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Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 442-446, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935717


Objective: To explore the risk factors for syncope in children with severe idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Methods: Forty-four patients (age<18 years) with IPAH admitted to the Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital between May 2011 and October 2021 were retrospectively included. Patients were devided into syncope group and non-syncope group. Clinical manifestation and hemodynamic parameters including echocardiography, blood tests, right heart catheterization and acute pulmonary vascular expansion test were compared between two groups. Comparisons between groups were performed with unpaired Student t test, or Mann-Whitney U test or chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for parameters with statistically significant differences between groups and analyze the statistical correlation. Results: Among the 44 patients, 16 were males, the onset age was (7.2±3.9) years. Twenty-four (55%) children presented with 1 to 11 times of episodes of syncope, and 18 cases of whom induced by physical activity. Syncope group had a larger proportion of New York Heart Association (NYHA) heart function class Ⅲ-Ⅳ (67% (16/24) vs. 25% (5/20), χ2=7.59, P=0.006), higher brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) value ((251±39) vs. (61±40) pg/L, t=-2.18, P=0.035), higher pulmonary-to-aorta diameter ratio (1.6±0.4 vs. 1.4±0.2, t=-2.25, P=0.030) and larger pulmonary vascular resistance index ((22±11) vs. (16±7) WU/m2, t=-2.13, P=0.039) compared with non-syncope group. The proportion of patent foramen ovale (4% (1/24) vs. 45% (9/20), χ2=10.36, P=0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ((68±5)% vs. (72±8)%, t=2.23, P=0.031) and the positive rate of acute pulmonary vascular expansion test (8% (2/24) vs. 35% (7/20), χ2=4.77, P=0.029) of syncope group were significantly lower than those of non-syncope group. Multiple Logistic regression analysis showed that NYHA heart function Ⅲ-Ⅳ (OR=6.787, 95%CI 1.445-31.880), pulmonary vascular resistance index (OR=1.247, 95%CI 1.020-1.525) and BNP (OR=1.036, 95%CI 1.007-1.066) were independent risk factors for syncope. The patent foramen ovale (OR=0.010, 95%CI 0.000-0.586) was a protective factor for syncope. Conclusions: NYHA cardiac function grade, pulmonary vascular resistance index and BNP are independent risk factors for syncope. Patent foramen ovale is a protective factor for syncope. Exercise is the main inducement of syncope in children with IPAH.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Familial Primary Pulmonary Hypertension , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke Volume , Syncope/etiology , Ventricular Function, Left
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 257-262, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935137


Objective: To analyze the safety and efficacy of combined left atrial appendage (LAA) and patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure in adult atrial fibrillation (AF) patients complicating with PFO. Methods: This study is a retrospective and cross-sectional study. Seven patients with AF complicated with PFO diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in Zhoupu Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences from June 2017 to October 2020 were selected. Basic data such as age, gender and medical history were collected. The atrial septal defect or PFO occluder and LAA occluder were selected according to the size of PFO, the ostia width and depth of LAA. Four patients underwent left atrial appendage closure(LAAC) and PFO closure at the same time. PFO closure was performed during a one-stop procedure of cryoablation combined with LAAC in 2 patients. One patient underwent PFO closure at 10 weeks after one-stop procedure because of recurrent transient ischemic attack (TIA). All patients continued to take oral anticoagulants. TEE was repeated 8-12 weeks after intervention. In case of device related thrombus(DRT), TEE shall be rechecked 6 months after adjusting anticoagulant and antiplatelet drug treatment. Patients were follow-up at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 months by telephone call, and the occurrence of cardio-cerebrovascular events was recorded. Results: Among the 7 patients with AF, 2 were male, aged (68.0±9.4) years, and 3 had a history of recurrent cerebral infarction and TIA. Average PFO diameter was (3.5±0.8)mm. Three patients were implanted with Watchman LAA occluder (30, 30, 33 mm) and atrial septal defect occluder (8, 9, 16 mm). 2 patients were implanted with LAmbre LAA occluder (34/38, 18/32 mm) and PFO occluder (PF1825, PF2525). 2 patients were implanted with LACbes LAA occluder (24, 28 mm) and PFO occluder (PF2525, PF1825) respectively. The patients were followed up for 12 (11, 24) months after operation. TEE reexamination showed that the position of LAA occluder and atrial septal defect occluder or PFO occluder was normal in all patients. DRT was detected in 1 patient, and anticoagulant therapy was adjusted in this patient. 6 months later, TEE showed that DRT disappeared. No cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events occurred in all patients with AF during follow-up. Conclusions: In AF patients complicated with PFO, LAAC combined with PFO closure may have good safety and effectiveness.

Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Retrospective Studies
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(10): 859-863, Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345320


Abstract Background: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been considered a potential mechanism of embolic stroke of undetermined origin. Objective: The aim of the present study was to identify the features of the right-to-left shunt (RLS) in patients with undetermined embolic ischemic stroke and compare them with those of patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with 168 patients with stroke and RLS separated into the following two groups: the undetermined embolic stroke group (UES group) and non-cardioembolic stroke group (NCES group). All patients were assessed by transcranial Doppler to evaluate the presence and quantification of microembolic signals (MES) at rest and under Valsalva maneuver. Results: Of all patients evaluated in the current study, 96 were included in the UES group and 72 in the NCES group. In the UES group, 65 patients had RLS with ≥10 MES (67.7%), which was higher than that observed in the NCES group (51.4%, p=0.038). According to the moment of the cardiac cycle, 75 patients (78.1%) in the UES group had a positive test at rest compared to 42 (58.3%) in the NCES group (p=0.007). Conclusions: The current study demonstrated that almost 70% of patients with undetermined embolic stroke and PFO presented a large RLS and more than 75% had RLS at rest. These findings suggest that the size of the shunt should be taken into account when evaluating whether PFO could be a possible mechanism underlying cryptogenic stroke.

RESUMO Antecedentes: Uma das potenciais fontes embólicas no acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) de origem indeterminada é o forame oval patente (FOP). Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar as características do shunt direita-esquerda em paciente com AVC de etiologia indeterminada, presumidamente embólica, e comparar tais características com pacientes apresentando AVC por outras causas não embólicas. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo com 168 pacientes com AVC e forame oval patente, separados em dois grupos: AVC embólico de etiologia indeterminada e AVC por outras causas não embólicas. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a Doppler transcraniano, para avaliar a presença de shunt direita-esquerda por meio do teste de embolia paradoxal. Além da quantificação de microbolhas, também foi avaliada a presença de shunt em repouso e sob manobra de Valsalva. Resultado: Do total, 96 pacientes foram incluídos no primeiro grupo (AVC indeterminado) e 72, no segundo grupo (AVC não embólico). No primeiro grupo, 65 pacientes exibiram shunt com passagem de mais de 10 microbolhas (67,5%), enquanto no segundo grupo isso aconteceu em 51,4% (p=0,038) dos casos. Além disso, 75 pacientes (78,1%) do primeiro grupo tiveram teste positivo ao repouso, comparados com 42 pacientes (58,3%) no segundo grupo (p=0,007). Conclusão: O presente estudo demonstrou que até 70% dos pacientes com AVC de etiologia indeterminada e forame oval apresentaram shunts maiores; em mais de 75%, houve passagem de microbolhas ao repouso. Esses achados sugerem que as características do shunt, como quantidade de microbolhas e passagem ao repouso, devem ser levadas em consideração na avaliação do FOP como possível mecanismo subjacente ao AVC.

Humans , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(7): 1090-1092, jul. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389560


In patients with severe COVID-19, it has been proposed as mechanism of respiratory failure, intra and extrapulmonary shunt. However, there are no reported or documented cases of this mechanism. Also, there are studies showing this mechanism is not relevant. In this report, we present the case of a patient with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, who after two months, during his rehabilitation period, presented persistent hypoxemia with orthodeoxia. Persistent oval foramen with shunt from right to left was diagnosed. The patient underwent a percutaneous closure of the defect and at 48 hours oxygen therapy could be discontinued and the patient discharged.

