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1.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(1): 43-52, 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025512

ABSTRACT

La prevalencia de desnutrición en niños en Guatemala es constante y se ha mantenido alta por años. Tomando en cuenta esta problemática se planteó un modelo de alimentación complementaria a base de yogur enriquecido con harinas de alto valor proteico en niños de edad preescolar en el suroccidente de Guatemala. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron yogur con harina de Acheta domesticus (grillo), yogur con harina de Brosimum alicastrum Swartz (ramón) y un grupo control. Se evaluó el peso, talla y velocidad de crecimiento durante cuatro meses brindando 125 mL de yogur cinco días por semana. La ganancia media (desviación estándar) de peso en kg fue de 3.21 (1.84), 2.22 (1.14) y 1.67 (0.64) para A. domesticus, B. alicastrum y grupo control, respectivamente. Mostrando la mezcla de yogur con harina de A. domesticus diferencia significativa frente al control (p < .05), por el contrario, no se encontró diferencia significativa (p > .05) cuando se comparó con yogur con harina de B. alicastrum. Para el incremento en talla en cm los resultados fueron 4.61 (1.13), 4.25 (1.54) y 3.07 (1.84) para A. domesticus, B. alicastrum y grupo control, respectivamente, mostrando ambas diferencias significativas frente al control (p < .05). Se determinaron los costos por dosis los cuales fueron US$0.56 (A. domesticus) y US$0.36 (B. alicastrum). Se concluye que el yogur con harina de A. domesticus fue el que presentó mejor respuesta en las variables de estudio.


The prevalence data on malnutrition of children in Guatemala are constant. Taking into account this problem, a yogurt-based supplementary feeding model was proposed, enriched with high-protein flours in pre-school children in southwestern Guatemala. The treatments evaluated were yogurt with Acheta domesticus flour (cricket), yogurt with Brosimum alicastrum Swartz flour (ramon) and control group. The weight, height and growth rate were evaluated during four months providing 125 mL of yogurt five days per week. The weight gain in kg was 3.21 (1.84), 2.22 (1.14) and 1.67 (0.64) for A. domesticus, B. alicastrum and control group respectively, showing significant difference (p < .05). The costs per dose were determined, which were US $ 0.56 (A. domesticus) and US $ 0.36 (B. alicastrum). The study concludes that yogurt with A. domesticus flour was the one that presented the best response in the study variables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Yogurt/analysis , Food, Fortified/analysis , Gryllidae , Food, Fortified/economics , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Flour
2.
Hig. aliment ; 31(274/275): 125-129, 30/12/2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-880371

ABSTRACT

Entre os produtos de panificação, o bolo apresenta grande importância no Brasil, sendo que a principal farinha usada na sua preparação é a de trigo. Visando melhorar o valor nutritivo do bolo observou-se que o quiabo é uma importante fonte de nutrientes. Nesse contexto, objetivou- -se enriquecer um bolo com farinha de quiabo (FQ). Foram elaboradas três formulações de bolo (padrão, 10% e 15% de farinha de quiabo) e posteriormente realizaram-se os testes de Escala Hedônica e Pareado de Preferência. Foram determinados composição centesimal e vida de prateleira do bolo preferido. As duas formulações de bolos obtiveram boa aceitação, sendo a formulação com 10% de farinha de quiabo preferida. O bolo analisado apresentou teor de umidade de 33%, 1,82% de cinzas, 14,67 de lipídios, 3,57% de proteínas e 46,94 de carboidratos. Verificou-se vida de prateleira de cinco dias sob temperatura ambiente. Dessa forma o bolo elaborado com 10% de FQ mostrou-se como uma boa opção alimentar pois, além do alto valor nutritivo, o produto apresentou uma boa aceitação.(AU)


Among the baked goods, the cake is very important in Brazil. Aiming to improve the nutritive value of the cake It was observed that okra is an important source of α-tocopherol and minerals. In this context, it was enriched a cake with okra flour (CF). Two cake formulations were elaborated and the Hedonic and Pareto Preference tests were performed. Microbiological analysis and determination of shelf life. The work was submitted to the Ethics Committee. As two cakes formulations obtained good acceptance, being a preferred formulation A. Microbiological analysis of the cakes and the results obtained for total coliforms, molds and yeasts, as well as absence of Salmonella sp. Shelf life of 5 days was verified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Abelmoschus/chemistry , Flour Benefactor , Food, Fortified/analysis , Foods of Confectionery , Food Composition , Eating/standards
3.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 90(5): 518-522, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723168

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate phenylalanine plasma profile in preterm newborns fed different human milk diets. Methods: Twenty-four very-low weight preterm newborns were distributed randomly in three groups with different feeding types: Group I: banked human milk plus 5% commercial fortifier with bovine protein, Group II: banked human milk plus evaporated fortifier derived from modified human milk, Group III: banked human milk plus lyophilized fortifier derived from modified human milk. The newborns received the group diet when full diet was attained at 15 ± 2 days. Plasma amino acid analysis was performedon the first and last day of feeding. Comparison among groups was performed by statistical tests: one way ANOVA with Tukey's post-test using SPSS software, version 20.0 (IBM Corp, NY, USA), considering a significance level of 5%. Results: Phenylalanine levels in the first and second analysis were, respectively, in Group I: 11.9 ± 1.22 and 29.72 ± 0.73; in Group II: 11.72 ± 1.04 and 13.44 ± 0.61; and in Group III: 11.3 ± 1.18 and 15.42 ± 0.83 μmol/L. Conclusion: The observed results demonstrated that human milk with fortifiers derived from human milk acted as a good substratum for preterm infant feeding both in the evaporated or the lyophilized form, without significant increases in plasma phenylalanine levels in comparison to human milk with commercial fortifier. .


Objetivo: Avaliar o perfil plasmático do aminoácido fenilalanina em recém-nascidos pré-termo alimentados com diferentes dietas de leite humano. Métodos: Foram estudados 24 recém-nascidos pré-termo de muito baixo peso, distribuídos em três grupos com diferentes dietas: Grupo I: leite humano de banco com 5% de aditivo comercial para leite humano com proteína de origem bovina (LHB-AC); Grupo II: leite humano de banco com aditivo de leite humano modificado evaporado (LHB-E); e Grupo III: leite humano de banco com aditivo de leite humano modificado liofilizado (LHB-L). Os recém-nascidos receberam a dieta definida para o grupo quando alcançaram dieta plena por 15 ± 2 dias. A análise do aminoácido plasmático foi feita no primeiro e último dias da dieta. A comparação entre os grupos foi realizada por meio do teste ANOVA de uma via, seguido pelo pós-teste de Tukey, utilizando-se o software SPSS (IBM Corp, NY, EUA), versão 20.0, e considerando um nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: As concentrações plasmáticas do aminoácido fenilalanina na primeira e segunda análises foram, respectivamente, no Grupo I (LHB-AC) 11,9±1,22 e 29,72±0,73; no Grupo II (LHB-E) 11,72±1,04 e 13,44±0,61; e no Grupo III 11,3±1,18 e 15,42±0,83 umol/L. Conclusão: Os resultados encontrados demonstram que o leite humano com aditivos do próprio leite humano comportou-se como um bom substrato para alimentação do recém-nascido pré-termo, tanto na forma evaporada como liofilizada, sem levar a aumentos significativos na concentração plasmática de fenilalanina em comparação ao leite humano com aditivo comercial. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Diet/methods , Infant, Premature/blood , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight/blood , Milk, Human , Phenylalanine/blood , Freeze Drying , Food, Fortified/analysis , Milk Banks , Milk Proteins/analysis
4.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 64(2): 108-115, jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752681

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present work was to evaluate molar ratio iron:zinc and the levels of folic acid in biscuit and snacks commercialized in Brazil, prepared with folic acid and iron fortified flours. These nutrients are important for human nutrition; however, iron can have a negative effect on zinc absorption. Molar ratio iron:zinc can indicate if there will be any problems for absorption of these nutrients. The folic acid content varied from 58 to 433 μg/100g and iron and zinc levels varied from 2.9 to 9.4 mg/100g and from 0.2 to 1.3 mg/100g, respectively, for 75 analyzed samples. The average iron contents observed in the products and molar ratio iron:zinc (in average 8:1 for biscuits and 12.8:1 for snacks) could result in problems with the zinc absorption. Moreover, principal component analyses (PCA) indicated low uniformity in the distribution of minerals and vitamin in the majority of the samples, mainly among brands. The results indicated that for the majority of the samples tested folic acid and iron content was higher than expected for flours and could be useful to governmental authorities in their evaluation program of flour fortification.


O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar razão molar ferro: zinco e os níveis de ácido fólico em biscoitos e snacks, comercializados no Brasil, preparados com farinhas fortificadas com ácido fólico e ferro. Esses nutrientes são importantes para nutrição humana, porém, o ferro pode ter efeito negativo na absorção do zinco. A razão molar ferro:zinco pode indicar se haverá problemas para absorção desses nutrientes. O teor de ácido fólico variou de 58 a 433 μg/100g e os níveis de ferro e zinco oscilaram de 2.9 a 9.4 mg/100g e de 0.2 a 1.3 mg/100g, respectivamente, para 75 amostras analisadas. O valor médio observado para o teor de ferro nos produtos e a razão molar ferro:zinco (em média 8:1 para biscoitos e 12,8:1 para snacks) podem resultar em problemas na absorção do zinco. Além disso, a análise por componentes principais (PCA) indicou baixa uniformidade na distribuição dos minerais e da vitamina na maioria das amostras, principalmente entre marcas. Os resultados mostraram que para muitas amostras o teor de ácido fólico e de ferro estava acima do esperado para as farinhas e podem ser utilizados pelas autoridades governamentais para a avaliação do programa de fortificação de farinhas.


Subject(s)
Folic Acid/analysis , Food Analysis/methods , Food, Fortified/analysis , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Zinc/analysis , Brazil , Flour/analysis , Nutritive Value , Principal Component Analysis , Reference Values
6.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 62(2): 103-111, jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710610

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate iron bioavailability of maize genotypes, and analyze the correlation between in vitro and in vivo methods. Dialysable iron was analyzed in 13 genotypes from which 5 were selected for the biological assay. Mean iron content of the genotypes (n=13) was 17.93±2.93 mg kg-1. Phytate varied from 0.77% to 1.03%; phytate: iron molar ratio from 30.64 to 55.41; and soluble iron from 13.17 to 39.63%. The highest value for dialysable iron was 19.14%. In the biological assay, the control group, that received ferrous sulphate, did not present significant difference between the genotypes for Hb gain, Hb gain per gram of iron consumed and HRE. Hb gain did not present a significant correlation with in vitro assay. However, there were positive correlations varying from 0.653 to 0.809. The maize genotypes evaluated presented a good bioavailability since the genotypes showed the same result in hemoglobin gain than control group.


Biodisponibilidade de ferro de diferentes genótipos de milho desenvolvidos em programa de melhoramento genético: estudos in vitro e in vivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a biodisponibilidade do ferro de genótipos de milho e analisar a correlação entre métodos in vitro e in vivo. Ferro dialisável foi analisado em13 genótipos, a partir do qual 5 foram selecionados para o ensaio biológico. A média de teor de ferro dos genótipos (n= 13) foi 17,93 ± 2,93 mg kg-1. O teor de fitato variou de 0,77% a 1,03%; razão molar fitato:ferro de 30,64 a 55,41; e ferro solúvel de 13,17 a 39,63%.O valor mais alto para o ferro dialisável foi 19,14%. No ensaio biológico, o grupo controle, que recebeu sulfato ferrso, não apresentou diferença significativa entre os genótipos no ganho Hb, ganho de Hb por grama de ferro consumido e HRE. Ganho de Hb não apresentou correlação significativa com o ensaio in vitro. No entanto, houve correlações positivas variando de 0,653 a 0,809. Os genótipos de milho avaliados apresentaram uma boa biodisponibilidade uma vez que os genótipos apresentaram o mesmo resultado quanto ao ganho de hemoglobina em relação ao grupo controle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/prevention & control , Food, Fortified/analysis , Iron, Dietary/pharmacokinetics , Phytic Acid/analysis , Plants, Genetically Modified/chemistry , Zea mays/genetics , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/diet therapy , Biological Availability , Breeding , Biological Assay/methods , Dialysis , Genotype , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Zea mays/chemistry
7.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 88(2): 119-124, mar.-abr. 2012. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-623456

