saúde dos animais. Comparado aos oligoelementos inorgânicos, os oligoelementos orgânicos são melhores suplementos; notavelmente, eles são adquiridos através de transformação microbiana. Portanto, nós selecionamos microorganismos enriquecidos com cobre de solos com alto teor de cobre para obter cobre orgânico. O carbamato de sódio diethyldithio trihidratado foi aplicado como agente cromogênico para a determinação de micro quantidades de cobre intracelular através da espectrofotometria. No total, 50 fungos foram isolados após a aplicação bem sucedida da plataforma de triagem para micróbios ricos em cobre. Após análises morfológicas e de biologia molecular, a cepa N-2, identificada como Aspergillus niger sp. demonstrou um melhor potencial de enriquecimento de cobre do que outras. Notavelmente, a tolerância da estirpe ao cobre foi quase três vezes maior que a da Saccharomyces cerevisiae, até 1600mg/L. O conteúdo de cobre ligado orgânico era de 22,84mg Cu/g de célula seca. Usando o método de superfície de resposta Central Composite Design (CCD), nós otimizamos a condição de fermentação (quantidade de inoculação, 13%; temperatura, 28C; pH, 5,0). Em comparação com os resultados da deformação original sob a condição de fermentação de fator único, relatamos um aumento de 24,18% sob as condições otimizadas. Coletivamente, estas descobertas fornecem uma referência para descobrir novos aditivos de cobre orgânico de baixo custo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Soil Analysis , Copper , Food Additives , Aspergillus , Soil Microbiology , Soil Treatment , Sus scrofa
3.
Acta amaz ; 51(3): 207-213, set 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353494

ABSTRACT

O pirarucu, Arapaima gigas é um peixe carnívoro nativo da bacia amazônica. Como peixes carnívoros possuem baixa atividade de amilase, enzimas exógenas melhoram a digestibilidade de carboidratos em rações para aquacultura. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a digestibilidade de níveis crescentes de complexo enzimático em dietas para juvenis de pirarucu (65,2 ± 0,4 g). O desenho experimental foi randomizado com quatro tratamentos [dietas contendo 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 e 1 g kg-1 de complexo enzimático adicionado (Allzyme® SSF®, EUA)] e um controle, com três réplicas com densidade de cinco peixes por unidade e 30 dias de duração. A digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e energia bruta foi calculada por quantificação de nutrientes e óxido de cromo nas dietas e fezes. A atividade enzimática, o glicogênio hepático e a proteína total foram determinados a partir de amostras do fígado e intestino anterior. A dieta com 1 g kg-1 de complexo enzimático resultou em um aumento da digestibilidade aparente de proteina bruta, energia bruta, matéria seca, glicogênio hepático e proteínas totais no fígado e intestino, mostrando a eficácia do complexo enzimático na dieta dos pirarucus. A acumulação mais alta de matéria seca, energia bruta e extrato etéreo na carcaça indicou o aumento de peso dos peixes tratados com complexo enzimático. A redução da atividade enzimática endógena (protease, lipase e amilase) sugeriu um aumento da eficácia do processo digestivo. Nossos resultados indicam que a inclusão de 1 g kg-1 do complexo enzimático na dietas de juvenis de pirarucu pode ser recomendada para obter maior digestibilidade de nutientes e performance produtiva. (AU)


Subject(s)
Enzymes , Fishes/metabolism , Food Additives , Metabolism
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 101-108, nov. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Collagen is the most abundant protein in animals and can be obtained from residues of the food industry. Its hydrolysate has many desirable properties that make it suitable as an additive in foods and cosmetics, or as a component of scaffold materials to be used in biomedicine. RESULTS: We report here the characterization of type I collagen from five different sources, namely bovine, porcine, chicken, trout and salmon, as well as their hydrolysates by means of bioinformatics tools. As expected, the results showed that bovine and porcine collagen, as well as trout and salmon collagen, can be used interchangeably due to their high identity. This result is consistent with the evolution of proteins with highly identical sequences between related species. Also, 156 sequences were found as potential bioactive peptides, 126 from propeptide region and 30 from the central domain, according to the comparison with reported active sequences. CONCLUSIONS: Collagen analysis from a bioinformatic approach allowed us to classify collagen from 5 different animal sources, to establish its interchangeability as potential additive in diverse fields and also to determine the content of bioactive peptides from its in silico hydrolysis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Peptides , Collagen/chemistry , Computational Biology , Protein Hydrolysates , Salmon , Swine , Cluster Analysis , Collagen Type I , Additives in Cosmetics , Food Additives , Hydrolysis
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1980-1988, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131577

ABSTRACT

Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Cichlidae), commonly named "tilapia", is the second most cultivated species in the world. Among the diseases that affect tilapia are parasitic diseases caused by parasites of the class Monogenoidea. The aim of the present study was to analyze parasitism rates among specimens of O. niloticus in farming systems, after dietary supplementation with ractopamine, a growth promoter that is used for fattening fish. The action of this substance on the quantitative parameters of infestation by Monogenoidea was evaluated. Samples of O. niloticus were obtained from a fish farm in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil. Their gills were removed and fixed. Four species of monogenoideans were collected: Cichlidogyrus halli, C. sclerosus, C. thurstonae and Scutogyrus longicornis. The results from this study indicate that the monogenoidean parasites of tilapias examined here presented different behaviors in relation to the ractopamine concentrations that were added to the food. The parasitological indexes did not present significant reductions through using ractopamine, thus leading to the conclusion that administration of ractopamine is not efficient as a method for controlling infestations of monogenoidean parasites.(AU)


Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) (Perciformes: Cichlidae), tilápia, é a segunda espécie mais cultivada no mundo. Entre outras doenças que afetam a tilápia, estão as doenças provocadas por parasitos da classe Monogenoidea. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar os índices de parasitismo em espécies de O. niloticus provenientes de sistemas de cultivo, submetidos a uma dieta com suplementação de ractopamina, usada como promotor de crescimento no estágio de engorda dos peixes, para avaliar as ações dessa substância nos parâmetros quantitativos da infestação por Monogenoidea. Exemplares de O. niloticus obtidos na piscicultura "Agropecuária do Buriti Perdido", em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil, foram examinados; as brânquias foram removidas e fixadas. Quatro espécies foram coletadas: Cichlidogyrus halli, C. sclerosus, C. thurstonae e Scutogyrus longicornis. Os resultados obtidos no presente estudo indicaram que as espécies de Monogenoidea parasitos de tilápia examinadas apresentam diferentes comportamentos relacionados à concentração de ractopamina adicionada ao alimento. Os índices parasitológicos não apresentaram redução significativa pelo uso da ractopamina, levando à conclusão de que a ractopamina não é eficiente como método de controle parasitário em infestações por Monogenoidea.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites , Cichlids/physiology , Food Additives/administration & dosage , Perciformes , Weight Gain
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1449-1457, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131489

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess different prebiotic concentrations and principles, in addition to calcium butyrate, aiming to replace colistin as a growth promoter. The sample consisted of 120 piglets weaned at 22 days old with mean initial weight of 5.475 ± 0.719kg. The animals were assigned to random blocks in six treatments corresponding to the use of the following dietary additives: T1) colistin (40 ppm); T2) ß-glucan/mannan-oligosaccharides (0.2%); T3) calcium butyrate (0.1%); T4) ß-glucan/mannan-oligosaccharides (0.1%) + fructooligosaccharides (0.01%) + galactooligosaccharides (0.09%); T5) ß-glucan/mannan-oligosaccharides (0.1%) + fructooligosaccharides (0.03%) + galactooligosaccharides (0.07%); and T6) ß-glucan/mannan-oligosaccharides (0.1%) + fructooligosaccharides (0.05%) + galactooligosaccharides (0.05%). The results showed no difference among treatments for the performance parameters in any of the phases evaluated. For diarrhea incidence and intensity, the results indicated that the treatments with alternative additives had similar effects as the group treated with colistin. A significant difference was found for the profile of propionic acid (0.23% colistin and 0.32%, 0.36%, 0.37% additives) and total fatty acids (0.67% colistin and 0.97% additives) values in the caecum. The supplementation with different compositions and concentrations of prebiotics and butyric acid may viably replace colistin in controlling diarrhea and modulating volatile fatty acid production in the caecum.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as diferentes concentrações e princípios de prebióticos e do butirato de sódio, visando substituir a colistina como promotor de crescimento. Foram utilizados 120 leitões, desmamados aos 22 dias de idade, com peso médio inicial de 5,475 ± 0,719kg. Os animais foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, em seis tratamentos, que corresponderam ao uso dos seguintes aditivos dietéticos: T1) colistina (40ppm); T2) ß-glucanos/mananoligossacarídeos (0,2%); T3) butirato de cálcio (0,1%); T4) ß-glucanos/mananoligossacarídeos (0,1%) + frutoligossacarídeos (0,01%) + galactoligossacarídeos (0,09%); T5) ß-glucanos/mananoligossacarídeos (0,1%) + frutoligossacarídeos (0,03%) + galactoligossacarídeos (0,07%); e T6) ß-glucanos/mananoligossacarídeos (0,1%) + frutoligossacarídeos (0,05%) + galactoligossacarídeos (0,05%). Os resultados mostraram que não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para nenhum dos parâmetros de desempenho em nenhuma das fases avaliadas. Para a incidência e a intensidade de diarreia, os resultados apontam que os tratamentos com os aditivos alternativos apresentaram efeitos semelhantes aos do grupo tratado com colistina. Foi encontrada diferença significativa para perfil dos ácidos graxos propiônicos (0,23% colistina e 0,32%, 0,36%, 0,37% aditivos) e ácidos totais (0,67% colistina e 0,97% aditivos) no ceco. A suplementação com diferentes composições e concentrações de prebióticos e do ácido butírico pode substituir a colistina de forma viável no controle da diarreia e na modulação da produção volátil de ácidos graxos no ceco.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/growth & development , Butyric Acid/administration & dosage , Prebiotics/administration & dosage , Weight Gain , Food Additives/administration & dosage
7.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 23(1, cont.): e2306, 20200000. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129304

ABSTRACT

Os taninos são compostos fenólicos presentes em plantas, classificados quanto à estrutura química em compostos hidrolisáveis e condensados. Os condensados são adicionados à dieta de ruminantes devido a sua capacidade de formar complexos com proteínas tornando-as não degradáveis no ambiente ruminal. Dessa forma, aumenta o aporte proteico no intestino delgado onde ocorrerá a maior absorção na porção cranial do órgão, o duodeno. A vantagem desse mecanismo é aumentar o aproveitamento da proteína da dieta pelos animais o que influenciará na produtividade e sistema imunológico, entre outros. Os efeitos positivos com a utilização desse composto como aditivo nutricional ainda precisam ser estudados, portanto, o objetivo dessa revisão consiste em demonstrar os resultados, até então conhecidos, da utilização de taninos condensados na dieta de ruminantes.(AU)


Tannins are phenolic compounds present in plants. According to their chemical structure, they can be classified into hydrolysable and condensed compounds. Condensed compounds are added to the ruminant nutrition due to their ability to form complexes with proteins, rendering them as non-degradable in the rumen environment. Thus, it increases the protein supply in the small intestine, where the highest absorption will occur in the duodenum, the cranial portion of the organ. The advantage of this mechanism is the increase of the use of dietary protein by the animals, which will thus influence productivity and the immune system, among others. The positive effects of the use of this compound as a nutritional additive still need to be further investigated, therefore, the purpose of this review is to demonstrate the known results of the use of condensed tannins in the diet of ruminants.(AU)


Los taninos son compuestos fenólicos presentes en plantas, clasificados según la estructura química en compuestos hidrolizables y condensados. Los condensados se agregan a la dieta de rumiantes debido a su capacidad de formar complejos con proteínas, haciéndolas no degradables en el entorno del rumen. Así, aumenta el aporte proteico en el intestino delgado donde habrá mayor absorción en la porción craneal del órgano, el duodeno. La ventaja de ese mecanismo es aumentar el aprovechamiento de la proteína de la dieta por los animales, lo que influirá en la productividad y sistema inmunológico, entre otros. Los efectos positivos con la utilización de ese compuesto, como aditivo nutricional, todavía necesita ser estudiado, el objetivo de esa revisión consiste en demostrar los resultados, hasta ahora conocidos, del uso de taninos condensados en la dieta de rumiantes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tannins , Ruminants , Dietary Proteins , Proteins , Food Additives
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 46: 14-21, jul. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biosurfactants are biomolecules that have the potential to be applied in food formulations due to their low toxicity and ability to improve sensory parameters. Considering the ability of yeasts to produce biosurfactants with food-friendly properties, the aim of the present study was to apply a biosurfactant produced by Candida utilis in the formulation of cookies. RESULTS: The biosurfactant was obtained with a yield of 24.22 ± 0.23 g/L. The characterization analysis revealed that the structure of a metabolized fatty acid with high oleic acid content (68.63 ± 0.61%), and the thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated good stability at temperatures lower than 200°C, potential for food applications. The biosurfactant also exhibited satisfactory antioxidant activity at concentrations evaluated, without cytotoxic potential for cell strains, L929 and RAW 264.7, according to the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The incorporation of the surfactant into the dough of a standard cookie formulation to replace animal fat was carried out, achieving a softer, spongier product without significantly altering the physical and physicochemical properties or energy value. CONCLUSION: The thermal stability and antioxidant activity of the biosurfactant produced by C. utilis were verified, besides the positive contribution in the texture analysis of the cookies. Therefore, this biomolecule presents itself as a potential ingredient in flour-based sweet food formulations.


Subject(s)
Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Candida/metabolism , Food, Formulated , Cookies , Temperature , Yeasts , Food Industry , Food Additives , Antioxidants
9.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 359-365, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126132

ABSTRACT

Fish and fish products are an outstanding source of essential protein and micronutrients. In cured meats, such as pâté, the technological characteristics are fundamental to the final quality of the product. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the addition of manioc starch, water and inulin on moisture, water holding capacity (WHC) and texture profile in pâtés using the underutilized marine fish bicuda (barracuda, Sphyraenatome) with total fat replacement by inulin. A Rotational Central Composite Design (RCCD) was used with the independent variables inulin, manioc starch, and water. Water, inulin, and manioc starch significantly influenced (p<0.05) the moisture content of pâtés, WHC, and texture, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness parameters. The technological action of inulin as a substitute for fat used in the formulations (3% to 6%) was underestimated. The percentages used were below perecentages of at least 20% of fat reported in the literature.Current legislation does not recommend WHR values and hardness parameters, only values for humidity. There is a need for revision of legislation to meet the characteristics of the identity pattern and quality of fish pâté.