Humans , Pneumonia , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Dyspnea , SARS-CoV-2 , Hypoxia/etiology
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254753


Recentes estudos indicaram que o forame oval patente (FOP) pode ser responsável pelo acidente vascular cerebral criptogênico (AVC) em pacientes jovens que apresentam condições anatômicas favoráveis a essa anomalia e que a oclusão transcateter reduz a incidência do acidente vascular cerebral quando comparada ao tratamento clínico. A injeção de soro agitado durante o estudo ecocardiográfico, associada à manobra de Valsalva, pode evidenciar shunt direita-esquerda com alta sensibilidade (89%) e especificidade (92%) quando se utiliza o ecocardiograma transesofágico. Avaliando as características clínicas de pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral e forame oval patente, o trial Risk of Paradoxical Embolism, conhecido pela sigla RoPE, (Risk of Paradoxical Embolism) estabeleceu um escore de risco para acidente vascular cerebral criptogênico e, por meio de um modelo de regressão multivariada, identificou seis variáveis: idade, presença de isquemia cortical, diabetes, hipertensão, AVC e acidente isquêmico transitório prévio. Os escores mais elevados foram observados em jovens com AVC e sem fatores de risco vascular e os escores mais baixos em idosos com fatores de risco vascular, de modo que o forame oval patente sugere ser acidental. Condições anatômicas do FOP predispõem à embolia sistêmica (separação do FOP > 2 mm; túnel do FOP > 10 mm; ângulo entre a veia cava inferior e o flap do FOP <10°; intensidade do shunt com manobra de Valsalva; presença de aneurisma do septo interatrial e rede de Chiari ou válvula de Eustáquio proeminente). O fechamento do FOP pode prevenir a embolia paradoxal, reduzindo a incidência de acidente vascular cerebral em pacientes considerados com de risco elevado. A relação entre Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC) criptogênico e a presença de Forame Oval Patente (FOP) tem despertado particular interesse, baseada em estudos recentes que demonstraram que a oclusão transcateter do FOP reduziu a incidência de AVC criptogênico, quando comparado ao tratamento medicamentoso.1 Trombos atravessando o forame oval podem ser observados em exames ecocardiográficos e em autópsias, confirmando esse mecanismo como responsável pela embolia paradoxal, ou seja, um trombo venoso passando para a circulação arterial por um shunt direita-esquerda. Entretanto, essa visualização ecocardiográfica é rara e existem poucos estudos publicados2,3 (Figura 1). Alguns estudos clínicos demonstram a propensão do FOP ser o responsável pela embolia paradoxal. Pacientes portadores de diabetes, hipertensão arterial sistêmica e doença arterial coronária têm baixa prevalência para o FOP ser o responsável pela embolia paradoxal. Por outro lado, história de trombose venosa profunda, embolia pulmonar, hipertensão pulmonar, viagens prolongadas, manobra de Valsalva precedendo o início de sintomas de AVC, enxaqueca e apneia do sono tem sido descrita como fatores de risco independentes para a associação entre FOP e eventos cerebrovasculares.4 Mesmo sendo pouco frequente a visualização de trombos em forame oval, a observação epidemiológica nos leva a acreditar que o FOP é o responsável por um número considerável de acidentes vasculares cerebrais.5 A prevalência de FOP em um estudo com autópsia em 965 corações normais é de 27%, com similar distribuição entre homens e mulheres. Essa prevalência declina com a idade, sendo de 34% em menores de 30 anos, 25% entre 30 e 80 anos e 20% em maiores de 80 anos.6 Em pacientes com AVC criptogênico, entretanto, a prevalência é particularmente elevada, chegando a 40% em pacientes com idade inferior a 55 anos.7 É importante ressaltar que a presença de FOP em pacientes com AVC criptogênico não é a única etiologia para o embolismo paradoxal. Outros mecanismos podem ser responsáveis, como fibrilação atrial não detectada, tumores cardíacos (mixoma e fibroeslastomas), presença de contraste ecocardiográfico espontâneo em átrio esquerdo, valvopatia mitral reumática, calcificação do anel valvar mitral, próteses cardíacas biológicas e mecânicas, estados de hipercoagulabilidade e ateroma de aorta ascendente.8 O estudo ecocardiográfico é parte da rotina na avaliação do FOP, principalmente o Ecocardiograma Transesofágico (ETE) com utilização de solução salina agitada (macrobolhas). Considera-se um shunt pequeno quando passam de três a dez bolhas, médio de dez a 30 bolhas e grande se mais de 30 bolhas contadas nos primeiros batimentos após a injeção.9 Além da detecção do shunt, o ETE avalia as características anatômicas do FOP, assim como o diagnóstico diferencial com a comunicação interatrial e com o shunt pulmonar.10,11 Trabalhos comparando o ETE utilizando macrobolhas com os achados de autópsia mostram sensibilidade de 89% e especificidade de 92%, sendo que a autópsia é considerada padrão-ouro.12(AU)

