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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): 304-309, oct. 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292011

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El enriquecimiento de la harina de trigo es una de las estrategias de salud pública recomendadas para prevenir las deficiencias de micronutrientes, entre ellos el hierro. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el contenido de hierro en harina de trigo enriquecida y sus derivados, y la contribución de estos a las recomendaciones nutricionales en niños. Población y métodos. Estudio observacional, analítico, de corte transversal, basado en la metodología de estudio de dieta total. Se analizaron la harina de trigo enriquecida (según la ley 25630) y sus derivados más consumidos. Para seleccionar los alimentos, se realizó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo y recordatorio de 24 horas a los padres de niños con edades entre 6 meses y 7 años. Se determinó la concentración de hierro en los alimentos mediante absorción atómica y se evaluó su contribución al requerimiento promedio estimado. Resultados. La harina enriquecida y sus derivados tuvieron la cantidad de hierro esperada, excepto el pan francés y el pan rallado. La contribución a los requerimientos de hierro de los alimentos evaluados fue el 7 % en niños de 6 meses a 1 año, el 81 % en el grupo de 1 a 3 años y el 45 % en los mayores de 4 años. Conclusiones. Excepto el pan francés y el pan rallado, las harinas y sus derivados analizados presentaron el nivel de enriquecimiento esperado. El consumo de estos alimentos no aporta cantidades significativas de hierro en los lactantes, pero sí en los niños mayores de 1 año.


Introduction. Wheat flour enrichment is a public health strategy recommended to prevent micronutrient deficiencies, including iron deficiency. The objective of this study was to determine iron content in enriched wheat flour and flour products and their contribution to nutritional recommendations for children. Population and methods. Observational, analytical, cross-sectional study based on the total diet study method. Enriched wheat flour (as per Law no. 25630) and the most frequently consumed flour products were analyzed. Products were selected using a questionnaire on the frequency of food intake and a 24-hour recall interview with the parents of children aged 6 months to 7 years. Food iron levels were determined based on atomic absorption spectrometry and their contribution to the estimated average requirement was assessed. Results. Enriched flour and flour products showed the expected iron amount, except for French bread and breadcrumbs. The contribution of studied products to iron requirements was 7 % in children aged 6 months to 1 year, 81 % in those aged 1-3 years, and 45 % in those older than 4 years. Conclusions. Except for French bread and breadcrumbs, studied flour and flour products showed the expected enrichment level. The consumption of this type of food does not provide significant amounts of iron to infants, but it does to children older than 1 year.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Food, Fortified , Flour , Iron , Triticum , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Santa Tecla, La Libertad; ITCA Editores; 2021. 52 p. ilus.^c28 cm., graf., tab..
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1352820

ABSTRACT

En esta investigación documental se presentan alternativas viables para utilizar cabezas de pescado, subproductos de la acuicultura, para elaborar harina que sirva como materia prima para la fortificación de productos alimenticios nutritivos. La harina de cabeza de pescado propuesta en esta investigación puede ser integrada exitosamente a alimentos para consumo humano, y usadas en las proporciones adecuadas no causa interferencias en las propiedades sensoriales de los productos formulados. Para masificar la producción de los alimentos fortificados con harina de cabeza de pescado propuestos en este estudio, es indispensable practicarle además una serie de pruebas denominadas "vida de anaquel".


In this documentary research, viable alternatives are presented to use fish heads, by-products of aquaculture, to make flour that serve as raw material for the fortification of nutritious food products. The fish head meal proposed in this research can be successfully integrated into food for human consumption, and used in the appropriate proportions does not cause interference in the sensory properties of the formulated products. To massify the production of foods fortified with fish head meal proposed in this study, it is essential to also perform a series of tests called "shelf life".


Subject(s)
Dietary Carbohydrates , Food, Fortified , Fish Flour , Carbohydrates , Date of Validity of Products , Fish Products
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): 160-165, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1102717

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La fortificación y suplementación son estrategias para la prevención de carencias de micronutrientes. El objetivo fue describir la procedencia de la ingesta del hierro y ácido fólico a lo largo del ciclo vital de la población de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Población y métodos. Análisis de la información de la Primera Encuesta Alimentaria y Nutricional de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires 2011, que tomó una muestra probabilística por conglomerados. El consumo se recabó con recordatorio de 24 horas. Se calculó el aporte de hierro y ácido fólico, y se categorizó en contenido natural, harina de trigo enriquecida, leche del Plan Materno Infantil, alimentos fortificados y suplementos. Resultados. De los 5369 individuos evaluados, prácticamente, la totalidad obtenía hierro y ácido fólico de contenido natural (el 58 % y el 29 % del consumo, respectivamente). Más del 90 % consumía harina de trigo enriquecida, que aportaba el 28 % del hierro y el 54 % del ácido fólico. Los alimentos fortificados mostraron consumo y aporte muy variable. La leche del Plan Materno Infantil mostró muy baja participación, inclusive en grupos específicos. El aporte de suplementos fue bajo, excepto en < 2 años (el 30 % consumía suplementos de hierro, que aportaban el 38 % de este).Conclusión. Además del aporte natural de los alimentos, la harina de trigo enriquecida representó una importante contribución en el consumo de ácido fólico y hierro de esta población; los alimentos fortificados y los suplementos tuvieron una participación diferente según el grupo etario.


Introduction. Fortification and supplementation are two strategies for micronutrient deficiency prevention. The objective of this study was to describe the source of iron and folic acid intake throughout the life cycle in the population of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires.Population and methods. Analysis of the information collected in the First Survey on Nutritional Food Intake of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (2011), which had a probability cluster sampling design. Consumption was assessed by means of a 24-hour recall. Iron and folic acid intake was estimated and categorized into natural content, enriched wheat flour, milk from the Maternal and Child Plan, fortified foods, and supplements.Results. Out of the 5369 studied individuals, practically all got iron and folic acid from natural contents (58 % and 29 % of intake, respectively). More than 90 % consumed enriched wheat flour, which provided 28 % of iron and 54 % of folic acid. Fortified food consumption and intake varied greatly. Milk intake from the Maternal and Child Plan was small, even in specific groups. Intake from supplements was low, except in children < 2 years old (30 % consumed iron supplements, which accounted for 38 % of iron).Conclusion. In addition to natural intake from foods, enriched wheat flour accounted for a major source of folic acid and iron in this population; intake from fortified foods and supplements varied by age group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Food, Fortified , Folic Acid/administration & dosage , Iron/administration & dosage , Eating , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dietary Supplements , Flour , Anemia/prevention & control
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 1000-1008, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129715

ABSTRACT

The addition of different oil blends in the feed of finishing pigs was evaluated. Twenty-four castrated male finishing pigs were used in a randomized block design containing four treatments and six replicates. The treatments consisted of: Reference ration (RR) - 100% soybean oil feed; and the combination of the different oils: Blend1 - 50.0% soybean oil (SO), 25.0% flaxseed oil (FO), 12.5% olive oil (OO) and 12.5% canola oil (CO); Blend2 - 25.0% SO, 50.0% FO, 12.5% OO and 12.5% CO; and Blend3 - 25.0% SO, 12.5% FO, 12.5% OO and 50.0% CO. The performance, quantitative and qualitative carcass parameters, fatty acids profile and economic feasibility of the diets were evaluated. The use of blends in the diets did not influence the performance or carcass quality, but increased marbling and carcass yield. The fatty acid profile of the loin presented greater amounts of stearic acid in Blend3 and higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in animals fed with Blend1. The fatty tissue presented greater amounts of myristic acid in Blend1 and oleic acid in Blend3. The reference ration was the most economic. The Blends did not affect performance or carcass characteristics and improved the fatty acid profile.(AU)


Foi avaliada a utilização de diferentes blends de óleo em dietas de suínos em terminação. Foram utilizados 24 suínos, machos, castrados, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de: ração referência (RR) - 100% de ração com utilização de óleo de soja; e a combinação de diferentes óleos: Blend1 - 50,0% de óleo de soja (OS), 25,0% de óleo de linhaça (OL), 12,5% de óleo de oliva (OO) e 12,5% de óleo de canola (OC); Blend2 - 25,0% OS; 50,0% OL; 12,5% OO e 12,5% OC; e Blend3 - 25,0% OS; 12,5% OL; 12,5% OO e 50,0% OC. Foram avaliados os parâmetros de desempenho, a qualidade de carcaça, o perfil de ácidos graxos e a viabilidade econômica. O uso de blends nas dietas não influenciou o desempenho ou a qualidade da carcaça, mas aumentou o marmoreio e o rendimento de carcaça. O perfil de ácidos graxos do lombo apresentou maiores quantidades de ácido esteárico com a utilização do Blend3 e maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos insaturados nos animais alimentados com o Blend1. O tecido adiposo apresentou maiores quantidades de ácido mirístico quando se forneceu o Blend1 e de ácido oleico com o Blend3. A ração testemunha foi a mais econômica. As misturas não afetaram o desempenho e as características de carcaça e melhoraram o perfil de ácidos graxos da carne.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/administration & dosage , Linoleic Acid , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Food, Fortified
5.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(6): 821-832, nov.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252170

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar la asociación entre el consumo de suplementos o leche Liconsa y anemia, deficiencias de zinc (DZ) y hierro (DH) y morbilidad en niños mexicanos residentes de localidades menores a 100 000 habitantes. Material y métodos: Se analizó información de 1 516 niños de 1 a 4 años de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición en localidades con menos de 100 000 habitantes realizada en el año 2018. Se definió Anemia si [Hb]<11 g/dL, DZ: [Zn]<65 µg/dL y DH: [ferritina]<12 µg/L. El consumo de suplementos y de leche Liconsa se obtuvo del cuestionario de Frecuencia de Consumo de Alimentos y morbilidad por autorreporte de la madre. Se emplearon modelos de regresión logística múltiple para el análisis de las asociaciones, ajustados por confusores. Resultados: El consumo medio y alto de leche Liconsa se asoció con menor momio de DH (RM=0.02 [IC95% 0.002,0.24] y RM=0.07 [IC95% 0.01,0.52]) y anemia (RM=0.13 [IC95% 0.04,0.37] y RM=0.17 [IC95% 0.03,0.87]). Un alto consumo de leche Liconsa (RM=0.09, [IC95% 0.01,0.44]) y de Vitaniño (RM=0.05 [IC95% 0.005, 0.46]) se asoció con menor momio de diarrea. Conclusiones: Es necesario considerar la continuidad del consumo de suplementos nutricionales para mejorar la salud y el estado de micronutrimentos en población infantil mexicana vulnerable.


Abstract: Objective: To analyze the association between supplements and Liconsa milk intake, with anemia, zinc (ZD) and iron (ID) deficiencies, and morbidity in Mexican children resident of less than 100 000 habitants' localities. Materials and methods: A subsample of 1 516 children aged 1-4 participants of Ensanut 100k was analyzed, carried out in 2018. Anemia was considered if [Hb]<11 g/dL, ZD if [Zn]<65 µg/dL and ID if [ferritin]<12 µg/L. Supplements and Liconsa milk consumption were obtained from a semi-quantitative food frequency; morbidity by self-report of the mother. Multiple logistic regression models were used adjusted by confounders. Results: Medium and high consumption of Liconsa milk was associated to lower odds of ID (OR=0.02, [95%CI 0.002,0.24] and OR=0.07, [95%CI 0.01,0.52]) and anemia (OR=0.13, [95%CI 0.04,0.37] and OR=0.17, [95%CI 0.03,0.87]). A high intake of Liconsa milk (OR=0.09, [95%CI 0.01,0.44]) and Vitaniño (OR=0.05 [95%CI 0.005, 0.46]) were both associated to lower diarrhea risk. Conclusions: To assure the continuity of the consumption of nutritional supplements is necessary for improving the health and the micronutrients status in vulnerable Mexican children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Food, Fortified , Morbidity , Dietary Supplements , Deficiency Diseases/epidemiology , Milk , Anemia/epidemiology , Zinc/deficiency , Nutrition Surveys , Cross-Sectional Studies , Population Density , Mexico/epidemiology
6.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(4): 221-232, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103628