El pescado y los productos pesqueros son una fuente excepcional de proteínas esenciales y micronutrientes. En embutidos (carne curada) como el paté, las características tecnológicas son fundamentales para la calidad final del producto. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la adición de almidón de mandioca, agua e inulina sobre la humedad, la capacidad de retención de agua (WHC) y el perfil de la textura en patés fabricados con peces marinos subutilizados (barracuda, Sphyraena tome) con reemplazo total de grasa por inulina. Se utilizó un diseño compuesto central rotatorio (RCCD) con las variables independientes inulina, almidón de mandioca y agua. El agua, la inulina y el almidón de mandioca influyeron significativamente (p<0.05) en el contenido de humedad de los patés, WHC, y los parámetros de textura, dureza, gomosidad y masticabilidad. Se subestimó la acción tecnológica de la inulina como sustituto de la grasa en los contenidos utilizados en las formulaciones (3% a 6%). Los porcentajes utilizados estaban por debajo de lo que informa la literatura de al menos un 20% de grasa. La legislación actual no recomienda valores de WHR y parámetros de dureza, solo valores de humedad. Es necesario revisar la legislación para cumplir con las características del patrón de identidad y la calidad del paté de pescado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Starch , Seafood , Fish Products , Food Additives , Perciformes , Manihot , Hardness , Humidity
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 573-580, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128427

ABSTRACT

This trial aimed to evaluate the effects of thyme essential oils (EO) on rumen parameters, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in wethers fed with high-concentrate diet. Twenty rumen-cannulated wethers were blocked according to body weight (BW= 64.0±2.1kg), and received one of the following treatments: 25mg of monensin/kg of dry matter (DM; MON) or doses of thyme EO (1.25, 2.50 or 3.75g/kg of DM). The diet was composed of 90% concentrate. Thyme EO was composed mainly by thymol (46.6% of DM) and p-cymene (38.9% of DM). The nutrient intake and apparent digestibility were similar among treatments. The inclusion of 3.75g of thyme EO tended (P= 0.07) to increase butyrate compared to MON and 1.25OE and wethers fed with 1.25g of thyme EO tended (P= 0.07) to decrease ruminal pH on the 14th day compared to MON. The treatments did not affect acetate:propionate ratio, total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and nitrogen retention. Results from this study suggest that adding thyme EO to high-concentrate diets may be used as an alternative to monensin as feed additive in feedlot lambs.(AU)


O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do óleo essencial (OE) de tomilho nos parâmetros ruminais, na digestibilidade e no balanço de nitrogênio em borregos alimentados com elevado teor de concentrado. Vinte borregos providos de cânulas ruminais foram blocados de acordo com o peso corporal (PC=64,0±2,1kg) e receberam um dos tratamentos: 25mg de monensina/kg de matéria seca (MS; MON) ou doses de OE de tomilho (1,25; 2,50 ou 3,75g/kg de MS). A dieta foi composta por 90% de concentrado. A composição do OE de tomilho foi principalmente timol (46,6% da MS) e p-cimeno (38,9% da MS). A ingestão e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes foram semelhantes entre os tratamentos. A inclusão de 3,75g de OE de tomilho tendeu (P=0,07) a aumentar o butirato em relação aos tratamentos MON e 1,25OE. Os borregos alimentados com 1,25g de OE tenderam (P=0,07) a apresentar menor pH ruminal no 14º dia comparado a MON. No entanto, os tratamentos não afetaram a relação acetato:propionato, concentração total de ácidos graxos de cadeia curta e retenção de nitrogênio. Os resultados sugerem que a adição de OE de tomilho em dietas com elevado teor de concentrado pode ser uma alternativa à monensina como aditivo alimentar para cordeiros em confinamento.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rumen/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Sheep/metabolism , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Nitrogen , Monensin , Food Additives
11.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 8(1): 67-76, 20200400. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178441

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: los Nitritos y Nitratos son aditivos alimentarios utilizados como con-servadores de productos cárnicos, los nitritos proporcionan un color característico rojizo en salchichas, pero también son reconocidos como un agente cancerígeno. Esta es la razón por la que el límite máximo de aceptación de Nitritos es de 125 mg NaNO2/Kg muestra. OBJETIVO: realizar una vigilancia de nitritos y nitratos presentes en las salchichas expendidas en los mercados Rodríguez y Villa Fátima de la ciudad de La Paz. MÉTODO: para la determinación de nitritos se usó el método de Espectrofotometría UV/Vis según los requisitos exigidos Norma Boliviana. RESULTADOS: en el estudio realizado de vigilancia se pudo observar que un 12% de las muestras no cumplen con el parámetro establecido de máximo 125 mg NaNO2/Kg muestra según Norma Boliviana y el Código Alimentario Argentino (C.A.A.) sin embargo el 88% de las muestras analizadas si cumplen con este pará-metro. El porcentaje promedio de humedad en las muestras fue de 60,34% y el promedio de pH fue de 5,92 aplicando la metodología de Norma Boliviana para productos cárnicos. CONCLUSIONES: en la determinación de Humedad y pH, la totalidad de las muestras cumplieron con los requisitos de aceptación para ambos parámetros. Sin embargo en el caso de la determinación de Nitritos, se encontraron muestras que contienen valores por encima de los valores de referencia por lo que es importante que los entes oficiales de control realicen vigilancias rutinarias a salchichas que son expendidas en ambos mercados, con el fin de que el aditivo Nitrito de sodio o Nitrito de potasio sean utilizados de acuerdo a lo establecido evitando de esta manera problemas de salud a los consumidores.


Introduction: nitrites and nitrates are food additives used as preservatives in meat pro-ducts, nitrites provide a characteristic reddish color in sausages, but they are also recognized as a carcinogenic agent. This is the reason why the maximum acceptance limit for nitrites is 125 mg NaNO2 / Kg sample. Objective: to carry out a surveillance of nitrites and nitrates present in the sausages sold in the Rodríguez and Villa Fatima markets of the city of La Paz. METHOD: for the determination of nitrites, the UV / Vis spectrophotometry method was used according to the requirements of the Bolivian Standard Results: In the surveillance study carried out it was observed that 12% of the samples do not comply with the established parameter of maximum 125 mg NaNO2 / Kg sample according to the Bolivian Norm and the Argentine Food Code (CAA), however 88% of the samples analyzed if they meet this parameter. The average percentage of moisture in the samples was 60.34% and the average pH was 5.92 applying the Bolivian Standard methodology for meat products. RESULTS: in the surveillance study carried out it was observed that 12% of the samples do not comply with the established parameter of maximum 125 mg NaNO2 / Kg sample according to the Bolivian Norm and the Argentine Food Code (CAA), however 88% of the samples analyzed if they meet this parameter. The average percentage of moisture in the samples was 60.34% and the average pH was 5.92 applying the Bolivian Standard methodology for meat products. CONCLUSIONS: in the determination of humidity and pH, all of the samples met the acceptance requirements for both parameters. However, in the case of Nitrite determination, samples were found that contain values above the reference values, so it is important that the official control entities carry out routine surveillance of sausages that are sold in both markets, in order to that the additive Sodium Nitrite or Potassium Nitrite are used according to what is established, thus avoiding health problems for consumers.


Subject(s)
Surveillance , Food , Food Additives , Nitrites , Health , Reference Parameters
12.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 6-13, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092738

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de las diferentes concentraciones de polidextrosa en la prevención de la obesidad y sus comorbilidades, en ratas alimentados con dieta hipercalórica. Se utilizaron ratas machos Wistar, repartidos en 4 grupos: Grupo control (HC) y 3 grupos que recibieron dieta hipercalórica con suplementación del 2%, 4% y 6% de polidextrosa (HC2%P, HC4%P y HC6%P respectivamente). La dieta hipercalórica utilizada fue la del tipo de cafetería para inducir la obesidad. Se midió peso corporal e ingesta de la dieta, se realizaron pruebas de tolerancia a la glucosa y a la insulina. Los animales fueron sometidos a eutanasia para toma de muestra de sangre medidas antropométricas y pesaje de órganos y tejidos. La polidextrosa disminuyó significantemente el peso, la grasa corporal, la glicemia, los triglicéridos, la intolerancia a la glucosa y la resistencia a la insulina, y aumentó los niveles del colesterol HDL. Se concluye que el consumo de poli- dextrosa redujo las complicaciones derivadas de la obesidad en ratas alimentados con dieta hipercalórica, siendo éste un potencial tratamiento para el control de la obesidad, la diabetes tipo II y las enfermedades cardiovasculares.


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different polydextrose concentrations for the prevention of obesity and its comorbidities in rats fed a high calorie diet. Thirty male Wistar rats were used. Rats were divided into 4 groups: Control group (HC) and 3 groups which received a hypercaloric diet with 2%, 4% and 6% polydextrose supplementation (HC2%P, HC4%P and HC6%P, respectively). The hypercaloric diet used was of the cafeteria type to induce obesity. Body weight and feed intake were verified weekly. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed five days before finalizing the experiment. At the end of the experiment, animals were euthanized for blood collection, anthropometric measurements and tissue weighing. Polydextrose significantly decreased weight, body fat, blood glucose, triglycerides, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance and increased HDL cholesterol levels. The use of polydextrose reduced the complications of obesity in mice fed a hypercaloric diet. In conclusion, polydextrose may be a promising treatment for controlling obesity, diabetes type II and cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Prebiotics/administration & dosage , Glucans/administration & dosage , Obesity/prevention & control , Body Weight , Energy Intake , Cholesterol/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Diet, High-Fat , Food Additives , Glucose Tolerance Test
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 191-202, jan./feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049241

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to measure the chemical composition, microbiological profile, fermentative characteristics and the aerobic stability of the olive bagasse silages in natura and added with corn bran, soybean and rice bran in different times of sampling. The was completely randomized design in arrangement of plots subdivided in 4x3 time, with five replications. In the plots were allocated the main treatments, and in the subplots the sampling times were allocated. The fermentative characteristics was studied by determination of the dry matter (DM) content, pH and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N), the microbiological by determining the populations of filamentous fungi, Clostridia, lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteria. In the nutrient profile study, the contents of mineral matter (MM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, nitrogen bound to acid detergent fiber (NIDA), nitrogen bound to neutral detergent fiber (NIDN), carbohydrate and total digestible nutrient (TDN). At the ensilage moment, it also has been determined in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and in vitro digestibility of organic matter (IVDOM). The use of corn and rice bran provided a better fermentative profile in the studied ensilage. The pH of the silages added corn and rice bran has presented in 4.00 and 4.06 after 112 storage days, consequently. The adding of soybean bran provided the greatest CP values and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) after the fermentative period, been it 131.55 g kg-1 of DM for CP and 176.28 g kg-1 of DM for NFC. The treatments without bran adding and rice bran added have demonstrated IVDOM levels of 581.12 g ka-1 od DM and 604.51 g kg-1 of DM, consequently. The studied meals improve the nutritional profile of the studied silages and are potentially usable as additives in olive bagasse silages.