Humans , Adolescent , Aged , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Foramen Ovale, Patent/etiology , Foramen Ovale, Patent/pathology , Echocardiography , Embolism, Paradoxical/complications
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(2): 114-121, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138524


INTRODUCCIÓN: El cierre percutáneo del foramen oval permeable (FOP) se ha posicionado como el tratamiento de elección para la prevención secundaria de pacientes con infartos encefálicos (IE) criptogénicos asociados a FOP. OBJETIVO: Revisar los cierres de FOP realizados en nuestra institución, evaluando las características clínicas y del procedimiento, los resultados a mediano plazo luego del procedimiento y la tendencia en el número de intervenciones durante el período estudiado. MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron 101 pacientes consecutivos en que se realizó cierre de FOP, con una mediana de seguimiento de 4,6 años. Se analizaron las características basales de los pacientes, la indicación del cierre de FOP, el éxito del procedimiento y la presencia de shunt residual en ecocardiografía al año. Se realizó una encuesta telefónica estructurada a todos los pacientes, en la cual se preguntó por nuevo IE o crisis isquémica transitoria (CIT), otros eventos cardiovasculares y la presencia de sangrados. El seguimiento fue completado en el 95%. Se calculó el puntaje RoPE ("Risk of Paradoxical Embolism") el cual provee una estimación de la posibilidad de que ese IE se haya debido al FOP y del riesgo de repetir un nuevo IE en caso de no cerrar el FOP para cada paciente. RESULTADOS: La edad promedio fue de 49,1±13,7 años, con 53% mujeres. Sólo en 3 pacientes se diagnosticó una trombofilia. En 96 pacientes la indicación fue para prevención de embolía paradojal e IE (74% IE, 17% CIT y 4% embolía periférica), mientras que en 5% por síndrome de ortodeoxia/platipnea. El cierre de FOP fue exitoso en todos los pacientes. Shunt residual en ecocardiograma al año se observó en 5% - ninguno de estos pacientes presentó un nuevo evento encefálico durante el seguimiento. Se registraron 2 nuevos IE (4 IE por 1000 pacientes/año) y 1 nueva CIT (2 CIT por 1000 pacientes/año) en el seguimiento, con un promedio de presentación de 3,6 años post procedimiento. Esta tasa de eventos fue significativamente menor a lo predicho por el puntaje RoPE en nuestra cohorte. Se observó un marcado aumento en el número de procedimientos desde el año 2017 en adelante. CONCLUSIONES: En nuestra cohorte, el cierre de FOP fue un procedimiento exitoso y seguro. Se asoció a una baja tasa de nuevos eventos cerebrales, marcadamente menor a lo estimado por el puntaje de riesgo actualmente disponible (RoPE).

INTRODUCTION: The percutaneous closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been established as the preferred treatment for those with an ischemic stroke (IS) and associated PFO. AIMS: To review the PFO closure experience at our institution, characterizing the patients and procedures, mid-term results and the trend in the number of interventions during the study period. METHODS: One hundred and one consecutive patients undergoing PFO closure were included, with a median follow-up of 4.6 years. Baseline demographics, PFO closure indications, procedural success rates and residual shunt at 1-year were recorded. A telephonic survey was performed to complete follow-up, asking for new IS or transient ischemic attacks (TIA), other cardiovascular events and bleeding. Follow-up was completed by 95%. The RoPE score was calculated for each patient, providing an estimate of the chance a given IS being due to a PFO and the risk of a new event when the defect is not closed. RESULTS: Mean age was 49.1±13.7 years and 53% were females. Whereas the indication for PFO closure was paradoxical embolism in 96 patients (74% IS, 17% TIA and 4% peripheral embolism), in 5 it was for platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome. All patients had a successful PFO closure procedure. Residual shunt at 1 year was found in 5% - yet, none of these patients experienced a new stroke during the study period. During follow-up there were 2 new IS (4 IS per 1,000 patients/year) and 1 new TIA (2 TIA per 1,000 patients/year), with a mean incidence time of 3.6 years after the procedure. This rate of new events was significantly lower than the one predicted by the RoPE score. From 2017 onwards, there was a marked increase in the number of procedures performed at our institution. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, PFO closure was a successful and safe procedure. It was associated to a low rate of new cerebral events during mid-term follow-up, markedly lower than the RoPE predicted rate.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Septal Occluder Device , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Embolism, Paradoxical/prevention & control , Brain Infarction/prevention & control , Secondary Prevention
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 33(4): 307-317, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134380


