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1.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 58(2): 186-190, jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115483

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los meningiomas son tumores del sistema nervioso central que representan alrededor del 14,3% a 19%, de ellos solo un 1.8% a 3,2% surge en el foramen magno, por años el abordaje de esta clase de tumores conllevaba una gran morbimortalidad asociada debido a que el foramen magno contiene una serie de estructuras anatómicas y neurovasculares críticas, sin embargo con el progreso de las técnicas quirúrgicas, el manejo de la anestesia neurológica y la formación de neurocirujanos con experiencia en cirugías de base de cráneo, ha podido revertir estos resultados y hacer de la cirugía una alternativa segura con bajas tasas de complicaciones. El presente trabajo pretende revisar la literatura acerca de la morbimortalidad asociada a los meningiomas de foramen magno y presentar un caso abordado en nuestro centro.


The meningiomas are tumors of the central nervous system that represent around 14.3% to 19%, of them only 1.8% to 3.2% arise in the foramen magnum, for years the approach of this class of tumors entailed a great associated morbidity and mortality because the foramen magnum contains a series of critical anatomical and neurovascular structures, however with the progress of surgical techniques, the management of neurological anesthesia and the training of neurosurgeons with experience in skull base surgeries, it has been able to reverse these results and make surgery a safe alternative with low complication rates. The present work aims to review the literature about morbidity and mortality associated with meningiomas of foramen magnum and present a case addressed in our center.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , General Surgery , Morbidity , Mortality , Foramen Magnum , Anesthesia , Neoplasms
2.
Rev. Bras. Odontol. Leg. RBOL ; 6(3): [26,34], set-dez 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050948

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O Índice Forame Magno (IFM) é um método secundário para o estabelecimento do sexo no processo de identificação humana. Objetivo: Averiguar a aplicabilidade do IFM para a determinação do sexo em uma amostra brasileira. Material e Método: Estudo cego e transversal, com amostra composta por 209 crânios pertencentes ao Centro de Estudos em Antropologia Forense da Faculdade de Odontologia de Pernambuco/Universidade de Pernambuco (CEAF/FOP/UPE). Com o uso de paquímetro digital de precisão, foram realizadas medidas correspondentes à largura e ao comprimento do forame magno, aplicando-as à fórmula IFM = largura/comprimento x 100. O sexo foi classificado de acordo com tabela de referência para o índice supracitado. Para a análise estatística utilizaram-se os testes T-Student e Qui-Quadrado de Pearson, com nível de significância de 5,0%. Resultados: Todas as variáveis quantitativas apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes para os sexos (p<0,05), porém não houve discrepâncias entre os mesmos quanto à utilização do IFM (p=0,965). O acerto do IFM para o sexo masculino (99,1%), mas para o sexo feminino este método não classificou nenhum crânio corretamente. Conclusão: As dimensões do Forame Magno apresentaram dimorfismo sexual, porém o IFM não deve ser utilizado como metodologia para a determinação do sexo da amostra brasileira estudada.


Introduction: The Foramen Magnum Index (IMF) is a secondary method for the establishment of the sex in the process of human identification. Objective: To investigate the applicability of FMI to the determination of sex in a Brazilian sample. Material and Method: Blind and transversal study, with sample composed of 209 skulls belonging to the Forensic Anthropology Center of the Dentistry School of Pernambuco/Universidade de Pernambuco (CEAF/FOP/UPE). With the aid of a digital caliper, measurements were made on the width and length of the Foramen Magnum, applying them to the FMI formula FMI = width/length x 100. The sex was classified according with the reference table to the above mentioned index. For the statistical procedures, were used the testes Student T and Pearson's Chi-Square, with a significance level of 5%. Results: All the quantitative variables presented statistically significant differences for the sexes (p<0,05), but there were no discrepancies between them regarding the use of the FMI (p=0.965). The concordances of the FMI for males (99.1%) were higher than those of females, which did not have any cranial classification correctly. Conclusion: The FMI should not be used as a single methodology for determining the sex of the Brazilian sample studied


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Skull , Forensic Anthropology , Foramen Magnum , Forensic Dentistry
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761298

ABSTRACT

Arnold-Chiari malformation type 1 is a congenital disease characterized by herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. Most common clinical symptom is pain, including occipital headache and neck pain, upper limb pain exacerbated by physical activity or valsalva maneuvers. Various otoneurological manifestations also occur in patients with the disease, which has usually associated with dizziness, vomiting, dysphagia, poor hand coordination, unsteady gait, numbness. Patients with Arnold-Chiari malformation may develop vertigo after spending some time with their head inclined on their trunk. Positional and down-beating nystagmus are common forms of nystagmus in them. We experienced a 12-year-old female who presented complaining of vertigo related to changes in head position which was initially misdiagnosed as a benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.


Subject(s)
Arnold-Chiari Malformation , Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo , Child , Deglutition Disorders , Dizziness , Female , Foramen Magnum , Gait Disorders, Neurologic , Hand , Head , Headache , Humans , Hypesthesia , Motor Activity , Neck Pain , Palatine Tonsil , Upper Extremity , Valsalva Maneuver , Vertigo , Vomiting
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760000

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Brain atrophy and brain herniation are gaining a lot of attention separately, but a limited amount of studies connected them together, and because of this, we are going to review and examine the subject in the current meta-analysis. METHODS: The authors collected data reporting brain atrophy of alcoholic and schizophrenic cause, as well as data on control patients, all of which was published on MEDLINE between 1996 and 2018. The included 11 articles were processed with a statistical program. RESULTS: We found that the pericerebral space is unequal among the groups, while the intracranial volume is strongly correlated to the biggest foramen of the body. The effect of this inequality, however, is expressed in emergency cases, where the patients with brain atrophy will have more time before the final stage of brain herniation CONCLUSION: The current study raises a controversial issue that requires careful investigation and high attention from the health care personnel.


Subject(s)
Alcoholics , Atrophy , Brain , Delivery of Health Care , Emergencies , Foramen Magnum , Humans , Research Design , Socioeconomic Factors , Ticks
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 251-257, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990035

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The morphology and morphometry of the foramen magnum aid forensic studies in identifying unknown individuals according to age and sex. Moreover, these parameters of the foramen magnum have clinical relevance to surgeons in the transcondylar approach. This study aimed to analyze the morphometry and morphology in relation to the age and sex of individuals within the South African Black population, utilizing computerized tomography images. The use of computerized tomography images allowed for accurate morphometric diameters using the SLICER 3-D software version 4.7.0. Radiological images also provide a patient's clinical history. Thus, the process of exclusion in respect to patients with pathological conditions of the skull is achieved. The sample studied included 150 computerized tomography images (93 males and 57 females) arranged according to age cohorts (children aged 1-12 years, adolescents aged 13-17 years and adults aged 18-25 years). The morphometric parameters viz. antero-posterior diameter, transverse diameter and area of the foramen magnum was analyzed in relation to age and sex. The morphological variations of the foramen magnum was simultaneously observed between males and females and within the age groups. The objective of this study were to improve data on the morphological and morphometric parameters of the foramen magnum in the South African Black population. This study also attempted to associate the morphological and morphometric parameters of the foramen magnum with age and sex determination.


RESUMEN: La morfología y morfometría del foramen magnum ayuda a los estudios forenses en la identificación de individuos desconocidos según la edad y el sexo. Además, parámetros del foramen magnum tienen relevancia clínica para los cirujanos en el abordaje transcondilar. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la morfometría y la morfología del foramen magnum, en relación con la edad y el sexo, dentro de la población negra sudafricana, utilizando imágenes de tomografía computarizada. El uso de imágenes de tomografía computarizada permitió definir diámetros morfométricos precisos utilizando el software SLICER 3-D versión 4.7.0. Las imágenes radiológicas también proporcionan antecedentes de la historia clínica de un paciente. De este modo, se logra el proceso de exclusión con respecto a los pacientes con afecciones patológicas del cráneo. La muestra estudiada incluyó 150 imágenes de tomografía computarizada (93 hombres y 57 mujeres) organizadas según cohortes de edad (niños de 1 a 12 años, adolescentes de 13 a 17 años y adultos de 18 a 25 años). Los parámetros morfométricos que se consideraron fueron: diámetro antero-posterior, diámetro transversal y área del foramen magnum. Las variaciones morfológicas del foramen magnum se observaron simultáneamente entre hombres y mujeres y dentro de los grupos de edad. El objetivo de este estudio fue mejorar los datos sobre los parámetros morfológicos y morfométricos del foramen magnum en la población negra sudafricana. Este estudio también intentó asociar los parámetros morfológicos y morfométricos del foramen magnum con la determinación de la edad y el sexo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , African Continental Ancestry Group , Foramen Magnum/diagnostic imaging , South Africa , Age Determination by Skeleton , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Sex Determination by Skeleton , Foramen Magnum/anatomy & histology
6.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(6): 592-598, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974190

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the identification process, the foramen magnum has shown controversial results in sex estimation. The present study aimed to analyze the morphometric variables of the foramen magnum in Brazilian adult cranium for sex estimation. The sample was composed of 100 craniums (53 males and 47 females) from the documented collection of the Institute of Teaching and Research in Forensic Sciences. The protocol measurement was constituted of two linear measurements: maximum length of the foramen magnum and maximum breadth of the foramen magnum and two formulas to calculate the area, method one (M1) and method two (M2). Descriptive statistics showed statistically significant differences between sex (p<0.05) for all variables. The univariate discriminant functions showed an accuracy between 56.0-62.0%, and the multivariate analysis showed a percentage of accuracy between 60.0-65.0%, the greatest accuracy was found combining the two linear measurements with M1(71.7%), even after cross-validation (66%). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that M2 is the best parameter for estimating sex (AUC=0.693). A reference table for Brazilians using the foramen magnum parameters was developed based on the results of the ROC curve analysis. In conclusion, the foramen magnum should be used with caution to estimate sex in forensic cases of fragmentary craniums, due to the limited accuracy.


Resumo No processo de identificação humana, a análise do forame magno apresenta resultados controversos para estimativa do sexo. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar as variáveis morfométricas do forame magno em crânios adultos brasileiros para estimação sexual. A amostra foi composta por 100 crânios (53 sexos masculino e 47 sexo feminino) pertencentes a coleção osteológica documentada do Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa em Ciências Forenses. A medida do protocolo foi constituída por duas medidas lineares: comprimento máximo do forame magno e largura máxima do forame magno e duas fórmulas para calcular a área, método um (M1) e método dois (M2). As estatísticas descritivas evidenciaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p<0,05) para todas as variáveis. As funções discriminantes univariadas apresentaram uma porcentagem de acerto entre 56,0-62,0% e a análise multivariada mostrou uma porcentagem de acerto entre 60,0-65,0%. A análise da curva ROC apontou que M2 é o melhor parâmetro para estimar o sexo (AUC=0,693). Uma tabela de referência para brasileiros que utilizam os parâmetros do forame magnum foi desenvolvida com base nos resultados da análise da curva ROC. Em conclusão, o foram e magnum deve ser usado com precaução para estimar o sexo em casos forenses de cranio fragmentado, devido à precisão limitada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Sex Determination by Skeleton/methods , Foramen Magnum/anatomy & histology , Brazil , Discriminant Analysis , Forensic Anthropology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714856

ABSTRACT

Dural arteriovenous fistula (D-AVF) at the foramen magnum is an extremely rare disease entity. It produces venous hypertension, and can lead to progressive cervical myelopathy thereafter. On the other hand, the venous hypertension may lead to formation of a venous varix, and it can rarely result in an abrupt onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) when the venous varix is ruptured. The diagnosis of D-AVF at the foramen magnum as a cause of SAH may be difficult due to its low incidence. Furthermore, when the D-AVF is fed solely by the ascending pharyngeal artery (APA), it may be missed if the external carotid angiography is not performed. The outcome could be fatal if the fistula is unrecognized. Herein, we report on a rare case of SAH caused by ruptured venous varix due to D-AVF at the foramen magnum fed solely by the APA. A review of relevant literatures is provided, and the treatment modalities and outcomes are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Arteries , Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations , Diagnosis , Fistula , Foramen Magnum , Hand , Hypertension , Incidence , Rare Diseases , Spinal Cord Diseases , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Varicose Veins
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761280

ABSTRACT

Rotatory vertebral artery syndrome (RVAS) is characterized by recurrent attacks of vertigo, nystagmus, and syncope induced by compression of the vertebral artery during head rotation. A 60-year-old man with atlas vertebrae fracture presented recurrent attacks of positional vertigo. Left-beat, upbeat and count clock-wise torsional nystagmus occurred after lying down and bilateral head roll (HR) showing no latency or fatigue. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed foramen magnum stenosis (FMS) and dominancy of right vertebral artery (VA). The flow of the right VA on transcranial Doppler decreased significantly during left HR. The slower the velocity was, the more the nystagmus was aggravated. RVAS can be evoked by FMS causing compression of the VA. And the nystagmus might be aggravated according to the blood flow insufficiency.


Subject(s)
Constriction, Pathologic , Deception , Fatigue , Foramen Magnum , Head , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Spine , Syncope , Vertebral Artery , Vertigo
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1270-1275, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893126

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The foramen magnum is morphometrically typified by two perpendicular diameters and a distinct margin. This important anatomical landmark is subject to high interindividual variation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dimensions and morphology of the foramen magnum in a Jordanian population. In this retrospective study, 247 individuals were consecutively sampled using the institutional picture archiving and communication system. The anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the foramen magnum were measured; the foramen magnum index was calculated; and, the shape of the foramen magnum was visually assessed. The sex-pooled anteroposterior and transverse diameters were 35.1 ± 3.2 mm and 29.3 ± 2.5 mm, respectively. The sex-pooled foramen magnum index was 1.20 ± 0.10. The diameters were significantly different (P<0.001) and positively correlated (r=0.52, P<0.001). Participant age was negatively correlated with the anteroposterior (rs=-0.15, P=0.02) and transverse (rs=-0.14, P=0.03) diameters. After controlling for participant age, there was a statistically significant difference in the anteroposterior diameter (P<0.001), the transverse diameter (P<0.001), and the foramen magnum index (P=0.02) between sexes. The foramen magnum was most commonly irregular in shape (36 % of all cases). In contrast to previous studies, we report, for the first time, a negative correlation between age and the diameters of the foramen magnum. In addition, a predominance of irregularly shaped foramen magnum was found. The finding makes an already heterogenous group of published data even more variable, prompting reconsideration of the role of visual assessment in morphometric studies.


RESUMEN: El foramen magno está morfométricamente tipificado por dos diámetros perpendiculares y un margen. Este punto importante de referencia anatómica está sujeto a una alta variación interindividual. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar las dimensiones y la morfología del foramen magno en una población jordana. En este estudio retrospectivo, 247 individuos fueron muestreados consecutivamente utilizando el sistema institucional y de comunicación de imágenes. Se midieron los diámetros anteroposterior y transversal del foramen magno; Se calculó el índice del foramen magno y se evaluó visualmente la forma dede éste. Los diámetros anteroposterior y transversal agrupados por sexo fueron 35,1±3,2 mm y 29,3±2,5 mm, respectivamente. El índice del foramen magno, agrupado por sexo, fue 1,20±0,10. Los diámetros fueron significativamente diferentes (P <0,001) y positivamente correlacionados (r = 0,52, P <0,001). La edad de los participantes se correlacionó negativamente con los diámetros anteroposterior (rs = -0,15, P = 0,02) y transversal (rs = -0,14, P = 0,03). Después de verificar la edad de los participantes, hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre el diámetro anteroposterior (P <0,001), el diámetro transversal (P <0,001) y el foramen magno (P = 0,02) entre ambos sexos. El foramen magno era más comúnmente de forma irregular (36 % de todos los casos). A diferencia de estudios anteriores, se informa por primera vez de una correlación negativa entre la edad y los diámetros del foramen magno. Además, se encontró un predominio de forámenes de forma irregular. El hallazgo indica que un grupo heterogéneo de datos ya publicados, sea aún más variable, lo que lleva a reconsiderar el papel de la evaluación visual en los estudios morfométricos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cephalometry , Foramen Magnum/anatomy & histology , Sex Characteristics
11.
Rev. chil. neurocir ; 42(2): 141-143, nov. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-869766

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 31 años de edad con cefalea y cervicalgia que se agravaba con la maniobra de Valsalva, presentando además mareos, encontrándose una malformación de Chiari secundario a un quiste aracnoideo cuadrigeminal. Después de efectuada la resonancia magnética diagnóstica, la paciente fue sometida a descompresión del agujero magno y extirpación del quiste cuadrigeminal, seguido por la resolución tanto de la malformación de Chiari y el quiste. Los síntomas desaparecieron después de la cirugía y han permanecido completamente resuelto hasta la actualidad. En pacientes adultos que presentan signos y síntomas de una malformación de Chiari debido a la compresión de la médula por las las amígdalas cerebelosas, la presencia de un quiste aracnoideo de cisterna cuadrigéminal es una rara patología asociada que puede ser tratada quirúrgicamente.


We report a rare case of a 31-year-old woman with headache and pain manifested by cervicalgia that worsened with the Valsalva maneuver and dizziness, who was found to have a Chiari malformation secondary to a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst. After magnetic resonance imagining (MRI), the patient was submitted to foramen magnum decompression and arachnoid cyst removal that were followed by resolution of both the Chiari malformation and the cyst. The symptoms disappeared after surgery and have remained completely resolved to the present day. In adult patients who present with signs and symptoms of Chiari malformation due to direct medulla compression by the tonsils, a quadrigeminal cistern arachnoid cyst is a rare associated pathology that can be treated surgically.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Female , Arnold-Chiari Malformation , Cisterna Magna , Decompressive Craniectomy/methods , Foramen Magnum , Arachnoid Cysts/surgery , Arachnoid Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Arachnoid Cysts/epidemiology , Tectum Mesencephali , Valsalva Maneuver , Diagnostic Imaging , Cranial Fossa, Posterior/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
12.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : S149-S151, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118687

ABSTRACT

Chiari malformations are a congenital anomaly of the hindbrain. The most common, Chiari malformation type I (CM-I), is characterized by herniation of the cerebellar tonsils extending at least 3 mm below the plane of the foramen magnum. Consequently, CM-I is associated with hydrocephalus and symptoms involving compression of the cervicomedullary junction by ectopic tonsils. Several studies have reported the clinical symptoms associated with CM-I, including suboccipital headache, weakness in the upper extremities, facial numbness, loss of temperature sensation, ataxia, diplopia, dysarthria, dysphagia, vomiting, vertigo, nystagmus, and tinnitus. Syncope is one of the rarest presentations in patients with CM-I. There are many hypotheses regarding the causes of syncope in patients with CM-I; however, the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Although surgical decompression for CM-I in patients with syncope has yielded good clinical results in some studies, such cases are rarely reported. We report a case of orthostatic syncope in a patient with CM-I who was treated with surgical intervention.


Subject(s)
Arnold-Chiari Malformation , Ataxia , Decompression, Surgical , Deglutition Disorders , Diplopia , Dysarthria , Foramen Magnum , Headache , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Hypesthesia , Hypotension, Orthostatic , Palatine Tonsil , Rhombencephalon , Sensation , Syncope , Tinnitus , Upper Extremity , Vertigo , Vomiting
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34887

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of idiopathic Chiari malformation (CM) type 1 is disturbance of free cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and restoration of normal CSF flow is the mainstay of treatment. Additional migration of the medulla oblongata in pediatric patients is referred to as CM type 1.5, but its significance in adult patients is unknown. This study is to compare surgical outcomes of adult idiopathic CM type 1.5 with that of type 1. METHODS: Thirty-eight consecutive adult patients (M : F=11 : 27; median, 33.5; range, 18–63) with syringomyelia due to idiopathic CM type 1 were reviewed. Migration of the medulla oblongata was noted in 13 patients. The modified McCormick scale (MMS) was used to evaluate functional status before and one year after surgery. All patients underwent foramen magnum decompression and duroplasty. Factors related to radiological success (≥50% decrease in the diameter of the syrinx) were investigated. The follow-up period was 72.7±55.6 months. RESULTS: Preoperative functional status were MMS I in 11 patients and MMS II in 14 of CM type 1 and MMS I in 8 and II in 5 of CM type 1.5. Of patients with MMS II, 5/14 patients in group A and 3/5 patients in group B showed improvement and there was no case of deterioration. Radiological success was achieved in 32 (84%) patients and restoration of the cisterna magna (p=0.01; OR, 46.5) was the only significant factor. CONCLUSION: Migration of the medulla oblongata did not make a difference in the surgical outcome when the cisterna magna was restored.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arachnoid , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Cisterna Magna , Decompression , Follow-Up Studies , Foramen Magnum , Humans , Medulla Oblongata , Rhombencephalon , Syringomyelia
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-749189

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe anatomic structure of jugular foramen region by endoscope, to provide anatomic data for avoiding damnification in the surgery.@*METHOD@#We performed the retrolabyrinthine and retrosigmoid endoscopic surgery on 8 fomalin-fixed adult cadaver specimens and observed the structures of jugular foramen by endoscope and compared the different surgeries at the same time. We excised the calvarium and cereburm and exposured and observed the nerves and vessels. Moreover we measured the the distance from internal accoustic pore to glossopharyngeal and analyse the data by SPSS.@*RESULT@#All retrolabyrinthine endoscopic surgeries were performed successfully. Only 4 postsigmoid endoscopic surgeries were performed without damage of cerebellum which is the major obstacles. The distance from internal accoustic pore to glossopharyngeal was(8.26 ± 1.05) mm. About half of posterior inferior cerebellar arteries located to inboard of nerves.@*CONCLUSION@#The jugular foramen region endoscopic surgery can be performed successfully by retrolabyrinthine. The "lockhole" technology by retrosigmoid is more difficult for blocking of cerebella. The internal acoustic porus is a fixed structure of the cerebellopontine angleand a perfect landmark to the surgery.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cadaver , Endoscopy , Foramen Magnum , Humans , Jugular Veins , Temporal Bone
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to investigate the underlying ethiological factors in chiari malformation (CM) type-I (CMI) via performing volumetric and morphometric length-angle measurements. METHODS: A total of 66 individuals [33 patients (20-65 years) with CMI and 33 control subjects] were included in this study. In sagittal MR images, tonsillar herniation length and concurrent anomalies were evaluated. Supratentorial, infratentorial, and total intracranial volumes were measured using Cavalieri method. Various cranial distances and angles were used to evaluate the platybasia and posterior cranial fossa (PCF) development. RESULTS: Tonsillar herniation length was measured 9.09+/-3.39 mm below foramen magnum in CM group. Tonsillar herniation/concurrent syringomyelia, concavity/defect of clivus, herniation of bulbus and fourth ventricle, basilar invagination and craniovertebral junction abnormality rates were 30.3, 27, 18, 2, 3, and 3 percent, respectively. Absence of cisterna magna was encountered in 87.9% of the patients. Total, IT and ST volumes and distance between Chamberlain line and tip of dens axis, Klaus index, clivus length, distance between internal occipital protuberance and opisthion were significantly decreased in patient group. Also in patient group, it was found that Welcher basal angle/Boogard angle increased and tentorial slope angle decreased. CONCLUSION: Mean cranial volume and length-angle measurement values significantly decreased and there was a congenital abnormality association in nearly 81.5 percent of the CM cases. As a result, it was concluded that CM ethiology can be attributed to multifactorial causes. Moreover, congenital defects can also give rise to this condition.


Subject(s)
Cisterna Magna , Congenital Abnormalities , Cranial Fossa, Posterior , Encephalocele , Foramen Magnum , Fourth Ventricle , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Odontoid Process , Platybasia , Syringomyelia
16.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 54-58, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-185080

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Foramen magnum meningioma foramen magnum meningioma (FMM) represents 2% all of meningiomas. The clinical symptomatology is usually insidious and consists of headache, neck pain and hypoesthesia in C2 dermatome. Because of their location, the management is challenging. PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to present our experience in the surgery of FMM. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Since 1938, numerous series have been published but they are very heterogeneous with high variability of location and surgical approaches. METHODS: During two years, we operated 5 patients with FMM. All the patients had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with angio-MRI to study the relationship between tumour and vertebral artery (VA). In all the cases, we used prone position. RESULTS: In one case, considering the tumour localization (posterior and pure intradural) the tumour was removed via a midline suboccipital approach with craniotomy and C1-C2 laminectomy. In all other cases, meningiomas were posterolateral (classification of George) with extradural extension in one case. In all cases, VA was surrounded by tumor. So, we opted for a modified postero-lateral approach with inverted L incision, craniotomy and C1-C2 laminectomy without resect occipital condyle. Epidural part of VA was identified and mobilized laterally. Once VA was identified we opened dura mater and began to remove the tumour. CONCLUSIONS: In this paper, we present five cases of operated FMM, describe our approaches, the reason of each approach and propose some surgical remarks.


Subject(s)
Cranial Fossa, Posterior , Craniotomy , Dura Mater , Foramen Magnum , Headache , Humans , Hypesthesia , Laminectomy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningioma , Neck Pain , Neurosurgery , Prone Position , Vertebral Artery
17.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 721-727, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209956

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PURPOSE: To compare surgical results of foramen magnum decompression with and without duraplasty in Chiari malformation type 1 (CM-1) associated syringomyelia (SM). OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: The optimal surgical treatment of CM-1 associated with SM is unclear. METHODS: Twenty-five cases of CM-1 with SM were included. There were 12 patients (48%) in the non-duraplasty group and 13 patients (52%) in the duraplasty group. The rate of improvement, state of postoperative SM size, amount of tonsillar herniation, preoperative symptom duration, complications and reoperation rates were analysed. RESULTS: The rate of clinical improvement was significantly higher with duraplasty (84.6%) than without (33.3%, p <0.05). The rate of postoperative syrinx regression was significantly higher in the duraplasty group (84.6%) than in the non-duraplasty group (33.3%, p <0.05). One case in the duraplasty group needed a reoperation compared with five cases in the non-duraplasty group (p =0.059). CONCLUSIONS: Duraplasty is superior to non-duraplasty in CM-1 associated with SM despite a slightly higher complication rate.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cohort Studies , Decompression , Encephalocele , Foramen Magnum , Humans , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies , Syringomyelia
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224782

ABSTRACT

Chiari type I malformation is a tonsillar herniation more than 3 mm from the level of foramen magnum, with or without concurrent syringomyelia. Different surgical treatments have been developed for syringomyelia secondary to Chiari's malformations: craniovertebral decompression with or without plugging of the obex, syringo-subarachnoid, syringo-peritoneal, and theco-peritoneal shunt placement. Shunt placement procedures are useful for neurologically symptomatic large-sized syrinx. In this paper, authors define the first successful treatment of a patient with syringomyelia due to Chiari type I malformation using a pre-defined new technique of syringo-subarachnoid-peritoneal shunt with T-tube system.


Subject(s)
Decompression , Encephalocele , Foramen Magnum , Humans , Syringomyelia
19.
Korean Journal of Spine ; : 150-152, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56412

ABSTRACT

The Chiari malformation is an infrequently detected congenital anomaly characterized by the downward displacement of the cerebellum with a tonsillar herniation below the foramen magnum that may be accompanied by either syringomyelia or hydrocephalus. Surgery, such as foramen magnum decompression, is indicated for a symptomatic Chiari malformation, although an incidental lesion may be followed-up without further treatment. Infrequently, increased intracranial pressure emerges due to hyperthyroidism. A nineteen-year-old girl visited our outpatient clinic presented with a headache, nausea and vomiting. A brain and spinal magnetic resonance image study (MRI) indicated that the patient had a Chiari I malformation without syringomyelia or hydrocephalus. An enlarged thyroid gland was detected on a physical examination, and serum markers indicated Graves' disease. The patient started anti-hyperthyroid medical treatment. Subsequently, the headache disappeared after the medical treatment of hyperthyroidism without surgical intervention for the Chiari malformation. A symptomatic Chiari malformation is indicated for surgery, but a surgeon should investigate other potential causes of the symptoms of the Chiari malformation to avoid unnecessary surgery.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Biomarkers , Brain , Cerebellum , Decompression , Encephalocele , Female , Foramen Magnum , Graves Disease , Headache , Humans , Hydrocephalus , Hyperthyroidism , Intracranial Hypertension , Intracranial Pressure , Nausea , Physical Examination , Syringomyelia , Thyroid Gland , Unnecessary Procedures , Vomiting
20.
Korean Journal of Spine ; : 156-159, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56410

ABSTRACT

Occasionally, a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst can induce compression of the spinal cord and cause syringomyelia. Here, we report the case of a 29-year-old man with both progressive shoulder pain and gait disturbance, who was found to have a huge retrocerebellar arachnoid cyst associated with syringomyelia. Accordingly, posterior fossa decompression and arachnoid cyst excision were performed. Post-operative MRI showed a marked reduction in the size of the arachnoid cyst and syringomyelia. The patient's symptoms were clearly improved compared to before surgery. In our view, treatment in such patients should focus on decompressing the foramen magnum and include the removal of the coexistent arachnoid cyst walls, which appear to be the crucial factor in development of syringomyelia. In this report, we discuss the pathogenic mechanisms underlying syringomyelia-associated retrocerebellar arachnoid cyst and review the current literature on this topic.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arachnoid , Decompression , Foramen Magnum , Gait , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Shoulder Pain , Spinal Cord , Syringomyelia
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