ABSTRACT

La inadecuación de micronutrientes es frecuente en los países en vías de desarrollo. En Costa Rica existe poca información acerca de la ingesta de micronutrientes y del impacto de los programas de fortificación obligatoria de alimentos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la ingesta de vitaminas y minerales y el aporte de la fortificación de alimentos a la ingesta total de micronutrientes en la población urbana costarricense. Se analizó el consumo de alimentos en una muestra de la población urbana costarricense, participantes del Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud (ELANS). El riesgo de ingesta inadecuada se estimó según sexo y grupo de edad, utilizando el método de punto de corte del Requerimiento Medio Estimado (EAR). Para el hierro, se utilizó el método de aproximación probabilística. Más del 85% de la muestra presentó riesgo de ingesta inadecuada para vitamina E, calcio y vitamina D. Una menor prevalencia de riesgo de ingesta inadecuada se presentó para la niacina, tiamina, folatos, hierro y selenio. La fortificación de alimentos tiene un efecto notorio en la ingesta de micronutrientes, especialmente de hierro, niacina, tiamina y folatos. La ingesta de calcio, vitamina D y vitamina E es preocupantemente inadecuada, siendo las mujeres y las personas mayores de 50 años los grupos más afectados. Resulta fundamental el establecimiento de programas y políticas públicas para asegurar el cumplimiento del requerimiento establecido para los diferentes micronutrientes(AU)


Micronutrient deficiencies are still very common in developing countries. In Costa Rica there is little information on micronutrients intake and the impact of food fortification.This study aimed to determine the contribution of food fortification to the total intake, and to estimate the risk of inadequate intake of vitamins and minerals in an urban Costa Rican population. As a part of the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study, we analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 798 urban residents from Costa Rica (15-65 years old) whom provided two 24-h dietary recalls. The prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake was estimated according to the EAR cut-point method. Iron was analyze using the probability approach. We observed a 100% of the sample are at risk of inadequate intake of vitamin D, and similar percentages were obtained for calcium and vitamin E, ranging from 92.9 to 100% and 85.5 to 99.2% respectively. A lower risk of inadequate intake was observed for niacin, thiamin, folate, iron and selenium. Food fortificationmakes an important contribution to folate, thiamin, iron and niacin intake. Despite the efforts that have been made to ensure adequate micronutrient intake in Costa Rica, the intake of calcium, vitamin D and vitamin E is still very low, especially among women and people over 50 are the most affected. Based on the above, it is recommended to promote a healthy diet through nutritional education as part of public health policies, in order to facilitates compliance to nutritional requirement(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Food, Fortified , Eating , Micronutrients , Deficiency Diseases , Avitaminosis , Iron Deficiency , Zinc Deficiency , Diet, Healthy , Magnesium Deficiency
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(5): 1515-1524, sept./oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049041

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to evaluate the metabolizability, performance and economic viability of purified glycerin inclusion in balanced diets fed to chicken broilers from 8 to 21 days old. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 100 broilers (14 days old) were distributed in a completely randomized design into two treatments, with five replications of 10 broilers. Treatments consisted of a control diet and a test diet, in which purified glycerin replaced 10% of the control diet. In the second experiment, 200 broilers (8 days old) were distributed in a completely randomized design into four treatments (0, 2, 4 and 6% of purified glycerin inclusion), with five replications of 10 broilers. The weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, final weight, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), metabolizability coefficients of dry matter (DMMC), crude protein (CPMC) and gross energy (GEMC), and the cost of feed per kg of broiler produced were evaluated. The AME, AMEn, DMMC, CPMC and GEMC from the purified glycerin were 3790 and 3560 kcal/kg, and 83.72, 71.52 and 86.27%, respectively. The glycerin levels did not affect (p>0.05) any of the performance characteristics (weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and final weight). The lowest feeding cost and the highest gross margin were obtained for broilers fed with 6% purified glycerin. The inclusion of 6% purified glycerin in balanced diets for broilers from 8 to 21 days old was technically and economically feasible.


Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a metabolizabilidade, o desempenho zootécnico e a viabilidade econômica da inclusão de glicerina purificada, em dietas balanceadas para frangos de corte dos 8 aos 21 dias de idade. Foram realizados dois experimentos, sendo que, no primeiro experimento, foram utilizados 100 pintos de 14 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC), com dois tratamentos, cinco repetições de 10 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta referência e uma dieta teste, na qual a glicerina purificada substituiu 10% da dieta referência. No segundo experimento, foram utilizados 200 pintos de 8 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado (DIC), com quatro tratamentos (0, 2, 4 e 6% de inclusão de glicerina purificada) e cinco repetições de 10 aves. Foram determinados o ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, peso final, energia metabolizável aparente (EMA), energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn), os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade da matéria seca (CMMS), proteína bruta (CMPB), energia bruta (CMEB) e o custo da alimentação por kg de frango produzido. A EMA, EMAn e os CMMS, CMPB, CMEB da glicerina purificada obtida foram de 3790, 3560 Kcal/kg e 83,72, 71,52, 86,27%, respectivamente. Observou-se que a inclusão de glicerina purificada não afetou (p>0,05) o desempenho (ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e peso final). O menor custo com a alimentação e a maior margem bruta foi obtido com os frangos alimentados com 6% de inclusão de glicerina purificada. A inclusão de 6% de glicerina purificada em dietas balanceadas para frangos de corte dos 8 aos 21 dias de idade, mostrou-se técnica e economicamente viável.


Subject(s)
Food, Fortified , Chickens , Biofuels , Glycerol
8.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 949-956, may./jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048716

ABSTRACT

Beauregard biofortified sweet potato is a tuberous root with a high content of carotenoids whose consumption can bring beneficial effects on human health related to the biological actions of these substances. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the acceptance of cake made with sweet potato biofortified with carotenoids by school children enrolled in a school of the municipal education network of the city of Teresina PI. The sweet cake containing biofortified potato (Beauregard) (PC) was compared with standard sweet wheat flour (WC) cake formulation. The PC and WC products and the Beauregard potato were analyzed for centesimal composition (moisture, ashes, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) and total carotenoid content. Acceptance of PC was assessed by means of an acceptance test with a hedonic scale of five points applied to 100 children from 08 to 10 years of age. The evaluation of the centesimal composition showed protein content corresponding to 2.1% in WC and 3.57% in PC, and of lipids of 5.16% in WC and 8.95% inPC. Regarding the moisture content, WC presented 32.5% and PC 38.44%. The content of fixed minerals (ash) found in formulations was 1.9% and 1.26%, respectively, in WC and PC. The carotenoid content (µg of ß-carotene.g-1) was significantly higher (p <0.05) in the biofortified potato (3,200.01 ± 0.02) and in the PC formulations (3,666.17 ± 2.55) and WC (3,066.53 ± 1.88) for common sweet potatoes (2.200,23 ± 1.63). In the five-point facial hedonistic acceptance test, the formulation containing biofortified potato (PC) obtained a significantly higher score (p <0.05) (4.24 ± 0.93) when compared to the WC formulation (3.75 ± 1.19). The biofortified potato and the cake containing the biofortified potato presented some characteristics related to the centesimal composition similar to those found in WC and the content of carotenoids in PC larger than those of WC. Because sweet cake is a food product, generally well accepted by children and adults, PC's greateracceptance of WC suggests its promising potential for consumption by the population.


A batata-doce Beauregard biofortificada é uma raiz tuberosa com alto teor de carotenoides, cujo consumo pode trazer efeitos benéficos na saúde humana relacionados com as ações biológicas dessassubstâncias. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a aceitação de bolo elaborado com batata doce biofortificada com carotenoides por crianças em idade escolar matriculados em uma escola da rede municipal de ensino da cidade de Teresina PI. O bolo doce contendo batata biofortificada (Beauregard) (BB) foi comparado com formulação padrão de bolo doce de farinha de trigo (BT). Os produtos BB e BT e a batata Beauregard foram analisados quanto à composição centesimal (umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos e carboidratos) e conteúdo de carotenóides totais. A aceitação do BB foi avaliada por meio de teste de aceitação com escala hedônica facial de cinco pontos aplicado em 100 crianças de 08 a 10 anos de idade. A avaliação da composição centesimal mostrou conteúdo protéico correspondendo 2,1% no BT e 3,57% no BB, e de lipídiosde 5,16% no BT e 8,95% no BB. Em relação ao teor de umidade, o BT apresentou 32,5% e BB 38,44%. O teor de minerais fixos (cinzas) encontrado nas formulações foi de 1,9% e 1,26%, respectivamente, no BT e BB. O conteúdo de carotenoides (µ g de ß-caroteno.g-1) foi significativamente maior (p<0,05) na batata biofortificada (3.200,01 ± 0,02) e nas formulações BB (3.666,17 ± 2,55) e BT (3.066,53 ± 1,88) em relação à Figure 1. Acceptance rate of Beauregard potato and wheat cake formulations.. batata doce comum (2.200,00 ± 1,63). No teste de aceitação escala hedonica facial de cinco pontos a formulação contendo batata biofortificada (BB) obteve nota significativamente maior (p<0,05) (4,24± 0,93) quando comparada com a formulação BT (3,75± 1,19). A batata biofortificada e o bolo contendo a batata biofortificada apresentaram algumas características relacionadas à composição centesimal semelhantes àquelas encontradas no BT e conteúdo de carotenoides no BB maiores que os do BT. Por ser o bolo doce um produto alimentício, de modo geral, bem aceito por crianças e adultos, a maior aceitação do BB em relação ao BT sugere seu potencial promissor para consumo pela população.


Subject(s)
Carotenoids , Food, Fortified , Ipomoea batatas , Child Nutrition Sciences
9.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(2): 80-88, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1048668

ABSTRACT

as been proposed that the consumption of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) reduces cardiovascular risk, and prevents and controls both chronic and degenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the antioxidant capacity of a bean-fiber fortified bar (BFB) versus a commercial bar (CB) in 60 Mexican men and women (18-65 years old), who were randomly distributed in two groups: BFB or CB; individuals consumed a bar a day for one month. Anthropometric data, food intake and blood samples were collected. Glucose tolerance (GTT), lipid profile (PL), and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) tests were performed; carbonyls groups in serum oxidized proteins were also measured. GTT and PL were not different between both groups in either the 15 or 30-day follow-up of bar consumption assessments. There were no significant differences in either TBARS or carbonyl concentration between groups; BFB group showed higher levels of serum lipid peroxidation in basal and fifteen days measurements; these levels decreased at the final evaluation: No differences were detected on carbonyl levels between groups. In conclusion, 30 days of fiber bean bar consumption did not alter glucose or PL levels, while, in the BFF group, oxidative stress decreased within 30 days of the consumption of the fortified bar(AU)


Se ha propuesto que el consumo de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) reduce el riesgo cardiovascular, y previene y controla las enfermedades crónicas y degenerativas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar la capacidad antioxidante de una barra fortificada con fibra de frijol (BFB) versus una barra comercial (CB) en 60 hombres y mujeres mexicanos (18-65 años de edad), quienes aleatoriamente fueron distribuidos en dos grupos: El grupo BFB y el CB que consumieron la barras fortificada con frijol y la barra comercial, respectivamente, durante un mes. Se recopilaron datos antropométricos, ingesta de alimentos y muestras de sangre. Se realizó prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa (GTT), el perfil de lípidos (PL), la peroxidación de lípidos (TBARS) y la cuantificación de carbonilos en proteínas oxidadas como pruebas de bioquímica sanguínea. GTT y PL no fueron diferentes entre ambos grupos en la evaluación de seguimiento de 15 y 30 días del consumo de la barra. No hubo diferencias significativas en los TBARS o la concentración de carbonilo entre los grupos, el grupo BFB mostró niveles más altos de peroxidación de lípidos en suero en la fase basal y a los quince días del consumo de la barra; curiosamente, estos niveles disminuyeron en la evaluación final. No se detectaron diferencias en los niveles de carbonilo entre los grupos. En conclusión, 30 días de consumo de barras de fibra de frijol no alteraron los niveles de glucosa o PL; mientras que, en el grupo BFB, el estrés oxidativo disminuyó a los 30 días del consumo de la barra fortificada(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Food, Fortified , Eating , Cholesterol , Chronic Disease , Fabaceae , Glycemic Index , Phenolic Compounds , Antioxidants
10.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(4): 197-204, jun 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1045909

ABSTRACT

The article is dedicated to the development of a multicomponent high-protein product for the nutrition of physically active individuals. The possibility to introduce flavoring fillers and a biologically active supplement in the milk and vegetable base of fermented whipped dessert has been established, and the expediency thereof has been justified. Based on a mathematical model, the possibility of preparing dessert systems with the specified optimum parameters has been confirmed. The influence of nondairy protein components on the improvement of functional and technological properties of multicomponent mixtures for desserts has been revealed. It has been demonstrated that the inclusion of desserts with specified optimum parameters in the diet will have a positive effect on increasing the body's adaptive capacity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Food, Fortified , Dietary Supplements , Foods for Persons Engaged in Physical Activities , Flavoring Agents , Fermented Foods and Beverages
11.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(3): 279-287, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003705

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to improve sweet bread (R1) nutritionally by partially replacing the wheat flour with other non-traditional flours through linear programming. Chemical Score, lipid profile, microbiological quality and acceptability were determined. Both recipes, R2 and R3, were formulated according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans; and R3 according to the maximum amounts of flours that impart negative sensory attributes, as well. The resulting proportions were: wheat/broad bean/chia/ amaranth flours 64/22/13/0 (R2) and 83/2/4/11 (R3). The obtained products presented adequate contributions of proteins and lipids, while fiber increased significantly. The Chemical Score increased from 46% (R1) to 95% (R2) and to 91% (R3) respectively, and the fatty acids ratio ω3: ω6 improved. R2 was not sensorially accepted while R3 presented high acceptability in adults and school-aged children. Recipe R3 could be included in school menus to improve children's nutritional status.


RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo fue mejorar nutricionalmente un pan dulce (R1), reemplazando parcialmente la harina de trigo con otras harinas no tradicionales a través de la programación lineal. Se determinó la puntuación química, el perfil lipídico, la calidad microbiológica y la aceptabilidad. Ambas recetas enriquecidas nutricionalmente, R2 y R3, se formularon de acuerdo a pautas dietéticas estadounidenses; y para R3, además, se tuvieron en cuenta las cantidades máximas de harinas que imparten atributos sensoriales negativos. Las proporciones resultantes fueron harina de trigo/haba/chía/amaranto 64/22/13/0 (R2) y 83/2/4/11 (R3). Los productos obtenidos presentaron contenidos adecuados de proteínas y lípidos, mientras que la fibra aumentó significativamente. La puntuación química aumentó de 46% (R1) a 95% (R2) y a 91% (R3) respectivamente, y la relación de ácidos grasos ω3: ω6 mejoró. R2 no fue aceptado sensorialmente, mientras que R3 presentó alta aceptabilidad en adultos y niños en edad escolar. La receta R3 podría incluirse en los menús escolares para mejorar el estado nutricional de los niños.


Subject(s)
Programming, Linear , Bread , Food, Fortified , Flour , Taste Perception
12.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 32: e180129, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041304

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective In the biome of the Brazilian Cerrado, there are a lot of fruit tree species that stand out for their sensory quality and for presenting potentialities in the market of pulp and almond. Among these species, the pequi deserves attention because it has an almond rich in proteins and that is little explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological quality of defatted pequi seed flour supplemented with lysine. Methods Two designs were done in this study; in the first, the animals were divided into four diet groups: control, protein-free, defatted pequi seed flour and defatted pequi seed flour supplemented with lysine. The protein-free diet was exempt of proteins and the other diets had a protein content of 10% and differed in protein source (casein: control diet or defatted pequi seed flour: test diets). The experiment lasted for 14 days. In the second design, 36 animals were used and followed-up for 28 days. The division of the experimental groups was kept, except for the protein-free diet group, which was excluded. By the end of the test, the animals were anaesthetised and euthanized. Results The results showed that the protein efficiency ratio of the control group was significantly higher than the other groups. For the other indices, the groups that received defatted pequi seed flour did not differ statistically among themselves. Conclusion These findings have shown an effect of supplementation on the protein efficiency ratio when comparing the test diets, however, when compared to the control group, no improvement was found.


RESUMO Objetivo O bioma cerrado é rico em espécies frutíferas que destacam-se por suas qualidades sensoriais e por apresentarem potencialidades no mercado de polpas e amêndoas. Dentre essas espécies, o pequi merece atenção porque possui uma amêndoa rica em proteínas e que é pouco explorada. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade biológica da farinha da semente do pequi desengordurada e suplementada com lisina. Métodos Neste estudo foram feitos dois delineamentos: no primeiro os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle, aprotéico, farinha da semente do pequi desengordurada e farinha da semente do pequi desengordurada suplementada com lisina. A dieta aprotéica era isenta de proteínas e as demais dietas apresentavam um teor de 10% de proteínas e diferiram quanto à fonte protéica (caseína: dieta controle e farinha da semente do pequi desengordurada: dietas testes). Esse experimento teve duração de 14 dias. No segundo delineamento, utilizou-se 36 animais que foram acompanhados por 28 dias, a divisão dos grupos experimentais foi mantida, exceto o grupo dieta aprotéica que foi excluído. Ao final dos experimentos, os animais foram anestesiados e eutanasiados. Resultados Os resultados mostraram que o coeficiente de eficiência protéica do grupo controle foi significativamente superior aos demais grupos. Para os demais índices biológicos de avaliação da qualidade protéica, os grupos que receberam a farinha da semente do pequi desengordurada não diferiram estatisticamente entre si. Conclusão Os achados mostraram um efeito da suplementação no coeficiente de eficiência protéica quando comparamos as dietas testes, no entanto, quando comparado ao grupo controle, não houve melhora.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Ericales , Rats , Seeds , Proteins , Food, Fortified , Lysine
13.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 32: e180249, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041312

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The chia seed, an ancient pseudocereal, is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, and has been suggested to possess several health benefits. Although it has gained popularity among nutritionists, little is known about the systemic effects of chia and their interactions. Hence, hepatorenal indicators and plasma vitamin concentrations in chia-supplemented aluminum-exposed rats were investigated. Methods Wistar albino rats were either fed on a chia-rich- or standard-diet for 21 days and exposed to aluminum. Liver function tests (Alanine Aminotransferase, Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Lactate Dehydrogenase), kidney function tests (Urea Nitrogen, Creatinine), and vitamin B12 and folic acid measurements were performed by using an automated analyzer. Results Aluminum exposure had no influence on renal function, as did chia supplementation. However, liver function was disturbed with the exposure to Aluminum and chia was of no use against it. Surprisingly, it was found that the animals fed on a chia-rich diet displayed higher concentrations of vitamin B12 which was not the case for folic acid. Conclusion It was deduced that a chia-rich diet has no effect on the renal function and is not able to reverse aluminum-induced hepatotoxicity; however, it may be of benefit against vitamin B12 insufficiency and thus, it may offer a novel treatment option which is particularly important in the vegan diet.


RESUMO Objetivo A semente de chia, um antigo pseudocereal, é rica em ácidos graxos ômega-3 e polifenóis e tem sido sugerida como tendo vários benefícios para a saúde. Embora tenha ganhado popularidade entre os nutricionistas, na verdade, pouco se sabe sobre os efeitos e interações sistêmicas da chia. Assim, investigamos os indicadores hepatorrenais e as concentrações plasmáticas de vitamina em ratos expostos ao alumínio suplementados com chia. Métodos Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com dieta rica em chia ou padrão por 21 dias e expostos ao alumínio. Testes de função hepática (Alanina Aminotransferase, Aspartato Aminotransferase, Fosfatase Alcalina, Lactato Desidrogenase), testes de função renal (ácido úrico, Creatinina) e medições de vitamina B12 e ácido fólico realizada usando um analisador automático. Resultados A exposição ao alumínio não influenciou a função renal, assim como a suplementação de chia. No entanto, a função hepática foi perturbada com a exposição e a chia foi inútil contra ela. Surpreendentemente, descobrimos que os animais que se alimentavam de uma dieta rica em chia apresentavam concentrações mais elevadas de vitamina B12, o que não era o caso do ácido fólico. Conclusão Deduzimos que a dieta rica em chia não tem efeito sobre a função renal e não é capaz de reverter a hepatotoxicidade induzida pelo alumínio; no entanto, pode ser benéfico contra a insuficiência de vitamina B12 e, portanto, pode oferecer uma nova opção de tratamento que é particularmente importante na dieta vegana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Salvia , Diet, Vegetarian , Food, Fortified , Rats, Wistar , Aluminum , Folic Acid , Kidney Function Tests , Liver Function Tests
14.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(1): 43-52, 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025512

ABSTRACT

La prevalencia de desnutrición en niños en Guatemala es constante y se ha mantenido alta por años. Tomando en cuenta esta problemática se planteó un modelo de alimentación complementaria a base de yogur enriquecido con harinas de alto valor proteico en niños de edad preescolar en el suroccidente de Guatemala. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron yogur con harina de Acheta domesticus (grillo), yogur con harina de Brosimum alicastrum Swartz (ramón) y un grupo control. Se evaluó el peso, talla y velocidad de crecimiento durante cuatro meses brindando 125 mL de yogur cinco días por semana. La ganancia media (desviación estándar) de peso en kg fue de 3.21 (1.84), 2.22 (1.14) y 1.67 (0.64) para A. domesticus, B. alicastrum y grupo control, respectivamente. Mostrando la mezcla de yogur con harina de A. domesticus diferencia significativa frente al control (p < .05), por el contrario, no se encontró diferencia significativa (p > .05) cuando se comparó con yogur con harina de B. alicastrum. Para el incremento en talla en cm los resultados fueron 4.61 (1.13), 4.25 (1.54) y 3.07 (1.84) para A. domesticus, B. alicastrum y grupo control, respectivamente, mostrando ambas diferencias significativas frente al control (p < .05). Se determinaron los costos por dosis los cuales fueron US$0.56 (A. domesticus) y US$0.36 (B. alicastrum). Se concluye que el yogur con harina de A. domesticus fue el que presentó mejor respuesta en las variables de estudio.


The prevalence data on malnutrition of children in Guatemala are constant. Taking into account this problem, a yogurt-based supplementary feeding model was proposed, enriched with high-protein flours in pre-school children in southwestern Guatemala. The treatments evaluated were yogurt with Acheta domesticus flour (cricket), yogurt with Brosimum alicastrum Swartz flour (ramon) and control group. The weight, height and growth rate were evaluated during four months providing 125 mL of yogurt five days per week. The weight gain in kg was 3.21 (1.84), 2.22 (1.14) and 1.67 (0.64) for A. domesticus, B. alicastrum and control group respectively, showing significant difference (p < .05). The costs per dose were determined, which were US $ 0.56 (A. domesticus) and US $ 0.36 (B. alicastrum). The study concludes that yogurt with A. domesticus flour was the one that presented the best response in the study variables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Yogurt/analysis , Food, Fortified/analysis , Gryllidae , Food, Fortified/economics , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Flour
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Before iodination of Swedish table salt in 1936, iodine deficiency resulting in goitre and hypothyroidism was common. Sweden has become iodine sufficient, as shown in a national survey in 2007, proving its iodination fortification programme effective for the general population. The objective of this study was to collect drinking water from water treatment plants nationally and test if water iodine concentration (WIC) correlated to urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of school-aged children in a national survey 2007 to former goitre frequency in 1929 and to thyroid volume data in 2007.@*METHODS@#In 2012, 166 treatment plants, located in 57% (166 of 290) of all Swedish municipalities, were asked to collect drinking water samples of approximately 10 ml. In 2007, tap water samples of the same volume were collected from 30 randomly selected schools for the national survey. Analysis of WIC was done in both treatment plants in 2012 (n = 166) and tap water in 2007 (n = 30). The correlation of WIC to the children's UIC and thyroid volume after iodination was tested based on data from the national survey in 2007. The association of WIC to former goitre frequency was tested based on pre-iodination data, derived from a map of goitre frequency drawn in 1929.@*RESULTS@#The median WIC from water treatment plants was 4.0 μg/L (range 0-27 μg/L). WIC was similar in coastal and inland areas, for both ground and surface water. WIC correlated with historical goitre areas and was lower in the goitre areas than in non-goitre areas (p < 0.001). WIC in the same municipalities as the schools correlated with the UIC of children (p < 0.01), but not with their thyroid volume.@*CONCLUSIONS@#WIC still contributes to iodine nutrition in Sweden, but iodination overrides the goitre effect.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Drinking Water , Chemistry , Female , Food, Fortified , Goiter , Epidemiology , History , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Iodine , Urine , Male , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Sweden , Epidemiology , Thyroid Gland
16.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 90(4): e360, set.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978462

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La anemia y su erradicación es una prioridad de organizaciones de salud. La implementación de programas de suplementación nutricional para su disminución es realizada por diversas instituciones. Objetivo: Caracterizar la anemia en niños beneficiarios del proyecto EquiDar, Azuay-Ecuador. Métodos: Investigación con diseño no experimental, prospectivo, observacional, de corte descriptivo-asociativo y transversal, realizada en el período 2015-2016 en el Cantón Cuenca, Azuay- -Ecuador. La muestra probabilística correspondió a 1 091 niños beneficiarios del proyecto EquiDar. Se realizó biometría mediante equipo automatizado. Los índices hematológicos obtenidos se normalizaron según la altura. Los datos se procesaron con SPSS 23.0 mediante estadística descriptiva e inferencial para la comparación de medias y proporciones (H Kruskall Wallis, U de Mann Whitney y Ji-cuadrada). Resultados: La prevalencia de anemia fue de 23,96 por ciento con predomino en la edad preescolar y en zona rural de residencia. El incremento de la edad corrigió el padecimiento mediante asociación inversa. El principal tipo de anemia en la muestra fue de tipo normocítica hipocrómica, seguida de anemia macrocítica. El nivel de macrocitosis en la población fue alto (56 por ciento) en individuos anémicos y no anémicos sugiriendo la concurrencia de otras enfermedades como agente causante. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de anemia en la muestra es un problema moderado de salud pública influido por variables sociodemográficas. La reversión del fenómeno sobrepasa la dimensión nutricional, por lo que es necesario políticas con enfoque multifactorial que integren el área nutricional, educativa y de salud pública(AU)


Introduction: Anemia and its eradication is a priority of health organizations. The implementation of nutritional supplemental programs for its reduction is carried out by several institutions. Objective: To characterize anemia in the children who were beneficiaries of EquiDar project, in Azuay, Ecuador from 2015 to 2016. Methods: Prospective approach with non-experimental, observational, descriptive-associative and cross-sectional design carried out in the period 2015-2016 in Canton Cuenca, Azuay, Ecuador. The probabilistic sample corresponded to 1091 children who are benefit from EquiDar project. Biometry was performed using automated equipment. The hematologic indices obtained were normalized according to the height. Data were processed with SPSS 23.0 and using descriptive and inferential statistics with methods for the comparison of means and proportions (H Kruskall Wallis, Mann Whitney U and square-Ji). Results: The prevalence of anemia was 23.96 percent, predominantly in the preschool ages and in the rural areas. Increasing age corrects the condition by inverse association. The main type of anemia in the sample is hypocromic normocytic, followed by macrocytic anemia. The level of macrocytosis in the population was high (56 percent) in both anemic and non-anemic individuals, suggesting the concurrence of other pathologies as causative agent. Conclusions: The incidence of anemia in the sample is a moderate public health problem influenced by sociodemographic variables. The reversion of the phenomenon surpasses the nutritional dimension being necessary policies with multifactorial approach that integrate the nutritional, educative and public health areas(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , World Health Organization , Food, Fortified/standards , Anemia/prevention & control , Anemia/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Family Health Strategy , Ecuador , Observational Study
17.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 31(6): 603-615, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041290

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Food insecurity and child malnutrition are central topics in many food programs around the world; however, these indices do not diminish. The creation of strategies is necessary to increase the effectiveness of nutritional improvement programs. The objective of this research was to improve the nutritional quality of three local dishes included in the regular diet of the population by adding amaranth and to evaluate their acceptance by children from three communities in Tochimilco, Puebla, Mexico. Methods The study was carried out in three communities of "Tochimilco", Puebla, Mexico, in order to evaluate three local dishes: banana smoothie, beans and corn tortillas, which were chosen by mothers of the region in participative workshops on preparation of local dishes enriched with amaranth. Two sensory tests were applied: paired-comparison and hedonic scale to 208 and 210 children of preschool and scholar age, respectively. Results It was found that consumers showed similar preference for banana smoothie and beans enriched with amaranth compared to non-enriched dishes; while the amaranth enriched tortilla gained more preference in the different statistical tests and it was the dish with higher content of amino acids. Sensory attributes were similarly assessed and there were no significant differences among rural and urban communities and school year. Conclusion Children easily accept the addition of amaranth to the dishes they are accustomed to, as it does not change their food culture. It is possible to improve child nutrition by designing healthier dishes and incorporating them into the daily cooking of those who prepare the food.


RESUMO Objetivo A insegurança alimentar e a desnutrição infantil são temas centrais de muitos programas alimentares ao redor do mundo; no entanto, esses índices não diminuem. É preciso criar estratégias para aumentar a eficácia dos programas de desenvolvimento nutricional. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo melhorar a qualidade nutricional de três pratos típicos da dieta normal da população local, adicionando amaranto às comidas típicas e avaliando a aceitação dele por crianças de três comunidades em Tochimilco, Puebla, México. Métodos O estudo foi realizado nas três comunidades para avaliar os três pratos típicos desta mesma região: vitamina de banana, feijão e as tortilhas de milho. Estas comidas foram escolhidas por mães da região em oficinas participativas de preparação de pratos locais enriquecidos com amaranto. Dois testes sensoriais foram aplicados: comparação pareada e escala hedônica para 208 e 210 crianças em idade pré-escolar e escolar, respectivamente. Resultados Verificou-se que os consumidores mostraram uma preferência semelhante pela vitamina de banana e feijão enriquecido com amaranto do que os mesmos não enriquecidos; enquanto a tortilha de milho enriquecida com amaranto ganhou mais preferência nos diferentes testes estatísticos e foi o prato com maior teor de aminoácidos. Os atributos sensoriais foram avaliados da mesma forma e não houve diferenças significativas entre as comunidades rurais e urbanas e as notas escolares. Conclusão As crianças aceitam facilmente a incorporação de amaranto nos pratos típicos da dieta delas, pois não repre-sentou nenhuma alteração da sua cultura alimentar. É possível melhorar a nutrição infantil, criando pratos mais saudáveis e incorporando-os na culinária cotidiana daqueles que preparam a comida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Child Nutrition Disorders , Food, Fortified , Child , Child, Preschool , Community Participation , Cooking , Amaranthus , Mexico
18.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 12(3): 228-232, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-975738

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La fisura labiopalatina ha tenido una alta frecuencia en la población chilena. A partir del 2000 se inició el programa de fortificación de la harina con ácido fólico a fin de disminuir los defectos del tubo neural. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el impacto que presenta la incorporación del ácido fólico en la incidencia de fisuras labiopalatinas de la población del área occidente de la Región Metropolitana. Se recopiló información a partir de las fichas clínicas de la Fundación Gantz seleccionando a los recién nacidos entre 1990 y 2009, correspondientes a las comunas del Servicio de Salud Occidente de la Región Metropolitana. Desde el 2000 hasta el 2004 se observó una disminución importante en las tasas de fisura labiopalatina, con una tasa de 0,88 fisurados por 1000 recién nacidos vivos. Posteriormente se observó un incremento a partir del 2005 hasta el 2009 llegando a una tasa de 1,52 fisurados por 1000 recién nacidos vivos. En conclusión, el efecto protector del ácido fólico se evidencia en la disminución de las tasas de los recién nacidos con fisuras durante los primeros años de su implementación. Sin embargo, posteriormente se observó un aumento de dichas tasas, lo cual podría deberse al incumplimiento de la norma.


ABSTRACT: Cleft lip and palate has had a high frequency in the Chilean population. From the year 2000 a flour fortification program with folic acid was initiated in order to reduce the defects of the neural tube. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the incorporation of folic acid in the incidence of cleft lip and palate of the population of the western area of the Metropolitan Region. Information was collected from clinical records of the Gantz Foundation, selecting newborns from 1990 to 2009, corresponding to the districts of the western sector of the Metropolitan Region. From 2000 to 2004 there was a significant decrease in cleft lip and palate rates, with a rate of 0.88 cases per 1000 live births. Subsequently, an increase was observed from 2005 to 2009, reaching a rate of 1.52 cases per 1000 live births. In conclusion, the protective effect of folic acid is evidenced in the reduction of the rates of newborns with cleft palate during the first years of its implementation. However, an increase in these rates was subsequently observed, which could be due to noncompliance with the standard.


Subject(s)
Humans , Food, Fortified , Cleft Lip/prevention & control , Cleft Lip/epidemiology , Cleft Palate/prevention & control , Cleft Palate/epidemiology , Folic Acid/pharmacology , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence
19.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 68(3): 258-267, sept. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1016074

ABSTRACT

La desnutrición afecta la sociedad, principalmente a niños de recursos limitados, siendo los bajos niveles de minerales su consecuencia directa. Se desarrolló una investigación explicativa, con diseño experimental para evaluar la efectividad del consumo de un helado a base de Musa paradisiaca suplementado con probióticos en una población infantil de Cúcuta-Colombia. De una población de 238 escolares, 33 niños de 4 a 6 años tuvieron déficit séricos de Ca, Fe y K y se dividieron aleatoriamente en dos grupos. Durante 60 días se les suministró diariamente el helado prueba al Grupo A y al Grupo B un helado placebo, registrándose peso, talla, niveles séricos de Ca, Fe y K antes, durante y después del suministro. Incrementaron significativamente (p = 0,01) los niveles de hierro y calcio en el Grupo A; mientras en el Grupo B permanecieron sin cambios. En ambos grupos aumentaron significativamente los niveles de potasio (p<0.05), con (p = 0.01) en el Grupo A. El peso corporal y talla de los niños evidenció un cambio significativo dentro de cada grupo (p < 0,05), aunque, no se observaron diferencias significativas entre grupos luego de la intervención. El consumo del helado a base de plátano suplementado con probióticos representa una alternativa para el abordaje del déficit de minerales en la población infantil(AU)


Malnutrition affects society, mainly children with limited resources, with low levels of minerals being the direct consequence. An explanatory research was developed, with experimental design to evaluate the effectiveness of the consumption of an ice cream of Musa paradisiaca supplemented with probiotics in a child population of Cúcuta-Colombia. From 238 schoolchildren, a sample of 33 children aged 4 to 6 years with serum deficits of Ca, Fe and K participated and they were randomly divided into two groups. For 60 days the ice cream was supplied to Group A and Group B a placebo ice cream, registering weight, height, serum levels of Ca, Fe and K before, during and after the ice cream administration. There was a significant increase (p = 0.01) in the iron and calcium levels in Group A; with no significant changes for Group B. In both groups potassium was significantly increased (p <0.05). The body weight and height of the children was increased although there were no differences (p>0.05) between both groups. The consumption of banana-based ice cream supplemented with probiotics represents an alternative to address the deficit of minerals in children(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Socioeconomic Factors , Child Nutrition Disorders/complications , Food, Fortified , Mineral Deficiency , Probiotics , Diet, Food, and Nutrition
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