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1.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(2, cont.): e2411, jul-dez. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1352319

ABSTRACT

Salmonellosis is the world's most common foodborne illness. In Brazil, foods contaminated by salmonella lead the statistics. Therefore, the aim of this study is, through biotechnological knowledge, to compile alternative and innovative techniques for the detection of salmonella in foods, such as fish-farming derivatives, immunological and biosensorial techniques. This is a descriptive exploratory data survey of a qualitative nature, aiming at data analysis. Research and data collection were carried out in bibliographic databases: Academic Google, Scielo, CAPES journals and institutional repositories using specific descriptors - in Portuguese and English, with words and terms separated by the Boolean operators 'AND' and 'OR'. Some innovative and alternative methods are available to identify the presence of salmonella in food. Immunological and biosensory techniques, despite being less frequent in the scientific literature than molecular methods, are techniques that present high specificity and sensitivity. These techniques have been the most developed alternative methods in fish in recent years. And, they can employ both molecular and immunological techniques in biorecognition, which is characterized as an advantage of not having a requirement for pre-enrichment of the sample. According to the literature found, the techniques covered in this study are quick to respond, which speeds up decision-making by researchers and technicians, which makes the techniques very promising for industrial application.(AU)


A salmonelose é uma enfermidade de maior ocorrência no mundo veiculada por alimentos. No Brasil, alimentos contaminados por salmonelas lideram as estatísticas. Por isso, o objetivo desse estudo é através dos conhecimentos biotecnológicos compilar técnicas alternativas e inovadoras para a detecção de salmonelas em alimentos, como os derivados da piscicultura, as técnicas imunológicas e biossensoriais. Trata-se de um estudo de levantamento de dados descritivo exploratório de de caráter qualitativo, visando à análise dos dados. As pesquisas e coletas de dados foram realizadas nas bases bibliográficas: Google Acadêmico, Scielo, periódicos da CAPES e repositórios institucionais utilizando os descritores específicos - nos idiomas português e inglês, com palavras e termos separados pelos operadores booleanos 'AND' e 'OR'. São disponibilizados alguns métodos inovadores e alternativos para identificação da presença de salmonelas em alimentos. As técnicas imunológicas e biossensoriais, apesar de serem menos frequentes na literatura científica do que os métodos moleculares são técnicas que apresentaram elevada especificidade e sensibilidade. Essas técnicas têm sido os métodos alternativos mais desenvolvidos em peixes nos últimos anos. E, podem empregar tanto técnicas moleculares como imunológicas no biorreconhecimento, o que se caracteriza como vantagem de não haver requerimento de pré-enriquecimento da amostra. Conforme a literatura encontrada, as técnicas abordadas por esse estudo apresentam rapidez de resposta o que agiliza as tomadas de decisões dos pesquisadores e técnicos, o que torna as técnicas bastante promissora para aplicação industrial.(AU)


La salmonelosis es la enfermedad transmitida por alimentos más común del mundo. En Brasil, los alimentos contaminados por salmonelas lideran las estadísticas. Por tanto, el objetivo de ese estudio fue a través de conocimientos biotecnológicos recopilar técnicas alternativas e innovadoras para la detección de salmonelas en los alimentos, como los derivados de la piscicultura, las técnicas inmunológicas y biosensoriales. Se trata de una encuesta de datos exploratorio descriptivo de carácter cualitativo, cuyo objetivo es el análisis de datos. Las investigaciones y recopilaciones de datos se realizaron en bases de datos bibliográficas: Google Académico, Scielo, revistas CAPES y repositorios institucionales utilizando descriptores específicos, en portugués e inglés, con palabras y términos separados por los operadores booleanos 'AND' y 'OR'. Se encuentran disponibles algunos métodos innovadores y alternativos para identificar la presencia de salmonela en los alimentos. Las técnicas inmunológicas y biosensoriales, a pesar de ser menos frecuentes en la literatura científica que los métodos moleculares, son técnicas de alta especificidad y sensibilidad. Esas técnicas han sido los métodos alternativos más desarrollados en peces en los últimos años. Y pueden emplear técnicas tanto moleculares como inmunológicas en el biorreconocimiento, que se caracteriza por la ventaja de no tener un requisito de preenriquecimiento de la muestra. Según la literatura encontrada, las técnicas abordadas en este estudio son de rápida respuesta, lo que agiliza la toma de decisiones por parte de investigadores y técnicos, lo que hace que las técnicas sean muy prometedoras para la aplicación industrial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella , Salmonella Infections , Immunologic Techniques , Sensitivity and Specificity , Fisheries , Food Microbiology , Data Analysis
2.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 28(2): 117-123, abr./jun. 2021. il.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1367942

ABSTRACT

The Mercosur Technical Regulation for honey determines microbiological parameters for total coliforms and molds and/ yeasts, and absence of physical contaminants, of any nature. The purpose of this study was to verify the biological and physical contamin of Apis mellifera ligustica and Melipona fasciculata, commercialized in the northeastern region of the State of Pará, Brazil. The fourteen samples from informal trade of the municipalities of Bragança, Capanema, Nova Timboteua, São João de Pirabas, Salinas and Tracauateua were analyzed for the Most Probable Number of colifroms at 35ºC, Fungus and Yeast counts, besides the detection of dirt by Macro and Microscopy techniques. The results obtained from the microbiological analyzes were compared to the standard required by MERCOSUR, for coliforms. 57.14% of the samples were non-standard and ranged from <3.0 NMP/g to 20 NMP/g. The molds and/ yeast counts ranged from 1x10¹ CFU/g to 8.6x10² CFU/g, with atotal of 21.42% of the samples being in disagreement with the legislation. From the macroscopic analysis, it was observed that, although 50% of the samples did not present any apparent dirt, microscopically it was possible to observe dirt in 100% of the samples of honey analyzed, which is out of the standard required by the Brazilian legislation. This shows the low sanitary quality of honey commercialized in this region of the state of Pará.


O Regulamento Técnico do Mercosul para mel, determina parâmetros microbiológicos para coliformes totais e fungos e/leveduras, e ausência de contaminantes físicos, de qualquer natureza. A proposta do presente estudo foi verificar a contaminação biológica e física em méis de abelha das espécies Apis mellifera ligustica e Melipona fasciculata, comercializados na região Nordeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil. As amostras provenientes do comercio informal dos de municípios de, Bragança, Capanema, Nova Timboteua, São João de Pirabas, Salinas e Tracauateua, foram analisadas quanto a determinação do Número Mais Provável de coliformes a 35ºC, Contagem de Fungos e/leveduras, além da detecção de sujidades pelas técnicas de Macro e Microscopia. Os resultados obtidos a partir das análises microbiológicas foram comparadas ao padrão exigido pelo MERCOSUL, para coliformes, 57,14% das amostras encontravam-se fora do padrão variaram de <3,0 NMP/g a 20NMP/g. Já a contagem de fungos e/leveduras variou de 1x10¹ UFC/g a 8,6x10² UFC/g, no total de 21,42 % das amostras apresentaram-se em desacordo com a legislação. A partir da análise macroscópica observou-se que, embora 50% das amostras não apresentassem sujidades aparentes, porém microscopicamente foi possível observar a presença sujidades em 100% das amostras de méis analisadas encontrando-se fora do padrão exigido pela legislação Brasileira. Demostrando a baixa qualidade sanitária do mel comercializado nessa região do estado do Pará.


Subject(s)
Food Analysis/methods , Food Microbiology , Honey/analysis , Food Contamination/analysis , Physical Contaminants/analysis , Coliforms , Fungi
3.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 44(2): 177-188, 20200813.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366120

ABSTRACT

Listeria monocytogenes é um patógeno de origem alimentar que frequentemente causa infecções, podendo até ser fatal. Trata-se de um microrganismo ubiquitário, transmitido ao ser humano principalmente por meio dos alimentos, como os produtos prontos para o consumo. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os índices de positividade para L. monocytogenes em queijos e produtos cárneos à base de frango, analisados em um laboratório de microbiologia de alimentos do Rio Grande do Sul. A triagem inicial das amostras seguiu o protocolo AOAC, método n° 2004.02, 2004. A confirmação dos resultados positivos foi realizada conforme Instrução Normativa nº 62/2003 (Mapa) e ISO 11290-1:1996, Amd.1:2004. Foram analisadas 666 amostras de queijos de baixa umidade, 3.897 de média umidade e 826 de alta umidade. Dos produtos à base de frango foram analisadas 547 amostras de salsicha, 172 de mortadela e 24 de linguiça. O estudo verificou que os queijos de baixa umidade estão significativamente associados ao resultado positivo (p=0,002) para L. monocytogenes e os queijos de alta umidade associaram-se ao resultado negativo (p=0,002). Com relação aos produtos à base de frango, a salsicha esteve significativamente associada ao resultado negativo para L. monocytogenes (p≤0,01), e a mortadela significativamente associada ao resultado positivo (p≤0,01). Visto que de modo geral esses produtos são consumidos diretamente, sem o emprego de calor, sugere-se reforçar tanto o controle sobre as boas práticas de fabricação quanto o monitoramento dos produtos.


Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that often causes infections and may even be fatal. It is an ubiquitous microorganism, transmitted to humans mainly through food such as ready-to-eat products. This study sought to verify the positivity indexes for L. monocytogenes in cheese and chicken meat products, analyzed in a food microbiology laboratory in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The initial sample screening followed the AOAC protocol, Method No. 2004.02, 2004. Confirmation of positive results was performed according to Normative Instruction 62/2003 (MAPA) and ISO 11290-1: 1996, Amd.1: 2004. A total of 666 low moisture, 3897 medium moisture and 826 high moisture cheese samples were analyzed. Of the chicken meat products, 547 wiener, 172 mortadella and 24 sausage samples were analyzed. Results showed that low moisture cheeses were significantly associated with a positive result (p=0.002) for L. monocytogenes, while high moisture cheeses were associated with a negative result (p= 0.002). As for chicken meat products, the wiener was significantly associated with the negative result for L. monocytogenes (p≤0.01) and the mortadella significantly associated with the positive result (p≤0.01). Since most of these products are consumed directly, without the use of heat, it is suggested to reinforce both the control over Good Manufacturing Practices and the monitoring of the products.


Listeria monocytogenes es un patógeno de origen alimentario causante muchas veces de infecciones, incluso fatales. Es un microorganismo ubiquitario, que se transmite al hombre principalmente a través de los alimentos, generalmente por productos listos para el consumo. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar los índices de positividad para L. monocytogenes en quesos y productos cárnicos a base de pollo, analizados en un laboratorio de microbiología de alimentos de Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil). El tamizaje inicial de las muestras siguió el protocolo AOAC, método 2004.02, 2004. La confirmación de los resultados positivos fue realizada conforme a la Instrucción Normativa 62/2003 (Mapa) e ISO 11290-1:1996, Amd.1:2004. Se analizaron 666 muestras de quesos de baja humedad, 3.897 de media humedad y 826 de alta humedad. De los productos a base de pollo se analizaron 547 muestras de salchichas, 172 de mortadela y 24 de chorizos. Este estudio verificó que los quesos de baja humedad fueron significativamente asociados al resultado positivo (p=0,002) para L. monocytogenes, y los quesos de alta humedad al resultado negativo (p=0,002). En cuanto a los productos a base de pollo, las salchichas estuvieron significativamente asociadas al resultado negativo para L. monocytogenes (p≤0,01), y la mortadela fue significativamente asociada al resultado positivo (p≤0,01). Dado que la mayoría de estos productos son consumidos directamente, sin cocción, se sugiere un mayor control de las buenas prácticas de fabricación y de monitoreo de los mismos.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Monitoring , Dairy Products , Good Manufacturing Practices , Food Microbiology , Listeria monocytogenes
4.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 190-199, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115488

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to develop and assess the physicochemical, sensory parameters, and shelf life estimation of multicomponent snack bars based on tapioca flour, Brazil nut, and açaí or cupuassu pulp. The physicochemical composition of açaí- and cupuassu-flavored snack bars had, respectively, 0.92 and 0.99% ash, 19.22 and 17.02% lipids, 3.02 and 3.03% protein, 1.06 and 1.69% fiber, and 448 and 436 kcal/100 g energy value. The shear stress test showed the consumer needs to bite more strongly to break the açaí-flavored bar. The opposite was observed in the hardness test, in which the bite compression force during mastication was greater for the cupuassu-flavored bar. The bars had water activity below 0.6, which denotes microbiological stability. The sensory analysis ranked the bars between "liked slightly" and "liked very much," which was confirmed by the acceptability index above 75% for all attributes assessed. According to the results a significant increase in water activity over storage was observed suggest the packaging used in the tests did not present a satisfactory barrier to water vapor permeability. Only water activity was used to estimate shelf life, which was determined as 58 days and 49 days for the açaí- and cupuassu-flavored bars, respectively. Thus, the snack bars represent an alternative for athletes as well as individuals with celiac disease since they are gluten free.


RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar y evaluar los parámetros físicos, físico-químicos, microbiológicos, sensoriales y la vida útil en estante de barras a base de harina de tapioca, castaña de Brasil y pulpa de açaí o cupuaçu. En cuanto a la composición físico-química, las barras multicomponentes sabor açaí y cupuaçu presentaron, respectivamente, 0,92 y 0,99% de cenizas, 19,22 y 17,02% de lípidos, 3,02 y 3,03% proteínas, 1,06 y 1,69% de fibras y 448 y 436 kcal/100g de valor energético. La prueba de cizallamiento y dureza mostraron que el consumidor necesita una fuerza de mordida mayor para romper la barra sabor açaí. El comportamiento contrario fue observado en la prueba de dureza donde la fuerza de compresión de la mordida, durante la masticación, fue mayor en la barra sabor cupuaçu. Para el análisis sensorial se observó que las barras evaluadas recibieron notas situadas entre las categorías "me gustó ligeramente" y "me gustó mucho", resultado comprobado por el índice de aceptabilidad con valores superiores al 75% para todos los atributos evaluados. De acuerdo con los resultados, se observó un aumento significativo en la actividad de agua durante el almacenamiento, lo que sugiere que el embalaje utilizado en las pruebas no presentó una barrera satisfactoria para la permeabilidad al vapor de agua. Para la estimación de vida de estante sólo la actividad de agua fue utilizada para los cálculos, siendo el tiempo de vida de estante determinado en 58 días para la barra sabor açaí y 49 días para la barra sabor cupuaçu. Así, las barras multicomponentes elaboradas representam una alternativa para atletas, así como para portadores de la enfermedad celíaca, visto la ausencia de gluten en su composición.


Subject(s)
Malvaceae , Bertholletia , Snacks , Euterpe , Flour , Taste , Brazil , Analysis of Variance , Food Microbiology , Food Preservation
5.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 79: 1-8, 31 mar. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1291814

ABSTRACT

A ausência de Boas Práticas de Fabricação durante a colheita, processamento e manuseio da pimenta-do-reino pode acarretar a contaminação do produto com sujidades microscópicas e microrganismos. Foram analisadas 227 amostras de pimenta-do-reino, comercializadas em Minas Gerais, coletadas entre 2008 e 2018, quanto à presença de fragmentos de pelo de roedor e de insetos, coliformes a 45°C ou Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp. Para verificar se havia correlação entre os contaminantes, foi empregado método estatístico de regressão linear múltipla. As análises microscópicas evidenciaram presença de fragmentos de pelo de roedor e de insetos em 26,0% e 30,5% das amostras, respectivamente, em valores superiores ao limite tolerado pela RDC 14/2014. Quanto às análises microbiológicas, 10% das amostras apresentaram coliformes a 45°C ou E. coli acima dos limites tolerados pela RDC 12/2001 e em 8,8% das amostras foi detectada presença de Salmonella spp. A avaliação estatística mostrou que houve correlação entre presença de fragmentos de insetos e de pelos de roedor e a contaminação por Salmonella spp. em pimenta-do-reino. Os resultados demonstraram a importância das análises microscópica e microbiológica simultaneamente para detecção dos contaminantes presentes bem como das possíveis relações existentes entre eles e a melhor compreensão dos fatores que favorecem as contaminações. (AU)


The absence of Good Manufacturing Practices during harvesting, processing and handling of black pepper can lead to contamination of the product with microscopic dirt and microrganisms. Two hundred and twenty seven black pepper samples, commercialized in Minas Gerais, collected between 2008 and 2018, were analyzed for the presence of rodent and insect fragments, coliforms at 45°C or Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. To verify whether there was a correlation between the contaminants, a statistical method of multiple linear regression was used. Microscopic analysis showed the presence of rodent and insect fragments in 26.0% and 30.5% of the samples, respectively, in values above the limit tolerated by RDC14/2014. As for the microbiological analysis, 10% of the samples presented coliforms at 45°C or E.coli above the limits tolerated by the RDC 12/2001 and in 8.8% of the samples Salmonella spp. were detected. The statistical evaluation showed that there was a relationship between the presence of insect fragments and rodent hair and contamination by Salmonella spp. in black pepper. The results demonstrated the importance of simultaneous microscopic and microbiological analysis to detect the contaminants present, as well as the possible relationships between them and better understanding of the factors that favor contamination. (AU)


Subject(s)
Salmonella , Food Quality , Piper nigrum , Food Analysis , Food Microbiology , Rodentia , Correlation of Data
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2334-2344, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878490

ABSTRACT

Strain variability is one of the most important factors to influence the accuracy of foodborne pathogens risk assessment, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. Strain-to-strain variation is defined as the inherent differences among identically treated strains of the same microbial species. The differences cannot be eliminated by changing test methods or improving test protocols. This review addresses presently related studies of strain variability. Based on the effect of strain variability on the outcome of risk assessment, we summarize sources of variabilities in food chain, strain phenotypic variabilities and the methods to integrate strain variability in growth and inactivation into predictive modelling, and indicate the inadequacies in the study of strain variability. We suggest further study the mechanism of strain variability, expand the comparison of variability among different sources, and integrate the variability of gene expression, protein and cell metabolism into the predictive modelling.


Subject(s)
Food Microbiology , Listeria monocytogenes/genetics , Risk Assessment , Salmonella/genetics
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1190-1197, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826859

ABSTRACT

Clostridia inhabiting in jiupei and pit mud plays key roles in the formation of flavour during the fermentation process of Luzhou-flavour baijiu. However, the differences of Clostridial communities between jiupei and pit mud remains unclear. Here, the species assembly, succession, and metabolic capacity of Clostridial communities between jiupei and pit mud were analysed by high-throughput sequencing and pure culture approaches. The ratio of Clostridial biomass to bacterial biomass in the pit mud was relatively stable (71.5%-91.2%) throughout the fermentation process. However, it varied widely in jiupei (0.9%-36.5%). The dominant Clostridial bacteria in jiupei were Clostridium (19.9%), Sedimentibacter (8.8%), and Hydrogenispora (7.2%), while Hydrogenispora (57.2%), Sedimentibacter (5.4%), and Caproiciproducens (4.9%) dominated in the Clostridial communities in pit mud. The structures of Clostridial community in pit mud and jiupei were significantly different (P=0.001) throughout fermentation. Isolated Clostridial strains showed different metabolic capacities of volatile fatty acids in pure culture. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of Clostridial communities existed in the baijiu fermentation pit, which was closely related to the main flavour components of Luzhou-flavour baijiu.


Subject(s)
Alcoholic Beverages , Microbiology , Bacteria , Classification , Metabolism , Clostridium , Physiology , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Metabolism , Fermentation , Food Microbiology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829001

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of isolates from clinical patients, tap water systems, and food.@*Methods@#Ninety isolates were obtained from Ma'anshan, Anhui province, China, and subjected to multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) with six housekeeping genes. Their taxonomy was investigated using concatenated sequences, while their resistance to 12 antibiotics was evaluated. Ten putative virulence factors and several resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing.@*Results@#The 90 isolates were divided into 84 sequence types, 80 of which were novel, indicating high genetic diversity. The isolates were classified into eight different species. PCR assays identified virulence genes in the isolates, with the enterotoxin and hemolysin genes , , , and found in 47 (52.2%), 13 (14.4%), 22 (24.4%), and 12 (13.3%) of the isolates, respectively. The majority of the isolates (≥ 90%) were susceptible to aztreonam, imipenem, cefepime, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. However, several resistance genes were detected in the isolates, as well as a new variant.@*Conclusions@#Sequence type, virulence properties, and antibiotic resistance vary in isolates from clinical patients, tap water systems, and food.


Subject(s)
Aeromonas , Genetics , Virulence , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , China , Drinking Water , Microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Food Microbiology , Genetic Variation , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Microbiology , Species Specificity , Virulence
9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190759, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132246

ABSTRACT

Abstract Animal products are sources of microbiological contamination when the process has hygienic-sanitary control fails. Therefore, this work aims the evaluation of the pathogenic microorganisms presented in samples from the Brazil southern region of yogurt (N = 101), stretched curd cheese (N = 31), fresh sausage (N = 22) and processing water (N = 63). Analyses of coliforms at 45 °C, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli were performed. Analysis indicated processing water is an important contamination source to be monitored, because the majority of samples presented results above the regulation limits. Thermal treatment and fermentation such as stretched curd cheese and yogurt appeared to be more stable against contamination during processing. In this study, for coliforms at 45 °C, only one cheese sample and 12% of total yogurt samples exceeded the Brazilian legislation limit. None of sausage samples presented any contamination. On the other hand, values found in both processing water and dairy products indicated failures in application and monitoring of good manufactured practices.


Subject(s)
Animals , Water Microbiology , Yogurt/microbiology , Cheese/microbiology , Food Microbiology , Meat Products/microbiology , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Brazil , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Coliforms
10.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 345-353, dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057399

ABSTRACT

Abstract A novel microbiological system in microtiter plates consisting of five bioassays is presented for the detection and classification of antibiotic residues in milk. The bioassays were optimized for the detection of beta-lactams (Bioassay B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrolides (Bioassay M: Bacillus megaterium with fusidic acid), tetracyclines (Bioassay T: B. megaterium with chloramphenicol), quinolones (Bioassay Q: Bacillus licheniformis) and sulfamides (Bioassay QS: B. licheniformis with trimethoprim) at levels near the maximum residue limits (MRL). The response of each bioassay was interpreted visually (positive or negative) after 4-5.5h of incubation. The system detects and classifies beta-lactams (5 pg/l of amoxicillin, 4 pg/l of ampicillin, 36 pg/l of cloxacillin, 22 pg/l of amoxicillin, 3 pg/l of penicillin, 114 pg/l of cephalexin, 89pg/l of cefoperazone and 116 pg/l of ceftiofur), tetracyclines (98 pg/l of chlortetracycline, 92 pg/l of oxytetracycline and 88 pg/l of tetracycline), macrolides (33 pg/l of erythromycin, 44 pg/l of tilmicosin and 50 pg/l of tylosin), sulfonamides (76 pg/l of sulfadiazine, 85 pg/l of sulfadimethoxine, 77 pg/l of sulfamethoxazole and 87pg/l of sulfathiazole) and quinolones (94 pg/l of ciprofloxacin, 98 pg/l of enrofloxacin and 79 pg/l marbofloxacin). In addition, the specificity values were high for B, T, Q (99.4%), M (98.8%) and QS (98.1%) bioassays. The control of antibiotics through this system can contribute to improving the quality and safety of dairy products.


Resumen Se presenta un novedoso sistema microbiológico en placas de microtitulación compuesto por 5 bioensayos para la detección y clasificación de residuos de antibióticos en leche. Los bioensayos fueron optimizados para la detección de betalactámicos (bioensayo B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrólidos (bioensayo M: Bacillus megaterium con ácido fusídico), tetraciclinas (bioensayo T: Bacillus megaterium con cloranfenicol), quinolonas (bioensayo Q: Bacillus licheniformis) y sulfamidas (bioensayo QS: Bacillus licheniformis con trimetoprima), a niveles cercanos a los límites máximos de residuos (LMR). La respuesta de cada bioensayo se interpretó visualmente (positiva o negativa) después de 4 a 5,5 h de incubación. El sistema detecta y clasifica betalactámicos (5 pg/l de amoxicilina, 4 pg/l de ampicilina, 36 pg/l de cloxacilina, 22 pg/l de amoxicilina, 3 pg/l de penicilina, 114 pg/l de cefalexina, 89 pg/l de cefoperazona y 116 pg/l de ceftiofur), tetraciclinas (98 pg/l de clortetraciclina, 92 pg/l de oxitetraciclina y 88 pg/l de tetraciclina), macrólidos (33 pg/l de eritromicina, 44 pg/l de tilmi-cosina y 50 pg/l de tilosina), sulfamidas (76 pg/l de sulfadiacina, 85 pg/l de sulfadimetoxina, 77 pg/l de sulfametoxazol y 87 pg/l de sulfatiazol) y quinolonas (94 pg/l de ciprofloxacina, 98 pg/l de enrofloxacina y 79pg/l de marbofloxacina). Además, los valores de especificidad fueron altos para los bioensayos B, T, Q (99,4%), M (98,8%) y QS (98,1%). El control de residuos de antibióticos mediante este sistema puede contribuir a mejorar la calidad e inocuidad de los productos lácteos.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay/methods , Food Microbiology/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Sulfonamides/analysis , Tetracycline/analysis , Quinolones/analysis , Macrolides/analysis , Dairy Products , beta-Lactams/analysis
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 625-628, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001470

ABSTRACT

Abstract The isolation of Escherichia coli from food is a major concern. Pathogenic strains of these bacteria cause diseases which range from diarrhea to hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Therefore the virulence genes in E. coli isolates from the mussel ( Mytella guyanensis) commercialized in Cachoeira, Bahia, Brazil were investigated. Samples were purchased from four vendors: two from supermarkets and two from fair outlets. They were conditioned into isothermal boxes with reusable ice and transported to the laboratory for analysis. E. coli strains were isolated in eosin methylene blue agar, preserved in brain-heart infusion medium with 15% glycerol and stored at -20 °C, after microbiological analysis. Virulence genes in the isolated strains were identified by specific primers, with Polymerase Chain Reaction. Twenty-four isolates were obtained, with a prevalence of elt gene, typical from enterotoxigenic infection, in 75% of the isolates. The stx and bfpA genes, prevalent in enterohemorragic and enteropathogenic E. coli, respectively, were not detected. The occurrence of elt virulence-related gene in the E. coli isolates of Mytella guyanensis reveals urgent improvement in food processing, including good handling practices, adequate storage and cooking before consumption, to ensure consumer's health.


Resumo O isolamento de Escherichia coli a partir de alimentos é uma grande preocupação, pois cepas patogênicas desta bactéria podem causar desde diarreia até síndrome hemolítico-urêmica. Diante do exposto, o objetivo do trabalho foi pesquisar genes de virulência em isolados de Escherichia coli provenientes do sururu Mytella guyanensis comercializado na cidade de Cachoeira, Bahia, Brasil. As amostras foram adquiridas de quatro comerciantes, sendo duas de mercados e duas em pontos de venda na feira livre da cidade de Cachoeira, acondicionadas em caixas isotérmicas com gelo reutilizável e transportadas até o laboratório para a análise. Após a análise microbiológica, as cepas de Escherichia coli foram isoladas em ágar Eosina Azul de Metileno e preservadas em caldo Brian Heart Infusion e glicerol a 15% e mantidas a - 20° C. A identificação dos genes de virulência nas cepas isoladas foi realizada utilizando primers específicos, por meio da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase. Foram obtidos 24 isolados de Escherichia coli, destes a prevalência do gene elt , característico de Escherichia coli enterotoxigênica, foi de 75% dos isolados. Não houve a detecção dos genes stx e bfpA nos isolados, os quais são prevalentes nas cepas de Escherichia coli enterohemorrágica e Escherichia coli enteropatogênica, respectivamente. A presença do gene elt relacionado à virulência de Escherichia coli nos isolados de Mytella guyanensis revela a necessidade da melhoria no processamento, incluindo boas práticas de manipulação, armazenamento adequado e cocção previa ao consumo, visando a garantia da saúde do consumidor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Seafood/microbiology , Virulence Factors , Escherichia coli/genetics , Mytilidae/microbiology , Food Microbiology , Genes, Bacterial , Brazil
12.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(5): 527-534, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042692

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the hygiene and sanitary conditions of canteens in a Brazilian public university. A checklist was applied and coliform analysis at 45 °C. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria on surface boards used in food handling were also counted. It was observed that most of the canteens were considered unsatisfactory in terms of compliance with good handling practices. Presence of coliforms at 45 °C was noted in 72% of the food handling surface boards. With respect to mesophilic bacteria, 81% of the boards presented values above the recommended. According to the results, it is possible to say that based on hygienic-sanitary guidelines, the canteens were not in accordance with Brazilian law that regulates good manufacture practices of the food service industry and recommends that facilities, equipment and utensils used in food handling are in proper hygienic-sanitary conditions. The food production process for the university population was not properly carried out due to non-compliance with good handling practices. Thus, the health of thousands of students and staff who have their meals daily at the university canteens may be at risk.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las condiciones higiénico-sanitarias de las cafeterías en una universidad pública brasileña. Se aplicó una lista de verificación y también se llevaron a cabo análisis de coliformes y recuentos de bacterias mesofílicas aeróbicas en tablas de cortar utilizadas en la manipulación de alimentos. Se observó que la mayoría de las cafeterías se consideraban inadecuadas en cuanto al cumplimiento de las buenas prácticas de manufactura. La presencia de coliformes se observó en el 72% de las tablas de manipulación de alimentos analizadas. Con respecto a las bacterias mesofílicas, 81% de las tablas presentaron valores superiores a los recomendados. De acuerdo con los resultados, es posible decir con base en la evaluación de las condiciones higiénico-sanitarias, que las cafeterías no estaban de acuerdo con la legislación brasileña que regula las buenas prácticas de manufactura en servicios de alimentos y recomienda que las instalaciones, equipos y utensilios utilizados en la manipulación estén en condiciones higiénico-sanitarias adecuadas. El proceso de producción de alimentos destinados a la población universitaria no se lleva a cabo adecuadamente debido al incumplimiento de las buenas prácticas, ya que pone en riesgo la salud de miles de estudiantes y personal que comen diariamente en los comedores universitarios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Universities , Food Handling , Food Services , Brazil , Food Hygiene , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coliforms/isolation & purification , Food Microbiology , Foodborne Diseases/prevention & control
13.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(5): 571-578, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042697

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Determinar la existencia de contaminación por patógenos en fórmulas infantiles en polvo (FIP) procesadas en los dos hospitales públicos más grandes de Honduras y evaluar las condiciones de procesamiento de sus servicios de fórmulas infantiles (SFI). MÉTODOS: Estudio exploratorio realizado en dos etapas: ') Evaluación presencial de las condiciones de procesamiento de las FIP de los dos SFI; 2) Recolección y análisis de las muestras FIP para el aislamiento de Cronobacter spp. y enterobacterias. RESULTADOS: La evaluación de los SFI mostró debilidades en diferentes aspectos como infraestructura, almacenamiento, capacitación y registros. Cincuenta muestras fueron recolectadas en total de cinco marcas originarias de seis países. El 38% se encontraban en uso durante el muestreo y 62% fueron recolectadas de latas selladas. Se comprobó la presencia de Cronobacter spp. en 4% (2/50) del total de muestras, una proveniente de cada hospital. Se elaboró y entregó un manual de procesamiento de FIP a cada hospital participante. CONCLUSIONES: Existe contaminación de Cronobacter spp., Klebsiella y Acinetobacter en los dos hospitales hondureños; resultado similar a los estimados en Chile (5%) y Cuba (',6%). Es necesaria la implementación del manual de procesamiento FIP y el monitoreo de estos y otros microorganismos patógenos.


OBJECTIVES: Determine the existence of pathogen contamination in powdered infant formulas (PIF) processed in the two largest public hospitals in Honduras and evaluate the processing conditions of their infant formula services (IFS). METHODS: Exploratory study executed in two stages: ') faceto-face evaluation of the processing conditions of the PIF of the two IFS; 2) Collection and analysis of the PIF samples for Cronobacter spp. and Enterobacteriaceae isolation. RESULTS: The evaluation of the IFS showed weaknesses in different aspects such as infrastructure, storage, training and keeping records. In total, fifty samples were collected, representing five brands from six countries. Thirty eight percent of samples were collected from cans in use during sampling and 62% were collected from sealed cans. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was detected in 4% (2/50) of the total samples, one from each hospital. A PIF processing manual was prepared and delivered to each participating hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Contamination of Cronobacter spp., Klebsiella and Acinetobacter existed in two evaluated Honduran hospitals; results similar to others in Chile (5%) and Cuba ('.6%). It is necessary to implement the PIF processing manual and monitor these and other pathogenic microorganisms


Subject(s)
Humans , Food Contamination , Infant Formula/microbiology , Cronobacter/isolation & purification , Food Microbiology , Dried Full-Cream Milk , Honduras , Hospitals
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 585-590, oct. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058084

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Listeria monocytogenes es un patógeno transmitido por alimentos que causa listeriosis, una enfermedad que puede presentarse como gastroenteritis febril o en una forma invasora que tiene altas tasas de mortalidad. Hasta el momento, ha sido poco estudiada la diversidad genética de cepas de L. monocytogenes aisladas desde pacientes, alimentos y fuentes ambientales en Chile. Objetivo: Caracterizar genéticamente cepas de L. monocytogenes de estos tres orígenes recibidas por el Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile (ISP) entre los años 2007 y 2014. Material y Métodos: Se seleccionaron 94 cepas de L. monocytogenes correspondientes a 94 pulsotipos diferentes identificados por electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado (PFGE), se extrajo ADN y se realizó serotipificación mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC) y tipificación de secuencias multilocus (MLST). Resultados: El serotipo más común fue 4b (55,3%), seguido de 1/2a (25,5%), 1/2b (17%) y 1/2c (2,2%). Se identificaron 32 secuencias tipo (ST), de las cuales cuatro fueron nuevas, y las predominantes fueron ST1 (28,7%) y ST2 (13,8%). La totalidad de las cepas se agrupó en los Linajes I y II. Conclusiones: Se observó una gran variabilidad genética en las cepas de L. monocytogenes analizadas, siendo predominantes las secuencias tipo ST1 y ST2, ambas pertenecientes al Linaje I. Nuestros resultados contribuyen a conocer la estructura poblacional de este patógeno en Chile y su presencia en muestras clínicas, alimentos y el medio ambiente.


Background: Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis, a disease that can present as febrile gastroenteritis or as an invasive form that has high mortality rates. So far, the genetic diversity of strains of L. monocytogenes isolated from patients, foods and environmental sources in Chile has been poorly studied. Aim: To characterize genetically L. monocytogenes strains received by the Institute of Public Health of Chile (ISP) between 2007 and 2014. Methods: We selected 94 strains of L. monocytogenes corresponding to 94 different pulsotypes identified by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), DNA was extracted and serotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Results: The most common serotype was 4b (55.3%), followed by serotypes 1/2a (25.5%), 1/2b (17%) and 1/2c (2.2%). 32 sequence-type (ST) were identified, of which 4 were new, and the predominant ones were ST1 (28.7%) and ST2 (13.8%). All the strains of L. monocytogenes were grouped in Lineages I and II. Conclusions: A great genetic variability was observed in the strains of L. monocytogenes analyzed, being predominant the ST1 and ST2, both belonging to Lineage I. Our results contribute to know the population structure of this pathogen in Chile and its presence in clinical samples, food and the environment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification , Listeria monocytogenes/genetics , Time Factors , Genetic Variation , Serotyping , Chile , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Environmental Microbiology , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Food Microbiology , Listeriosis/microbiology
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 460-465, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001467

ABSTRACT

Abstract The fidelity of the genomes is defended by mechanism known as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) systems. Three Type II CRISPR systems (CRISPR1- cas, CRISPR2 and CRISPR3-cas) have been identified in enterococci isolates from clinical and environmental samples. The aim of this study was to observe the distribution of CRISPR1-cas, CRISPR2 and CRISPR3-cas in non-clinical strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates from food and fecal samples, including wild marine animals. The presence of CRISPRs was evaluated by PCR in 120 enterococci strains, 67 E. faecalis and 53 E. faecium. It is the first report of the presence of the CRISPRs system in E. faecalis and E. faecium strains isolated from wild marine animal fecal samples. The results showed that in non-clinical strains, the CRISPRs were more frequently detected in E. faecalis than in E. faecium. And the frequencies of CRISPR1-cas and CRISPR2 were higher (60%) in E. faecalis strains isolated from animal feces, compared to food samples. Both strains showed low frequencies of CRISPR3-cas (8.95% and 1.88%). In conclusion, the differences in the habitats of enterococcal species may be related with the results observe in distribution of CRISPRs systems.


Resumo A fidelidade dos genomas ​​é defendida por mecanismos conhecidos como sistemas de repetições palindrômicas curtas agrupadas e regularmente interespaçadas (CRISPRs). Três tipos de sistemas CRISPR II (CRISPR1-cas, CRISPR2 e CRISPR3-cas) têm sido identificados em cepas de enterococos isolados de amostras clínicas e ambientais. O objetivo deste estudo foi observar a distribuição dos CRISPR1-cas, CRISPR2 e CRISPR3-cas em cepas não-clínicas de Enterococcus faecalis e Enterococcus faecium isoladas de amostras alimentícias e fecais, incluindo animais marinhos selvagens. A presenca dos CRISPRs foi determinada por PCR em 120 cepas de enterococos, sendo 67 E. faecalis e 53 E. faecium. É o primeiro relato da presença do sistema CRISPRs nas estirpes E. faecalis e E. faecium isoladas de amostras fecais de animais marinhos selvagens. Os resultados mostraram que em cepas não-clínicas, os CRISPRs foram mais frequentemente detectados em E. faecalis do que em E. faecium. E as frequências de CRISPR1-cas e CRISPR2 foram maiores (60%) em cepas de E. faecalis isoladas de fezes de animais, quando comparadas à amostras de alimentos. Ambas as cepas apresentaram baixas freqüências de CRISPR3-cas (8,95% e 1,88%). Em conclusão, as diferenças nos habitats das espécies de enterococos podem estar relacionadas com os resultados observados na distribuição dos sistemas CRISPRs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Food Microbiology , Turtles/microbiology , Vegetables/microbiology , Chickens/microbiology , Dairy Products/microbiology , Milk/microbiology , Spheniscidae/microbiology , Fur Seals/microbiology , Meat/microbiology
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(8): 587-591, Aug. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040722

ABSTRACT

This paper investigated the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus and the detection of enterotoxin-encoding genes of these strains in milk collected from 30 Murrah buffaloes used to produce dairy products in Brazil. A total of 68 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were found as identified by conventional laboratory tests, and thus screened for sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh and sei enterotoxin-encoding genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twelve strains containing enterotoxin-amplified genes were found, with higher expression for the sei and seh genes. These results can be attributed to animal health and inadequate cleaning of the equipment, indicating the need for better quality control in animal production and health lines. The results of this study with the presence of pathogens and their enterotoxigenic potential indicate a source of food poisoning, as well as being a pioneering study in the detection of new enterotoxins for buffalo milk.(AU)


Este estudo investigou a ocorrência de isolados de Staphylococcus aureus e a detecção de genes que codificam a enterotoxigenicidade dessas cepas em leite de búfala utilizado na produção de laticínios no Brasil. As amostras foram coletados em 30 búfalos da raça Murrah, identificado por testes laboratoriais convencionais, foram identificados um total de 68 cepas de S. aureus e rastreados para os genes que codificam a enterotoxina sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh and sei por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Doze cepas contendo genes da enterotoxina foram amplificadas, com maior expressão para os genes sei e seh. Esses resultados podem ser atribuídos à saúde animal e à higiene inadequada do equipamento, indicando a necessidade de melhor controle de qualidade nas linhas de produção e saúde animal. Os resultados desta pesquisa, com a presença de patógenos e seu potencial enterotoxigênico, indicam uma fonte de intoxicação alimentar, além de ser uma pesquisa pioneira na detecção de novas enterotoxinas para o leite de búfala.(AU)


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Food Contamination/analysis , Milk/microbiology , Food Microbiology , Buffaloes/microbiology , Food Quality , Polymerase Chain Reaction
17.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(4): 409-419, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013805

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La "leche humana", constituye el mejor alimento que puede darse en forma exclusiva al recién nacido generando el vínculo físico-biológico más importante entre la madre y la cría tras el parto. En este trabajo se planteó un estudio de tipo observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo transversal sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas y calidad microbiológica de la leche humana suministrada por 68 madres lactantes en edades de entre 15 a 39 años, de dos estratos socioeconómicos colombianos asociados al departamento del Tolima, considerando tipos de leche calostro, transición y madura, en relación a los parámetros de calidad establecidos en los programas de bancos de leche humana, además del contenido de cloruros, fenoles, fósforo y el perfil de electroforesis para proteínas. Los resultados de las propiedades fisicoquímicas de las muestras presentan variabilidad según el tipo de leche, difiriendo en algunos casos entre los promedios observados en los parámetros por estrato social. El análisis microbiológico descarta cargas excesivas de enterobacterias lactosa positivas en términos de NMP, mostrando valores aptos para el consumo de los lactantes. La técnica de electroforesis revela la presencia de lactoalbúmina, inmunoglobulina, caseína, albumina y lactoferrina, no siempre reportados en este tipo de trabajos. La investigación realizada se consolida como guía e iniciativa para el desarrollo de trabajos similares en otras zonas del país y con ello el fortalecimiento de programas mundiales de lactancia materna.


ABSTRACT Human milk constitutes the best food that can be given exclusively to the newborn, generating the best and most important physical-biological link between the mother and her newborn. We conducted an observational descriptive and cross-sectional retrospective study on the physicochemical properties and microbiological quality of human milk supplied by 68 lactating mothers between 15 and 39 years of age from two Colombian socioeconomic strata in the Tolima department. We evaluated type of milk colustrum transition and mature, with respect to the quality parameters established in human milk bank programs, in addition to Chloride, phenol, phosphorus content and protein profiles for using electrophoresis. Microbiological analysis discards excessive loads of lactose positive Enterobacter in terms of MPN, showing values suitable for the consumption of infants. The electrophoresis technique reveals the presence of lactalbumin, immunoglobulin, casein, albumin and lactoferrin, not always reported in this type of work. This research can be a guide and initiative for the development of similar work in other areas of the country and with it the strengthening of global breastfeeding programs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Feeding , Food Quality , Colombia , Infant Nutrition , Observational Study , Food Microbiology , Milk, Human , Chemical Phenomena
18.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(4): 411-424, jul. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008180

ABSTRACT

Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is an aromatic monoterpene found in essential oils extracted from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family, such as Thymus, Ocimum, Origanum, Satureja, Thymbra and Monarda genera. Growth and biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes CLIP 74902 were evaluate using three carbon sources in the presence of thymol. Specific growth rate (h-1) values at 37o with glucose, trehalose and cellobiose with the addition of thymol (µg/mL) 0 (control) and 750, were respectively: 0.22, 0.07; 0.14, 0.04; 0.11, 0.04. Lag periods obtained under the same conditions were (h): 8.19, 13.2; 22.5, 27.5; 23.1, 28.1. A marked antibiofilm activity was observed against the exposure with 750 µg/mL of thymol, showing a high percentage of inhibition: glucose (99 %), trehalose (97 %) and cellobiose (98%), compared to the control. The results suggest that thymol could be used to inhibit the growth and production of biofilms by L. monocytogenes in the food industry.


Timol (2-isopropil-5-metilfenol) es un monoterpeno aromático presente en los aceites esenciales extraídos de plantas pertenecientes a la familia Lamiaceae, como los géneros Thymus, Ocimum, Origanum, Satureja, Thymbra y Monarda. El crecimiento y formación de biopelícula por Listeria monocytogenes CLIP 74902 fueron evaluados utilizando tres fuentes de carbono en presencia de timol. La velocidad específica de crecimiento (h-1) a 37o con glucosa, trehalosa y celobiosa con la adición de timol (µg/mL) 0 (control) y 750, fueron respectivamente: 0.22, 0.07; 0.14, 0.04, 0.11, 0,04. Los períodos lag obtenidos en las mismas condiciones fueron (h): 8.19, 13.2; 22.5, 27.5; 23.1, 28.1. Una marcada actividad antibiofilm fue obtenida con 750 µg/mL de timol, mostrando un alto porcentaje de inhibición con glucosa (99%), trehalosa (97%) y celobiosa (98%), respecto al control. Los resultados sugieren que timol podría ser usado para inhibir el crecimiento y producción de biopelículas por L. monocytogenes en la industria alimentaria.


Subject(s)
Thymol/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Terpenes/pharmacology , Kinetics , Biofilms/growth & development , Environment , Fermentation , Food Microbiology , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 191-200, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989448

ABSTRACT

Abstract The hygienic and sanitary control in Food and Nutrition Units (FNU) is considered a standard procedure to produce adequate meals and reduce the risk of foodborne diseases and hospital infections. This study aimed to evaluate the isolation and identification of bacteria from equipment and food contact surfaces in a hospital FNU as well as to evaluate the sanitary condition. Likewise, it was analyzed the adhesion of the microorganisms on polyethylene cutting boards. The presence of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, yeasts, molds, coagulase-positive staphylococci, coliform and fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli were analyzed on eating tables, countertop surfaces and cutting boards used for meat or vegetable handling, and equipment such as microwaves and refrigerators. The molecular identification it was done by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The adhesion of the microorganisms (biofilm formation) on meat and vegetable cutting boards was also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed high numbers of all microorganisms, except for E. coli , which was not observed in the samples. The molecular analysis identified species of the Enterobacteriaceae family and species of the Pseudomonadaceae family. Scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed bacterial adhesion on the cutting board surfaces. The results obtained in this study indicated that the hygienic conditions of surfaces like plastic cutting boards and equipment in this hospital FNU were inadequate. The achievement and application of standard operating procedures could positively help in the standardization of sanitary control, reducing the microbial contamination and providing a safe food to hospitalized patients.


Resumo O controle higiênico e sanitário nas Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição (UAN) é considerado um procedimento padrão para produzir refeições adequadas e reduzir o risco de doenças transmitidas pelos alimentos e infecções hospitalares. Este estudo teve como objetivo isolar e identificar bactérias de equipamentos e superfícies de contato com alimentos em uma UAN hospitalar, bem como avaliar a condição sanitária. Do mesmo modo, analisou-se a adesão dos micro-organismos em tábuas de corte de polietileno. A presença de micro-organismos aeróbios mesófilos, leveduras, fungos, Sthapylococcus coagulase-positivos, coliformes, coliformes fecais e Escherichia coli foi analisadas na superfície de mesas do refeitório, superfícies de bancada e tábuas de corte usadas para manuseio de carne ou vegetais e, em equipamentos como micro-ondas e refrigeradores. A identificação molecular foi feita pelo sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. A adesão dos micro-organismos (formação de biofilmes) em tábuas de corte de carne e de vegetais também foi avaliada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados mostraram elevada contagem para todos os micro-organismos analisados, exceto para E. coli, a qual não foi observada nas amostras. A análise molecular identificou espécies da família Enterobacteriaceae e Pseudomonadaceae. A análise de microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelaram adesão bacteriana nas superfícies das placsa de corte. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo indicaram que as condições higiênicas das superfícies e de equipamentos nesta UAN hospitalar estavam inadequadas. A aplicação de procedimentos operacionais padrão poderia auxiliar positivamente na padronização do controle higiênico-sanitário, reduzindo a contaminação microbiana e fornecendo um alimento seguro para pacientes hospitalizados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Environmental Microbiology , Molecular Typing , Food Microbiology , Food Service, Hospital/trends , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Biofilms , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1581-1589, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771771

ABSTRACT

As the main factor leading to foodborne illnesses, foodborne pathogens have been attached great importance by people. The development of simple, rapid, high-sensitivity and low-cost food-borne pathogen detection methods is of great significance in reducing the incidence of foodborne diseases. Biosensor technology is a new micro-analysis technology developed by multi-disciplinary cross-infiltration. It has the characteristics of high sensitivity and fast analysis speed, and is widely used in the detection of food-borne pathogens. This paper introduces the basic principles of biosensors, summarizes the application of common biosensors in the detection of foodborne pathogens, and prospects for future development.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Food Microbiology , Foodborne Diseases , Humans
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