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Descrever a metodologia de preparo de dois aditivos, líquido e em pó, derivados do leite humano e comparar a constituição com aditivo comercial FM85®. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 40 amostras de leite humano para o preparo dos suplementos líquido e em pó. Ambos passaram por três fases de preparo: desnate, evaporação e retirada da lactose. Após essas fases, o suplemento líquido está pronto, e o em pó necessita da quarta fase - a liofilização. Em cada amostra dos suplementos líquido e em pó, foram adicionados, respectivamente, 80 mL (grupo I) e 100 mL (grupo II) de pool de leite humano de banco. Para comparação, 20 amostras de 100 mL do pool foram acrescidas de 5 g do suplemento FM85® (Nestlé) (grupo III). Realizaram-se análises de hidratos de carbono, proteína, lipídios, cálcio, fósforo, sódio, osmolalidade e conteúdo calórico, considerando diferença significativa p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Os grupos I, II e III mostraram, respectivamente, os seguintes resultados: proteínas = 1,81, 2,38 e 1,96 g/dL (p < 0,001); hidratos de carbono = 6,70, 7,25 e 10,06 g/dL (p = 0,006); gordura = 3,75, 3,75 e 3,73 g/dL (p = 0,96); cálcio = 36,92, 44,75 e 79,37 mg/dL (p = 0,001); fósforo = 20,02, 23,28 e 56,30 mg/dL (p = 0,02); sódio = 14,32, 14,40 e 20,33 mEq/L (p = 0,143); osmolalidade = 391,45, 412,47 e 431, 00 mOsmol/kgH2O (p = 0,074); e conteúdo calórico = 67,78, 72,27 e 81,65 kcal (p = 0,001). CONCLUSÃO: Os aditivos estudados diferem significativamente do aditivo comercial FM85® em alguns de seus constituintes, e a sua constituição pode ou não atender às quantidades de nutrientes propostas pelas recomendações mais recentes.


OBJECTIVES: To describe the methodology for the preparation of two additives derived from human milk, liquid and powdered, and to compare this composition with the commercial additive FM85®. METHODS: For the preparation of the liquid and powdered supplements, 40 samples of human milk were used. Both supplements have been through three preparation phases: skimming, evaporation and lactose removal. After these phases, the liquid supplement is ready, and the powdered requires a fourth phase - lyophilization. To each sample of the liquid and powdered supplements were added, respectively, 80 mL (group I) and 100 mL (group II) of pooled banked human milk. For comparison, 20 samples of 100 mL of the pool were added to 5 g of the FM85® supplement (Nestlé) (group III). Analyses of carbohydrates, protein, lipids, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, osmolality and caloric content were performed, considering a significant difference p < 0.05. RESULTS: Groups I, II, and III showed, respectively, the following results: protein = 1.81, 2.38 and 1.96 g/dL (p < 0.001); carbohydrates = 6.70, 7.25 and 10.06 g/dL (p = 0.006); fat = 3.75, 3.75 and 3.73 g/dL (p = 0.96); calcium = 36.92, 44.75 and 79.37 mg/dL (p = 0.001); phosphorus = 20.02, 23.28 and 56.30 mg/dL (p = 0.02); sodium = 14.32, 14.40 and 20.33 mEq/L (p = 0.143); osmolality = 391.45, 412.47 and 431.00 mOsmol/kgH2O (p = 0.074); and caloric content = 67.78, 72.27 and 81.65 kcal (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The studied additives differ significantly from the commercial additive FM85® in some of its components, and its composition may or may not meet the quantity of nutrients suggested by the most recent recommendations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Food Additives/administration & dosage , Food, Fortified/analysis , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Infant Food/analysis , Milk Banks , Milk, Human/chemistry , Nutritional Requirements , Analysis of Variance , Dietary Fats/analysis , Dietary Proteins/analysis , Food Additives/classification , Food, Fortified/standards , Infant Food/adverse effects , Minerals/analysis , Osmolar Concentration , Preservation, Biological/methods
8.
Rev. saúde pública ; 45(6): 1027-1035, dez. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-606860

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Comparar prevalência de anemia e valores de hemoglobina (Hb) em gestantes brasileiras, antes e após a fortificação das farinhas com ferro. MÉTODOS: Estudo de avaliação de painéis repetidos, desenvolvido em serviços públicos de saúde de municípios das cinco regiões brasileiras. Dados retrospectivos foram obtidos de 12.119 prontuários de gestantes distribuídas em dois grupos: antes da fortificação, com parto anterior a junho de 2004, e após a fortificação, com última menstruação após junho de 2005. Anemia foi definida como Hb < 11,0 g/dL. Valores de Hb/idade gestacional foram avaliados segundo dois referenciais da literatura. Foram utilizados teste qui-quadrado, t de Student e regressão logística, com nível de 5 por cento de significância. RESULTADOS: Na amostra total, anemia caiu de 25 por cento para 20 por cento após fortificação (p < 0,001), com médias de Hb significativamente maiores no grupo "após" (p < 0,001). Observaram-se, entretanto, diferenças regionais importantes: reduções significativas nas regiões Nordeste (37 por cento para 29 por cento) e Norte (32 por cento para 25 por cento), onde as prevalências de anemia eram elevadas antes da fortificação, e reduções menores nas regiões Sudeste (18 por cento para 15 por cento) e Sul (7 por cento para 6 por cento), onde as prevalências eram baixas. Os níveis de Hb/idade gestacional de ambos os grupos se mostraram discretamente mais elevados nos primeiros meses, porém bem mais baixos após o terceiro ou quarto mês, dependendo da referência utilizada para comparação. Análise de regressão logística mostrou que grupo, região geográfica, situação conjugal, trimestre gestacional, estado nutricional inicial e gestação anterior associaram-se com anemia (p < 0,05). CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de anemia diminuiu após a fortificação, porém continua elevada nas regiões Nordeste e Norte. Embora a fortificação possa ter tido papel nesse resultado favorável, há que se considerar a contribuição de outras políticas públicas implementadas no período estudado.


OBJECTIVE: To compare prevalence of anemia and hemoglobin (Hb) levels in Brazilian pregnant women before and after flour fortification with iron. METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional panel study of public health care centers of municipalities in the five Brazilian regions was conducted. Retrospective data were obtained from 12,119 medical records of pregnant women distributed in two groups: before fortification (delivery prior to June 2004) and after fortification (date of last period after June 2005). Anemia was defined as Hb<11.0 g/dl. Hb levels according to gestational age were assessed using two references from the literature. Statistical analysis was carried out using chi-squared tests, Student's t tests, and logistic regression, with a significance level of 5 percent. RESULTS: In the total sample, prevalence of anemia fell from 25 percent to 20 percent after fortification (p<0.001). However, important regional differences were evident: while significant reductions were seen in the Northeast (37 percent to 29 percent) and North (32 percent to 25 percent) regions, where pre-fortification prevalence was high, smaller reductions were seen in the Southeast (18 percent to 15 percent) and South (7 percent to 6 percent) regions, where prevalence was low. Hb levels according to gestational age were slightly higher in the first months of pregnancy and lower after the third or fourth months, depending on the reference used. Logistic regression analysis showed that group, geographic region, marital status, trimester of pregnancy, initial nutritional status, and prior pregnancy were associated with anemia (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of anemia decreased after fortification, but remains high in the North and Northeast regions. Although fortification may have played a role in this favorable outcome, the contribution of other public policies implemented during the studied period should also be considered.


OBJETIVO: Comparar prevalencia de anemia y valores de hemoglobina (Hb) en gestantes brasileñas, antes y después de la fortificación de las harinas con hierro. MÉTODOS: Estudio de evaluación de paneles repetidos, desarrollado en servicios públicos de salud de municipios de las cinco regiones brasileñas. Datos retrospectivos se obtuvieron de 12.119 prontuarios de gestantes distribuidas en dos grupos: antes de la fortificación, con parto anterior a junio de 2004, y posterior a la fortificación, con última menstruación después de junio 2005. Anemia fue definida como Hb<11,0 g/dL. Valores de Hb/edad gestacional fueron evaluados según dos referenciales de la literatura. Se utilizaron prueba de chi-cuadrado, t de Student y regresión logística, con nivel de 5 por ciento de significancia. RESULTADOS: En la muestra total, anemia disminuyó de 25 por ciento a 20 por ciento después de la fortificación (p<0,001), con promedios de Hb significativamente mayores en el grupo "posterior" (p<0,001). Se observaron, sin embargo, diferencias regionales importantes: reducciones significativas en las regiones Noreste (de 37 por ciento a 29 por ciento) y Norte (de 32 por ciento a 25 por ciento), donde las prevalencias de anemia eran elevadas antes de la fortificación; y reducciones menores en las regiones Sureste (de 18 por ciento a 15 por ciento) y Sur (de 7 por ciento a 6 por ciento), donde las prevalencias eran bajas. Los niveles de Hb/edad gestacional de ambos grupos se mostraron discretamente mas elevados en los primeros meses, aunque mucho mas bajos posterior al tercero o cuarto mes, dependiendo de la referencia utilizada para comparación. Análisis de regresión logística mostró cual grupo, región geográfica, situación conyugal, trimestre gestacional, estado nutricional inicial y gestación anterior se asociaron con anemia (p<0,05). CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de anemia disminuyó posterior a la fortificación, aunque continua elevada en las regiones Noreste y Norte. A pesar de que la fortificación pueda haber tenido papel en este resultado favorable, hay que considerar la contribución de otras políticas públicas implementadas en el periodo estudiado.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/diet therapy , Food, Fortified/analysis , Hemoglobin A/analysis , Iron, Dietary/administration & dosage , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/epidemiology , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/epidemiology , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Demography/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiologic Methods , Flour , Gestational Age , Prenatal Care , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/diet therapy
9.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 61(3): 316-322, sep. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-698157

ABSTRACT

Los alimentos complementarios más utilizados son las dietas caseras. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la disponibilidad de hierro y zinc en una dieta infantil de consumo habitual conteniendo pan fortificado con diferentes fuentes de hierro: sulfato ferroso, bisglicinato ferroso, NaFeEDTA. También se utilizó pan sin fortificar con agregado de ácido ascórbico, citrato de sodio o Na2EDTA como promotores de la absorción, combinada con diversas bebidas. La dieta (papa, zapallo, sémola, pan y manzana) se combinó con agua, leche, té, bebida cola y bebida artificial a base de naranja. La dializabilidad (D) mineral, como indicador de la disponibilidad potencial fue determinada utilizando un método in vitro. El análisis estadístico se realizó utilizando ANOVA, con test de Tukey a posteriori. No hubo diferencias significativas en la DFe entre las dietas del pan fortificado con sulfato o bisglicinato; con el NaFeEDTA aumentó significativamente (p<0,05). El aumento de la DFe fue mayor en las dietas que tenían panes con promotores que en las que tenían panes fortificados. La bebida a base de naranja aumentó la DFe, mientras que el té y la leche la disminuyeron significativamente (p<0,05). La DZn aumentó en forma significativa cuando el pan estaba fortificado con sulfato o NaFeEDTA, pero no cuando se fortificó con bisglicinato. El agregado de té o leche disminuyó la DZn mientras que la bebida a base de naranja la aumentó significativamente (p<0,05). En relación a los promotores, las mayores DFe y DZn se observaron en las dietas con el pan sin fortificar, con agregado de Na2EDTA.


Home-made diets are the most frequently used complementary foods. In the present work we evaluated iron and zinc availability in a usually consumed infant diet containing either iron-fortified bread with different iron sources: ferrous sulfate, ferrous bisglycinate, NaFeEDTA. We also used non-fortified bread with absorption promoters: ascorbic acid, sodium citrate, Na2EDTA, combined with different beverages. The diet (potato, pumpkin, grits, bread, and apple) was combined with water, milk, tea, a soft drink and an orange-based artificial drink. Mineral dialyzability (D) as an indicator of potential availability was determined using an in vitro method. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA, and a posteriori Tukey test. There were no significant differences in FeD between diets with ferrous sulfate or ferrous bisglycinate fortified bread; in NaFeEDTA fortified bread it increased significantly (p<0.05). Iron D increase was greater in diets with bread containing absorption promoters than in those with fortified bread. The orange-based artificial drink increased FeD, while tea and milk decreased it significantly (p<0.05). Zinc D increased significantly when the bread was fortified either with ferrous sulfate or NaFeEDTA, but remained unchanged in diets with ferrous bisglycinate fortified bread. The addition of tea or milk decreased ZnD while the orange-based artificial drink increased it significantly (p<0.05). Regarding absorption promoters, the greater values both in FeD and ZnD were observed in diets with iron nonfortified bread containing Na2EDTA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Bread/analysis , Food, Fortified/analysis , Iron/analysis , Zinc/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Beverages , Citrates/administration & dosage , Dialysis , Edetic Acid/administration & dosage , Ferric Compounds/administration & dosage , Ferrous Compounds/administration & dosage , Glycine/administration & dosage , Iron/pharmacokinetics , Zinc/pharmacokinetics
10.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 61(1): 81-86, Jan. 2011. ilus, graf, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-659103

ABSTRACT

Se evaluó la bioaccesibilidad de diversos minerales en infusiones de yerba mate y en preparaciones con leche fortificada con Fe para determinar la influencia de las infusiones en la biodisponibilidad potencial de minerales intrínsecos y del Fe de fortificación. Se evaluó la dializabilidad (D) de hierro, calcio, magnesio y zinc, como indicador de la bioaccesibilidad, en muestras de leche fortificada con sulfato ferroso (SF), bisglicinato férrico (BGF) y EDTANaFe. También se evaluó en mezclas de leche con mate cocido y en infusiones-cocciones con leches fortificadas. En cada caso se estudió la acción del ácido ascórbico (AA) en una relación Fe:AA 1:4. En el mate cocido la DFe fue nula y aumentó a 15% con el agregado de AA. La DFe en leche con SF, BGF y EDTANaFe (1.2; 1.0 y 27.4 respectivamente), se incrementó con el agregado de AA a 2.9; 3.5 y 24.8. La DFe en la mezcla leche:mate cocido resultó 4.7%; 5.7% y 31.2% para SF, BGF y EDTANaFe respectivamente. Con el agregado de AA resultó de 13.5%; 13.7% y 25.7% En infusiones- cocciones en leche fortificada con SF, los valores resultaron menores a los de la mezcla. La DCa no presentó variaciones importantes en las leches fortificadas y sus preparaciones con yerba mate, mientras que la DMg y la DZn solo mostraron una disminución significativa en la infusión-cocción. El consumo de infusiones de yerba mate no aporta cantidades significativas de minerales. Sin embargo, su consumo en mezclas con leche no afectaría negativamente la disponibilidad de Fe en dicha matriz.


The bioaccesibility of various minerals in infusions of yerba mate (mate cocido) and preparations with Fe-fortified milk was assessed to determine the influence of the infusions on the potential bioavailability of intrinsic minerals and fortified Fe. The dialyzability (D) of iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc was evaluated, as indicator of bioaccesibility in milk samples fortified with ferrous sulfate (FS), ferric bisglicinate GF) and EDTANaFe. Dialyzability was also evaluated in mixtures of milk with mate cocido and in infusions cooked with Fe-fortified milk. In each case the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) in a ratio Fe: AA 1:4 was studied. In the mate cocido FeD was zero and increased to 15% with the addition of AA. The FeD in milk with SF, BGF and EDTANaFe (1.2, 1.0 and 27.4 respectively), increased with the addition of AA to 2.9, 3.5 and 24.8. The FeD in the mixture milk: mate cocido was 4.7%, 5.7% and 31.2% for SF, BGF and EDTANaFe respectively. With the addition of AA was 13.5%, 13.7% and 25.7%. In infusions cooked with SF fortified milk, the values were lower than those of the mixture. The CaD did not show significant changes in Fe fortified milk and its preparations with yerba mate, while the MgD and ZnD only showed a significant reduction in infusion cooked with Fe-fortified milk. The use of infusions of yerba mate does not provide significant amounts of minerals. However, its use in mixtures with milk will not adversely affect the availability of Fe in that matrix.


Subject(s)
Animals , Beverages/analysis , Ferrous Compounds/administration & dosage , Food, Fortified/analysis , Ilex paraguariensis/chemistry , Milk/chemistry , Minerals/pharmacokinetics , Biological Availability , Venezuela
11.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 60(3): 291-297, sep. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-630330

ABSTRACT

Existe uma demanda por alimentos de conveniência com benefícios potenciais à saúde do consumidor. Matérias primas de elevado valor nutritivo e com propriedades funcionais devem ser utilizadas no desenvolvimento desses produtos. O amaranto é um grão de elevado valor nutritivo e isento de glúten. Inulina e oligofrutose são ingredientes prebióticos; que possuem outros efeitos, como o aumento da absorção de cálcio. Barras de amaranto enriquecidas com inulina e oligofrutose foram desenvolvidas nos sabores banana, castanha do Pará e uva passa, coco, damasco, morango e nozes. A composição centesimal foi avaliada e comparada às das barras comerciais, disponíveis nas categorias tradicional (n=59), light (n=60), diet (n=8), à base de soja (n=10) e quinoa (n=1). As barras de amaranto apresentaram média de aceitação global variando de 6,3 a 7,6, numa escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos, e vantagens nutricionais em relação às barras de cereais comerciais (redução calórica e alto teor de fibras). Apesar de o amaranto ser desconhecido no Brasil, este apresenta bom potencial para o desenvolvimento de alimentos prontos para o consumo. Por serem isentas de glúten estas barras são inclusive uma alternativa para os celíacos, podendo contribuir para o aumento da absorção de cálcio, problema freqüentemente observado nessa população.


There is an increasing appeal for convenience foods with potential health benefits to the consumer. Raw materials with high nutritional value and functional properties must be used on the development of these food products. Amaranth is a gluten-free grain with high nutrition value. Inulin and oligofructose are prebiotic ingredients presenting effects as the enhancement of calcium absorption. Amaranth bars enriched with inulin and oligofructose were developed in the flavors: banana, Brazilian nuts and dried grape, coconut, peach, strawberry and wall nut. The proximate composition were determined and compared to commercial cereal bars, available in traditional (n=59), light (n=60), diet (n=8), with soy (n=10) and quinoa (n=1) categories. Amaranth bars present mean global acceptance values from 6.3 to 7.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale, nutritional advantages as compared to commercial cereal bars (caloric reduction and higher levels of dietary fiber). Although amaranth is an unknown raw material in Brazil, it shows good potential to be used in the manufacturing of ready-to-eat products. As they are gluten free, these amaranth bars are also an alternative product for celiacs, also contributing to the enhancement of calcium absorption, a problem frequently observed in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amaranthus , Food Technology , Food Handling/methods , Food, Fortified/analysis , Inulin/administration & dosage , Oligosaccharides/administration & dosage , Taste , Nutritive Value
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 138(7): 832-840, July 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-567587

ABSTRACT

Background: High daily intake of folic acid (FA) could determine health risks in some populations. Aim: To review the Chilean FA wheat four fortifcation and to identify the existence of populations at risk. Material and Methods: We categorized the FA levels in four samples (percentil P) (2005-2008) and estimated intake of FA (mg/d) in adults from apparent bread consumption according to different levels (P20, 50 and 95) and children consumption (8-13 years) considering socioeconomic status (SES), bread/g/d intake (P20, 50 and 75) and regulated level of four fortifcation (2.2 mg FA/100 g). Daily Dietary Folate Equivalent (DFE) consumption was estimated from serum folate in adults and elderly people (both sexes). We calculated the percentage of population with FA intakes over the estimated average requirement (EAR) and maximum level (UL) pre and post-fortifcation. Results: There is great variability in FA four: 10-20 percent samples without FA and 10-30 percent with levels > 2.2 mg/100 g. Adult daily consumption (2-4 day/loaves) could determine FA intakes close to UL. Children daily bread consumption (low socioeconomic level) > P75 have intakes close to UL. Post-fortifcation estimated daily DFE from serum folate in women, men and elderly people show: 99 percent of women, 100 percent of men and the elderly people have intakes higher than EAR. Additionally 2.3 percent of women and 6 percent of men would have intakes near the UL. Conclusions: The four FA levels and serum folate levels in some populations show increased FA post-fortifcation intakes, which could lead to greater risk suggesting a revision of the fortifcation level.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Flour/analysis , Folic Acid/adverse effects , Food, Fortified/adverse effects , Nutritional Requirements , Nutritional Status/physiology , Vitamin B Complex/adverse effects , Bread/analysis , Chile , Diet Surveys/methods , Diet Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Folic Acid/administration & dosage , Folic Acid/blood , Food, Fortified/analysis , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Vitamin B Complex/administration & dosage , Vitamin B Complex/blood
14.
Rev. nutr ; 21(6): 647-657, nov.-dez. 2008. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-509599

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a aceitabilidade de um pão tipo bisnaguinha enriquecido com ferro microencapsulado por crianças freqüentadoras de creches, de acordo com sexo, faixa etária, estado nutricional, presença de anemia, tempo de estocagem e momento do experimento (inicial, meio e final). MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico randomizado duplo-cego com 382 crianças de 2 a 6 anos de idade, matriculadas em quatro creches filantrópicas do município de São Paulo. As crianças de duas creches receberam no café da manhã, de segunda a sexta-feira, o pão fortificado com ferro microencapsulado e as das outras duas, pão idêntico, porém sem ferro, durante 120 dias. A ingestão foi anotada diariamente em planilhas individuais. Os testes estatísticos utilizados foram o qui-quadrado, o teste t de Student, a análise de variância e a análise de covariância. RESULTADOS: O consumo médio semanal de pães foi significantemente menor nas crianças das creches expostas (1,17) do que nas creches não expostas (1,56) e a variabilidade de aceitação foi maior nas creches não expostas. A ingestão foi significantemente menor pelas crianças das creches expostas em todas as variáveis estudadas, exceto nas faixas etárias menores de 36 meses e de 36 a 47 meses. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de a aceitação pelas crianças do pão fortificado com ferro ter sido significantemente menor do que ao pão sem ferro, a aceitação nos dois grupos mostra que este pão pode ser alternativa viável para a fortificação de alimentos na prevenção da anemia ferropriva em crianças de creches.


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the acceptance of a new food, a mini-roll enriched with microencapsulated iron sulfate, among preschool-aged children stratified by sex, age group, nutritional status, presence of iron-deficiency anemia, length of storage, and stage of trial (early, middle, late). METHODS: Double blind randomized clinical trial with 382 children aged 2 to 6 years enrolled in 4 not-for-profit daycare centers in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Children in two daycare centers received the mini-rolls fortified with microencapsulated iron in breakfast from Monday to Friday (exposed daycare centers). Children in the other 2 daycare centers received regular, yet identical, mini-rolls in the same manner. Observation lasted 120 days. Acceptance was noted daily on specific log-sheets. Data were compared using the chi-square and Student's t tests, analysis of variance and analysis of covariance. RESULTS: Mean weekly consumption of mini-rolls was lower in exposed daycare centers (1.17) than in unexposed centers (1.54). Variance was greater in unexposed daycare centers. Acceptance was lower among children in exposed daycare centers in all stratified variable categories, except among children younger than 36 months or aged between 36 and 47 months. CONCLUSION: Although the children's acceptance of the rolls fortified with iron was significantly lower than that of rolls without iron fortification, this type of food might be a viable alternative in the prevention of iron-deficiency anemia in children of daycare centers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Food, Fortified/analysis , Child Day Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Child, Preschool/statistics & numerical data
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 136(4): 415-422, abr. 2008. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-484916

ABSTRACT

Background: During 2005, the Chilean Ministry of Health included a fortified milk beverage to the Elderly Food Supplementation Program, to improve the compliance with the program and to increase the provision of micronutrients. This beverage was added to a soup that was distributed since 1999. Aim: To evaluate the long term acceptability, tolerance and consumption of the Milk Beverage and analyze the nutritional contribution of the products provided by the supplementation program to the usual diet of the elderly. Material and methods: One hundred twenty five elderly subjects, aged 77 ± 4 (52 males) living in Metropolitan Santiago, aged over 70 years, beneficiaries of the food supplementation program, were interviewed. The acceptability, consumption and tolerance of the Milk Beverage were evaluated by specially designed surveys. The contribution of the food suplementation products to daily nutrient intake was also analyzed by 24 hours dietary recalls. Results: The mean body mass index of the interviewed elderly subjects was 27.0 ±4.5 Kg/m². Monthly delivery of the products included in the program increased significantly after the incorporation of the Milk Beverage to the program. The milk beverage had a significantly higher daily consumption and a lower family dilution than the soup. The consumption of supplementation products increased significantly the daily intake of energy and most micronutrients. Noteworthy was the case for vitamin B12, C, E and zinc, whose intake doubled (p <0.01). Conclusions: The Milk Beverage had an excellent approval and consumption rate. The consumption of food supplementation products improved daily intake of most nutrients in elderly subjects.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Dietary Supplements/statistics & numerical data , Milk , National Health Programs , Nutritional Status/physiology , Patient Satisfaction , Program Evaluation , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Energy Intake/physiology , Food, Fortified/analysis , Long-Term Care , Sex Distribution
16.
Rev. nutr ; 21(2): 149-160, mar.-abr. 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-485428

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar o consumo de alimentos sujeitos à fortificação compulsória com ferro por gestantes atendidas em consultas de pré-natal do Hospital Universitário de Brasília. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de série temporal que comparou dados de 228 pares de gestantes a partir de duas avaliações transversais: em 2004, pré-fortificação e em 2005, um ano após intervenção. Dados gestacionais, socioeconômicos, demográficos, índice de massa corporal e consumo alimentar foram coletados. Este último foi aferido por Questionário Semiquantitativo de Freqüência Alimentar incluindo alimentos à base de farinhas de trigo e de milho. RESULTADOS: O consumo per capita diário médio de farinhas foi estimado em 121,7g (98,7-115,8), no 1º momento, e 119,5g (93,6-109,5), no 2º momento (p>0,05), com maior contribuição da farinha de trigo. Os alimentos mais consumidos, em ambos os momentos, foram: pão francês, biscoitos, bolo, macarrão e cuscuz de milho. As gestantes do estudo receberiam uma média de 5,1mg de ferro adicional, se a fortificação estivesse ocorrendo como o preconizado pela legislação, que corresponde a 19 por cento da Ingestão Dietética de Referência. CONCLUSÃO: Os alimentos sujeitos à fortificação são veículos apropriados em relação ao largo consumo, porém são necessários estudos que avaliem a quantidade adicionada e a biodisponibilidade dos compostos de ferro.


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the consumption of foods subject to mandatory fortification with iron by pregnant women visiting the Hospital Universitário de Brasília for prenatal care. METHODS: A time-series study that compared 228 paired pregnant women through two cross-sectional assessments: in 2004, before flour fortification, and a year later. Pregnancy, socioeconomic and demographic data, body mass index and food consumption patterns were collected. The latter was determined by applying the Semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire and included foods containing wheat and corn flours. RESULTS: The daily per capita consumption of flours was estimated to be 121.7g (98.7-115.8) in the first interview before fortification and 119.5g (93.6-109.5) in the second interview after fortification (p>0.05), with a greater consumption of wheat flour. The most consumed foods before and after fortification were French bread, cookies, cakes, pasta and corn couscous. The studied pregnant women would have received an extra 5.1mg of iron if fortification had been done according to the legislation, which corresponds to 19 percent of the Dietary Reference Intake. CONCLUSION: The foods subject to fortification are appropriate vehicles because of their high consumption yet studies that assess the amount of iron added and the bioavailability of the iron compounds used are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Food, Fortified/analysis , Eating , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Pregnant Women
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-42554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human milk is nutritionally better than formula milk for preterm infants. However, unfortified human milk may fail to meet the theoretical requirements of very low birth weight (VLBW). Human milk fortifier (HMF) increases the nutritional content of human milk. However, the important factor of concern in feeding VLBW is the osmolality, the higher the osmolality, the greater the risk of necrotizing entero colitis (NEC). Therefore, high osmolality in fortified human milk should be considered for this condition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of fortification on the osmolality of human milk. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Twenty samples of human milk were collected from mothers of gestational age less than 32 weeks, at about 1 week postpartum in Songklanagarind Hospital. The osmolality of each sample was determined at baseline and after supplementation with HMF at 10 minutes, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours at room temperature and 24 hours at 4 degrees C in a refrigerator. RESULTS: The mean osmolalities (SD) of human milk and HMF dissolved in sterile water were 285.3 (3.3) mOsm/kg H2O and 64.6 (0.7) mOsm/kg H2O, respectively. Thus, the expected osmolality of human milk after supplementation with HMF was 349 mOsm/kg H2O. Mean measured osmolalities (SD) of human milk after supplementation with HMF at 10 minutes, and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours was 394.7 (2.9), 399.5 (2.8), 402.1 (2.2), 401.0 (2.7), 401.3 (2.3) and 401.2 (3.1) mOsm/kg H2O, respectively. The mean osmolality at 10 minutes, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours were significantly higher than human milk (p < 0.001) and the mean osmolality at 10_minutes was significantly higher than expected osmolality (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences among groups of osmolality after supplementation with HMF at 10 minutes, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The supplementation of human milk with HMF induced an increase in osmolality after mixing. The osmolality, after mixing with HMF which was about 400 mOsm/kg H2O, creates a greater risk of NEC. Therefore, HMF milk should be considered for feeding in only high risk preterm neonates.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Food, Fortified/analysis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Milk, Human/chemistry , Osmolar Concentration , Temperature , Time Factors
18.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 53(1): 74-83, mar. 2003.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-356583

ABSTRACT

This study presents the development of individual cakes enriched with dietary fiber (lupin and oat fiber), vitamins and minerals; as recent research has shown that the average daily dietary fibre intake of the elderly population in Chile is only 12 g. Each cake contains 4.8 g of dietary fibre and a 30 per cent of the RDA of vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, nicotinamide and folic acid, 40 per cent of the RDA of vitamin D3, 15 per cent of the RDA of calcium, 12 per cent of the RDA of magnesium and 3 per cent the RDA of zinc. Polydextrose and sorbitol were added to improve flavor and texture. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used for optimization, based on a two-variable composite design. Thirteen experimental runs were carried out, with polydextrose (1 to 40 per cent based on flour content) and sorbitol (1 to 30 per cent based on flour content) as independent variables. The response variable was sensory quality obtained by the Karlsruhe test. Sensory attributes of texture and overall quality showed a good fitting with high determination coefficients and were used for optimization. The optimized cake contained 11.5 per cent polydextrose and 4.4 per cent sorbitol (both based on flour content). Quality of the optimized product was controlled by means of physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses. Overall sensory quality was 8.18 (very good) and good quality and nutritive value were achieved. In an acceptance test carried out with 150 adults, 100 per cent acceptability was obtained in the hedonic scale categories like it and like it very much. A shelf life study performed with cakes packaged in polypropylene bags of 30 microns thickness indicated a shelf life of 13 days stored at room conditions (25 degrees C and 55-60 per cent R.H.).


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Food, Fortified/analysis , Dietary Fiber , Micronutrients , Avena , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Micronutrients/analysis , Minerals/analysis , Nutritive Value , Proteins/analysis , Consumer Behavior , Vitamins/analysis
19.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 53(1): 14-20, mar. 2003.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-356593

ABSTRACT

The reduced intake of dietary fiber (DF) has been associated with the increase in the incidence of several non-transmissible chronic diseases. Recently many researchers from Iberian-American countries have been studying DF of food and industrial residues in order to improve technological knowledge about concentrates production as well as the development and test of enriched products originated from regional food. The present study aimed to evaluate the regional DF potential based on compilation of data about this nutrient. There is great availability of regional and traditional food with considerable DF amounts as we may find in fruits, vegetables and cereals and legumes. Concentrated sources of DF obtained from different industrial residues were characterized and evaluated making possible their utilization in food enrichment. Cookies added to corn residues (16.8 per cent DF in integral weight) in Colombia, and pasta added to lupine fiber in Chile (11.2 per cent) are examples of tested enriched products. Products like bread with whole wheat (12 per cent), products for especial uses as well as pills of citric DF (55 per cent) and food for enteral diets (1-1.9 per cent) are already available on Cuba market. The dietary fiber contents presented in this work allow us to have an idea of the potential of such nutrient in Iberian-American countries. Such potential has been proved to be considerably representative. It is worth to inform that the complete DF database is available on the CYTED X1.6/CNPq Project Web site (http://www.fcf.usp.br/cytedxi16). It provides data on 817 regional, traditional and not conventional foods, that can be searched and utilized by professional from different areas.


Subject(s)
Food Analysis , Food, Fortified , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Food, Fortified/analysis , Edible Grain/chemistry , Eating , Latin America , Plants/chemistry
20.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 27(3): 340-4, dic. 2000. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-284971

ABSTRACT

En Chile la prevalencia de anemia por deficiencia de hierro de preescolares, escolares, adolescentes, hombres adultos y mujeres en edad fértil es baja. Sólo los lactantes y las embarazadas presentan una prevalencia significativa de anemia. Es altamente probable que la fortificación de la harina de trigo con hierro han influido en el mejoramiento del estado de nutrición de hierro de aquellos grupos etáreos de la población chilena que consume pan. La fortificación de la leche con hierro y ácido ascórbico es una efectiva estrategia para la prevención de la deficiencia de hierro en el lactante. Desde fines de 1998 el Programa Nacional de Alimentación Complementaria (PNAC) está entregando a los lactantes y embarazadas una leche completa en polvo fortificada con 10 mg de Fe, 5 mg de Zn, 0,5 mg de Cu y 70 mg de ácido ascórbico por 100 g de polvo. El objetivo de este programa es reducir la prevalencia de anemia en el lactante de un 27 - 30 por ciento a menos de un 5 por ciento


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Food, Fortified/analysis , Iron, Dietary/administration & dosage , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/epidemiology , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/prevention & control , Hemoglobins/therapeutic use
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