Objetivou-se mensurar com esse estudo o perfil bromatológico, microbiológico, características fermentativas e a estabilidade aeróbica das silagens de bagaço de azeitona in natura e aditivada com os farelos de milho, soja e arroz em diferentes tempos de amostragem. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em arranjo de parcelas subdivididas no tempo 4x3, com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram alocados os tratamentos principais e nas sub parcelas foram alocados os tempos de amostragem. As características fermentativas foram estudadas por meio da determinação do conteúdo de matéria seca (MS), pH e nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3), o microbiológico por meio da determinação das populações de fungos filamentosos, Clostrídeos, bactérias ácido láticas e enterobactérias. No estudo do perfil nutricional determinou-se os conteúdos de matéria mineral (MM), matéria orgânica (MO), proteína bruta (PB), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), fibra em detergente ácido (FDA), lignina, celulose, hemicelulose, nitrogênio ligado a fibra em detergente ácido (NIDA), nitrogênio ligado a fibra em detergente neutro (NIDN), teores de carboidratos e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT). No momento da ensilagem também determinou-se a digestibilidade in vitroda matéria seca (IVDMD) e da matéria orgânica (IVDOM). O uso dos farelos de milho e arroz proporcionou melhor perfil fermentativo nas silagens estudadas. O pH das silagens adicionadas de farelo de milho e arroz apresentou-se em 4,00 e 4,06 após os 112 dias de armazenamento, consequentemente. A adição do farelo de soja proporcionou os maiores valores de PB e carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF) após o período fermentativo, sendo de 131,55 g/kg de MS para PB e 176,28 g/kg de MS para CNF. Os tratamentos sem adição de farelo e adicionado do farelo de arroz apresentaram teores de DIVMO de (581,12 g/kg de MS) e (604,51 g/kg de MS), consequentemente. Os farelos estudados melhoram o perfil nutricional das silagens avaliadas e são potencialmente utilizáveis como aditivos em silagens de bagaço de azeitona.


Subject(s)
Silage , Olea , Food Additives , Nutritive Value , Ruminants
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787141

ABSTRACT

Neuroinflammation is an important process underlying a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Carvacrol (CAR) is a phenolic monoterpene commonly used as a food additive due to its antibacterial properties, but it has also been shown to exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of CAR on inflammation in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In our study, lipopolysaccharide was injected into the lateral ventricle of rats to induce memory impairment and neuroinflammation. Daily administration of CAR (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) for 21 days improved recognition, discrimination, and memory impairments relative to untreated controls. CAR administration significantly attenuated expression of several inflammatory factors in the brain, including interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, CAR significantly increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, and decreased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA. Taken together, these results show that CAR can improve memory impairment caused by neuroinflammation. This cognitive enhancement is due to the anti-inflammatory effects of CAR medicated by its regulation of BDNF and TLR4. Thus, CAR has significant potential as an inhibitor of memory degeneration in neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cytokines , Discrimination, Psychological , Food Additives , Hippocampus , Inflammation , Lateral Ventricles , Lipopolysaccharides , Memory , Necrosis , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroprotective Agents , Phenol , Prefrontal Cortex , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Toll-Like Receptor 4
15.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 27(2): 1-9, 2020. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1120311

ABSTRACT

Background: Although legume protein extracts are useful in food preparation and processing as foam stabilizers and as viscosity, palatability and nutrition enhancers, many legume proteins from South America have not been characterized extensively. One such legume is the ñuña bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which is cooked using dry heat until the cotyledons rapidly expand with a pop. The bean is widely cultivated in the Andes, but almost unknown elsewhere. Objective & Methods: In this study, we characterized ten functional properties of a ñuña protein extract using standard food analysis methods. Results: The extract was similar to other legume protein extracts for many properties (amino acid profile, proximate analysis, yield, water absorption, color, isoelectric point, and thermogravimetric analysis). The electrophoretic analysis revealed that the sample was nearly pure phaseolin. Additionally, the ability to form foam and increase solution viscosity were comparatively low when contrasted to other extracts. Conclusion: These properties make ñuña protein extract useful as a nearly pure phaseolin nutrition enhancer in beverages where foaming and high viscosity are undesirable, such as in fortified beverages, drinkable yogurts, or protein supplements. The extract may also have relevance as a weight-loss supplement. Therefore, we expect that incorporating ñuña protein in processed foods would be a straightforward process.


Antecedentes: Los extractos proteicos de leguminosas son muy utilizados en la preparación y procesamiento de alimentos como agentes estabilizadores de espuma y viscosidad, así como potenciadores de palatabilidad y nutrición. Sin embargo, muchas proteínas de leguminosas procedentes de Sudamérica no han sido caracterizadas extensamente. Una de ellas es el frijol ñuña (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), el cual se cocina utilizando calor seco hasta que los cotiledones se expanden rápidamente y explotan. La ñuña se cultiva ampliamente en los Andes, pero es mayormente desconocida en otras partes del mundo. Objetivo y Métodos: En el presente estudio, caracterizamos diez propiedades funcionales de un extracto proteico de ñuña, utilizando métodos estándares para análisis de alimentos. Resultados: Varias propiedades del extracto analizado fueron similares a las de los extractos proteicos de otras leguminosas (perfil de aminoácidos, análisis proximal, rendimiento, absorción de agua, color, punto isoeléctrico y análisis termogravimétrico). El análisis electroforético reveló que la muestra es mayormente faseolina. Además, el extracto analizado presentó baja capacidad para formar espuma e incrementar viscosidad de una solución a comparación de los otros extractos. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos indican que el extracto proteico de ñuña, que es casi faseolina pura, puede ser muy útil como potenciador nutricional de bebidas en las que la espuma y alta viscosidad son indeseadas, como es el caso de bebidas fortificadas, yogures bebibles o suplementos proteicos. El extracto podría tener relevancia como suplemento para pérdida de peso. Por lo tanto, esperamos que el uso de proteína de ñuña sea un proceso sencillo en la industria de alimentos procesados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phaseolus , Food Additives , Amino Acids, Essential
16.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 37: 1-10, Jan. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chia seeds are gaining increasing interest among food producers and consumers because of their prohealth properties. RESULTS: The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of chia seeds to act as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors. The highest inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE was observed for colored seed ethanol extracts. A positive correlation was found between the presence of quercetin and isoquercetin as well as protocatechuic, hydroxybenzoic, and coumaric acids and the activity of extracts as AChE and BChE inhibitors. It has also been shown that grain fragmentation affects the increase in the activity of seeds against cholinesterases (ChE). Furthermore, seeds have been shown to be a source of substances that inhibit microbial growth. CONCLUSIONS: It was found that the chia seed extracts are rich in polyphenols and inhibit the activity of ChEs; therefore, their use can be considered in further research in the field of treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Seeds/chemistry , Butyrylcholinesterase , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Salvia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Flavonols/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Polyphenols/analysis , Food Additives
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1999-2008, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055106

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of including virginiamycin (VM), sodium monensin (MON) or the association (VM+MON) in the energetic mineral supplement, on the intake and performance of beef cattle on pasture. Forty Nellore heifers with 24 months of age and initial body weight (BW) of 251.5±16.6kg, were distributed in four treatments in a randomized block design. Treatments consisted of adding VM, MON or VM+MON to the supplement (CONT). Additive concentrations were defined to reach a dose of 40 to 45mg/100kg BW. The herbage allowance was not a limiting factor for the animals' intake. Supplement intake was lower than expected, with 33.0, 18.8 and 26.3mg per 100kg BW for VM, MON and VM+MON, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI, mean=2.65% BW) and animal performance were not affected by the inclusion of additives. The average daily gain (ADG) was 0.561kg/animal day-1. The inclusion of additives in energetic mineral supplement does not affect the DMI and the ADG of grazing animals. The variability in supplement intake and daily dose intake of additives may have influenced the performance of the animals. Monensin inclusion presented the less expensive supplementation cost, due to reduction in supplement intake without changing weight gain.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão dos aditivos virginiamicina (VM), monensina sódica (MON) e associação (VM+MON) no suplemento energético-mineral sobre o consumo e desempenho de bovinos manejados em pastagem de Urochloa Brizantha cv. Marandu. Foram utilizadas 40 novilhas Nelore com 24 meses de idade e peso corporal (PC) inicial médio de 251,5+16,6kg distribuídas em delineamento em blocos ao acaso com quatro tratamentos. Os tratamentos consistiam de suplemento energético-mineral (CONT) acrescido de VM, MON ou VM+MON. A oferta de forragem não limitou o consumo dos animais. O consumo dos aditivos foi de 0; 33,0; 18,8 e 26,3mg por 100kg de PC para CONT, VM, MON e VM+MON, respectivamente. O consumo de matéria seca e o desempenho dos animais não foram afetados pela inclusão dos aditivos. O ganho médio diário dos animais foi de 0,561kg dia -1 , sem diferença entre os tratamentos. A inclusão de aditivos no suplemento energético-mineral não alterou o CMS e o desempenho dos animais em pastejo. A variabilidade no consumo de suplemento e na dose ingerida dos aditivos pode ter influenciado o desempenho dos animais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Monensin/administration & dosage , Weight Gain , Virginiamycin/administration & dosage , Ionophores , Food Additives/administration & dosage
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 2065-2074, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055118

ABSTRACT

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil (EO) doses on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen metabolism, as well as performance and coccidia oocyst discharge. In experiment I, 20 rumen-cannulated wethers received the experimental diets containing 80% dry matter (DM) of haylage and 20% DM of concentrate. Treatments were 25mg of monensin/kg DM or doses of 1.25, 2.50, or 3.75g of thyme EO/kg DM. In experiment II, 50 ewe lambs received the same diets from experiment I, including a diet without feed additives. Wethers fed with diets containing 1.25g/kg DM of thyme EO had higher molar proportion of propionate (P= 0.03) and butyrate (P< 0.01), and lower (P= 0.04) acetate to propionate ratio than other treatments. Adding thyme EO to diets increased (P= 0.02) nitrogen retention compared to monensin. The performance of ewe lambs was not affected (P≥ 0.05) by treatments. However, lambs fed monensin had a lower (P= 0.04) number of coccidia oocyst discharge than others. Adding 1.25g/kg DM of thyme EO in high-forage diet improved ruminal fermentation. Thyme EO enhanced nitrogen metabolism, however, it did not improve performance.(AU)


Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar o efeito de doses de óleo essencial (OE) de tomilho (Thymus vulgaris) sobre a fermentação ruminal, a digestibilidade de nutrientes e o metabolismo de nitrogênio, bem como sobre o desempenho e a descarga de oocistos de coccídeos. No experimento I, 20 ovinos canulados receberam dietas experimentais contendo 80% de matéria seca (MS) de pré-secado e 20% de MS de concentrado. Os tratamentos foram 25mg de monensina/kg de MS ou doses de 1,25, 2,50 ou 3,75g de OE de tomilho/kg de MS. No experimento II, 50 borregas receberam as mesmas dietas do experimento I, incluindo uma dieta sem aditivos. Os animais alimentados com dietas contendo 1,25g de OE de tomilho apresentaram maior proporção molar de propionato (P=0,03) e de butirato (P<0,01) e menor (P=0,04) relação acetato/propionato do que outros tratamentos. A adição de OE de tomilho nas dietas aumentou (P=0,02) a retenção de nitrogênio em comparação com a monensina. O desempenho de cordeiros não foi afetado (P≥0,05) pelos tratamentos. No entanto, cordeiros alimentados com monensina apresentaram menor (P=0,04) número de oocistos de coccídeos. A adição de 1,25g/kg de MS de OE de tomilho na dieta forrageira melhorou o perfil da fermentação ruminal. O OE de tomilho aumentou a retenção de nitrogênio, no entanto não melhorou o desempenho.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Sheep/metabolism , Monensin , Coccidiosis/prevention & control , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Nitrogen , Food Additives
19.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 24(3): 7291-7296, sep.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115253

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de dosis crecientes del glucósido cianogénico Linamarina, en la reducción de metano ruminal in vitro. Materiales y Métodos. Se empleó líquido ruminal de dos ovejas fistuladas de la raza Merino Precoz, con el que se inoculó un sustrato fermentativo constituido por heno de alfalfa (Medicago sativa) y grano de avena molido (Avena sativa L.), se adicionó solución buffer y Linamarina (pureza de ≥98%) en dosis crecientes, lo que se llevó a incubación por ocho horas in vitro. El metano se midió cada hora, con un monitor de gases infrarrojo. Resultados. De acuerdo con el incremento de las dosis de Linamarina (0, 6, 13, 20 y 26 mg/L), la concentración de metano disminuyó de forma lineal (p≤0.05) en (9.7, 9.2, 18.1 y 29.4%) respectivamente. Se observó una reducción significativa de metano con la dosis más alta de Linamarina. Conclusión. La Linamarina, en su estado puro, fue eficaz en la reducción de metano durante la fermentación ruminal in vitro. Por lo tanto, este estudio constituye una base para futuros experimentos que incluyan fuentes vegetales de Linamarina y otras variables ruminales, lo que puede conducir a encontrar estrategias para reducir los gases de efecto invernadero.


ABSTRACT Objective. To assess the effect of rising doses of the cyanogenic glucoside Linamarin on the reduction of in vitro rumen methane. Materials and methods. Rumen fluid from two fistulated Merino Precoz sheep, inoculated with a fermentation substrate comprising alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa) and ground oat grain (Avena sativa L.), and added with buffer solution and Linamarin (purity ≥98%) in rising doses, was incubated for eight hours in vitro. Methane was measured each hour with an infrared gas monitor. Results. According Linamarin doses were increased (0, 6, 13, 20 and 26 mg/L), the methane concentration fell in a linear manner (p≤0.05) by (9.7, 9.2, 18.1 and 29.4%), respectively. A significant reduction of methane was seen whit the highest dose of Linamarin. Conclusions. Linamarin, in pure state, was effective to reduce methane during in vitro ruminal fermentation. Therefore, this study constitutes a basis for future experiments including vegetable sources of Linamarin as well as other rumen variables, leading to find a strategy for reducing greenhouse gases.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques , Food Additives , Glucosides , Methane , Fermentation
20.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(9 especial): 613-620, oct 2019. tab, fig, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046788

ABSTRACT

In searching for alternatives to traditional chemical medicines, including feed antibiotics, scientists around the world are developing a new generation of medicines, phytobiotics. This work was aimed at studying the phytobiotics (pharmaceutical substances) production technology using the method of low-temperature vacuum water-ethanol extraction of Siberian medicinal plants, followed by low-temperature vacuum drying and determination of the main biologically active substances that had the required pharmacological effect on the organisms of farm animals and poultry. The objects of the study in this work were Siberian medicinal plants and ready phytobiotics (pharmaceutical substances). The article describes the technological conditions for obtaining pharmaceutical substances and their properties concerning the content of biologically active substances. It has been found that for obtaining pharmaceutical substances, extraction should be performed in three stages: two water extractions and ethanol- water extraction. The article provides a list of medicinal plants and the amounts of biologically active substances that ensure certain pharmacological effects on the set of economically useful qualities in farm animals and poultry and contained in phytobiotics (pharmaceutical substances) based on extracts from medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Poultry , Technology , Biopharmaceutics , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/classification , Food Additives , Animals, Domestic
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