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1.
Acta amaz ; 51(3): 191-198, set 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353489

ABSTRACT

O uso da silagem de raiz de mandioca na alimentação animal representa uma opção viável tanto para os produtores que cultivam mandioca (visando ter um produto para comercialização alternativa), quanto para os pecuaristas que compram milho a preços elevados. Assim, objetivou-se determinar o efeito de variedades e da correção da acidez do solo sobre as populações microbianas, características fermentativas, composição química, estabilidade aeróbia e perdas de silagens de raízes de mandioca. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento em blocos casualizados, em arranjo fatorial 2×3 com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados dois genótipos de mandioca (Caeté e Manteiguinha) e três tipos de correção de acidez do solo (calagem, gessagem e calagem+gessagem). Após 11 meses, as raízes foram colhidas, trituradas e ensiladas em silos do tipo PVC, onde permaneceram por 45 dias. Não observamos efeito de interação entre genótipos e correção do solo para os parâmetros testados. As silagens do genótipo Caeté apresentaram as maiores concentrações de matéria seca (421 g kg-1 matéria fresca) e carboidratos não fibrosos (893 g kg-1 matéria seca), e menores de fibra em detergente neutro (37.1 g kg-1 matéria seca). Não houve diferenças significativas entre tratamentos para bactérias ácido láticas, leveduras e mofos nas silagens. Ambos os genótipos resultaram em silagens com perfil de fermentação adequado e estabilidade aeróbia consideravelmente elevada, mas com elevadas perdas de efluentes. O genótipo Caeté apresentou condições potencialmente melhores para produção de silagem devido a sua maior recuperação de matéria seca. Devido à alta perda de efluente, recomendamos testar o efeito da adição de um aditivo absorvente de umidade durante o processo de ensilagem dessas raízes de mandioca. (AU)


Subject(s)
Manihot , Sustainable Agriculture , Fermentation , Food Preservation
2.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 28(2): 1-14, 2021-05-18. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1363249

ABSTRACT

Background: One of the most used and effective preservation strategies in foods is drying. However, there are problems with the rheological properties, color, and viability of lactic acid bacteria in the yogurt once reconstituted when applying such conservation strategies. Objectives: Determine the concentration of the type of texture improver and drying that minimizes the negative effect on the rheological, color, and microbiological properties of a reconstituted yogurt powder. Methods: Intended to determine the texture improver which increases rheological properties of reconstituted yogurt powder, a mixture type experimental design was applied where three texture improvers were assessed; carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (mass fraction 0 - 1), pectin (mass fraction 0 - 1), and xanthan gum (mass fraction 0 - 1). The rheological parameters; consistency index (K), flow behavior (n), viscosity at 100s-1 (η), the storage (G') and loss (G'') modules, and the phase shift angle (δ) of each of the reconstitutions were considered as design-dependent variables. Secondly, a central composite design (face-centered) was used for assessing the effectiveness of the drying (convection, spray-drying, and freeze-drying), the concentration of the texture improver (0.0 - 1.0 %), and the yogurt powder concentration (8.0 - 15.0 %). The above-mentioned rheological parameters, color, and viability of the lactic acid bacteria from each reconstituted yogurt powder were considered as the dependent variables. Optimization sought to match the parameters of reconstituted yogurt powder that approximated the conditions of fresh yogurt. Results: The independent variables in their lineal expression and some interactions between them had statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). At a concentration of 10.59 % with 0.03 % xanthan gum, the reconstitution of freeze-dried yogurt powder was the optimized condition (p < 0.05) and obtained the rheological, color, and microbiological parameters closest to fresh yogurt. Conclusions: The drying of the yogurt by freeze-drying mixed with xanthan gum as a texture improver allowed to obtain a reconstituted yogurt with properties close to the fresh product for direct consumption


Antecedentes: Una de las estrategias de conservación más utilizadas y efectivas en los alimentos es el secado. Sin embargo, existen problemas en las propiedades reológicas, el color y la viabilidad de bacterias ácido lácticas en el yogur una vez reconstituido al aplicar tales estrategias de conservación. Objetivos: Determinar la concentración del tipo de mejorador de textura y secado que minimiza el efecto negativo sobre las propiedades reológicas, de color y microbiológicas de un yogur en polvo reconstituido. Métodos: Para determinar el mejorador de textura que aumente las propiedades reológicas del yogur en polvo reconstituido, se aplicó un diseño experimental de tipo de mezcla donde se evaluaron tres mejoradores de textura; carboximetilcelulosa (CMC) (fracción de masa 0 -1), pectina (fracción de masa 0 -1) y goma xantan (fracción de masa 0 -1); los parámetros reológicos: índice de consistencia (K), comportamiento de flujo (n), viscosidad a 100s-1 (η), módulos de almacenamiento (G') y pérdida (G''), y ángulo de desfase (δ) de cada una de las reconstituciones fueron considerados como variables dependientes. En segundo lugar, se utilizó un diseño central compuesto (centrado a las caras) para evaluar el efecto del tipo de secado (convección, secado por aspersión y liofilización), la concentración del mejorador de textura (0.0 - 1.0 %) y concentración del yogur en polvo (8.0 - 15.0 %). Como variables dependientes se consideraron los parámetros reológicos mencionados anteriormente, el color y la viabilidad de las bacterias ácido lácticas de cada yogur en polvo reconstituido. La optimización buscó igualar los parámetros del yogur en polvo reconstituido que se aproximaran a las condiciones del yogur fresco. Resultados: Las variables independientes en su expresión lineal y algunas interacciones entre ellas tuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0.05). La reconstitución de yogur liofilizado en polvo a una concentración de 10.59 % con 0.03 % de goma xantan, fueron las condiciones optimizadas (p < 0.05) que obtuvieron los parámetros reológicos, de color y microbiológicos más cercanos al yogur fresco. Conclusión: El secado del yogur por liofilización mezclado con goma xantan como mejorador de la textura, permitió obtener un yogur reconstituido con propiedades cercanas al producto fresco para consumo directo


Subject(s)
Humans , Freeze Drying , Rheology , Yogurt , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Food Preservation
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 464-473, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153351

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to evaluate the sensitivity of Melanoxylon brauna Schott. tree legume seeds to desiccation and storage. In the drying experiment, the Melanoxylon brauna seeds were submitted to two drying conditions: a forced air circulation chamber (40.18 °C ± 0.13 and 28.48% ± 3.95 RH) and a silica gel desiccator (27.19 °C ± 1.28 and 26.19% ± 0.94 RH) for different times (0, 12, 24, 36, 72, and 144 hours). A completely randomized design in a 2 (drying methods) × 5 (drying times) factorial scheme plus control and 4 replications of 25 seeds was used. The following variables were evaluated before and after drying: seed moisture content, percentage of germinated seeds, germination speed index, percentage of mortality, normal and abnormal seedlings. In the storage experiment the seeds were divided into two batches: pre-dried (at 5.0% humidity) and without drying (control at 8.9% humidity). The seeds were then stored in plastic bags in three environments: refrigerator at 5 °C, freezer at ­20 °C and room temperature (29 °C). The seeds were removed every four months and submitted to the humidity and germination test for 24 months. Data from this storage experiment were analyzed considering a randomized block design in a 2 (drying levels: presence and absence) × 3 (storage environments: refrigerator, freezer or room temperature) factorial scheme + 2 controls (with and without drying at baseline) and 4 repetitions of 25 seeds. Drying reduced initial seed water content from 8.9% to 5.0%, without loss of viability. Drying in the chamber at 40 °C was faster and more efficient than in silica gel. The results enable classifying the seeds of this species as orthodox, i.e. tolerant to desiccation. The fridge and freezer were efficient for storing the Melanoxylon brauna seeds up to 24 months, independent of previous drying, while storing the seeds at room temperature with previous drying makes them last longer than without drying, as the seeds can last up to 16 months with drying, or 12 months without drying.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade das sementes da leguminosa arbórea Melanoxylon brauna Schott à dessecação e ao armazenamento. No experimento de secagem as sementes de braúna foram submetidas a duas condições de secagem: câmara com circulação forçada de ar (40,18 °C ± 0,13 e 28,48% ± 3,95 UR) e dessecador com sílica gel (27,19 °C ± 1,28 e 26,19% ± 0,94 UR), por diferentes tempos (0, 12, 24, 36, 72, 144 horas). Foi utilizado delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 (método de secagem) × 5 (tempo de secagem), mais a testemunha, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis antes e depois da secagem: teor de umidade da semente, porcentagem de sementes germinadas, índice de velocidade de germinação, porcentagem de mortalidade, de plântulas normais e de anormais. No experimento de armazenamento as sementes foram divididas em dois lotes: com secagem prévia (a 5,0% de umidade) e sem secagem (testemunha, a 8,9% de umidade), e foram armazenadas em embalagens sacos de plástico em três ambientes: geladeira a 5 °C, freezer a ­20 °C e temperatura ambiente (29 °C). A cada quatro meses as sementes foram retiradas e submetidas ao teste de umidade e de germinação durante 24 meses. Os resultados foram avaliados por meio do delineamento em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes, em esquema fatorial 2 (secagem) × 3 (ambiente de armazenamento) + 2 testemunhas. A secagem proporcionou a redução do teor de água inicial das sementes de 8,9% até 5,0%, sem perda da sua viabilidade. A secagem na câmara a 40 °C foi mais rápida e eficiente do que na sílica gel. Os resultados permitem classificar as sementes desta espécie como ortodoxas, ou seja, tolerantes à dessecação. A geladeira e o freezer foram eficientes para o armazenamento das sementes de braúna, até 24 meses, independente da secagem prévia das sementes, enquanto o armazenamento das sementes a temperatura ambiente é mais duradouro quando as sementes são submetidas previamente à secagem, podendo durar até 16 meses com secagem ou 12 meses sem secagem.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Food Storage/methods , Food Preservation/methods , Fabaceae , Seeds , Temperature , Germination
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200031, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345488

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of active compounds concentration present in the industrial by-product of acerola during drying using convective dehydration at 40, 50 and 60 °C. For this, flavones and flavonols, total proanthocyanidins, vitamin C, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity as function of drying time were determined. The drying data were adjusted using the models of Page, Lewis, Henderson & Pabis, Modified Page and Logarithmic. In relation to the applied models, Page model presented the best fit. Acerola by-products dried at 40 °C showed higher concentrations of active compounds and higher antioxidant capacity. Although the drying process provoked changes in concentration of the active compounds, in the studied temperature range, significant concentrations of those bioactive compounds were observed. Thus, acerola by-product may present potential for application in different foods.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid , Malpighiaceae , Phytochemicals , Food Preservation , Antioxidants
5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 1911-1918, 01-11-2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147955

ABSTRACT

Beans are the main source of protein of plant origin in the Brazilian diet, they also contain phenolic compounds, antioxidants, iron, fibers and vitamins. The BRSMG Majestoso cultivar belongs to the commercial group of carioca beans, displays high productivity, excellent health and a 90-day cycle, has high yield and is resistant to disease. The study of physical properties enables the prediction of agricultural products behavior relative to responses of physical and chemical treatments, in order to allow the maintenance of quality and safety of processed foods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of drying on the physical characteristics of beans of the BRSMG Majestoso cultivar. Beans with an initial moisture content of approximately 0.2660 d.b. (dry basis) were used, and dried at 40ºC. The following physical characteristics were determined: bulk density, unit density, intergranular porosity, 1000-grain weight, sphericity, circularity, geometric diameter, unit volume, projected area, surface area and the surface to volume ratio. Based on the results, a reduction in the moisture content of the beans promotes an increase in bulk density, unit density, porosity, sphericity, circularity and the surface to volume ratio. Conversely, the 1000-grain weight, geometric diameter, unit volume, projected area and surface area decreased as the moisture content of the beans was reduced.


Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho, avaliar o efeito da secagem sobre as características físicas de grãos de feijão cultivar BRSMG Majestoso. Foram utilizados grãos com teor de água inicial de aproximadamente 0,2660 b.s. (base seca), e submetidos à secagem com temperatura de 40 ºC. Foram determinadas as propriedades físicas: massa específica aparente, massa específica unitária, porosidade intergranular, massa de mil grãos, esfericidade, circularidade, diâmetro geométrico, volume unitário, área projetada, área superficial e a relação superfície/volume. Com base nos resultados obtidos conclui-se que a redução do teor de água dos grãos de feijão proporcionou aumento da massa específica aparente e unitária, porosidade, esfericidade, circularidade e relação superfície/volume. Em contrapartida, a massa de mil grãos, o diâmetro geométrico, o volume unitário, a área projetada e a área superficial diminuíram com a redução do teor de água dos grãos de feijão.


Subject(s)
Phaseolus , Food Preservation
6.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 190-199, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115488

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to develop and assess the physicochemical, sensory parameters, and shelf life estimation of multicomponent snack bars based on tapioca flour, Brazil nut, and açaí or cupuassu pulp. The physicochemical composition of açaí- and cupuassu-flavored snack bars had, respectively, 0.92 and 0.99% ash, 19.22 and 17.02% lipids, 3.02 and 3.03% protein, 1.06 and 1.69% fiber, and 448 and 436 kcal/100 g energy value. The shear stress test showed the consumer needs to bite more strongly to break the açaí-flavored bar. The opposite was observed in the hardness test, in which the bite compression force during mastication was greater for the cupuassu-flavored bar. The bars had water activity below 0.6, which denotes microbiological stability. The sensory analysis ranked the bars between "liked slightly" and "liked very much," which was confirmed by the acceptability index above 75% for all attributes assessed. According to the results a significant increase in water activity over storage was observed suggest the packaging used in the tests did not present a satisfactory barrier to water vapor permeability. Only water activity was used to estimate shelf life, which was determined as 58 days and 49 days for the açaí- and cupuassu-flavored bars, respectively. Thus, the snack bars represent an alternative for athletes as well as individuals with celiac disease since they are gluten free.


RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar y evaluar los parámetros físicos, físico-químicos, microbiológicos, sensoriales y la vida útil en estante de barras a base de harina de tapioca, castaña de Brasil y pulpa de açaí o cupuaçu. En cuanto a la composición físico-química, las barras multicomponentes sabor açaí y cupuaçu presentaron, respectivamente, 0,92 y 0,99% de cenizas, 19,22 y 17,02% de lípidos, 3,02 y 3,03% proteínas, 1,06 y 1,69% de fibras y 448 y 436 kcal/100g de valor energético. La prueba de cizallamiento y dureza mostraron que el consumidor necesita una fuerza de mordida mayor para romper la barra sabor açaí. El comportamiento contrario fue observado en la prueba de dureza donde la fuerza de compresión de la mordida, durante la masticación, fue mayor en la barra sabor cupuaçu. Para el análisis sensorial se observó que las barras evaluadas recibieron notas situadas entre las categorías "me gustó ligeramente" y "me gustó mucho", resultado comprobado por el índice de aceptabilidad con valores superiores al 75% para todos los atributos evaluados. De acuerdo con los resultados, se observó un aumento significativo en la actividad de agua durante el almacenamiento, lo que sugiere que el embalaje utilizado en las pruebas no presentó una barrera satisfactoria para la permeabilidad al vapor de agua. Para la estimación de vida de estante sólo la actividad de agua fue utilizada para los cálculos, siendo el tiempo de vida de estante determinado en 58 días para la barra sabor açaí y 49 días para la barra sabor cupuaçu. Así, las barras multicomponentes elaboradas representam una alternativa para atletas, así como para portadores de la enfermedad celíaca, visto la ausencia de gluten en su composición.


Subject(s)
Malvaceae , Bertholletia , Snacks , Euterpe , Flour , Taste , Brazil , Analysis of Variance , Food Microbiology , Food Preservation
7.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 41(1): 3-12, jan./jun.2020. Tab, Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224198

ABSTRACT

The tendency to replace synthetic antimicrobials for natural ones in food industry and an increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics resulted in a necessity to find new alternatives, and essential oils are emerging as promising substitutes for synthetic chemicals in food preservation. The objective of this work was to test the antimicrobial activity of oregano (OEO) and clove (CEO) essential oils over a range of bacteria, molds and yeast of importance as pathogens or food spoilage. The antimicrobial activity of oregano and clove essential oils were analyzed by disk diffusion method and broth microdilution test (MIC) of OEO and CEO were determined for each tested microorganism. OEO and CEO were evaluated in natura (IN) and after thermal processing (TP) at 120 o C for 5 min. Both OEO and CEO presented the same inhibition zones for IN and TP samples, for all tested microorganisms, indicating that these oils can be thermally processed maintaining their antimicrobial activity. For OEO and CEO, the more sensitive microorganisms were the fungi (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum and Candida albicans), followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Methicillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); the lowest antimicrobial activities were observed against Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis. In general, OEO resulted in higher inhibition zones and lower MIC values for all tested microorganisms, suggesting that it was more effective as an antimicrobial agent than CEO (AU)


A preferência mundial para alimentos mais saudáveis e livres de aditivos químicos pelos consumidores, associada ao aumento da resistência bacteriana, resultaram na necessidade de medidas alternativas no setor de alimentos. Os óleos correspondem a antimicrobianos naturais e constituem uma classe emergente como substitutos dos produtos químicos sintéticos na conservação de alimentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de orégano (OEO) e cravo (CEO ) frente a bactérias, fungos e leveduras de importância no setor de alimentos. OEO e CEO foram avaliados in natura (IN) e após processamento térmico (TP) a 120 o C por 5 minutos. Para avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana frente a cada microrganismo empregou-se o método de discodifusão e o teste de microdiluição em caldo (MIC). Tanto o OEO quanto o CEO apresentaram zonas de inibição semelhantes para amostras IN e TP, indicando que a atividade antimicrobiana desses óleos são resistentes a altas temperaturas. Os microrganismos mais sensíveis para ambos os óleos essenciais foram os fungos (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum e Candida albicans), seguidos por Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus e Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA). Já as cepas Streptococcus mutans e Enterococcus faecalis apresentaram uma maior resistência frente à atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais. Em geral, os maiores halos de inibição e menores valores de MIC foram obtidos quando empregado o OEO, sugerindo uma maior atividade microbiana do mesmo quando comparado ao CEO. (AU)


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Food , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Yeasts , Diffusion , Food Preservation , Fungi
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190046, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132244

ABSTRACT

Abstract This research aims to determine the efficiency of chitosan and xanthan gum films in conservation of croaker fillets kept in refrigeration for 9 days. Proximal composition, loss of mass, color, pH, TVB-N (Total Volatile Bases) and microbiological profile were assessed. The films were prepared with chitosan and xanthan gum in varying mass proportions 100:0, m:m (C100XG0); 60:40, m:m (C60XG40); 50:50, m:m (C50XG50). They presented the respective values for moisture content, water solubility, thickness and water vapor permeability: 24.59%, 19.50%, 0.086 mm and 11.45gm-1.s-1.Pa-1for C100XG0; 24.58%; 20.27%, 0.091 mm and 10.41 gm-1.s-1.Pa-1for C60XG40; 22.11%, 22.06%, 0.089 mm and 10.68 gm-1.s-1.Pa-1 forC50XG50.The films were made in small bags format capable to hold about 20 g of fish fillets. A control sample was prepared in parallel, using polyethylene bags under the same storage conditions. The results showed that the chitosan films combined with xanthan gum had excellent antimicrobial properties, capable of preserving the quality of chilled fish fillets during the studied period, since it inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus coagulase-positive, Salmonella spp and coliforms at 45 ° C. Mass loss of the croaker fillets was not significantly affected by xanthan gum addition to the films. On the other hand, xanthan gum addition affected pH and color parameters of the corvina fillets. It was also verified that the combination of these two polymers promoted the reduction of N-BVT, being the C50XG50 film that presented the best response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Xanthomonas/chemistry , Food Packaging/methods , Chitosan/chemistry , Fishes/microbiology , Food Preservation/methods , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents
9.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1821-1828, nov./dec. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049130

ABSTRACT

Lippia gracilis, popularly known in Brazil as 'alecrim-de-tabuleiro', is used for many purposes, especially as antimicrobial and antiseptic. The drying process of aromatic and medicinal plants aims to minimize the loss of active principles and slow their deterioration, which may greatly influence the yield and chemical composition of some species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of drying times (0, 2, 4, and 8 days) on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of L. gracilis accessions LGRA-106, LGRA-109, and LGRA-201. The leaves were dried at 40 oC, and essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis was performed by GC/MS. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replications. The accessions of L. gracilis LGRA-106, LGRA-109, and LGRA-201 presented higher essential oil at four days of drying time. The accession LGRA-201 showed the highest essential oil yields at four and eight days of drying, with mean values of 0.038 and 0.029 mL g-1, respectively. The drying time did not influence the contents of thymol, methyl-thymol, γ-terpinene, and carvacrol in the essential oils of L. gracilis, but affected the contents of ß-caryophyllene, p-cymene, and carvacrol acetate. The essential oils of the three accessions analyzed in this study revealed different chemical profiles.


Lippia gracilis, conhecida popularmente como alecrim-de-tabuleiro é usada para muitos efeitos, especialmente como antimicrobiano e antisséptico. O processo de secagem das plantas aromáticas e medicinais visa minimizar a perda de princípios ativos e retardar a sua deterioração os mesmos podem afetar sobremaneira o rendimento e a composição química de algumas plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foiavaliar o efeito de diferentes tempos de secagem (0, 2, 4 e 8 dias) no teor e na composição química do óleo essencial dos acessos LGRA-106, LGRA-109 e LGRA-201 de L. gracilis.As folhas foram secas a 40 oC e a extração do óleo essencial foi por hidrodestilação. A análise química foi feita através CG/EM. O ensaio foi implantado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Os acessos de L. gracilis LGRA-106, LGRA- 109 e LGRA-201 apresentaram maiores rendimentos de óleo essencial no tempo de secagem de quatro dias. O acesso LGRA-201 apresentou os maiores teores de óleo essencial aos quatro e oito dias de secagem, com valores médios de 0,038 e 0,029 mL g-1, respectivamente. O tempo de secagem não influenciou os teores de timol, metil-timol, terpineno e carvacrol nos óleos essenciais de L. gracilis, porém afetou os teores de ß-cariofileno, ρ-cimeno, and acetato de carvacrol. Os óleos essenciais dos três acessos analisados apresentaram perfis químicos diferentes entre si.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Oils, Volatile , Verbenaceae , Lippia , Food Preservation
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 651-658, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001484

ABSTRACT

Abstract The organoleptic evaluation and proximate analysis of Clarias gariepinus and Cyprinus carpio were determined in fresh fish and when refrigerated at two different temperatures (-21 °C and 4 °C) for a period of six weeks. A panel of twelve trained judges evaluated the color (live), texture, softness and flavor of fish meat after two minutes' steam cooking. Average score revealed a general decline in organoleptic properties such as color, texture, freshness, and taste of C. gariepinus and C. carpio stored at two temperatures compared to the fresh fish. Proximate analysis revealed a more decrease in crude protein and lipid contents and increase in ash content in C. gariepinus and C. carpio at the two storage temperatures compared to the fresh fish muscle. Moisture content decreased in the fish muscle samples of both the fish species stored at -21 °C but increased in the 4 °C stored samples. pH of fish was found to increase in the two stored temperatures. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the organoleptic and proximate composition of the ice stored and fresh C. gariepinus and C. carpio, the same temperature and between the two different temperatures. The quality of fish muscle stored at 4 °C deteriorated faster than that of the -21 °C. Thus, storage temperature and duration have adverse effects on the nutritional quality of fish meat.


Resumo A avaliação organoléptica e a análise aproximada de Clarias gariepinus e Cyprinus carpio foram determinadas em peixe fresco e refrigerado a duas temperaturas diferentes (-21 °C e 4 °C) por um período de seis semanas. Um painel de doze juízes treinados avaliou a cor (ao vivo), textura, maciez e sabor da carne de peixe após dois minutos de cozimento a vapor. O escore médio revelou um declínio geral nas propriedades organolépticas, como cor, textura, frescor e sabor de C. gariepinus e C. carpio armazenados a duas temperaturas em comparação com o peixe fresco. A análise imediata revelou uma maior diminuição nos teores de proteína bruta e lipídios e aumento no teor de cinzas em C. gariepinus e C. carpio nas duas temperaturas de armazenamento em comparação com o músculo do peixe fresco. O teor de umidade diminuiu nas amostras de músculo de peixe de ambas as espécies de peixes armazenadas a -21 °C, mas aumentou nas amostras armazenadas a 4 °C. O pH dos peixes aumentou nas duas temperaturas armazenadas. Houve diferenças significativas (P <0,05) na composição organoléptica e próxima do gelo armazenado e fresco C. gariepinus e C. carpio, a mesma temperatura e entre as duas temperaturas diferentes. A qualidade do músculo do peixe armazenado a 4 °C deteriorou-se mais rapidamente do que a temperatura de -21 °C. Assim, a temperatura e duração do armazenamento têm efeitos adversos na qualidade nutricional da carne de peixe.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes , Carps , Food Quality , Food Preservation/methods , Refrigeration/standards , Cold Temperature , Fish Products/analysis , Fish Products/standards , Meat/analysis , Meat/standards
11.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(5): 407-413, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059102

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vegetables have some beneficial effects on human health due to their antioxidant compounds, like polyphenols. Cooking leads to many physical and chemical changes to plant structure that can alter the phytochemical compounds of vegetables. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of heat treatment and freezing on the antioxidant properties of garlic, onion, broccoli and cauliflower. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental in vitro study in a university laboratory. METHODS: Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis), garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa) were obtained from a local store. These vegetables were divided into three treatment groups: raw, heated and frozen. The heat treatment consisted of heating them in a drying oven at 150 °C for 20 minutes. The freezing treatment consisted of keeping them frozen at -20 °C until analysis. The total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde levels of the vegetables were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, respectively. RESULTS: Heat treatment had deleterious effects on the antioxidant properties of onion and garlic; and it decreased the antioxidant activity of broccoli. Freezing improved the antioxidant activity of broccoli and garlic, but had detrimental effects for cauliflower and onion. CONCLUSIONS: Heat treatment and freezing exhibit different effects on the antioxidant properties of broccoli, cauliflower, garlic and onion. Convenient cooking and storage patterns should be identified for each vegetable, to obtain the best nutritional benefit from the antioxidant compounds of vegetables.


Subject(s)
Vegetables/chemistry , Allium/chemistry , Food Handling/methods , Food Preservation/methods , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Brassica/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Onions/chemistry , Freezing , Garlic/chemistry , Heating , Nutritive Value
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 687-695, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011277

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi desenvolver a carne de bijupirá defumada, assim como avaliar o rendimento, a qualidade bacteriológica, a composição centesimal e a aceitabilidade do produto. Análises microbiológicas de pesquisa de Salmonella sp. e contagens de Staphylococcus aureus, coliformes totais e Escherichia coli foram realizadas. Foi determinada a composição centesimal e realizado o teste de aceitação do produto. O rendimento médio da carne após a salga foi de 83,41%, com base no peso do charuto. A análise microbiológica da carne defumada apresentou-se positiva em apenas uma amostra para Staphylococcus aureus e negativa para as demais bactérias. O produto possui boa qualidade nutricional e alcançou 97% de aceitação para o aspecto global, atingindo média de 6,26 (± 0,99). A carne de bijupirá defumada obteve condições higiênico-sanitárias satisfatórias, boa qualidade nutricional, além de alto índice de aceitação sensorial, destacando-se os atributos textura e sabor. Evidenciou-se, assim, que esse tipo de processo pode ser realizado em escala artesanal ou industrial.(AU)


The objective of the study was to develop the smoked cobia meat and to evaluate the yield, the bacteriological quality, the centesimal composition, and the acceptability of the product. Microbiological analysis of Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus, total coliforms and Escherichia coli counts were performed. The centesimal composition was determined and the acceptance test was performed. The average yield of the product after salting was 83.41% based on the fish roll weight. The microbiological analysis of the smoked meat showed positive in only one sample for Staphylococcus aureus and negative for the other bacteria. The product has a good nutritional quality and was accepted obtaining 97% for the overall aspect, average of 6.26 (± 0.99). The smoked cobia meat obtained satisfactory hygienic-sanitary conditions, good nutritional quality, besides a high index of sensorial acceptance emphasizing the texture and flavor attributes. Smoked process can be easily carried out on an artisanal or industrial scale.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Colimetry , Fish Products/microbiology , Fishes , Food Preservation
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180471, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055381

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study investigated the influences of selected coatings (paraffin wax (PW), chitosan (CH), whey protein isolate (WPI), and soy protein isolate (SPI)) on the quality changes of hardboiled salted duck eggs when kept under ambient temperature (30±2 oC). At 5-day intervals for 15 days, samples were tested for color (L*, C*, and h˚), shell strength, weight loss, microbial analysis, water activity, moisture, pH, salt content, TBARS, and sensory analysis. L*, C* and h˚ gradually decreased in egg white, whereas C* and h˚ gradually increased in egg yolk. Shell strength gradually decreased in all cases, and weight loss similarly increased throughout the storage. PW and WPI coatings gave the best shell strengths and the least weight loss. The aw was not significantly different between the treatments. WPI and PW retained the most moisture. A slight decrease in pH was observed in all the samples (P ≥ 0.05). On the other hand, salt content gradually increased with storage time, and the WPI and SPI treatments gave < 2% salt accumulation. TBARS steadily increased throughout storage, and the WPI samples had the least lipid oxidation. TPC, mold, and yeast at the end of storage were the least with the WPI treatment. Both the storage period and coating material choice significantly influenced the sensory scores that declined throughout the storage. Overall, the WPI coating treatment gave the best results.


Subject(s)
Eggs/standards , Food Storage/methods , Linings , Food Preservation
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 929-935, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974283

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of nanoemulsions encapsulating essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare), both in vitro and after application on Minas Padrão cheese. Nanodispersions were obtained by the phase inversion temperature method. Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp., and Penicillium sp. genera were isolated from cheese samples and used to evaluate antifungal activity. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of non-encapsulated and encapsulated oregano essential oil were determined, and they were influenced by the encapsulation of the essential oil depending on the type of fungus. The antifungal activity of the nanoencapsulated oregano essential oil in cheese slices showed no evidence of an effect of the MICs, when applied in the matrix. On the other hand, an influence of contact time of the nanoemulsion with the cheese was observed, due to the increase in water activity. It was concluded that nanoencapsulated oregano essential oil presented an inhibitory effect against the three genera of fungi evaluated. If environmental parameters, such as storage temperature and water activity, were controlled, the inhibitory effect of nanoemulsions of oregano oil could possibly be greatly improved, and they could be presented as a potential alternative for the preservation of Minas Padrão cheese against fungal contamination.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cheese/microbiology , Origanum/chemistry , Food Preservation/methods , Food Preservatives/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Food Contamination/prevention & control , Cheese/analysis , Food Preservatives/analysis , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/analysis
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(6 Supplement 1): 141-150, nov./dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-968879

ABSTRACT

The development and improvement of fruit processing technologies in powder form is a alternative to add value to the product and increase the income of the producers, being required the knowledge of physicalchemical properties of the product. The aim of this study was to determine the physical-chemical properties of soursop powder obtained by foam-mat drying. To the foam formation, albumin was added to the pulp at concentration of 7.43% in mass and subjected in mixer for 15 min; then, it was spread onto trays forming a thin layer about 5.0 mm thick, and the drying conditions were: 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C, 5.6 m s-1 and 60%. Moisture content, water activity, titratable total acidity and hydrogenic potential of soursop powder indicate good stability of the product obtained by foam-mat drying, without the need of addition of preservatives for its conservation. Reducing sugars increased with increasing drying temperature due to the concentration of the compounds caused by moisture content reduction. In addition, the color was the physical-chemical property that presented greater sensitivity to drying, mainly by darkening index. Temperatures lower than 60 °C indicate higher preservation of initial characteristics for soursop powder. Besides that, bulk density, true density, porosity and repose angle increased subtly with drying temperature.


O desenvolvimento e aperfeiçoamento de tecnologias de processamentos de frutos na forma de pó é uma alternativa para agregar valor ao produto e aumentar a renda dos produtores, sendo necessário para isso o conhecimento das propriedades físico-químicas do produto. Assim objetivou-se determinar as propriedades físicoquímicas do pó de graviola obtido pelo método de secagem em leito de espuma. Para a formação da espuma foi adicionada, à polpa, albumina, na concentração de 7,43% em massa e submetida à agitação em batedeira doméstica, durante 15 min; em seguida, esta foi espalhada sobre bandejas formando uma camada fina de cerca de 5,0 mm de espessura cujas condições de secagem foram: de 40, 50, 60, 70 e 80 °C, 5,6 m s-1 e 60%. O teor de água, atividade de água, acidez total titulável e o potencial hidrogeniônico do pó de graviola indicam boa estabilidade do produto obtido pelo método de secagem em leito de espuma, não necessitando portanto, da adição de conservantes para sua conservação. Os açúcares aumentaram com o incremento da temperatura de secagem devido a concentração dos compostos provocada pela redução do teor de água. Adicionalmente, a cor foi a propriedade físico-química que apresentou maior sensibilidade à secagem, principalmente pelo índice de escurecimento. Temperaturas menores que 60 °C indicam maior preservação das características iniciais para o pó de graviola. Além disso, a massa específica aparente e unitária, a porosidade e o ângulo de repouso aumentaram sutilmente com a temperatura de secagem.


Subject(s)
Drying Beds , Physical and Chemical Properties , Annona , Albumins , Food Preservation
16.
Hig. aliment ; 32(282/283): 40-43, jul.-ago. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-946665

ABSTRACT

O hambúrguer é um produto industrializado de origem animal, extremamente utilizado pela população principalmente pela sua praticidade no consumo. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo realizar a análise microbiológica de hambúrgueres congelados comercializados em Maceió-AL. Foram selecionadas nove marcas comerciais de hambúrgueres dos tipos: bovino, frango e misto (bovino e frango), foram pesquisados os seguintes micro-organismos: bactérias do grupo coliformes, Estafilococos coagulase positiva e Salmonella sp. As amostras das marcas comerciais B (misto), E (frango), F (misto), H (bovino) apresentaram contaminação por coliformes a 35 ºC e 45 ºC, porém dentro dos padrões da legislação brasileira. Para inibir o crescimento de micro-organismos nos alimentos cárneos é necessário manter a temperatura de armazenamento e distribuição a -18 °C, além da conservação destes em equipamentos adequadamente higienizados, de forma a garantir a qualidade sanitária do produto. De acordo com os resultados encontrados, todos os hambúrgueres congelados industrializados avaliados estavam aptos para consumo.


The burger is a product of animal origin used by the population, highly industrialized mainly for your convenience in consumption. This work aimed to carry out microbiological analysis of frozen hamburgers marketed in enniskillen has been selected nine trademarks of burgers: beef, chicken and mixed (beef and chicken), were searched the following microorganisms: bacteria of the coliform group, coagulase positive and salmonella sp. In trademarks b (mixed), and(chicken), f (mixed), h (veal) samples obtained coliform contamination to 35° c and 45° c, but within the brazilian legislation standards. To inhibit the growth of microorganisms in meat food is necessary to maintain the temperature of storage and distribution, in-18° c, in addition to the conservation of these properly sanitized equipment, to ensure the sanitary quality of the product. According to the results all the frozen processed burgers were able for consumption.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Food Contamination/analysis , Colimetry/methods , Meat/microbiology , Salmonella/pathogenicity , Prospective Studies , Industrialized Foods , Food Storage/standards , Food Preservation/standards , Frozen Foods/microbiology
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 112-119, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889190

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT An ascomycetes fungus was isolated from brine storage of green olives of the Arauco cultivar imported from Argentina and identified as Monascus ruber. The combined effects of different concentrations of sodium chloride (3.5-5.5%), sodium benzoate (0-0.1%), potassium sorbate (0-0.05%) and temperature (30-40 °C) were investigated on the growth of M. ruber in the brine of stored table olives using a response surface methodology. A full 24 factorial design with three central points was first used in order to screen for the important factors (significant and marginally significant factors) and then a Face-Centered Central Composite Design was applied. Both preservatives prevented fungal spoilage, but potassium sorbate was the most efficient to control the fungi growth. The combined use of these preservatives did not show a synergistic effect. The results showed that the use of these salts may not be sufficient to prevent fungal spoilage and the greatest fungal growth was recorded at 30 °C.


Subject(s)
Food Preservation/methods , Monascus/growth & development , Olea/microbiology , Food Preservation/instrumentation , Food Preservatives/pharmacology , Food Storage , Fruit/chemistry , Fruit/microbiology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Monascus/drug effects , Olea/chemistry , Sodium Benzoate/analysis , Sodium Benzoate/pharmacology , Sodium Chloride/analysis , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology
18.
Hig. aliment ; 32(276/277): 48-52, fev. 27, 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-883092

ABSTRACT

[{"text": "Estudo realizadonas feiras livres do Guamá e do Ver-o-Peso, na cidade de\r\nBelém-Pará,com o objetivo de verificar boas práticas de manipulação de alimentos\r\ne a estrutura dos pontos de venda. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada\r\nem instrumento estruturado com base em resoluções sanitárias brasileiras\r\ne princípios éticos; os dados são apresentados em estatística descritiva.Da\r\namostra, 63% eram mulheres; 71% realizaram exame médico em 2014; 52%\r\nfizeram capacitação para manipulação de alimentos; 62% não usavam equipamento\r\nde proteção individual; 38% usavam adornos. A avaliação qualitativa\r\nevidencia boas condições de adequabilidade às normas.Os serviços de\r\nvigilância sanitária devem realizar maior monitoramento da qualificação dos\r\nmanipuladores de alimentos e observância da legislação sanitária nas feiras\r\nlivres da cidade, como medida preventiva à saúde do consumidor.(AU)", "_i": "pt"}]


Subject(s)
Humans , Street Food , Good Manufacturing Practices , Food Handling/standards , Food Supply , Temperature , Brazil , Food Preservation/methods
19.
Hig. aliment ; 32(276/277): 99-102, fev. 27, 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-884007

ABSTRACT

[{"text": "O aumento no consumo de pescados\r\ndevido a mudanças nas dietas alimentares\r\nfez com que a pescada amarela\r\n(Cynoscion acoupa) se tornasse\r\numa das espécies mais consumidas\r\nno Maranhão. Apesar dos benefícios\r\nnutricionais, esse consumo traz\r\nconsigo riscos à saúde pública quando\r\nocorre contaminação. O objetivo\r\ndesta pesquisa foi verificar a presença\r\nde Listeria monocytogenes e Vibrio\r\nparahaemolyticus em amostras\r\nde pescada amarela (C. acoupa) vendidas\r\nnas feiras e supermercados de\r\nSão Luís/ MA. Foram coletadas 30\r\namostras de filés de pescada amarela\r\nem feiras e supermercados e o\r\nprocessamento dessas amostras foi\r\nfeito no Laboratório de Microbiologia\r\nde Alimentos e Água da Universidade\r\nEstadual do Maranhão.\r\nAs análises microbiológicas foram\r\nrealizadas segundo o Manual de Métodos\r\nde Análise Microbiológica de\r\nAlimentos. Constatou-se a ausência\r\nde V. parahaemolyticus e ausência\r\nde L. monocytogenes em 100% das\r\namostras. Pode-se concluir, assim,\r\nque os resultados estão de acordo\r\ncom a RDC nº 12 de 2001, da ANVISA,\r\ne que, apesar das amostras não\r\napresentarem os patógenos investigados,\r\nfaz-se necessária a criação\r\nde parâmetros para essas bactérias,\r\ncomo forma de prevenção dos riscos\r\nà saúde pública.(AU)", "_i": "pt"}]


Subject(s)
Animals , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolation & purification , Food Contamination/prevention & control , Street Food , Food Preservation/methods , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification , Temperature , Food Samples , Food Storage/methods , Fishes
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(6): 1979-1987, nov.-dez. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-970772

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar como o tempo de secagem e o estádio fenológico da planta influenciam na composição química e qualidade da silagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum, Lam.). O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos (vegetativo: cortar e ensilar; cortar + pré-secagem de 4 horas e ensilar; cortar + pré-secagem de 7 horas e ensilar; pré-florescimento: ensilagem, cortar e ensilar e pré-secagem de 4 horas; florescimento: cortar e ensilar) e quatro repetições, com quatro meses de conservação da silagem. Foram determinados: desaparecimento de massa após o corte, rendimento de massa seca, proteína bruta e frações fibrosas. Além disso, foram determinados na silagem: pH, lipídios totais, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente neutro e ácido. O manejo empregado auxilia na desidratação da forragem, com perda na quantidade de nitrogênio no vegetativo. No pré-florescimento, essa perda não ocorre. O avanço do ciclo da forrageira ocasiona diminuição na quantidade de nutrientes na biomassa, entretanto a produção de forragem é aumentada. A silagem apresentou composição bromatológica semelhante à observada na massa verde de azevém, o que demonstra a eficiência do método de conservação. A ensilagem em estádios mais avançados é aconselhada quando se busca maior quantidade de biomassa ensilada, porém com qualidade inferior.(AU)


The aim was how to define the effect of pre-drying time and the plant phase's influence on chemical composition and quality of ryegrass silage. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six treatments (Vegetative: Cut and ensiled; cut + pre-drying 4 hours and ensiled and; cut + pre-drying of 7 hours and ensiled; Pre-flowering: Silage cutting and ensiled and pre-drying 4 hours Flowering:. cut and ensiled) and four repetitions. The silage was stowed for four months. It were determined the mass disappearance after cutting, dry matter yield, crude protein and fiber fractions. Moreover, it was determined on silage pH, total lipids and insoluble protein content. The management used aids in dehydration of fodder, resulting in losses on the amount of nitrogen on vegetative phase. For pre-flowering, this loss has not occur. The advance of fodder cycle causes a decrease in the amount of nutrients in biomass, but fodder yield increased. Ryegrass silage presented chemical composition similar to that observed on green mass of ryegrass, evinced the efficiency of fodder conservation method. The silage in more advanced phases is advised when seeking greater amount of ensiled biomass, but lower quality.(AU)


Subject(s)
Lolium/chemistry , Food Preservation/classification , Silage/microbiology
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