Abstract Background: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure has been compared to medical therapy for secondary prevention of recurrent cryptogenic stroke. Objectives: To produce an updated meta-analysis including only data from the primary analyses of clinical trials and to evaluate the role of PFO closure in the secondary prevention of recurrent stroke. Methods: Search in Medline (PubMed) and in ISI Web of Knowledge. Parameters under analysis and meta-analyses were: stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Comprehensive Meta-analysis Software V.2.0 (Biostat) was used. Random-effects analyses were carried out. A level of significance of 5% was used. Results: In this study six, randomized trials enrolling 3,750 patients were included. Unlike other published meta-analyses on the same topic, in this case, only clinical trial data, and not follow-up data, were used. PFO closure, as compared with medical therapy alone, demonstrated superiority in reducing the rate of recurrent stroke (risk ratio with PFO closure vs. medical therapy, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17 to 0.78; p = 0.01). PFO closure did not offer a significant benefit in prevention of TIA (risk ratio with PFO closure vs. medical therapy, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.44; p = 0.85). Among patients assigned to closure group, an increased risk of atrial fibrillation was seen (risk ratio with PFO closure vs. medical therapy, 4.64; 95% CI, 2.38 to 9.01; p < 0.01). Conclusions: In patients with cryptogenic stroke who had a patent foramen ovale, a protective effect of closure was seen concerning the risk of recurrent stroke, but not regarding the prevention of TIA.

Stroke/prevention & control , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnosis , Secondary Prevention , Atrial Fibrillation , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Heart Disease Risk Factors
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(2): 263-267, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115785


Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a prevalent congenital septal atrial defect usually without pathological significance. In certain pathogenic situations, PFO can trigger episodes of recurrent hypoxemia, a specific condition known as platipnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS). We report a 73 years old female presenting with dyspnea and low arterial oxygen saturation. On admission the patient had a hemoglobin saturation of 81% and an arterial oxygen partial pressure of 50 mmHg. After breathing 100% a 17% arterial-venous shunt was found (normal: less than 12%). A transesophageal echocardiogram and a cardiac catheterization showed the presence of a PFO. A percutaneous closure was performed.

Humans , Female , Aged , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Cardiac Catheterization , Treatment Outcome , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Dyspnea , Hypoxia
Rev. costarric. cardiol ; 21(2): 21-28, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042867


Resumen La ecocardiografía contrastada con solución salina agitada es una modalidad de imagen establecida. Este método es usualmente utilizado para el diagnóstico de foramen oval permeable, shunts intracardiacos, anomalías del drenaje venoso y shunts intrapulmonares. En este artículo se revisarán aspectos generales de la ecocardiografía contrastada con solución salina, así como métodos diagnósticos enfocados principalmente a la detección de la persistencia de vena cava superior izquierda y sus variantes.

Abstract Echocardiography contrasted with agitated saline solution is an established imaging modality. This method is usually used for the diagnosis of patent foramen ovale, intracardiac shunts and venous drainage abnormalities. In this article, general aspects of the echocardiography contrasted with saline solution will be reviewed, as well as diagnostic methods focused mainly on the detection of the persistence of the left superior vena cava and its variants.

Humans , Vena Cava, Superior , Echocardiography , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Costa Rica , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Cardiac Imaging Techniques
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 915-922, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055038


Abstract Background: Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), found in cirrhotic patients, has been little studied in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS) and includes the occurrence of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations (IPVD). Contrast transesophageal echocardiography (cTEE) with microbubbles is more sensitive than contrast transthoracic echocardiography (cTTE) with microbubbles in the detection of IPVD in cirrhosis. Objective: To assess the performance of the cTEE, compared with that of cTTE, in detecting IPVD for the diagnosis of HPS in patients with HSS. Methods: cTEE and cTTE for investigation of IPVD and laboratory tests were performed in 22 patients with HSS. Agitated saline solution was injected in peripheral vein during the cTEE and cTTE procedures. Late appearance of the microbubbles in the left chambers indicated the presence of IPVD. Results of the two methods were compared by the Student's t-test and the chi-square test (p < 0.05). Results: cTEE was performed in all patients without complications. Three patients were excluded due to the presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO). The presence of IPVD was confirmed in 13 (68%) of 19 patients according to the cTEE and in only six (32%, p < 0.01) according to the cTTE. No significant differences in clinical or laboratory data were found between the groups with and without IPVD, including the alveolar-arterial gradient. The diagnosis of HPS (presence of IPVD with changes in the arterial blood gas analysis) was made in five patients by the cTEE and in only one by the cTTE (p = 0.09). Conclusion: In HSS patients, cTEE was safe and superior to cTTE in detecting IPVD and allowed the exclusion of PFO.

Resumo Fundamento: A síndrome hepatopulmonar (SHP), presente em pacientes cirróticos, é pouco estudada na esquistossomose hepatoesplênica (EHE) e inclui a ocorrência de dilatações vasculares intrapulmonares (DVP). O ecocardiograma transesofágico com contraste (ETEc) de microbolhas é mais sensível que o ecocardiograma transtorácico com contraste (ETTc) de microbolhas na identificação de DVP na cirrose. Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho do ETEc comparado ao ETTc na identificação de DVP para diagnóstico de SHP em pacientes com EHE. Métodos: Incluímos 22 pacientes com EHE submetidos a ETEc e ETTc para pesquisa de DVP, além de exames laboratoriais. Os ETEc e ETTc foram realizados empregando-se solução salina agitada, injetada em veia periférica. A visualização tardia das microbolhas em câmaras esquerdas indicava presença de DVP. Os resultados foram comparados entre os dois métodos pelos testes t de Stu dent e qui-quadrado (significância p < 0,05). Resultados: Todos os 22 pacientes realizaram ETEc sem intercorrências. Foram excluídos três pela presença de forame oval patente (FOP), e a análise final foi realizada nos outros 19. A DVP esteve presente ao ETEc em 13 pacientes (68%) e em apenas seis ao ETTc (32%, p < 0,01). Não houve diferenças significativas nos dados clínicos e laboratoriais entre os grupos com e sem DVP, incluindo a diferença alveoloarterial de oxigênio. O diagnóstico de SHP (presença de DVP com alterações gasométricas) ocorreu em cinco pacientes pelo ETEc e em apenas um pelo ETTc (p = 0,09). Conclusão: Em pacientes com EHE, o ETEc foi seguro e superior ao ETTc na detecção de DVP não identificada ao ETTc, o que possibilitou adicionalmente excluir FOP.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Schistosomiasis/diagnostic imaging , Splenic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Dilatation, Pathologic/diagnostic imaging , Liver Diseases, Parasitic/diagnostic imaging , Sensitivity and Specificity , Contrast Media , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/diagnosis , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Microbubbles , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnosis
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(10): 731-740, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038732


ABSTRACT The treatment of cryptogenic stroke patients with a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is controversial. A critical review of these studies is presented. Methods A description of all trials comparing medical and endovascular treatment with closing devices is given. Additional pertinent studies are discussed to help construct a rational basis for treatment decisions. Results Initial negative trials evaluating PFO closure were followed by positive studies published in 2017 and 2018. All trials evaluated young patients (up to 60 years). Methodological problems are present in all trials including their open label construction. Most positive trials developed strategies to increase the percentage of patients with interatrial septal aneurysms or hypermobility and large right-to-left shunts. Even in these positive trials, large numbers of patients need to be treated to avoid one stroke. Atrial fibrillation occurred in 2-6% and other adverse effects related to the procedure and to the devices occurred in a substantial number of patients. Incomplete occlusion of the PFO is also frequent. Anticoagulant treatment has not been adequately studied as a therapeutic option. Conclusion Young patients with cryptogenic strokes seem to benefit from endovascular closure of a PFO in the presence of a large right-to-left shunt or an associated atrial septum aneurysm. For most other patients, a highly-individualized decision must be made, taking into account the low risk of recurrence in patients with a cryptogenic stroke attributable to a PFO, the high numbers needed to treat and the risks related to the procedure.

RESUMO O tratamento de pacientes com infarto cerebral criptogênico e forame oval patente (FOP) é controverso. Uma revisão crítica destes estudos é apresentada. Métodos São descritos em detalhes os estudos comparando tratamento médico com o uso de próteses de oclusão do FOP após infarto cerebral. Discutem-se outros estudos pertinentes para ajudar na tomada racional de decisões terapêuticas individualizadas. Resultados Estudos iniciais avaliando fechamento endovascular com próteses foram negativos, porém seguidos de outros estudos com resultados positivos em 2017 e 2018. Somente pacientes até 60 anos foram estudados. Os estudos apresentam vários problemas metodológicos, incluindo sua natureza aberta. A maioria dos estudos positivos desenvolveu estratégias para aumentar o percentual de pacientes com risco aumentado de recorrência, especificamente grandes shunts direita-esquerda e aneurismas/hipermobilidade do septo interatrial. Mesmo estes estudos positivos revelaram um alto NNT (número de pacientes tratados para evitar um evento de desfecho). Fibrilação atrial ocorreu em 2-6 % dos pacientes tratados. Outras complicações relacionadas ao procedimento e às endopróteses e ainda fechamento incompleto do FOP foram também frequentes. Anticoagulantes poderiam constituir estratégia alternativa de tratamento clínico, mas não foram adequadamente estudados. Conclusão Pacientes jovens com infartos criptogênicos parecem beneficiar-se de oclusão endovascular do FOP na presença de grandes shunts e principalmente aneurismas ou hipermobilidade de septo interatrial. Para a maioria dos outros pacientes, uma decisão altamente individualizada deve ser tomada, considerando o baixo risco de recorrência dos infartos atribuíveis ao FOP, o ato NNT e os riscos inerentes ao procedimento.

Humans , Stroke/prevention & control , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Risk Factors , Clinical Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Closure Devices , Heart Aneurysm/prevention & control
Rev. argent. radiol ; 83(4): 141-150, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057416


Resumen Objetivo: Describir los hallazgos en resonancia magnética (RM) de encéfalo en pacientes menores de 65 años que fueron estudiados por Doppler transcraneal (DTC) con contraste de microburbujas, con antecedentes de accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) criptogénico y sospecha de foramen oval permeable (FOP). Materiales y métodos: Este estudio transversal retrospectivo incluyó pacientes de ambos sexos, menores de 65 años. Resultados: Nuestra muestra (n = 47, 47% masculino y 53% femenino, edad media de 42 años) presentó señales transitorias de alta intensidad (HITS, por su sigla en inglés) positivo en el 61,7% y HITS-negativo en el 38,3%. En pacientes HITS-positivo, predominaron las lesiones a nivel de las fibras en U subcorticales, únicas o múltiples con distribución bilateralmente simétrica. En pacientes con HITS moderados, predominaron las lesiones en el territorio vascular de la circulación posterior. Conclusión: En pacientes menores de 65 años con ACV criptogénico y lesiones en fibras en U subcorticales, únicas o múltiples con distribución bilateral y simétrica, debe tenerse en cuenta un FOP como posible causa de dichas lesiones.

Abstract Objectives: To analyze the findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients less than 65 years of age with history of cryptogenic stroke and suspected patent foramen ovale (PFO) who were studied with Contrast-Transcranial Doppler. Materials and Methods: This transversal retrospective study included both, men and women less than 65 years of age. Results: Our sample (n = 47, 47% male and 53% female, average age 42 years old) had High Intensity Transient Signals (HITS)-positive in 61.7% and HITS-negative in 38.3%. In HITS-positive patients, lesions were predominantly located on the subcortical U fibers, lone or multiple bilateral symmetric distributions. In patients with moderate-severity HITS, the posterior circulation was the most affected. Conclusion: In patients less than 65 years of age with cryptogenic stroke with lesions affecting the subcortical U fibers, with unique or multiple bilateral symmetric distributions, a PFO should be considered as an underlying cause.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Brain , Brain Injuries , Brain Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Wounds and Injuries , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Causality , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial/methods , Stroke , Foramen Ovale, Patent
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(2): 262-265, abr.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013780


RESUMO O traumatismo cardíaco é comum em acidentes com veículos automotores. Uma mulher com 50 anos de idade foi transportada para nosso hospital após sofrer múltiplos traumatismos em um acidente de automóvel quando dirigia em alta velocidade. Após admissão à unidade de terapia intensiva, uma ultrassonografia cardíaca revelou ruptura traumática de músculo papilar da valva tricúspide e forame oval patente, enquanto se observou, no exame físico, o sinal de Lancisi. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico com anuloplastia da valva e fechamento do forame oval patente; durante o ato cirúrgico, diagnosticou-se ruptura oculta do átrio direito.

ABSTRACT Cardiac trauma often occurs in motor vehicle accidents. A 50-year-old female driver was transported to our hospital with multiple trauma after a high-speed car accident. After admission to the intensive care unit, cardiac ultrasound examination revealed traumatic tricuspid valve papillary muscle rupture and patent foramen ovale, while Lancisi's sign was noted on physical examination. Surgical treatment was performed with valve annuloplasty and closure of the patent foramen ovale and a covert right atrial defect that was detected intraoperatively.

Humans , Female , Papillary Muscles/injuries , Tricuspid Valve/injuries , Foramen Ovale, Patent/etiology , Heart Atria/surgery , Papillary Muscles/surgery , Tricuspid Valve/surgery , Accidents, Traffic , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnosis , Cardiac Valve Annuloplasty/methods , Heart Atria/injuries , Heart Injuries/surgery , Heart Injuries/diagnosis , Heart Injuries/etiology , Middle Aged
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(10): 1210-1214, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978758


Abstract: Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) is one of the most frequent congenital defects in adults. Its prevalence in middle-aged adults is close to 25-30% and may cause paradoxical embolic phenomena. We report a 45 years old male admitted for an ischemic stroke with an occlusion of the left terminal internal carotid artery. A thrombectomy was performed. Searching for possible sources of emboli, a patent foramen ovale was detected in an echocardiography, with an hypoechogenic examination image passing through it. Anticoagulant therapy was started and the patient had an uneventful evolution.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Embolism, Paradoxical/etiology , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Echocardiography , Carotid Arteries , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Thrombectomy/methods , Embolism, Paradoxical/surgery , Embolism, Paradoxical/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging
J. vasc. bras ; 17(4): 333-336, out.-dez. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-969174


Cerebral ischemia is a very rare and harmful complication of ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy for treatment of varicose veins. This case describes a documented cerebrovascular ischemia in Broca's area following ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy. Less than one hour after intravenous injection of 10 ml of sclerosing foam, an otherwise healthy woman experienced aphasia without any other signs of neurological changes. When she arrived home, a complete inability to talk was observed. The event was misdiagnosed by another doctor as an allergic reaction. Next morning she came to the office to report the allergic reaction, where an appropriate diagnosis was made. She recovered just two days after the injection, but signs of recent cerebral ischemia were seen in Broca's area on magnetic resonance and transesophageal bubble study echocardiogram revealed a patent foramen ovale. Although rare, we must make great effort to prevent these events instead of treating them

A isquemia cerebral é uma complicação muito rara e perigosa da escleroterapia com espuma guiada por ultrassom no tratamento de varizes. Este caso descreve uma isquemia cerebral da área de Broca após escleroterapia com espuma guiada por ultrassom. Menos de uma hora após injeção de 10 mL de espuma, uma até então saudável mulher apresentou afasia, sem quaisquer outros sinais neurológicos. No caminho para casa, uma completa incapacidade de fala foi observada. Levada ao hospital mais próximo, foi diagnosticada com reação alérgica. Na manhã seguinte, compareceu ao consultório para relatar a reação alérgica, quando um correto diagnóstico foi feito. Ela ficou recuperada dois dias depois do procedimento, mas uma ressonância magnética mostrou sinais de isquemia recente da área de Broca e um ecocardiograma transesofágico mostrou um forame oval patente. Embora raros, devemos concentrar nossos esforços em prevenir tais eventos para que não precisem de tratamento

Humans , Female , Ultrasonics/methods , Sclerotherapy , Brain Ischemia/complications , Sclerosing Solutions/therapeutic use , Varicose Veins/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Embolism/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent