Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.208
Filter
1.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(2): 117-123, abr./jun. 2021. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1367942

ABSTRACT

The Mercosur Technical Regulation for honey determines microbiological parameters for total coliforms and molds and/ yeasts, and absence of physical contaminants, of any nature. The purpose of this study was to verify the biological and physical contamin of Apis mellifera ligustica and Melipona fasciculata, commercialized in the northeastern region of the State of Pará, Brazil. The fourteen samples from informal trade of the municipalities of Bragança, Capanema, Nova Timboteua, São João de Pirabas, Salinas and Tracauateua were analyzed for the Most Probable Number of colifroms at 35ºC, Fungus and Yeast counts, besides the detection of dirt by Macro and Microscopy techniques. The results obtained from the microbiological analyzes were compared to the standard required by MERCOSUR, for coliforms. 57.14% of the samples were non-standard and ranged from <3.0 NMP/g to 20 NMP/g. The molds and/ yeast counts ranged from 1x10¹ CFU/g to 8.6x10² CFU/g, with atotal of 21.42% of the samples being in disagreement with the legislation. From the macroscopic analysis, it was observed that, although 50% of the samples did not present any apparent dirt, microscopically it was possible to observe dirt in 100% of the samples of honey analyzed, which is out of the standard required by the Brazilian legislation. This shows the low sanitary quality of honey commercialized in this region of the state of Pará.


O Regulamento Técnico do Mercosul para mel, determina parâmetros microbiológicos para coliformes totais e fungos e/leveduras, e ausência de contaminantes físicos, de qualquer natureza. A proposta do presente estudo foi verificar a contaminação biológica e física em méis de abelha das espécies Apis mellifera ligustica e Melipona fasciculata, comercializados na região Nordeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil. As amostras provenientes do comercio informal dos de municípios de, Bragança, Capanema, Nova Timboteua, São João de Pirabas, Salinas e Tracauateua, foram analisadas quanto a determinação do Número Mais Provável de coliformes a 35ºC, Contagem de Fungos e/leveduras, além da detecção de sujidades pelas técnicas de Macro e Microscopia. Os resultados obtidos a partir das análises microbiológicas foram comparadas ao padrão exigido pelo MERCOSUL, para coliformes, 57,14% das amostras encontravam-se fora do padrão variaram de <3,0 NMP/g a 20NMP/g. Já a contagem de fungos e/leveduras variou de 1x10¹ UFC/g a 8,6x10² UFC/g, no total de 21,42 % das amostras apresentaram-se em desacordo com a legislação. A partir da análise macroscópica observou-se que, embora 50% das amostras não apresentassem sujidades aparentes, porém microscopicamente foi possível observar a presença sujidades em 100% das amostras de méis analisadas encontrando-se fora do padrão exigido pela legislação Brasileira. Demostrando a baixa qualidade sanitária do mel comercializado nessa região do estado do Pará.


Subject(s)
Food Analysis/methods , Food Microbiology , Honey/analysis , Food Contamination/analysis , Physical Contaminants/analysis , Coliforms , Fungi
2.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(1): 80-84, 20210330. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291760

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O presente estudo objetivou pesquisar enteroparasitas em morangos frescos comercializados in natura no município de Goiânia, Goiás. Métodos: Foram analisadas 51 amostras de morangos, sendo 25 oriundas de supermercados e 26 de rua/comércio livre, entre agosto/2019 e dezembro/2019, em diversos bairros das regiões norte, noroeste, sul e central do município de Goiânia, Goiás, empregando-se as técnicas de Faust, Hoffman, Ritchie e Coloração de Kinyoun (Ziehl-Neelsen modificado). Resultados: Das 51 amostras analisadas, 78,4% foram positivas para enteroparasitas. Das quarenta amostras positivas, em 25 (62,5%) foram identificados apenas cistos de protozoários, em oito (20,0%) apenas ovos de nematódeos e em sete (17,5%) cistos de protozoários e ovos de nematódeos, simultaneamente. As espécies encontradas foram: Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana e Giardia lamblia. Todos os enteroparasitas foram identificados pelas técnicas de Hoffman e Faust. Conclusão: O estudo evidenciou elevada contaminação dos morangos comercializados em Goiânia, Goiás por enteroparasitas, com destaque para os protozoários. O consumo de morangos frescos in natura pode oferecer risco à saúde de seus consumidores, sendo crucial orientar a população sobre a correta higienização deste alimento antes de seu consumo a fim de evitar a ocorrência de enteroparasitoses.


Objective: This study aimed to research enteroparasites in fresh in natura strawberries marketed in the city of Goiânia, Goiás. Methods: A total of 51 strawberry samples were analyzed. These samples, 25 were from supermarkets and 26 from street/free trade, between August/2019 and December/2019, in several neighborhoods in the north, northwest, south and central regions of the municipality of Goiânia, Goiás, using the techniques of Faust, Hoffman, Ritchie and Kinyoun Coloring (modified Ziehl-Neelsen). Results: Of the 51 samples analyzed, 78.4% were positive for enteroparasites. Of the 40 positive samples, in 25 (62.5%) just protozoan cysts were identified, in eight (20.0%) just nematode eggs and in seven (17.5%) protozoan cysts and nematode eggs, simultaneously. The species found were: Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Giardia lamblia. The enteroparasites founded were identified by the techniques of Hoffman and Faust.Conclusion: The study showed high contamination of strawberries marketed in Goiânia, Goiás by enteroparasites, with emphasis on protozoa. The consumption of fresh strawberries, in natura, can pose a risk to the health of its consumers, being crucial to guide the population on the correct hygiene of this food before its consumption to avoid the occurrence of enteroparasitosis.


Subject(s)
Parasitology , Food Analysis , Foodborne Diseases
3.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(3): 205-214, sept. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1223705

ABSTRACT

Las frutas exóticas se encuentran dentro del grupo de las frutas tropicales y su carácter perecedero limita su exportación a mercados distantes. En general, su consumo es local, son subutilizadas o poco valoradas tanto en el hogar como industrialmente; sin embargo, debido su alto valor nutricional, su consumo se ha incrementado significativamente en los últimos años. Estas frutas son fuente de compuestos bioactivos como fibra, vitamina C, carotenoides, ácidos fenólicos y polifenoles, los cuales han sido asociados a la reducción de los riesgos de enfermedades crónicas causadas por el estrés oxidativo. Estos compuestos bioactivos han demostrado que poseen varias actividades biológicas in vitro e in vivo incluyendo actividad antioxidante, antimicrobiana, antiinflamatoria, antiedad, neuroprotectora y antiviral entre otras. Por lo tanto, la obtención de ingredientes funcionales a partir de las frutas tropicales consideradas exóticas resulta viable; así como su utilización para el desarrollo de alimentos funcionales y nutracéuticos, para elaboración de productos de la industria farmacéutica y la conservación de alimentos. En la presente revisión se discute la información más relevante publicada en el período 2010-2020 de las principales bases de datos científicas, incluyendo Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, Medline y Scielo, sobre los compuestos fenólicos y las bioactividades reportadas de las frutas tropicales exóticas como acai (Euterpe oleraceae), acerola (Malpighia emarginata), buruti (Mauritia flexuosa) caqui (Diospyros kaki), chicozapote (Manilkara zapota), litchi (Litchi chinensis), maracuyá (Passiflora edulis), noni (Morinda citrifolia) rambután (Nephelium lappaceum), pitaya blanca (Hylocereus undatus), pitaya roja (Hylocereus polyrhizus) y su relación con sus potenciales efectos benéficos en la salud(AU)


Exotic fruits are found in the group of tropical fruits and their perishable nature limits their export to distant markets. In general, their consumption is local; they are underutilized or little valued both at home and industrially; however, its consumption has increased significantly in recent years due to its high nutritional value. These fruits are a source of bioactive compounds such as fiber, vitamin C, carotenoids, phenolic acids and polyphenols, which have been associated with reducing the risks of chronic diseases caused by oxidative stress. These bioactive compounds have been shown to possess various in vitro and in vivo biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, neuroprotective, and among others. Therefore, obtaining functional ingredients from tropical fruits considered exotic is viable and used to develop functional and nutraceutical foods, prepare products for the pharmaceutical industry and food preservation. This review discusses the most relevant information published in the 2010-2020 period from the main scientific databases, including Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, Medline and Scielo, on phenolic compounds and reported bioactivities of exotic tropical fruits such as acai (Euterpe oleraceae), acerola (Malpighia emarginata), persimmon (Diospyros kaki), chicozapote (Manilkara zapota), litchi (Litchi chinensis), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) noni (Morinda citrifolia), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), white pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) and red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and their relationship with their potential beneficial effects on health(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dietary Fiber , Food Composition , Phenolic Compounds , Fruit , Nutritive Value , Food Analysis , Antioxidants
4.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(4): 395-406, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149029

ABSTRACT

Resumen El objetivo del presente trabajo fue el desarrollo de dos enzimoinmunoensayos competitivos (EIC) para la detección de trazas de soja y de leche en productos libres de gluten. Como anticuerpos primarios se utilizaron antisueros policlonales de conejo específicos contra proteínas de soja o de leche. Se determinaron las concentraciones óptimas de antígenos a inmovilizar en la placa y las concentraciones de anticuerpos primarios a utilizar en la competencia. Las curvas de calibración se ajustaron utilizando concentraciones crecientes de un extracto de producto de soja y de un extracto de leche descremada en polvo. El producto de soja y la leche descremada se extrajeron con buffer Tris-HCl 0,0625 M con dodecilsulfato de sodio al 3% y sulfito de sodio 0,1 M al 2%. Se evaluaron los parámetros de validación: linealidad, límites de detección y de cuantificación, recuperación y precisión en el día y entre días, los cuales resultaron adecuados. Se analizaron 9 productos libres de gluten con los EIC desarrollados y con kits de ELISA comerciales. Ambos EIC se comportaron de manera similar con respecto a los kits comerciales. Los EIC permitieron confirmar la presencia de leche en las muestras que la declaraban. En algunas muestras que no declaraban ni leche ni soja, ambos EIC detectaron su presencia (resultados confirmados con los kits comerciales). Los EIC desarrollados poseen menor costo que los kits y, por lo tanto, éstos podrían utilizarse como métodos de screening. Cuando esta metodología resulte negativa, debe confirmarse con un método más sensible (comercial) para garantizar la ausencia de proteínas de soja o de leche.


Abstract The aim of this study was to develop two competitive enzyme immunoassays (CEI) to detect the presence of traces of soy and milk in gluten-free products. Specific rabbit polyclonal antiserums against soy protein and other against elemilk protein were used as primary antibodies. Optimal antigen concentrations to be immobilized on the plate and primary antibody concentrations to be used in competition were determined. The calibration curves were fitted using increasing concentrations of an extract of soy product and of defatted milk powder. The soy product and the defatted milk were extracted with Tris-HCl buffer 0,0625 M with 3% sodium dodecyl sulfate and 2% sodium sulfite 0.1 M. The validation parameters were evaluated: linearity, limit of detection and quantification, recovery and precision on the day and in between days. They were appropriate. Nine commercial samples of gluten-free products were analyzed with these developed CEI and commercial ELISA kits. It was observed that both CEI behaved similarly with respect to the commercial kits. The enzyme immunoassays confirmed the presence of milk in samples that declared it. In some samples that did not declare the presence of milk or soy, both enzyme immunoassays detected their presence -these results were confirmed using commercial kits. The developed CEI have a lower cost than the commercial kits, so these could be used as screening methods. When this methodology is negative, it should be confirmed with a more sensitive (commercial) method to ensure the absence of soy or milk protein.


Resumo O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o desenvolvimento de dois enzimoimunoensaios competitivos (EIC), para a detecção de vestígios de soja e leite em produtos livres de glúten. Antissoros policlonais de coelho específicos contra proteínas de soja ou de leite foram utilizados como anticorpos primários. Foram determinadas as concentrações ótimas de antígenos a serem imobilizados na placa e as concentrações de anticorpos primários a serem utilizadas na competição. As curvas de calibração foram ajustadas usando concentrações crescentes de um extrato de produto de soja e de um extrato de leite em pó desnatado. O produto de soja e o leite desnatado foram extraídos com tampão Tris-HCl 0,0625 M com dodecil sulfato de sódio a 3% e sulfito de sódio 0,1 M a 2%. Os parâmetros de validação foram avaliados: linearidade, limite de detecção e quantificação, recuperação e precisão no dia e entre os dias, os quais resultaram adequados. Nove produtos livres de glúten foram analisados com os EIC desenvolvidos e com kits de ELISA comerciais. Os dois EICs se comportaram de maneira semelhante em relação aos kits comerciais. Os EIC permitiram confirmar a presença de leite nas amostras que o declararam. Em algumas amostras que declaravam nem leite nem soja, ambos os EIC detectaram sua presença (resultados confirmados usando kits comerciais). Os EIC desenvolvidos têm um custo menor que os kits, portanto, eles poderiam ser utilizados como métodos de triagem. Quando esta metodologia é negativa, deve ser confirmada com um método mais sensível (comercial) para garantir a ausência de proteínasda soja ou do leite.


Subject(s)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Soybean Proteins/analysis , Diet, Gluten-Free , Food Analysis/methods , Milk Proteins/analysis , Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/economics , Costs and Cost Analysis , Sodium Sulfite , Food Technology/methods
5.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 484-492, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126148

ABSTRACT

El sistema de porciones de intercambio es una metodología sencilla y rápida que se utiliza para entregar indicaciones alimentarias a usuarios sanos y con patologías. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica para actualizar conceptos y evaluar la vigencia de su uso y sus aplicaciones. El sistema es ampliamente usado en diferentes países, incluyendo Chile, existiendo distintos tipos de listas de alimentos y preparaciones según la metodología de la definición de las porciones, o bien según diversidad y número de alimentos presentes. Su uso es mayormente con fines asistenciales, siendo también útil en educación comunitaria y docencia. En Chile, los listados de porciones intercambiables fueron publicados el año 1999 y no se han actualizado hasta la fecha. Razones como el cambio en el perfil epidemiológico, mayor acceso a la información y la diversificación de alimentos en la dieta, hace necesario una revisión in extenso de los listados nacionales, con el fin de incorporar mayor diversidad de alimentos y preparaciones típicas a tan masiva y necesaria herramienta técnica, que es fundamental para el profesional Nutricionista y un aporte a la salud y a la cultura de los países.


The food portion exchange list is a simple and fast methodology that is used to give dietary indications to healthy and sick users. A review was carried out to update concepts and evaluate the current state of the exchange list used and their application. The system is widely used in different countries, including Chile, there are different types of foods or preparations exchange lists that use different methodologies for the definition of portions, according to the diversity and number of foods present. Its use is mainly for healthcare purposes, being also useful in community education and college teaching. In Chile, the food portion exchange lists were published in 1999 and have not been updated since. Reasons such as the change in the epidemiological profile, greater access to information and the diversification of foods in the diet, make necessary an in-depth review of the national lists, in order to incorporate a greater diversity of foods and typical preparations. Exchange lists are a necessary technical tool fundamental for nutrition professionals and contribute to the health and culture of countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diet , Food/classification , Food Analysis/methods , Menu Planning/methods , Food and Nutrition Education , Chile , Global Health , Patient Education as Topic , Nutritional Requirements
6.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 390-395, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126136

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research was to characterize a fermented yogurt-type milk drink that was elaborated from whey with the addition of aloe vera crystals and granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss). Four formulations for characterization were obtained: F1 (control), F2 (5% aloe vera and 15% granadilla), F3 (10% aloe vera and 10% granadilla) and F4 (15% aloe vera and 5% granadilla). Next, a sensory evaluation through a hedonic test was conducted to choose the formulation with the highest acceptance. After the best formulation was chosen, a bromatological and syneresis characterization was performed. The F4 sample had the best results in the sensory evaluation. Compared to the F1 sample, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in all parameters except in total carbohydrates was observed for the bromatological analysis. In the percentage of syneresis, at the end of the 15 days, F4 presented a lower value in this parameter with respect to the control sample. It could be determined that the higher percentage of aloe vera and the lower percentage of granadilla had a big influence on the parameters evaluated, where it presented the best results compared to the other samples evaluated.


El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar una bebida láctea fermentada tipo yogur que se elaboró a partir de lactosuero con la adición de cristales de aloe vera y granadilla (Passiflora ligularis Juss). Se obtuvieron cuatro formulaciones para la caracterización: F1 (control), F2 (5% de aloe vera y 15% de granadilla), F3 (10% de aloe vera y 10% de granadilla) y F4 (15% de aloe vera y 5% de granadilla). A continuación, se realizó una evaluación sensorial mediante una prueba hedónica para elegir la formulación de mayor aceptación. Una vez elegida la mejor formulación, se realizó una caracterización bromatológica y de sinéresis. La muestra F4 obtuvo los mejores resultados en la evaluación sensorial. En comparación con la muestra F1, se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0,05) en todos los parámetros, excepto en los carbohidratos totales. En el porcentaje de sinéresis, al final de los 15 días, F4 presentó un valor inferior en este parámetro con respecto a la muestra de control. Se pudo determinar que el mayor porcentaje de aloe vera y el menor porcentaje de granadilla influyeron mucho en los parámetros evaluados, en los que presentó los mejores resultados en comparación con las otras muestras evaluadas.


Subject(s)
Passiflora , Milk , Aloe , Food Analysis , Fermented Foods and Beverages , Taste , Whey
7.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 79: 1-8, 31 mar. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1291814

ABSTRACT

A ausência de Boas Práticas de Fabricação durante a colheita, processamento e manuseio da pimenta-do-reino pode acarretar a contaminação do produto com sujidades microscópicas e microrganismos. Foram analisadas 227 amostras de pimenta-do-reino, comercializadas em Minas Gerais, coletadas entre 2008 e 2018, quanto à presença de fragmentos de pelo de roedor e de insetos, coliformes a 45°C ou Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp. Para verificar se havia correlação entre os contaminantes, foi empregado método estatístico de regressão linear múltipla. As análises microscópicas evidenciaram presença de fragmentos de pelo de roedor e de insetos em 26,0% e 30,5% das amostras, respectivamente, em valores superiores ao limite tolerado pela RDC 14/2014. Quanto às análises microbiológicas, 10% das amostras apresentaram coliformes a 45°C ou E. coli acima dos limites tolerados pela RDC 12/2001 e em 8,8% das amostras foi detectada presença de Salmonella spp. A avaliação estatística mostrou que houve correlação entre presença de fragmentos de insetos e de pelos de roedor e a contaminação por Salmonella spp. em pimenta-do-reino. Os resultados demonstraram a importância das análises microscópica e microbiológica simultaneamente para detecção dos contaminantes presentes bem como das possíveis relações existentes entre eles e a melhor compreensão dos fatores que favorecem as contaminações. (AU)


The absence of Good Manufacturing Practices during harvesting, processing and handling of black pepper can lead to contamination of the product with microscopic dirt and microrganisms. Two hundred and twenty seven black pepper samples, commercialized in Minas Gerais, collected between 2008 and 2018, were analyzed for the presence of rodent and insect fragments, coliforms at 45°C or Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. To verify whether there was a correlation between the contaminants, a statistical method of multiple linear regression was used. Microscopic analysis showed the presence of rodent and insect fragments in 26.0% and 30.5% of the samples, respectively, in values above the limit tolerated by RDC14/2014. As for the microbiological analysis, 10% of the samples presented coliforms at 45°C or E.coli above the limits tolerated by the RDC 12/2001 and in 8.8% of the samples Salmonella spp. were detected. The statistical evaluation showed that there was a relationship between the presence of insect fragments and rodent hair and contamination by Salmonella spp. in black pepper. The results demonstrated the importance of simultaneous microscopic and microbiological analysis to detect the contaminants present, as well as the possible relationships between them and better understanding of the factors that favor contamination. (AU)


Subject(s)
Salmonella , Food Quality , Piper nigrum , Food Analysis , Food Microbiology , Rodentia , Correlation of Data
8.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 79: 1-6, 31 mar. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1342784

ABSTRACT

O açúcar de coco vem se tornando popular no Brasil e no mundo devido às alegações nutricionais de ser um adoçante natural e mais saudável em relação a outros açúcares. Sua produção ocorre de forma artesanal a partir da extração da seiva do floema da inflorescência da palmeira. Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar microscopicamente a identidade e a presença de matérias estranhas em amostras de açúcar de coco, bem como verificar sua conformidade em relação às legislações sanitárias brasileiras. Foram analisadas 13 amostras comerciais de açúcar de coco da cidade de São Paulo quanto aos ensaios de pesquisa e identificação de elementos histológicos e pesquisa de matérias estranhas. A identificação de elementos histológicos vegetais revelou a presença de amidos morfologicamente semelhantes ao padrão de Tr iti c um sp. (trigo), Manihot sp. (mandioca) e Oryza sativa (arroz), além de amidos alterados. Também foram encontrados elementos histológicos vegetais compatíveis com padrão de Saccharum officinarum (cana-de-açúcar) e de Cocos nucifera (coco). Todas as amostras analisadas continham matérias estranhas com predomínio de fragmentos de insetos em 100% delas. Os resultados do estudo indicam falhas nas Boas Práticas de produção do açúcar de coco e a necessidade da adequação deste produto em relação às normas vigentes. (AU)


Coconut sugar has become popular in Brazil and worldwide due to the nutritional claims of being a natural and healthier sweetener compared to other sugars. Its production takes places in an artisanal way from the extraction of phloem sap from the inflorescence of the palm. The aim of this work was to microscopically analyze the identity and the presence of foreign matter in samples of coconut sugar, as well as to verify its compliance with Brazilian health legislation. Thirteen commercial samples of coconut sugar from the city of São Paulo were analyzed for the research and identification of histological elements and foreign matter. The identification of vegetable histological elements revealed the presence of starches morphologically similar to the Tr iti c um sp. (wheat), Manihot sp. (cassava) and Oryza sativa (rice) pattern, besides altered starches. Vegetable histological elements compatible with the Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane) and Cocos nucifera (coconut) pattern were also found. All samples analyzed contained foreign matter with predominance of insect fragments in 100% of the samples. The results of the study indicate flaws in the Good Practices for the production of coconut sugar and the need to adapt this product to current standards. (AU)


Subject(s)
Quality Control , Health Surveillance , Brazil , Good Manufacturing Practices , Sugars , Food Safety , Food Analysis , Fraud , Foods Containing Coconut
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1977-1984, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055108

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and ingestive behavior of feedlot steers fed with three maize hybrids: Maximus VIP3, Defender VIP and Feroz VIP. The experiment lasted 112 days, weighing animals four times, every 28 days. The experimental diets were formulated and constituted by maize silage and pelletized ration in a 50:50 ratio (dry basis). Regardless of the hybrid used, there was an increase in the intake of dry matter with the advance in feedlot evaluation period (9.15, 9.14, 9.35 and 9.59kg day-1, in the first, second, third and fourth weighing, respectively). The type of maize hybrid silage influenced weight gain of animals differently, with a final mean of 1.413kg for animals fed with Maximus VIP3, 1,375kg for those fed with Defender VIP and 1,184kg for those fed with Feroz VIP. The animals fed with Feroz VIP hybrid silage showed higher carcass gain efficiency and were more active in the number of times they went to the feeder. Although the three evaluated hybrids resulted in good animal performance, the carcass characteristics did not change; nevertheless, the hybrid Maximus VIP3 is recommended for its superior bromatological composition.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar desempenho, características da carcaça e comportamento ingestivo de novilhos terminados em confinamento alimentados com silagens dos híbridos de milho: Maximus VIP3, Defender VIP e Feroz VIP. O experimento teve duração de 112 dias, sendo quatro pesagens a cada 28 dias. As dietas experimentais foram formuladas e constituídas por silagem de milho e ração peletizada em proporção de 50:50, na base seca. Independentemente do híbrido utilizado, houve aumento conforme avanço na fase de terminação (9,15; 9,14; 9,35 e 9,59kg dia-1, na primeira, segunda, terceira e quarta pesagens, respectivamente). A distinção da silagem de milho determinou diferença no ganho de peso dos animais, com média final de 1,413kg para os animais tratados com Maximus VIP3, 1,375kg para os tratados com Defender VIP e 1,184 para aqueles alimentados com Feroz VIP. Os animais alimentados com silagem do híbrido Feroz VIP apresentaram maior eficiência de ganho de carcaça e foram mais ativos ao número de vezes em ir ao comedouro. Apesar dos três híbridos avaliados proporcionarem bons resultados relacionados ao desempenho animal, as características da carcaça não sofreram alterações; mesmo assim, recomenda-se o híbrido Maximus VIP3 por sua superioridade bromatológica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Silage , Weight Gain , Zea mays , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Food Analysis
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1703-1711, set.-out. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038652

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o valor nutritivo e a força de cisalhamento da cultivar de Urochloa brizantha (syn Brachiaria brizantha) cv Xaraés submetida a três intensidades luminosas e quatro cortes. O experimento foi conduzido na FMVZ - Unesp de Botucatu, com delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, sendo os tratamentos: luminosidade natural, redução de 30% e 60% de luz, com quatro cortes e três repetições. As análises realizadas foram: composição bromatológica, digestibilidade e a força de cisalhamento. Não houve diferença na digestibilidade entre os tratamentos em nenhum dos cortes, mas a qualidade forrageira foi influenciada pelos níveis de intensidade de luz, tendo o tratamento com 60% de redução de luminosidade apresentado maiores concentrações de proteína bruta e cinzas, menores teores de fibra em detergente neutro, hemicelulose, celulose e força de cisalhamento. Em relação aos cortes estudados, o primeiro teve o menor intervalo de corte e produziu forragem com qualidade superior em comparação ao último, pois obteve menor teor de fibra em detergente ácido, lignina, hemicelulose, celulose e consequente menor força de cisalhamento. Portanto, a redução de 60% de luminosidade é benéfica à qualidade e à força de cisalhamento da cultivar Xaraés.(AU)


This study aimed to evaluate the nutritive value and shear strength of the Xaraés grass (Urochloa brizantha) under the three intensities of light and four cuts. The experiment was conducted at FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu, with a randomized block design, with the following treatments: natural luminosity, 30% and 60% light reduction, with four cuts and three replications. The analyzes were bromatological composition, digestibility, and shearing strength. There was no difference in digestibility between the treatments in any of the cuts, forage quality was influenced by the light intensity levels, and the treatment with 60% of light reduction produced higher concentrations of crude protein and ash, lower levels of neutral detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and shear strength. According to the studied cuts, the first one had the lowest cut interval and produced superior forage compared with the last one, as it obtained lower fiber content in acid detergent, lignin, hemicellulose, cellulose and consequent lower shear force. Therefore, the reduction of 60% of luminosity is beneficial to the quality and shear force of the Xaraés palisade grass.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pasture/analysis , Pasture/methods , Food Analysis/methods , Poaceae/growth & development , Poaceae/physiology , Light
11.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 784-795, may./jun. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048656

ABSTRACT

Peanuts (Arachis hipogaea L.) have a great potential for grain production for feed and forage production, being an alternative for producers, as it grows a double product. Grains have excellent quality and contain a greater amount of protein with which to feed the herd. The present study is a cut-off effect study with an application of Stimulate® phytostimulant to determine grain quality and peanut fodder genotype. In the first planting, the peanuts were cultivated under field conditions in a randomized block design in a 4 × 2 × 2 subplot scheme, with four cultivars and two cutting periods, with or without phytostimulant. The cultivars were IAC Tatu ST and Caiana (vertical growth), as well as non-flowering and harvesting seeds. For the second planting, a randomized block design was used with a subplot scheme of 3 × 2 × 2, with three cultivars and 2 cutting periods, with or without phytostimulant. The cultivars were IAC Tatu ST and Caiana (vertical growth) and IAC 503 (prostrate growth). All cultivars contained a high percentage of hay protein in the two plantings. The cultivar IAC 503 was efficient in the production of protein and fiber in the grains in both plantings, demonstrated the potential of protein for animal supplementation, and also presented high grain yield in the summer planting.


A cultura do amendoim (Arachis hipogaea L.) apresenta grande potencial para produção de grão para alimentação e produção de forragem, sendo uma alternativa para os produtores, produzindo a cultura com duplo propósito, grãos de excelente qualidade e significativa quantidade de feno para alimentação do rebanho. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da época de corte com a aplicação do fitoestimulante Stimulate® sobre a qualidade do grão e forragem de genótipo de amendoim. No primeiro plantio o amendoim foi cultivado em condições de campo, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema de subsubparcela de 4x2x2, sendo quatro cultivares, dois períodos de corte, com e sem fitoestimulante. As cultivares foramcompostas de IAC Tatu ST e Caiana (crescimento vertical), IAC 886 e IAC 503 (crescimento prostrado) e as épocas de corte foram no florescimento e na colheita. Para o segundo plantio foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema de subsubparcela de 3x2x2 sendo três cultivares com e sem fitoestimulante e dois períodos de corte. As cultivares foram IAC Tatu ST e Caiana (crescimento vertical) e IAC 503 (crescimento prostrado). Todas as cultivares que receberam corte apresentaram alto percentual de proteína do feno nos dois plantios. A cultivar IAC 503, mostrou-se eficiente na produção de proteína e fibra nos grãos nos dois plantios, demonstraram potencial com fonte de proteína para suplementação animal, além de apresentar alta produtividade de grãos no plantio de verão.


Subject(s)
Arachis , Proteins , Edible Grain , Dietary Fiber , Food Analysis
12.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(2): 89-98, jun. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1053035

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to determine and compare the chemical and microbiological properties of yoghurts made from different types of milk and their mixtures (35%, 65%, and 100%) during their storage at 4 °C for 28 days. For this purpose, chemical and microbiological properties of yoghurts during storage at 4 °C for 28 days were investigated. The total amount of dry matter, fat, pH and protein of yoghurt made from the buffalo and cow milk mixtures was significantly higher than that of pure buffalo milk (P<0.01). Also, storage time has led to significant differences in these components. Considering the results of microbiological analysis, a significant (P<0.01) difference was found between yoghurt samples in terms of total count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, lactobacilli, lactococcus and yeast and mould. Hence, it is concluded that the addition of buffalo milk to that of cow improves the composition of yoghurt made from cow milk, which indicated the possibilities of processing and marketing of both types of milk especially because the health benefits of cow milk and the fermented products are well documented(AU)


El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar y comparar las propiedades químicas y microbiológicas de los yogures hechos con diferentes tipos de leche y sus mezclas (35%, 65% y 100%) durante su almacenamiento a 4° C por 28 días. La cantidad total de materia seca, grasa, pH y proteínas del yogur hecho con las mezclas de leche de búfala y vaca fue significativamente mayor que la de la leche de búfala pura (P <0.01). Además, el tiempo de almacenamiento generó diferencias significativas en estos componentes. De acuerdo con los resultados del análisis microbiológico, se encontró una diferencia significativa (P<0.01) entre las muestras de yogur en términos de bacterias mesófilas aerobias totales, lactobacilos, lactococcus y recuentos totales de levadura y mohos. Por lo tanto, se concluye que la adición de leche de búfala a la de vaca mejora la composición del yogur hecho de leche de vaca, lo que indica las posibilidades de procesamiento y comercialización de ambos tipos de leche, especialmente porque los beneficios para la salud de la leche de vaca y de los productos fermentados están bien documentados(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Yogurt/analysis , Lactic Acid/analysis , Milk/chemistry , Breast-Milk Substitutes , Nutritive Value , Buffaloes , Chemical Phenomena , Food Analysis
13.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(1): 34-41, mar. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1022501

ABSTRACT

La alteración de los lípidos en sangre o dislipidemias sobre todo el colesterol y triglicéridos, son un factor de riesgo de ateroesclerosis y enfermedades cardiovasculares. En este trabajo se analizó el efecto del consumo de huevo, clara, yema de huevo, mantequilla y maní sobre el perfil lipídico de ratones sanos. Se utilizaron seis grupos de ratones hembras sanas, el grupo control (GC) recibió balanceado comercial, mientras que en los demás grupos, 15% de su alimentación diaria consistió en huevo entero (GHE), yema (GY), clara de huevo (GCH), manteca o mantequilla (GMT) o maní (GMN), durante 28 días. Al final de este periodo, se obtuvo la muestra de suero para la determinación de los niveles de colesterol total (CT), triglicéridos (TG), colesterol HDL, colesterol LDL y colesterol VLDL, y se calcularon los índices de riesgo aterogénico y de riesgo cardiaco. Se observó un aumento estadísticamente significativo en los niveles de CT y LDL en relación al GC en los grupos GHE (p<0,0001), GY (p<0,0001), GCH (p<0,005) y GMT (p<0,001), mientras que en niveles de TG presentan un aumento los grupos GHE (p<0,0001) y GY (p<0,0001). El nivel de HDL aumentó significativamente en los grupos GHE (p<0,005) y GMT (p<0,001), y en cuanto al índice de riesgo cardiaco y aterogénico el grupo GY fue el único que reveló aumento significativo (p<0,0001). En el grupo que recibió maní (GMN), no se alteraron los niveles de lípidos, y por lo tanto tampoco el riesgo cardiaco ni aterogénico, lo que se traduce en un menor riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares de este grupo(AU)


The alteration of blood lipids or dyslipidemias, especially cholesterol and triglycerides, are a risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. In this work, the effect of consumption of egg, egg white, egg yolk, butter and peanut on the lipid profile of healthy mice was analyzed. Six groups of healthy female mice were used, the control group (GC) received commercial pellets, while for the other groups, 15% of their daily food consisted of whole egg (GHE), egg yolk (GY), egg white (GCH) ), butter (GMT) or peanut (GMN), for 28 days. At the end of this period, a serum sample was obtained for the determination of the levels of total cholesterol (CT), triglycerides (TG), HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and VLDL cholesterol, and cardiac and atherogenic risk index were calculated. A statistically significant increase in TC and LDL levels was observed in relation to GC in the GHE (p <0,0001), GY (p <0,0001), GCH (p <0,005) and GMT (p <0,001) groups; whereas TG levels showed an increase in the GHE (p <0,0001) and GY (p <0,0001) groups. The HDL level increased significantly in the groups GHE (p <0,005) and GMT (p <0,001), and in terms of the cardiac and atherogenic risk index, the GY group was the only group that revealed a significant increase (p <0,0001). In the group that received peanuts (GMN), the lipid levels were not altered, and therefore neither the cardiac nor the atherogenic risk, which indicates the risk of cardiovascular diseases in this group, were affected(AU)


Subject(s)
Rats , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Dyslipidemias/complications , Lipids/analysis , Cholesterol, HDL , Food Analysis , Nutritive Value
14.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(1): 42-49, mar. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1022517

ABSTRACT

La presencia de gluten en alimentos etiquetados como libres de gluten (LG) representa una preocupación para la salud de pacientes celíacos, y personas intolerantes y sensibles a este conjunto de proteínas. Sin embargo, esto no ha sido estudiado aún en países centroamericanos. Por tanto, se investigó la presencia de gluten en alimentos etiquetados LG, manufacturados en Costa Rica y disponibles en el mercado entre los años 2016 y 2017 para determinar así el cumplimiento de las regulaciones nacionales e internacionales. Se ha estipulado que dichos alimentos deben contener <20 ppm de gluten. Un total de 173 productos fueron analizados por inmunoensayo (tres muestras por producto; cada una de un lote diferente) utilizando el kit ELISA RIDASCREEN®. 60 marcas de productos, de 32 compañías diferentes, fueron evaluadas identificando 15 categorías de alimentos LG: productos horneados, premezclas y harinas, snacks, granos y cereales, salsas, productos cárnicos, productos de origen marino, bebidas, productos lácteos, pastas, chocolates, aceites, tortillas y arepas, jaleas y mermeladas y otros. Una muestra de uno de los productos analizados presentó >20 ppm de gluten. No obstante, al menos una muestra de 49 productos diferentes (28% de los productos analizados) presentó una concentración cuantificable de gluten (>5 ppm) evidenciando una alta variabilidad en los resultados. Esta investigación evidencia el fuerte compromiso de la industria alimentaria costarricense para cumplir la norma que regula la producción de alimentos LG durante el período de estudio, aunque se alerta acerca de la necesidad de implementar mejoras en los sistemas de producción y vigilancia de estos alimentos(AU)


The presence of gluten in gluten free (GF) labelled foods represents a serious health concern to celiac patients and persons intolerant or sensitive to this set of proteins. However, this has not yet been studied in Central American countries. Therefore, the presence of gluten in foods labeled LG, manufactured in Costa Rica and available in the market, between 2016 and 2017, was investigated to determine compliance with national and international regulations. It has been stipulated that such foods must contain <20 ppm of gluten. A total of 173 products were analyzed by immunoassay (three samples per product; each from an independent batch), using the ELISA RIDASCREEN® kit. 60 product brands, from 32 different companies, were evaluated and 15 GF food categories were identified: baked products, baking mixes and flours, snacks, grains and cereals, sauces, meat products, seafood, beverages, dairy products, pasta, chocolates, oils, tortillas and arepas, jams and jellies, and others. Only one sample from one of the tested products presented >20 ppm of gluten. However, at least one sample of 49 different products (28% of products tested) presented a quantifiable concentration of gluten (>5 ppm), showing a high variability of results. This research evidences the strong commitment of the Costa Rican food industry to comply with the norm that regulates the production of LG foods during the study period, even though it warns about the need to implement improvements in the production and surveillance systems of these foods(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Autoimmune Diseases , Celiac Disease/complications , Diet, Gluten-Free , Food Labeling , Food Industry , Nutritional Sciences , Food Analysis
15.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 12(1): 19-27, jan.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-995668

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar o consumo de energia, macronutrientes e micronutrientes calculado a partir de duas tabelas de composição dos alimentos: Tabela Brasileira de Composição de Alimentos (TACO) mais informações de rótulos de alimentos e United States Department of Agriculture Food Composition Databases (USDA). Trata-se de estudo transversal, com dados do consumo alimentar de participantes do estudo principal "Modificação do Estilo de Vida e Risco Cardiovascular". Os dados foram analisados por meio dos Testes de Kruskal Wallis, Post Hoc de Dunn, e Correlação de Pearson. Foram avaliados 59 Recordatórios de 24 horas e as medianas de 21 entre 29 nutrientes (72,4%) apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significativa (p<0,05) na comparação entre os resultados obtidos das tabelas avaliadas. Foram encontradas divergências significativas entre os valores nutricionais apresentados nas tabelas. Este fato alerta para o uso destes instrumentos e a sua influência nos resultados do cálculo do consumo alimentar e impacto na prescrição nutricional


Energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intakes are compared by two food composition lists: Brazilian Food Composition List and nutrition facts and the United States Department of Agriculture Food Composition Databases (USDA). Current transversal study comprised data on food intake of participants within the main research theme 'Changes in Life Style and Cardiovascular Risks'. Data were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis and Post-Hoc Dunn tests and by Pearson´s Co-relation test. Fifty-nine 24-h records were evaluated. Medians of 21 out of 29 nutrients (72.4%) showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05) when compared to results from evaluated tables. There was significant divergence between the nutrition rates in the lists. The above is a warning on the use of these tools and their influence on results in calculating food intake and impact in nutritional prescriptions


Subject(s)
Table of Food Composition , Eating , Food , Food Analysis , Statistical Analysis
16.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(1): 63-71, ene.-feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043359

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To describe the development of a reliable and valid measure of attitudes toward, and use and comprehension of nutritional labels in Spanish speaking countries. Materials and methods: The dimensions encompassed in this instrument are attitudes, comprehension and use, combining self-reports and objective measures of nutrition knowledge. Content validity, item analysis, repeat and internal reliability, and convergent and divergent validity were assessed in a pooled sample of 185 individuals. Results: Cronbach alpha coefficients (above 0.9) exhibit internal consistency. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the scale show good properties for convergent and divergent validity. Conclusion: The final 25-item scale is a valid and reliable measure of use, comprehension and attitude towards nutrition labels for Spanish speaking populations.


Resumen: Objetivo: Describir el desarrollo de una medida confiable y válida de las actitudes, uso y comprensión de etiquetas nutricionales en poblaciones de habla hispana. Material y métodos: Las dimensiones abarcadas en este instrumento son las actitudes, la comprensión y el uso, combinando medidas subjetivas y objetivas acerca del conocimiento sobre nutrición. Se evaluó la validez del contenido, el análisis de los ítems, la repetición y confiabilidad interna y la validez convergente y divergente en una muestra de 185 individuos. Resultados: Los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach (mayores a 0.9) presentan consistencia interna, mientras que el factor de análisis confirmatorio y exploratorio muestra que la escala tiene validez convergente y divergente. Conclusiones: El instrumento final de 25 ítems es una medida válida y confiable de uso, comprensión y actitud hacia las etiquetas nutricionales diseñada para las poblaciones de habla hispana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Health Literacy , Food Labeling , Choice Behavior , Reproducibility of Results , Comprehension , Feeding Behavior , Self Report , Food Analysis , Language , Mexico , Nutritive Value
17.
Santa Tecla, La Libertad; ITCA Editores; ene. 2019. 86 p. ^c28 cm.ilus., tab..
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1222867

ABSTRACT

En esta investigación se presentan alternativas viables para utilizar restos de vegetales generados en restaurantes como materia prima para la elaboración de productos alimenticios. Para lograrlo, se caracterizaron todos los desechos orgánicos de la Cafetería Escuela de ITCA FEPADE, resultando más prometedores los provenientes de las cáscaras de plátano, guineo y restos de repollo. En ese sentido, se comenzó a separar desde el origen dichos restos, y fueron sometidos a diversos procesos de transformación (lavados, desinfección, secado) hasta obtener polvos, a los cuales se les practicaron diversos análisis físico químicos y microbiológicos.


In this research, viable alternatives are presented to use vegetable remains generated in restaurants as raw material for the production of food products. To achieve this, all organic waste from the Cafetería-Escuela ITCA FEPADE was characterized, the most promising was those from banana peels and cabbage remains. In this sense, said remains began to be separated from the origin, and they were subjected to various transformation processes (washing, disinfection, drying) until obtaining powders, to which various physical-chemical and microbiological analyzes were performed.


Subject(s)
Vegetables , Food , Food Analysis/methods , Garbage , Food Industry , Food Wastefulness
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Over the past few decades, the Japanese Ministry of the Environment has been biomonitoring dioxins in the general Japanese population and, in response to public concerns, has taken measures to reduce dioxin exposure. The objectives of this study were to assess the current dioxin dietary intake and corresponding body burden in the Japanese and compare Japanese dioxin data from 2011 to 2016 and 2002-2010 surveys. We also examined the relationship between blood dioxins and health parameters/clinical biomarkers.@*METHODS@#From 2011 to 2016, cross-sectional dioxin surveys were conducted on 490 Japanese (242 males and 248 females, aged 49.9 ± 7.6 years) from 15 Japanese prefectures. Blood (n = 490) and food samples (n = 90) were measured for 29 dioxin congeners including polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) using gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Using the 2006 World Health Organization toxic equivalence factors, the toxic equivalents (TEQs) were calculated. Clinical biomarkers and anthropometric parameters were also measured and information on lifestyle behaviours collected. Data imputations were applied to account for blood dioxins below the detection limit.@*RESULTS@#The median (95% confidence interval or CI) blood levels and dioxin dietary intake was respectively 9.4 (8.8-9.9) pg TEQ/g lipid and 0.3 (0.2-0.4) pg TEQ/kg body weight/day. The median blood dioxin level in the 2011-2016 survey was found to have decreased by 41.3% compared to the 2002-2010 surveys. Participants who were older were found to be more likely to have higher dioxin levels. Blood dioxins were also significantly associated with body mass index, triglycerides, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid levels in blood. Furthermore, associations between blood dioxin and dietary dioxin intake were evident in the unadjusted models. However, after adjusting for confounders, blood dioxins were not found to be associated with dietary dioxin intake.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Blood dioxin levels declined over the past decade. This study showed that the measures and actions undertaken in Japan have possibly contributed to these reductions in the body burden of dioxins in the Japanese population.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Analysis of Variance , Biomarkers , Blood , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Dioxins , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Monitoring , Methods , Female , Food , Food Analysis , Food Contamination , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
19.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(12): e00177418, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055594

ABSTRACT

Visual representations of food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) express diverse dietary and sociocultural norms, especially as they relate to healthy eating habits. This article investigates government recommendations for healthy eating habits expressed in the visual representation of Latin American FBDGs. Drawing on 15 images published between 1991 and 2017, we conducted an anthropological visual analysis guided by the methodology proposed by James Collier and Malcolm Collier: unstructured analyses, open viewing analyses, structured analyses and microanalyses. Here, we explore government recommendations based on visual representation shapes, food classification systems, lifestyle recommendations and embedded sociocultural elements. Our main findings relate to how dietary and sociocultural norms are used to promote eating practices considered healthy. Dietary norms focus on variety, proportionality, and moderation, as expressed in terms of food classification and food standards considered healthy. Sociocultural norms are referenced by the use of cultural symbols as strategies to promote traditional foods, cooking practices, commensality, water consumption and physical activity. Ultimately, we argue that FBDG visual representations contain embedded messages that counsel individuals to plan, buy, prepare and consume food with family; to consume foods considered healthy; to pay full attention to their meals, without distractions, such as television and cell phones; and to celebrate traditional, local and/or native foods and culinary preparations.


As representações visuais dos guias alimentares baseados em alimentos (GABAs) expressam normas dietéticas e socioculturais relacionadas aos hábitos alimentares saudáveis. Este artigo investiga as recomendações governamentais de hábitos alimentares saudáveis expressos nas representações visuais de GABAs latino-americanos. Estudamos 15 imagens publicadas entre 1991 e 2017. Realizamos uma análise visual antropológica guiada pela metodologia proposta por James Collier e Malcolm Collier: análise aberta e não estruturada; análise estruturada; e microanálise. Exploramos as recomendações governamentais a partir das formas das representações visuais, sistema de classificação de alimentos, recomendações de estilo de vida e elementos socioculturais. Nossos principais resultados estão relacionados as normas dietéticas e socioculturais usadas para promover hábitos alimentares considerados saudáveis. As normas dietéticas se concentram na variedade, proporcionalidade e moderação expressos nos conceitos de grupos e padrões alimentares saudáveis. As normas socioculturais estão relacionadas ao uso de símbolos culturais como estratégias para promover alimentos tradicionais, prática culinária doméstica, comensalidade, consumo de água e atividade física. Concluímos que as representações visuais dos GABAs contribuem com mensagens que aconselham os indivíduos a planejar, comprar, preparar e consumir alimentos com a família; aderir a padrões alimentares considerados saudáveis; realizar refeições com total atenção e sem distração de televisão e celulares; e celebrar comidas ou preparações culinárias tradicionais, locais e/ou nativas.


Las representaciones visuales de las guías alimentarias basadas en alimentos (GABAs) expresan normas dietéticas y socioculturales, relacionadas con hábitos alimentarios saludables. Este artículo investiga las recomendaciones gubernamentales de hábitos alimentarios saludables, expresadas en representaciones visuales de GABAs latinoamericanas. Estudiamos 15 imágenes publicadas entre 1991 y 2017. Realizamos un análisis visual antropológico, guiado por la metodología propuesta por James Collier y Malcolm Collier: análisis abierto y no estructurado; análisis estructurado; y microanálisis. Investigamos las recomendaciones gubernamentales a partir de las formas de representaciones visuales, sistema de clasificación de alimentos, recomendaciones de estilo de vida y elementos socioculturales. Nuestros principales resultados están relacionados con las normas dietéticas y socioculturales usadas para promover hábitos alimentarios considerados saludables. Las normas dietéticas se concentran en: variedad, proporcionalidad y moderación, expresadas en conceptos de grupos y patrones alimentarios saludables. Las normas socioculturales están relacionadas con el uso de símbolos culturales como: estrategias para promover alimentos tradicionales, práctica culinaria doméstica, comensalidad, consumo de agua y actividad física. Concluimos que las representaciones visuales de las GABAs aportan mensajes que aconsejan a los individuos planear, comprar, preparar y consumir alimentos con la familia; adherirse a patrones alimentarios considerados saludables; realizar comidas con total atención y sin distracción de televisión y celulares; y celebrar comidas o platos culinarios tradicionales, locales y/o autóctonos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Visual Perception , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Diet, Healthy/methods , Health Promotion/methods , Nutrition Policy , Qualitative Research , Food Analysis , Diet, Healthy/standards , Government , Latin America
20.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180420, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055394

ABSTRACT

Abstract Brazil has high diversity of native fruits with high nutritional and biochemical value. Bactris setosa Mart. (tucum-do-Pantanal) stands out by its oil-rich almond. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics of tucum-do-Pantanal almond and its by-products: press cake and crude oil. The almond of tucum-do-Pantanal had total weight of 0.81g, lager diameter 10.87mm, small diameter 8.21mm, height 12.50, weight of almond 0.38g, weight of endocarp 0.25g. In relation to the chemical analysis, the cake had higher ash, protein and carbohydrate contents than the almond. On the other hand, the content of moisture, lipids and calories were higher in the almond. The press cake showed 636.80 g kg-1 of total fiber. The fatty acids that predominated in tucum-do-Pantanal oil were lauric (58.48), myristic (12.59) and oleic (10.15%) acids. The oil of tucum-do-Pantanal had an acid index of 3.01 KOH / g, peroxide index of 4.84 meq / kg, saponification index of 140.91 mg KOH / oil g, iodine index of 3.72 gI2 / 100 g, refractive index of 1.46, density of 0.92 g / mL, water content of 493.11 ppm and oxidation stability of 32.01 h. The results suggest that tucum-do-Pantanal almond as an important source of oil, calories and fibers, with potential use in the food industry.


Subject(s)
Arecaceae/chemistry , Fatty Acids/analysis , Brazil , Food Analysis/instrumentation
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL