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Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1194-1208, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345265


The aim of this study was to evaluate the variations in the stability and nutrient concentration in concentrates for piglet feeding. Five treatments were established: T1 - Control, standard concentrate formulation (SCF); T2 - PXMore5, SCF with more 5% vitamin-mineral premix (VMP); T3 - PXLess5, SCF with less 5% VMP. All these three treatments used 400kg batches in an INTECNIAL mixer; T4 - FeedMixer, SCF using a 4,000kg batch in an IMOTO mixer; T5 - PremixMixer, SCF using a 1,200kg batch in an MUYANG mixer. For each treatment, bags of 20kg were stored in three storage places for four months where room temperature and relative humidity was recorded daily. The concentration of nutrients was evaluated through centesimal and mineral analysis. The water activity of concentrate was affected by temperature and relative air humidity in different storage places. The greatest variation in concentration of crude protein, mineral residue, copper, zinc, and selenium was due to the PremixMixer treatment. Regarding the guaranteed levels, the critical value was verified only for the chrome concentration.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as variações na estabilidade e na concentração de nutrientes em concentrados para alimentação de leitões. Foram estabelecidos cinco tratamentos: T1 - controle, concentrado com formulação padrão (CFP); T2 - PXMais5, CFP com 5% a mais de vitaminas e minerais da pré-mistura (PVM); T3 - PXMenos5, CFP com 5% a menos de PVM (todos os três tratamentos utilizaram lotes de 400kg em um misturador INTECNIAL); T4 - FeedMixer, CFP usando um lote de 4.000kg em um misturador IMOTO; T5 - PremixMixer, CFP usando um lote de 1.200kg em um misturador MUYANG. Para cada tratamento, sacos de 20kg foram armazenados em três ambientes distintos por quatro meses, onde a temperatura ambiente e a umidade relativa do ar foram registradas diariamente. A concentração de nutrientes foi avaliada por meio de análises centesimal e mineral. A atividade de água do concentrado foi afetada pela temperatura e a umidade relativa do ar nos diferentes locais de armazenamento. A maior variação na concentração de proteína bruta, resíduo mineral, cobre, zinco e selênio foi devido ao tratamento "MistPremix". Em relação aos níveis de garantia, foi verificado valor crítico apenas para a concentração de cromo.(AU)

Animals , Sus scrofa , Date of Validity of Products , Food Storage , Animal Feed/analysis , Dietary Fats/analysis , Food Quality
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 711-720, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278355


This study aimed to evaluate the productive performance, dry matter intake, apparent digestibility and ingestive behavior of feedlot calves fed corn silage from the feed out face of trench silos with different types of sealing. The animals were divided into three treatments with four repetitions: Conventional seal - double-sided polyethylene of 110µm thickness; Double-sided seal - double-sided polyethylene of 200µm thickness; and Double seal - composed of double face polyethylene with a thickness of 80µm superimposed on a polyamide translucent vacuum film with a thickness of 20µm. The use of double face sealing provided 12.63% increase in average daily gain and improved food conversion by 0.62 percentage points. The apparent digestibility of the diet with double-face sealing system silage was 4.30% higher than the diet with double-face sealing silage and 11.00% higher than the diet with conventional sealing silage. It is recommended to use the double face sealing with 200µm polyethylene and double face sealing with 80µm thick polyethylene on top of a 20µm thick polyamide translucent vacuum film.(AU)

Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho produtivo, o consumo de matéria seca, a digestibilidade aparente e o comportamento ingestivo de novilhos confinados, alimentados com silagem de milho da porção inicial de silos do tipo trincheira, conservada sob distintos tipos de vedação. Os animais foram divididos em três tratamentos, com quatro repetições: vedação convencional - polietileno tipo dupla face, com espessura de 110µm; vedação dupla face - polietileno tipo dupla face, com espessura de 200µm; e dupla vedação - polietileno tipo dupla face, com espessura de 80µm sobreposto a um filme vácuo translúcido de poliamida, com espessura de 20µm. O uso da vedação dupla face proporcionou incremento de 12,63% no ganho de peso médio diário e melhorou em 0,62 ponto percentual a conversão alimentar. A digestibilidade aparente da dieta com silagem do sistema de vedação dupla face foi 4,30% superior em relação à dieta com silagem da dupla vedação e 11,00% superior à dieta com silagem da vedação convencional. Recomenda-se a utilização tanto da vedação dupla face com polietileno de 200µm quanto da dupla vedação com polietileno tipo dupla face, com espessura de 80µm, sobreposto a um filme vácuo translúcido de poliamida com espessura de 20µm.(AU)

Animals , Male , Cattle , Silage/analysis , Weight Gain , Polyethylene , Eating , Food Storage/methods , Food Packaging/methods
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 50: 23-28, Mar. 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292311


BACKGROUND: H2S is proved to be functioning as a signaling molecule in an array of physiological processes in the plant and animal kingdom. However, the H2S synthesis pathway and the responses to cold conditions remain unclear in postharvest mushroom. RESULTS: The biosynthesis of H2S in the Agaricus bisporus mushroom tissues exhibited an increasing tendency during postharvest storage and was significantly triggered by cold treatment. The cystathionine clyase (AbCSE) and cystathionine b-synthase (AbCBS) genes were cloned and proved responsible for H2S biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of AbCSE and AbCBS were crucial for the enzyme activities and subsequent H2S levels. However, the AbMST was not involved in this process. Moreover, the AbCSE and AbCBS genes displayed low identity to the characterized genes, but typical catalytic domains, activity sites, subunit interface sites, and cofactor binding sites were conserved in the respective protein sequences, as revealed by molecular modeling and docking study. The potential transcription factors responsible for the H2S biosynthesis in cold conditions were also provided. CONCLUSIONS: The H2S biosynthetic pathway in postharvest mushroom was unique and distinct to that of other horticultural products.

Agaricus/chemistry , Cystathionine beta-Synthase/metabolism , Cystathionine gamma-Lyase/metabolism , Hydrogen Sulfide/chemical synthesis , Agricultural Cultivation , Agaricus campestris , Cold Temperature , Food Storage
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 464-473, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153351


The objective of this work was to evaluate the sensitivity of Melanoxylon brauna Schott. tree legume seeds to desiccation and storage. In the drying experiment, the Melanoxylon brauna seeds were submitted to two drying conditions: a forced air circulation chamber (40.18 °C ± 0.13 and 28.48% ± 3.95 RH) and a silica gel desiccator (27.19 °C ± 1.28 and 26.19% ± 0.94 RH) for different times (0, 12, 24, 36, 72, and 144 hours). A completely randomized design in a 2 (drying methods) × 5 (drying times) factorial scheme plus control and 4 replications of 25 seeds was used. The following variables were evaluated before and after drying: seed moisture content, percentage of germinated seeds, germination speed index, percentage of mortality, normal and abnormal seedlings. In the storage experiment the seeds were divided into two batches: pre-dried (at 5.0% humidity) and without drying (control at 8.9% humidity). The seeds were then stored in plastic bags in three environments: refrigerator at 5 °C, freezer at ­20 °C and room temperature (29 °C). The seeds were removed every four months and submitted to the humidity and germination test for 24 months. Data from this storage experiment were analyzed considering a randomized block design in a 2 (drying levels: presence and absence) × 3 (storage environments: refrigerator, freezer or room temperature) factorial scheme + 2 controls (with and without drying at baseline) and 4 repetitions of 25 seeds. Drying reduced initial seed water content from 8.9% to 5.0%, without loss of viability. Drying in the chamber at 40 °C was faster and more efficient than in silica gel. The results enable classifying the seeds of this species as orthodox, i.e. tolerant to desiccation. The fridge and freezer were efficient for storing the Melanoxylon brauna seeds up to 24 months, independent of previous drying, while storing the seeds at room temperature with previous drying makes them last longer than without drying, as the seeds can last up to 16 months with drying, or 12 months without drying.

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade das sementes da leguminosa arbórea Melanoxylon brauna Schott à dessecação e ao armazenamento. No experimento de secagem as sementes de braúna foram submetidas a duas condições de secagem: câmara com circulação forçada de ar (40,18 °C ± 0,13 e 28,48% ± 3,95 UR) e dessecador com sílica gel (27,19 °C ± 1,28 e 26,19% ± 0,94 UR), por diferentes tempos (0, 12, 24, 36, 72, 144 horas). Foi utilizado delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 (método de secagem) × 5 (tempo de secagem), mais a testemunha, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis antes e depois da secagem: teor de umidade da semente, porcentagem de sementes germinadas, índice de velocidade de germinação, porcentagem de mortalidade, de plântulas normais e de anormais. No experimento de armazenamento as sementes foram divididas em dois lotes: com secagem prévia (a 5,0% de umidade) e sem secagem (testemunha, a 8,9% de umidade), e foram armazenadas em embalagens sacos de plástico em três ambientes: geladeira a 5 °C, freezer a ­20 °C e temperatura ambiente (29 °C). A cada quatro meses as sementes foram retiradas e submetidas ao teste de umidade e de germinação durante 24 meses. Os resultados foram avaliados por meio do delineamento em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes, em esquema fatorial 2 (secagem) × 3 (ambiente de armazenamento) + 2 testemunhas. A secagem proporcionou a redução do teor de água inicial das sementes de 8,9% até 5,0%, sem perda da sua viabilidade. A secagem na câmara a 40 °C foi mais rápida e eficiente do que na sílica gel. Os resultados permitem classificar as sementes desta espécie como ortodoxas, ou seja, tolerantes à dessecação. A geladeira e o freezer foram eficientes para o armazenamento das sementes de braúna, até 24 meses, independente da secagem prévia das sementes, enquanto o armazenamento das sementes a temperatura ambiente é mais duradouro quando as sementes são submetidas previamente à secagem, podendo durar até 16 meses com secagem ou 12 meses sem secagem.

Desiccation , Food Storage/methods , Food Preservation/methods , Fabaceae , Seeds , Temperature , Germination
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 387-391, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153349


Poor storage conditions provide favorable environment to stored grain pests for their growth. The bio-pesticides are the best alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Present study was conducted to compare toxicity of Rubus fruticosus and Valeriana jatamansi against granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius and subsequent changes in enzyme activity responsible for grain damage. In current research 5 g of R. fruticosus fruit and V. jatamansi rhizome powders were tested separately against S. granarius, in 50 g wheat whole grains for seven days in comparison with the control. The enzymatic activity of malate dehydrogenase and α-amylase was observed in the cellular extracts of S. granarius. The insects were crushed and homogenized in phosphate-buffer solution and centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 5 minutes. For the enzymatic measurement supernatant was tested; the spectrophotometer was adjusted at 340 nm. The reagents were mixed and incubated at 25 °C for five minutes. The cuvettes were placed in the experimental and reference sites of spectrophotometer and recorded the change in absorbance for 3-4 minutes. There was 5.60% and 14.92% reduction in the activity of malate dehydrogenase in R. fruticosus and V. jatamansi, treated insects, respectively. The alpha amylase enzyme activity was 6.82% reduced and 63.63% increase in R. fruticosus and V. jatamansi, treated insects, respectively. Present study addresses that both plant powders are effective against granary weevil by altering enzyme activities so both the plant powders can be used as bio-pesticides against the stored grains pests.

As más condições de armazenamento proporcionam um ambiente favorável às pragas armazenadas para o crescimento. Os biopesticidas são as melhores alternativas aos pesticidas sintéticos. O presente estudo foi conduzido para comparar a toxicidade de Rubus fruticosus e Valeriana jatamansi contra gorgulhos, Sitophilus granarius e subsequentes alterações na atividade enzimática responsáveis ​​por danos aos grãos. Na pesquisa atual, 5 g de frutos de R. fruticosus e pós de rizoma de V. jatamansi foram testados separadamente contra S. granarius, em 50 g de grãos integrais de trigo por sete dias, em comparação com o controle. A atividade enzimática da malato desidrogenase e α-amilase foi observada nos extratos celulares de S. granarius. Os insetos foram esmagados e homogeneizados em solução tampão fosfato e centrifugados a 10000 rpm por 5 minutos. Para a medição enzimática, o sobrenadante foi testado; o espectrofotômetro foi ajustado a 340 nm. Os reagentes foram misturados e incubados a 25 °C por cinco minutos. As cubetas foram colocadas nos locais experimentais e de referência do espectrofotômetro e registradas as alterações na absorbância por 3-4 minutos. Houve redução de 5,60% e 14,92% na atividade da malato desidrogenase em R. fruticosus e V. jatamansi, insetos tratados, respectivamente. A atividade da enzima alfa amilase foi reduzida em 6,82% e aumento de 63,63% em R. fruticosus e V. jatamansi, insetos tratados, respectivamente. O presente estudo aborda que ambos os pós de plantas são eficazes contra o gorgulho do celeiro, alterando as atividades enzimáticas, de modo que ambos os pós de plantas possam ser usados ​​como biopesticidas contra pragas de grãos armazenados.

Animals , Valerian/toxicity , Weevils , Biological Control Agents/administration & dosage , Rubus/toxicity , Pest Control, Biological/methods , alpha-Amylases , Food Storage/standards , Malate Dehydrogenase
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2059-2068, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142288


O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a interferência do teor de gordura do leite no ponto de congelamento (PC) obtido pelo infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR). Uma fração de leite cru foi desnatada, obtendo-se creme e leite desnatado. O leite integral e o desnatado foram adicionados com água (0%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% e 20%). O leite desnatado remanescente foi adicionado com creme (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) e água (0%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% e 20%). As amostras foram analisadas para PC (crioscópio eletrônico e FTIR) e composição (FTIR). O PC medido por FTIR foi altamente correlacionado com o método do crioscópio eletrônico (acima de 98,5%) e, como esperado, a adição de água foi significativa (P≤0,001) ao aumentar o PC do leite em ambos os métodos. No entanto, o alto teor de gordura no leite cru resultou na redução do PC ao se utilizar o FTIR, enquanto o baixo teor de gordura resultou em aumento do PC (P≤0,001). Uma vez que a adição de água causou o efeito inverso do alto teor de gordura no PC medido por FTIR, é importante considerar o teor de gordura do leite para evitar interpretações erradas do PC quando se utiliza o método FTIR.(AU)

The objective of this study was to investigate the interference of milk fat content upon the Freezing Point (FP) obtained by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR). A fraction of raw milk was skimmed, obtaining cream and skim milk. Whole and skim milk were added with water (0, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20%). The remaining skim milk was added with cream (5, 10, 15, 20%) and water (0, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20%). Samples were analyzed for FP (thermistor cryoscope and FTIR) and composition (FTIR). FP measured by FTIR was highly correlated with the thermistor cryoscope method (above 98.5%) and, as expected, water addition was significant (P≤0.001) upon increasing milk FP in both methods. However, high fat content in raw milk resulted in decreasing FP when using FTIR, while low fat content resulted in increased FP (P≤0.001). Since water addition caused the inverse effect of high fat on FP measured by FTIR, it is important to regard the fat content of milk to avoid misinterpretation of FP when using the FTIR method.(AU)

Milk/chemistry , Food Storage/methods , Raw Foods/analysis , Frozen Foods/analysis , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 62-71, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254807


BACKGROUND: A key challenge for manufacturers of pro-health food containing active probiotic microorganisms is to develop a product with attractive sensory features along with maintenance of declared number of microorganisms during storage and transfer by alimentary tract. RESULTS: The highest concentration of polyphenols was observed in snacks without an additive of probiotics as well as those with an additive of L. rhamnosus and B. animalis bacteria and concentration of these compounds increased by 9.5% during six months of storage. None of the products distinguished itself in the sensorial assessment although each was assessed positively. The number of microorganisms was stable and comparatively high during six months of storage at a room temperature and in cooling conditions (108 cfu/g). In the digestion model, an influence of aggressive digestion conditions was examined in the alimentary tract on the number of microorganisms, which allowed to arrange strains from the most resistant (S. boulardii) to the most sensitive (B. breve). It must be noted that currently on the market there is no available snack containing probiotic yeast as well as there is no literature data on works on such formulation of food. CONCLUSIONS: In the newly developed snack made of chocolate, in which sugar has been replaced with maltitol, a raw material was added in the form of raspberry, prebiotic in the form of inulin and a strain of probiotic bacteria, including the unprecedented so far S. boulardii, which stands a high chance to occupy a good place on the market of functional food.

Probiotics , Functional Food , Chocolate/microbiology , Sugar Alcohols , Temperature , Whole Foods , Digestion , Food Storage , Prebiotics , Synbiotics , Polyphenols , Snacks , Rubus , Maltose/analogs & derivatives
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1821-1829, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131537


The food industry and the frozen fish sector in particular have benefitted greatly from advancements in food processing technologies. This study investigated the effect of adding natural antioxidants such as rosemary and thyme oil to frozen fillets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in order to preserve their quality for consumers. Fillets were treated with rosemary and thyme at two concentrations (1% and 1.5%) and then were stored at 4°C. Samples were analyzed over 4 days for bacteriological (aerobic plate count, psychotropic count, and coliform count), chemical (determination of pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS, and total volatile base nitrogen-TVB-N), and sensory quality examination (color, texture, and odor). Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed among different groups in terms of aerobic plate count, psychotropic count, and coliform count during the storage. Moreover, pH, TVB-N, and TBARS mean values in the treated groups were lower than those in the untreated group. The best sensory quality was obtained at the highest concentrations (1.5%) of thyme and rosemary oil.(AU)

A indústria de alimentos e o setor de peixes congelados, em particular, se beneficiaram dos avanços nas tecnologias de processamento de alimentos. Este estudo investigou o efeito da adição de antioxidantes naturais, como óleo de alecrim e tomilho, a filetes congelados de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), a fim de preservar sua qualidade para os consumidores. Os filés foram tratados com alecrim e tomilho em duas concentrações (1% e 1,5%) e, em seguida, foram armazenados a 4°C. As amostras foram analisadas durante 4 dias para análises bacteriológicas (contagem de placas aeróbicas, psicotrópicas e coliformes), químicas (determinação do pH, substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico-TBARS e nitrogênio base volátil total-TVB-N) e exame da qualidade sensorial (cor, textura e odor). Diferenças significativas (P<0,05) foram observadas entre os diferentes grupos na contagem aeróbia de placas, contagem psicotrópica e contagem de coliformes durante o armazenamento. Além disso, os valores médios de pH, TVB-N e TBARS nos grupos tratados foram inferiores aos do grupo não tratado. A melhor qualidade sensorial foi obtida nas maiores concentrações (1,5%) de tomilho e óleo de alecrim.(AU)

Rosmarinus , Thymus Plant , Food Storage/methods , Meat/analysis , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/analysis , Cichlids , Frozen Foods/analysis
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 1003-1007, 01-05-2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147190


The Brazil nut, fruit of Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., a native plant of the Amazon region and may be considered one of the main extractivist products of countries like Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, Venezuela, Peru and Brazil. In Brazil this plant can be found in the states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima and Tocantins. Species of the Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, have been classified as pest potentials of Brazil nut under storage conditions. Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the main insect pests attacking grain stores worldwide. This specie may be observed attacking grains in the field and in storage facilities (cross-infestation), presenting a wide variety of hosts. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of adults of this species feed on Brazil nuts, and also to identify the type of injury as well as the life span of this coleopteran exposed to the meat of the Brazil nut. No feeding injury was observed on the surface of Brazil nuts and the life span of the insects was similar in treatments both with and without this food source in all populations evaluated. Due to the fact that S. zeamais adults do not injure, or feed on the Brazil nut, this beetle is not able to colonize this product and therefore may be considered a non-pest insect for stored Bertholletia excelsa almonds stored.

A castanha-do-brasil, fruto da Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., que é uma planta nativa da região Amazônica e esse fruto pode ser considerado um dos principais produtos extrativistas de países como Bolívia, Colômbia, Guiana, Venezuela, Peru e Brasil. No Brasil, essa planta pode ser encontrada nos estados do Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima e Tocantins. Espécies de Coleoptera e Lepidoptera foram classificadas como potenciais pragas da castanha-do-brasil em condições de armazenamento. Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) é uma das principais pragas de insetos que atacam os armazéns de grãos em todo o mundo. Esta espécie pode ser observada atacando grãos no campo e em unidades armazenadoras (infestação cruzada), apresentando uma grande variedade de hospedeiros. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial de adultos dessa espécie em se alimentarem de castanha-do-brasil, e também, identificar o tipo de lesão e o tempo de vida deste coleóptero exposto castanha-do-brasil. Não foi observada lesão na superfície da castanha-do-brasil e o tempo de vida dos insetos foram semelhantes nos tratamentos com e sem alimento em todas as populações avaliadas. Devido ao fato de que adultos de S. zeamaisnão lesionaram ou se alimentaram da castanha-do-brasil, este besouro não é capaz de colonizar este produto e, portanto, pode ser considerado um inseto não-praga para as amêndoas de Bertholletia excelsa armazenadas.

Coleoptera , Bertholletia , Food Storage
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 87-101, jan./feb. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049199


This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of crambe grains produced with plant growth regulators in the 2014 and 2015 harvests and stored for 180 days. During crambe cultivation, two foliar sprayings were carried out with the following treatments: 1) control treatment with distilled water; 2) indole-3-acetic acid 100 mg L-1 (IAA); 3) 3-gibberellic acid P.A. 100 mg L-1 (GA3); 4) Stimulate®. After harvesting, the grains were analyzed initially and after 180 days of uncontrolled storage. We checked water content, lipids in hot extraction (HE), lipids in cold extraction (CE), proteins, acidity and antioxidant activity. The Tukey test was used to compare the averages (p<0.05) and the parameters were grouped using a multivariate clustering technique presented in dendogram. The CE and HE lipid contents were reduced after storage, whereas the protein content and antioxidant activity of the grains were not altered by storage. However, the grains that received IAA application showed an increase in the CE lipid content and their preservation after storage. GA3 application, on the other hand, reduced the protein content. Lipid contents remained constant at the end of storage, and the acidity was reduced due to the application of GA3 and Stimulate® plant growth regulators. The 180-day storage changed crambe quality and regulators can assist in preserving grain quality during storage. The CE and HE lipid content and the grain acidity were good indicators for evaluating effects.

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar a composição química dos grãos de crambe produzidos com reguladores vegetais nas safras de 2014 e 2015 e armazenados por 180 dias. Durante o cultivo do crambe, realizaram-se duas pulverizações foliares seguindo os tratamentos: 1) tratamento controle com água destilada; 2) ácido indol-3-acético 100 mg L-1 (AIA); 3) ácido 3-giberélico P.A. 100 mg L-1 (GA3); 4) Stimulate®. Após colhidos, os grãos foram analisados inicialmente e após 180 dias de armazenamento não controlado. Aferiu-se o teor de água, lipídeos em extração a quente (EQ), lipídeos em extração a frio (EF), proteínas, acidez e atividade antioxidante. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey (p<0,05) e os parâmetros agrupados pela técnica multivariada de agrupamento apresentado em dendograma. Os teores de lipídeos EF e EQ reduziram com o armazenamento enquanto que o teor de proteína e a atividade antioxidante dos grãos não foram alterados por esse fator. A aplicação de IAA destacou-se pelo aumento no teor de lipídeos EF e conservação desse após o armazenamento. A aplicação de GA3 reduziu o teor de proteínas. Os teores de lipídeos se mantiveram constante no final do armazenamento e houve redução no teor de acidez em decorrência da aplicação dos reguladores vegetais GA3 e Stimulate®. O armazenamento de 180 dias altera a qualidade de crambe e os reguladores podem auxiliar na preservação da qualidade dos grãos durante o armazenamento. O teor de lipídeos EF, EQ e a acidez dos grãos mostraram-se bons indicadores para avaliação dos efeitos.

Crambe Plant , Antioxidants , Food Storage
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(1): e156883, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122162


The quality of raw milk depends on initial microbial contamination and conditions of storage until industry processing. Considering the influence of time and storage temperature on raw milk microbiota, the objective of this work was to quantify and monitor the multiplication of these groups under different conditions. For this purpose, 41 samples of raw milk were collected immediately after milking, stored in the following storage conditions: 25 °C/2 h; 35 °C/2 h; 7 °C/24 h; 7 °C/48 h and 7 °C/60 h and analyses of aerobic mesophilic, psychrotrophic and proteolytic psychrotrophic microorganisms. The milk samples analyzed in the study had an initial mean count of mesophilic aerobes of 5.38 Log CFU/mL at Time Zero. The milk stored at 25 °C/2 h and 35 °C/2 h kept the mesophilic aerobic counts within the limits established by the legislation (5.48 Log CFU/mL), with an increase in counts of psychrotrophic and proteolytic microorganisms. When stored at 7 °C/24 h and 7 °C/48 h, the count of mesophiles exceeded the established parameters. A significant increase in the count of proteolytic psychrotrophs and psychrotrophs was also observed during storage at 7 °C from 24 h. The results of this study indicate that the temperature of 7 °C is not suitable for the milk conservation, since it was not able to control the microbial multiplication. Thus, the results contribute to the change in milk storage temperature proposed by the new Brazilian legislation.(AU)

A qualidade do leite cru depende da contaminação microbiana inicial e das condições de armazenamento até o processamento na indústria. Considerando a influência do tempo e da temperatura de armazenamento na microbiota do leite cru, o objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar e monitorar a multiplicação desses grupos de microrganismos sob diferentes condições. Para tanto, foram coletadas 41 amostras de leite cru imediatamente após a ordenha, armazenadas nas seguintes condições de armazenamento: 25 °C/2 h; 35 °C/2 h; 7 °C/24 h; 7 °C/48 h e 7 °C/60 h para análise de microrganismos psicrotróficos, aeróbios mesófilos, psicrotróficos e proteolíticos. As amostras de leite analisadas no estudo apresentaram uma contagem média inicial de aeróbios mesófilos de 5.38 Log UFC/mL no Tempo Zero. O leite armazenado a 25 °C/2 h e 35 °C/2 h manteve as contagens aeróbias mesófilas dentro dos limites estabelecidos pela legislação (5,48 Log UFC/mL), com aumento nas contagens de microrganismos psicrotróficos e proteolíticos. Quando armazenado a 7 °C/24 h e 7 °C/48 h a contagem de mesófilos excedeu os parâmetros estabelecidos. Um aumento significativo na contagem de psicrotróficos e psicrotróficos proteolíticos também foi observado durante o armazenamento a 7 °C a partir das 24 h. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que a temperatura de 7 °C não é adequada para a conservação do leite, uma vez que não foi capaz de controlar a multiplicação microbiana. Assim, os resultados contribuem para a mudança na temperatura de armazenamento de leite proposta pela nova legislação brasileira.(AU)

Milk/microbiology , Food Storage/standards , Microbiota , Raw Foods/microbiology , Legislation, Food/standards , Peptide Hydrolases , Brazil
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0842019, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1130142


Ahasverus advena (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) is a secondary pest of stored grains. It is a polyphagic and cosmopolitan species, with little information about its occurrence in the northern region of Brazil. This study was conducted to report the first occurrence of A. advena in corn grains in the city of Plácido de Castro, in the state of Acre, Brazil. In June 2019, the presence of A. advena under development was observed in a mass of corn grains. The identification was made at the species level using the available dichotomous keys. Since this is the first record of A. advena in corn grains in the city of Plácido de Castro, monitoring insects in the mass of corn grains is necessary to prevent the economic damages caused by A. advena to grains.(AU)

Ahasverus advena (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) é uma praga secundária de grãos armazenados. É uma espécie polifágica e cosmopolita, com poucas informações sobre sua ocorrência na região norte do Brasil. Este estudo tem o objetivo de relatar a primeira ocorrência de A. advena em grãos de milho na cidade de Plácido de Castro, Acre, Brasil. Em junho de 2019, observou-se a presença de A. advena desenvolvendo em uma massa de grãos de milho. A identificação foi feita a nível de espécie com a utilização das chaves dicotômicas disponíveis. Como este é o primeiro registro de A. advena em grãos de milho na cidade de Plácido de Castro, o monitoramento dos insetos na massa de grãos de milho é necessário para evitar danos econômicos causados por A. advena nos grãos.(AU)

Animals , Coleoptera , Edible Grain , Zea mays , Agricultural Pests , Food Storage
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1664-1673, nov./dec. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049088


The objective of the present study was to assess the influence of the packaging material (cotton cloth bag, multifolium paper and glass container) and storage environment (laboratory and cold chamber conditions) on fennel seedling growth. Seeds were placed in different packaging materials and exposed to the two environments for twelve months. Assessments were made before storage and at every two months and the following were determined: total emergence, emergence speed index, seedling fresh and dry matter. A completely randomized experimental design was used, with four replications in a 2 x 3 x 6+1 factorial design in split split plots, where the plot was the storage environment (laboratory and cold chamber conditions); the split plot was the storage (cotton cloth bag, multifolium paper and glass container) and the split plot was the storage periods (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months) and plus an additional treatment (before storage). The results showed that the fennel seedlings had superior growth when their seeds were placed in the glass packaging material, regardless of the storage environment.

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da embalagem (saco de algodão, papel multifoliado e vidro) e do ambiente de armazenamento (condições de laboratório e câmara fria) no crescimento de plântulas de erva doce. Para isso, as sementes foram acondicionadas nas diferentes embalagens e expostas aos dois ambientes durante doze meses. As avaliações foram feitas antes do armazenamento e a cada dois meses, tendo sido determinado: emergência total, índice de velocidade de emergência, massa fresca e seca das plântulas. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, num esquema fatorial 2 x 3 x 6 + 1 em parcelas subsubdivididas, no qual a parcela foi o ambiente de armazenamento (condições de laboratório e câmara fria); a subparcela as embalagens (saco de algodão, papel multifoliado e vidro) e a subsubparcela os períodos de armazenamento (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 e 12 meses) e mais um tratamento adicional (antes do armazenamento). Pelos resultados, demonstrou-se que as plântulas de erva doce apresentaram crescimento superior quando suas sementes foram acondicionadas na embalagem de vidro, independente do ambiente de armazenamento.

Product Packaging , Pimpinella , Foeniculum , Food Storage , Seeds
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 42: 42-48, Nov. 2019. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087459


Background: Foods including probiotics are considered "functional foods." As an alternative to dairy products, we investigated the behavior of Lactobacillus casei when exposed to low-pH fruit juice. Juices of fruits such as pineapple, raspberry, and orange were assessed. Free and microencapsulated forms of L. casei were compared, and the viability of the probiotic was evaluated under storage at 4°C for 28 d. Microbiological analyses were carried out to ensure a safe and healthy product for consumers who look for foods with probiotics from sources other than dairy. Results: Low pH affected L. casei survival during storage depending on the type of fruit juice. In the case of pineapple juice, some microcapsules were broken, but microcapsules recovered at the end of the storage period had 100% viability (2.3 × 107 CFU/g spheres). In the case of orange juice, more than 91% viability (5.5 × 106 CFU/g spheres) was found. In raspberry juice, viability decreased rapidly, disappearing at the end of the storage period, which was caused by the absorption of high concentrations of anthocyanin inside microcapsules more than low pH. Conclusion: Low pH affected the survival of L. casei under refrigeration; even when they were microencapsulated, acidic conditions impacted their viability. Although pH affects viability, its value is very sensitive and will depend on the type of fruit juice and its composition. Some fruit juices contain compounds used as substrates for Lactobacillus and other compounds with antimicrobial effects.

Microbial Viability , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Lactobacillus casei/growth & development , Vibration , Cold Temperature , Probiotics , Alginates/chemistry , Food Storage , Pasteurization , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Anthocyanins
Acta toxicol. argent ; 27(1): 13-18, mayo 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010978


El aluminio puede ser consumido por personas a través de la contaminación de alimentos y el agua. Los metales pesa­dos en alimentos de origen animal son un riesgo potencial para la salud de los consumidores. En algunos países, es una práctica habitual que las comidas cocinadas listas para el consumo se presenten y mantengan calientes en bandejas de aluminio en tiendas minoristas, como locales de comida rápida y supermercados. No hay información disponible sobre el desprendimiento de metal en este tipo de recipiente de conservación de alimentos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la concentración de aluminio en la carne y en los líquidos de cocción almacenados en bandejas de aluminio descartables. El diseño del estudio incluyó carne bovina cocida almacenada sola, en una salsa acuosa de hierbas a pH 7, y en una salsa acuosa cítrica (a base de limón) a pH 4, para simular condiciones encontradas en la práctica minorista. El Comité Mixto FAO / OMS de Expertos en Aditivos Alimentarios estableció una ingesta semanal tolerable provisional de 2 mg Al kg-1 de peso corporal. Una sola porción de 250 g de carne en salsa ácida almace­nada en una bandeja de aluminio calentada durante 1, 2, 4 u 8 horas contribuiría con 0,9%, 3,4%, 6,9% y 19,8% respectivamente de acuerdo al límite tolerable. Aunque la carne se mantiene caliente durante largos períodos en bandejas de aluminio descartable, el contenido de aluminio no se acerca a los límites actualmente recomendados. Este estudio proporciona datos que sugieren que puede ser prudente limitar el consumo de este tipo de comidas a base de carne con salsas ácidas almacenadas calientes por tiem­pos extendidos en contenedores de aluminio.

Aluminium can be consumed by people through contamination of foods and in water. Heavy metals in foods of animal origin are a potential risk to the health of consumers. It is common practice in some countries that ready-to-eat cooked meals are often presented and maintained hot in aluminium trays in retail outlets such as fast food take-out stores and supermarkets. There are not available information about the detachment of metal in this kind of container food preservation. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of aluminium in meat and cooking liquids stored in disposable aluminium trays. The design of the study included cooked beef meat stored either alone, or in an aqueous sauce of herbs at pH 7, or in a citric (base of lemon) aqueous sauce at pH 4, to simulate a range of conditions found in retail practice. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives established a provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg Al kg body weight-1. A single 250 g portion of meat in acid sauce stored in a heated aluminium tray for 1, 2, 4, or 8 hours would contribute 0.9%, 3.4%, 6.9% or 19.8% towards this tolerable limit, respectively. Although the aluminium content in meat held warm for long periods in aluminium foil trays does not approach the consumption limits currently recommended, this study provides data that suggest that is may be prudent to limit consumption of ready-to eat meat-based meals with acid sauces stored warm in aluminium containers for extended times.

Humans , Prepared Foods , Food Storage , Aluminum/toxicity , Meat , Cattle , Food Contamination , Food Packaging
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(1): 55-66, jan./fev. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048560


Physiological quality of soybean seeds of five varieties (CD 215, CD 202, CD 233RR (GMO), NK and NK 412113 7059RR (GMO)), stored under cooling and room temperature during eight months as well as B1, B2, and G2 aflatoxins prevalence were evaluated. The tests (moisture content, germination, tetrazolium) were performed before storage and every 60 days. The analysis of aflatoxins presence was carried out at the beginning and at each two months. Two samples of each variety were stored at -4 °C until analysis processing, then high-performance liquid chromatography analysis was used. The seeds showed, in general, water content between 11 and 13% until 60 storage days, whose decrease began up from 120 days. At 60 storage days, the cooled seeds had higher germination percentage when compared to the ones kept under room temperature. In relation to the studied varieties, the highest germination was recorded for CD 215, which differed from CD 202 in both periods. There were factors interactions after 120 and 240 storage days, especially under cooling to 120 days for CD 215 variety. While, at 240 days under room temperature wasobserved the highest germination for the CD 233 RR. The storage conditions were significant at 60, 180 and 240 days for viability, with a higher rate for seeds stored under cooling. Regarding varieties, over the same periods, the CD 202 variety showed lower viability percentage, with NK 412 113 after 180 and 240 days. In general, 90 samples were tested and, 25 were detected the aflatoxins presence. It was observed that the aflatoxins presence in CD 202 was quantitatively greater from 16 tested samples 10 showed some level of aflatoxin contamination. AFB1 and AFB2 aflatoxins represented 50%, while AFG2 was observed in 63% of those samples. There was no difference in relation to seed vigor between conventional or transgenic soybeans seeds. Cooling kept the vigor of CD 215 and CD 233RR varieties until the final of the experiment. There was no influence by the storage to get aflatoxins and temperature association.

Aqualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja de cinco cultivares (CD 215, CD 202, CD 233RR (GMO), NK e NK 412113 7059RR (GMO)), armazenadas sob resfriamento e temperatura ambiente durante oito meses, bem como a prevalência de aflatoxinas B1, B2 e G2 foram avaliadas. Os testes (teor de água, germinação, tetrazólio) foram antes do armazenamento e a cada 60 dias, assim como a presença de aflatoxinas. Duas amostras de cada cultivar foram armazenadas a -4 °C até o momento da análise em cromatografia líquida. As sementes mostraram, em geral, teor de água entre 11 e 13% nos 60 dias de armazenagem, decrescendo aos 120 dias. Aos 60 dias, as sementes resfriadas apresentaram alta germinação quando comparadas àquelas em temperatura ambiente. Quanto às cultivares, maior germinação foi verificada na CD 215, a qual diferiu da CD 202 em ambos os períodos. Houve interação entre os fatores depois de 120 e 240 dias de armazenagem para a CD 215. Enquanto, aos 240 dias em temperatura ambiente a maior germinação foi para a CD 233 RR. As condições de armazenamento foram significativas aos 60, 180 e 240 dias para viabilidade, com maior taxa verificada sob resfriamento. Quanto às cultivares, nos mesmos períodos, a CD 202 mostrou viabilidade mais baixa, junto da NK 412 113 depois de 180 e 240 dias. Foram testadas 90 amostras e em 25 foi detectada a presença de aflatoxinas. Na cultivar CD 202 a quantidade foi maior. De 16 amostras testadas, dez apresentaram algum nível de contaminação por aflatoxina. As aflatoxinas AFB1 e AFB2 representaram 50%, e na AFG2 foi observada em 63% das amostras. Não houve diferença quanto ao vigor entre sementes convencionais ou transgênicas. O resfriamento manteve o vigor das CD 215 e CD 233RR até o final. Em geral, não foi associada maior presença de aflatoxinas às condições de armazenamento testadas.

Seeds , Soybeans , Germination , Food Storage , Mycotoxins
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180365, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055401


Abstract In this study, we aim to determine the shelf life of dried and ready to use-powdered soup samples obtained from different types of fish species such as Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), sea bream (Sparusaurata L.) and sea bass (Dicentrarchuc labrax). For this purpose, the chemical (moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate, ash, pH, Thiobarbituric acid (TBA), Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), microbiological (total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, total yeast and mold, total coliform, Staphylococcus spp. and Salmonella spp.) and sensory properties of fish soup samples were determined during 6-month storage period. The pH, TBA and TVB-N values of all samples increased during the storage period, but these values were within the consumption limits. Additionally, the microbiological properties of all fish soup samples were found within the consumption limits during storage. As a result, a product has been obtained with high nutritional value and rich with regard to protein, oil, and minerals by adding the fish meat to soup samples. It has been determined that the product quality and shelf life significantly increased by using the boiled product for the production of soup samples.

Thiobarbiturates/analysis , Soups , Food Storage/standards , Fishes , Nitrogen/analysis
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180471, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055381


Abstract The present study investigated the influences of selected coatings (paraffin wax (PW), chitosan (CH), whey protein isolate (WPI), and soy protein isolate (SPI)) on the quality changes of hardboiled salted duck eggs when kept under ambient temperature (30±2 oC). At 5-day intervals for 15 days, samples were tested for color (L*, C*, and h˚), shell strength, weight loss, microbial analysis, water activity, moisture, pH, salt content, TBARS, and sensory analysis. L*, C* and h˚ gradually decreased in egg white, whereas C* and h˚ gradually increased in egg yolk. Shell strength gradually decreased in all cases, and weight loss similarly increased throughout the storage. PW and WPI coatings gave the best shell strengths and the least weight loss. The aw was not significantly different between the treatments. WPI and PW retained the most moisture. A slight decrease in pH was observed in all the samples (P ≥ 0.05). On the other hand, salt content gradually increased with storage time, and the WPI and SPI treatments gave < 2% salt accumulation. TBARS steadily increased throughout storage, and the WPI samples had the least lipid oxidation. TPC, mold, and yeast at the end of storage were the least with the WPI treatment. Both the storage period and coating material choice significantly influenced the sensory scores that declined throughout the storage. Overall, the WPI coating treatment gave the best results.

Eggs/standards , Food Storage/methods , Food Preservation
Hig. aliment ; 32(284/285): 104-110, out. 30, 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-964437


O acondicionamento de bebidas carbonatadas em embalagens de alumínio e o aumento do consumo, intensifica a preocupação com relação à contaminação da superfície a ter contato com a boca e à necessidade da higienização das embalagens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a contaminação microbiológica, por meio da pesquisa de coliformes totais, coliformes termotolerante, Escherichia coli, contagem total de bactérias aeróbias mesófilas e contagem total de bolores e leveduras, na superfície superior externa de latas de cervejas e de refrigerantes, refrigerados comercializadas em bares, restaurantes, ambulantes e quiosques; bem como avaliar a influência do selo de alumínio na proteção contra a contaminação em latas de cerveja. Foram avaliadas 90 latas de alumínio, sendo 30 seladas e 30 não seladas contendo cerveja e 30 latas não seladas contendo refrigerante. Os resultados mostraram que 34% das amostras estavam contaminadas por coliformes totais, sendo observado valor igual ou superior a 2400 NMP/cm² em uma amostra de cerveja selada e cerveja não selada, adquiridas de ambulante, e uma amostra não selada adquirida de bar. Quanto a coliformes termotolerante 2,2% das embalagens estavam contaminadas, sendo este detectado em duas amostras de cerveja não selada (4 e 7 NMP/cm²) proveniente de bar. Não foi detectada Escherichia coli nas amostras analisadas. Bactérias aeróbias mesófilas foram detectadas em 84 (93,3%) amostras, sendo a maior contagem observada em uma amostra de refrigerante adquirida de quiosque, com o valor de 2,8x10³ UFC/cm². A contaminação por bolores e leveduras foi observada em 59 (65,5%) amostras, sendo a maior contagem com o valor de 2,7x10³ UFC/cm², observada em uma embalagem de cerveja não selada. Concluiu-se que latas seladas ou sem selo apresentaram níveis de contaminação semelhante, indicando que o selo não promove proteção contra contaminação e as amostras que apresentaram maior contaminação foram aquelas refrigeradas em caixas de isopor com água e gelo.

The packaging of carbonated beverages in aluminum packaging and the increase in consumption increases the concern with regard to contamination of the surface to have contact with the mouth and the need for hygiene of the packages. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination of the external surface of beers and refrigerated cans, commercialized in bars, restaurants, street vendors and kiosks; as well as to evaluate the influence of the aluminum seal in the protection against contamination in beer cans. the following analyzes were performed: total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli, count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and counts of molds and yeasts. Ninety aluminum cans were evaluated, of which 30 were sealed and 30 unsealed containing beer and 30 unsealed cans containing refrigerant. The results showed that 34% of samples were contaminated by total coliforms, with a value of 2400 NMP / cm² being observed in a sample of sealed beer and unsealed beer, purchased on the street, and an unsealed sample purchased from the bar. Regarding thermotolerant coliforms, 2.2% of the packages were contaminated, being detected in two samples of unsealed beer (4 and 7 NMP / cm²) from the bar. No Escherichia coli was detected in the analyzed samples. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were detected in 84 (93.3%) samples, the highest observed in a sample of kiosk purchased refrigerant, with a value of 2.8x10³ CFU / cm². Contamination by molds and yeasts was observed in 59 (65.5%) samples, the highest count being 2.7x10³ CFU / cm², observed in an unsealed beer package. It was concluded that sealed or unsealed cans had levels of similar contamination, indicating that the seal does not promote protection against contamination and the samples that presented the highest contamination were those refrigerated in styrofoam boxes with water and ice.

Microbiological Techniques , Environmental Pollution , Food Packaging , Foodborne Diseases , Carbonated Beverages , Product Packaging , Food Storage , Food Supply
Hig. aliment ; 32(282/283): 85-90, jul.-ago. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916635


A avaliação do rigor mortis em peixes representa elevada importância para a cadeia produtiva, visto que a rápida instalação deste é um indicativo de estresse, tendo influência na qualidade do produto final. Considerando isso, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o estabelecimento do pleno rigor mortis e o comportamento do pH de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), abatidas por secção da medula e estocadas em gelo sob refrigeração (0ºC± 3ºC) em dois períodos distintos (seca e chuva). As amostras foram coletadas em pesque-pagues situados no Estado de São Paulo, correspondendo a 60 amostras. Verificou-se que não houve diferença significativa (p>0,05) entre os períodos analisados para o estabelecimento do pleno rigor mortis e do pH da musculatura dorsal da espécie analisada. Apesar de sutis diferenças para as amostras dos diferentes períodos, tanto nos valores da angulação mensurada, quanto do pH, verificou-se que, em ambos os casos, o tempo de estabelecimento do pleno rigor mortis (100%) foi de aproximadamente cinco horas e, sem a definição do pH final do músculo nesse tempo. Para tanto, independente do período o tempo de instalação do rigor mortis, o abate pelo método de secção medular, foi considerado uma boa opção para o abate de tilápias, porém são necessários trabalhos complementares.

The evaluation of rigor-mortis in fishes has high importance to the productive chain, once the fast installation of it is a stress indicative, influencing the quality of the final product. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate the constitution of full rigor mortis and pH behavior of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), slaughtered by medullar detachment and stored in ice under refrigeration (0ºC ± 3ºC) in two distinct periods (dry and rainy). The samples were collected in fee-fishing ponds located in the State of São Paulo, corresponding to 60 samples. It was verified that there wasn't any significant difference (p> 0.05) between the analyzed periods for the constitution of full rigor mortis and the dorsal musculature pH of the analyzed samples. Despite of the differences for the samples of the different periods were subtle in both the measured and the pH values, it was observed that in both cases the full rigor-mortis constitution time (100%) was approximately five hours, without defining the muscle final pH at that time. Therefore, regardless of the time of installation of rigor-mortis, the slaughter by the medullar detachment method was considered a good alternative for tilapia slaughtering, but complementary research is necessary.

Animals , Rigor Mortis , Stress, Physiological , Tilapia , Total Quality Management , Fish Products , Glycogen , Cichlids , Cooled Foods , Food Storage , Fishes , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration