Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 135
Filter
1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 437-444, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440312

ABSTRACT

Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron primero evaluar la asociación de dimensiones antropométricas de tórax y tronco con índices espirométricos, segundo, ajustar una ecuación de predicción con dimensiones antropométricas de tronco y tercero, comparar nuestro modelo predictivo con dos ecuaciones diagnósticas. Se evaluaron 59 estudiantes universitarios entre 20 y 40 años, de ambos sexos, sin hábito tabáquico. Las variables consideradas fueron: edad, sexo, peso, estatura, diámetro transverso de tórax, diámetro anteroposterior de tórax, perímetro de tórax, altura de tórax, altura de tronco, flujo espiratorio máximo (FEM), volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo (VEF1) y capacidad vital forzada (CVF). Se utilizó el análisis de regresión múltiple para estimar los valores espirométricos en función de las variables demográficas y antropométricas. La CVF y el VEF1 tienen asociación lineal directa con el diámetro transverso de tórax, altura de tórax, perímetro de tórax y altura de tronco. Se ajustó una ecuación de regresión lineal múltiple que indicó que es posible estimar la CVF y el VEF11 en función de la altura de tronco y el perímetro de tórax para ambos sexos. Estas variables son capaces de explicar el 74 % de los valores de CVF y el 68 % de los valores de VEF1. Al comparar los valores obtenidos por nuestras ecuaciones predictivas con las ecuaciones de referencia nacional observamos que nuestros resultados son más cercanos a los de Quanjer et al. (2012) que a los de Knudson et al. (1983). La altura de tronco y el perímetro de tórax tienen asociación directa con el VEF1 y CVF y son buenos predictores del VEF1 y CVF en estudiantes universitarios. Nuestros valores estimados son más cercanos a las ecuaciones de Quanjer et al. (2012) en comparación a las estimaciones de Knudson (1983).


SUMMARY: The purposes of the present study were first to evaluate the association between anthropometric dimensions of the thorax and trunk with spirometric indices, second, to fit a prediction equation with anthropometric dimensions of the trunk, and third, to compare our predictive model with two diagnostic equations. Fifty-nine university students between 20 and 40 years old, of both sexes and non-smokers were recruited. Variables considered were age, sex, weight, height, chest transverse diameter, chest anteroposterior diameter, chest perimeter, chest height, trunk height, maximum expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Multiple regression analysis was used to estimate spirometric values based on demographic and anthropometric variables. FVC and FEV1 have a direct linear association with chest transverse diameter, chest height, chest circumference, and trunk height. A multiple linear regression equation was fitted, indicating that it is possible to estimate FVC and FEV1 as a function of trunk height and chest girth for both sexes. These variables can explain 74% of the FVC values and 68% of the FEV1 values. Comparing the values obtained by our predictive equations with the national reference equations, we observe that our results are closer to those of Quanjer et al. (2012) than to those of Knudson et al. (1983). Trunk height and chest circumference have a direct association with FEV1 and FVC and are good predictors of FEV1 and FVC in university students. Our estimated values are closer to Quanjer et al. (2012) than Knudson et al. (1983) prediction equations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Spirometry , Anthropometry , Torso/anatomy & histology , Torso/physiology , Thorax/anatomy & histology , Thorax/physiology , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Regression Analysis
2.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(1): 13-17, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115457

ABSTRACT

Las guías ATS/ERS recomiendan utilizar valores de referencia nacionales para la interpretación de la espirometría. En 2014 se publicaron valores de referencia en población general chilena adulta, que difieren de los de Knudson actualmente en uso. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los laboratorios de función pulmonar siguen utilizando estas últimas ecuaciones. En 2012 se publicaron las ecuaciones multi-étnicas de la Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) a fin de estandarizar mundialmente la interpretación de los exámenes de función pulmonar Nuestro objetivo fue comparar la concordancia de los informes espirométricos utilizando las ecuaciones más usadas en Chile versus las GLI. Métodos: Se comparó la concordancia en interpretación del patrón espirométrico (normal, obstructivo y restrictivo) y el grado de alteración, entre GLI con Gutiérrez 2014, con Knudson, y con NHANES III según las recomendaciones de la Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias, a través del coeficiente de concordancia Kappa (K). Se estudiaron 315 sujetos mayores de 40 años (55% mujeres, edad: 59,3 ± 9,2 años), fumadores o ex fumadores, sanos o con EPOC, sometidos a una espirometría con broncodilatador como parte de un reconocimiento respiratorio. Se graficaron las diferencias utilizando el método de Bland-Altman. Resultados: La concordancia para patrón entre GLI con Gutiérrez 2014, con Knudson y con NHANES III fue buena (K = 0,73; 0,71 y 0,77 respectivamente), al igual que para patrón y grado de alteración (K = 0,68; 0,67 y 0,76 respectivamente). Conclusiones: Encontramos una buena concordancia entre las ecuaciones más usadas en Chile y las de GLI, en una muestra que incluyó adultos, fumadores, ex fumadores sanos y enfermos.


ATS/ERS recommend the use of national reference values for the interpretation of spirometry. Reference values were published (2014) in general adult Chilean population, which are different from those of Knudson currently in use. However, most pulmonary function laboratories continue to use these latter equations. Multi-ethnic Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) equations were published (2012) in order to standardize the interpretation of pulmonary function tests worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the agreement in the spirometric reports between the most used equations in Chile with those from GLI. Methods: We compared the agreement in the interpretation of the spirometric pattern (normal, obstructive and restrictive) and the degree of alteration between GLI with Gutiérrez 2014, with Knudson and with NHANES III according to recommendations of the Chilean Society of Respiratory Diseases, through the Kappa concordance coefficient (K). The sample correspond to 315 adults over 40 years of age (55% women, 59.3 ± 9.2 years-old), smokers or ex-smokers, healthy or with COPD, who underwent spirometry with a bronchodilator as part of a respiratory check-up. Differences were plotted using the Bland-Altman method. Results: agreement for pattern between GLI with Gutiérrez 2014, with Knudson and with NHANES III was good (K = 0.73, 0.71 and 0.77 respectively) and also was good for the pattern and degree of alteration (K = 0.68, 0.67 and 0.76 respectively). Conclusions: We found a good agreement between the equations most used in Chile and those from the GLI, for a sample that includes subjects with and without lung disease, smokers and ex-smokers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Spirometry/methods , Spirometry/standards , Lung/physiology , Models, Theoretical , Reference Values , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/standards , Societies, Medical , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology
3.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(6): e20190232, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134919

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Verificar o poder discriminativo e o ponto de corte de diferentes protocolos do teste 4-metre gait speed (4MGS) para identificar capacidade de exercício preservada ou reduzida no teste de caminhada de 6 minutos (TC6min) em pacientes com Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica (DPOC); comparar os protocolos do 4MGS; e comparar as características dos indivíduos de acordo com o melhor ponto de corte encontrado. Métodos Foram avaliados 56 pacientes com DPOC. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à avaliação das características antropométricas, função pulmonar (espirometria) e capacidade funcional de exercício (TC6min e 4 protocolos do 4MGS). No teste 4MGS, os pacientes foram instruídos a caminhar em velocidade usual e máxima em percursos de 4 metros (4MGS 4m - usual e máximo) e 8 metros (4MGS 8m - usual e máximo). Resultados Somente o protocolo 4MGS 4m-máximo foi capaz de identificar capacidade de exercício preservada no TC6min (AUC=0,70) com correlação moderada entre os testes (r=0,52; P<0,0001). O ponto de corte encontrado no 4MGS 4m-máximo foi de 1,27 m/s. Os pacientes com capacidade de exercício preservada (4MGS 4m-máximo ≥1,27m/s) atingiram maior distância percorrida no TC6min em %predito (91±2 vs 76±3; P<0,0001). Nas outras comparações envolvendo gênero, IMC, VEF1%pred e índice GOLD não ocorreram diferenças significantes entre os grupos. Além disso, a concordância de indivíduos classificados com capacidade de exercício preservada e reduzida no TC6min e no 4MGS 4m-máximo foi significante (P=0,008). Conclusão O teste 4MGS 4m-máximo pode ser utilizado para discriminar capacidade de exercício preservada em pacientes com DPOC, e se correlaciona com o TC6min.


ABSTRACT Objective To determine the discriminative capacity and cut-off point of different 4-metre gait speed test (4MGS) protocols in identifying preserved or reduced exercise capacity using the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD); also, to compare 4MGS protocols and characteristics of individuals according to the best cut-off point. Methods We evaluated fifty-six patients with COPD, all of which were submitted to the assessment of anthropometric characteristics, pulmonary function (spirometry) and functional exercise capacity (6MWT and four protocols of the 4MGS). In the 4MGS test, patients were instructed to walk at normal pace and at maximum speed in a 4 meters course (4MGS 4m - usual pace and at maximum) and 8 meters course (4MGS 8m - usual pace and at maximum). Results Only the 4MGS 4m-maximum protocol was able to identify preserved exercise capacity in the 6MWT (AUC=0.70) with moderate correlation between them (r=0.52; P=0<0.0001). The cut-off point found in the 4MGS 4m-maximum was 1.27 m/s. Patients with preserved exercise capacity (4MGS 4m-maximum ≥1.27m/s) walker greater distances on the 6MWT in %pred (91±2 vs 76±3; P<0.0001). In the other comparisons involving gender, BMI, FEV1% pred and GOLD index there were no significant differences between the groups. In addition, the agreement of individuals classified as preserved and reduced exercise capacity in the 6MWT and 4MGS 4m-maximum was significant (P = 0.008). Conclusion The 4MGS 4m-maximum test can be used to discriminate preserved exercise capacity in patients with COPD and correlates with the 6MWT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods , Walking Speed , Gait/physiology , Quality of Life , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Walk Test , Motor Activity/physiology
4.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(1): e20180328, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056628

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the relationship that the difference between slow vital capacity (SVC) and FVC (ΔSVC-FVC) has with demographic, clinical, and pulmonary function data. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study in which participants completed a respiratory health questionnaire, as well as undergoing spirometry and plethysmography. The sample was divided into two groups: ΔSVC-FVC ≥ 200 mL and ΔSVC-FVC < 200 mL. The intergroup correlations were analyzed, and binomial logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: The sample comprised 187 individuals. In the sample as a whole, the mean ΔSVC-FVC was 0.17 ± 0.14 L, and 61 individuals (32.62%) had a ΔSVC-FVC ≥ 200 mL. The use of an SVC maneuver reduced the prevalence of nonspecific lung disease and of normal spirometry results by revealing obstructive lung disease (OLD). In the final logistic regression model (adjusted for weight and body mass index > 30 kg/m2), OLD and findings of air trapping (high functional residual capacity and a low inspiratory capacity/TLC ratio) were predictors of a ΔSVC-FVC ≥ 200 mL. The chance of a bronchodilator response was found to be greater in the ΔSVC-FVC ≥ 200 mL group: for FEV1 (OR = 4.38; 95% CI: 1.45-13.26); and for FVC (OR = 3.83; 95% CI: 1.26-11.71). Conclusions: The use of an SVC maneuver appears to decrease the prevalence of nonspecific lung disease and of normal spirometry results. Individuals with a ΔSVC-FVC ≥ 200 mL, which is probably the result of OLD and air trapping, are apparently more likely to respond to bronchodilator administration.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a relação da diferença entre a capacidade vital lenta (CVL) e CVF (ΔCVL-CVF) com dados demográficos, clínicos e de função pulmonar. Métodos: Estudo analítico, transversal, no qual os participantes responderam a um questionário de saúde respiratória e foram submetidos a espirometria e pletismografia. A amostra foi dividida em dois grupos: ΔCVL-CVF ≥ 200 mL e ΔCVL-CVF < 200 mL. Foram realizadas análises de correlações entre os grupos e de regressão logística binominal. Resultados: Foram selecionados 187 indivíduos. Na amostra total, a média da ΔCVL-CVF foi de 0,17 ± 0,14 L. Na amostra, 61 indivíduos (32,62%) apresentaram ΔCVL-CVF ≥ 200 mL. O uso da manobra expiratória lenta reduziu a prevalência de distúrbio ventilatório inespecífico e resultados espirométricos normais, ao revelar distúrbio ventilatório obstrutivo (DVO). DVO e achados de aprisionamento aéreo (capacidade residual funcional elevada e capacidade inspiratória/CPT reduzida) foram preditores de ΔCVL-CVF ≥ 200 mL no modelo final da regressão logística (ajustada para peso e índice de massa corpórea > 30 kg/m2). Foi observada maior chance de resposta ao broncodilatador no grupo ΔCVL-CVF ≥ 200 mL: VEF1 (OR = 4,38; IC95%: 1,45-13,26) e CVF (OR = 3,83; IC95%: 1,26-11,71). Conclusões: O uso da manobra expiratória lenta diminuiu a prevalência de distúrbio ventilatório inespecífico e de resultados espirométricos normais, podendo a ΔCVL-CVF ≥ 200 mL ser resultado de DVO e aprisionamento aéreo, tendo maior chance de resposta ao broncodilatador.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Lung Diseases, Obstructive/physiopathology , Plethysmography , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric
5.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(3): e20190138, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090814

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To generate reference values for spirometry in Brazilian children 3-12 years of age and to compare those values with the values employed in the equations currently in use in Brazil. Methods: This study involved healthy children, 3-12 years of age, recruited from 14 centers (primary data) and spirometry results from children with the same characteristics in six databases (secondary data). Reference equations by quantile regressions were generated after log transformation of the spirometric and anthropometric data. Skin color was classified as self-reported by the participants. To determine the suitability of the results obtained, they were compared with those predicted by the equations currently in use in Brazil. Results: We included 1,990 individuals from a total of 21 primary and secondary data sources. Of those, 1,059 (53%) were female. Equations for FEV1, FVC, the FEV1/FVC ratio, FEF between 25% and 75% of the FVC (FEF25-75%) and the FEF25-75%/FVC ratio were generated for white-, black-, and brown-skinned children. The logarithms for height and age, together with skin color, were the best predictors of FEV1 and FVC. The reference values obtained were significantly higher than those employed in the equations currently in use in Brazil, for predicted values, as well as for the lower limit of normality, particularly in children with self-reported black or brown skin. Conclusions: New spirometric equations were generated for Brazilian children 3-12 years of age, in the three skin-color categories defined. The equations currently in use in Brazil seem to underestimate the lung function of Brazilian children 3-12 years of age and should be replaced by the equations proposed in this study.


RESUMO Objetivo: Gerar valores de referência para espirometria em crianças brasileiras de 3-12 anos de idade e comparar os resultados obtidos com as equações em uso no Brasil. Métodos: Foram incluídas crianças sadias de 3-12 anos recrutadas em 14 centros (dados primários) e resultados de espirometria de crianças com as mesmas características de seis bancos de dados (dados secundários). As equações quantílicas foram geradas após transformações logarítmicas dos dados espirométricos e antropométricos. A classificação por cor da pele foi autodeclarada. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com os previstos nas equações em uso no Brasil para testar sua adequação. Resultados: Foram incluídos 1.990 indivíduos de 21 fontes de dados primários e secundários, sendo 1.059 (53%) do sexo feminino. Equações para VEF1, CVF, VEF1/CVF, FEF25-75% e FEF25-75%/CVF foram geradas para crianças brancas e para crianças negras e pardas. Os logaritmos da estatura e da idade e a cor da pele foram os melhores preditores para VEF1 e CVF. Os resultados obtidos foram significativamente maiores do que as estimativas geradas pelas equações em uso no Brasil, tanto para valores previstos quanto para o limite inferior da normalidade, particularmente em crianças negras e pardas. Conclusões: Novas equações espirométricas foram geradas para crianças brasileiras de 3-12 anos de cor branca, negra e parda. As equações atualmente em uso no Brasil parecem subestimar a função pulmonar de crianças brasileiras menores de 12 anos de idade e deveriam ser substituídas pelas equações propostas neste estudo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Spirometry/standards , Vital Capacity/physiology , Reference Values , Spirometry/methods , Brazil , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Predictive Value of Tests
6.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(4): 216-221, dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087955

ABSTRACT

The bronchial challenge test with exercise aims to demonstrate the presence of exercise-induced bronchial hyperreactivity, characteristic of bronchial asthma. Its realization is well standardized, requiring special environmental conditions, preparation and submaximum effort of the patient. The response is measured by spirometry, and it is considered a positive exercise test a drop in the expired volume at the first second (FEV1) of 10%. This article describes the elements necessary to facilitate this exam, according to national and international standards and guidelines.


La prueba de provocación bronquial con ejercicio tiene como objetivo demostrar la presencia de hiperreactividad bronquial inducida por ejercicio, característica del asma bronquial. Su realización está bien estandarizada, requiriendo de condiciones ambientales especiales, preparación y esfuerzo submáximo del paciente. La respuesta se mide mediante espirometría, y se considera una prueba de provocación con ejercicio positivo, a una caída del volumen espirado al primer segundo (VEF1) del 10%. En este artículo se describen los elementos necesarios para facilitar la realización de este examen, acorde a normas y guías nacionales e internacionales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Bronchial Provocation Tests/methods , Exercise/physiology , Bronchial Hyperreactivity/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Bronchial Hyperreactivity/physiopathology
7.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(1): 41-51, abr. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-995742

ABSTRACT

Spirometry is the most commonly used test to evaluate lung function in children and adults. To obtain good quality results, several requirements must be fulfilled: professional capacity of the technician, the quality of the equipment, the patient's collaboration, the use of appropriate reference standards. The purpose of spirometry is to define types of ventilatory alterations of the central and peripheral airways, to evaluate the response to bronchodilators and to guide the presence of restrictive diseases. The new consensus of national and international experts are described, which have been perfecting several aspects of this test.


La espirometría es el examen más comúnmente utilizado para evaluar la función pulmonar en niños y adultos. Para obtener resultados de buena calidad deben cumplirse varios requisitos, desde la capacidad profesional del técnico, calidad de los equipos, colaboración del paciente y utilización de patrones de referencia adecuados. La espirometría tiene como utilidad definir alteraciones ventilatorias obstructivas de vía aérea central y periférica, evaluar respuesta a broncodilatador y orientar al diagnóstico de enfermedades restrictivas. Se describen los nuevos consensos de expertos nacionales e internacionales, los cuales han ido perfeccionando varios aspectos de este examen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Spirometry/standards , Lung Volume Measurements/instrumentation , Quality Control , Reference Values , Spirometry/instrumentation , Calibration , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves , Lung/physiology
8.
Rev. invest. clín ; 71(1): 28-35, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289667

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the cut-off point to define airflow obstruction has been controversial, it is widely accepted that the spirometry test is vital, as well as performing it after using a bronchodilator. The 6-second spirometry and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV1/FEV6) have demonstrated validity for defining obstruction, and it would be advisable to incorporate them in the definitions of obstruction. Another relevant issue is that spirometry with borderline obstruction can vary over time, changing to above or below the cut-off point. Thus, surveillance should be considered over time, repeating the spirometry to have a greater certainty in the diagnosis. The objective of this article was to conduct an in-depth review of the controversies in the diagnosis of COPD. During the past years, COPD definition has been updated in different times; however, it is now considered more as a complex syndrome with systemic participation, requiring a multidimensional assessment, and not only a spirometry.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spirometry/methods , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Airway Obstruction/diagnosis , Time Factors , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Airway Obstruction/physiopathology
9.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(1): 76-86, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984646

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Volumetric capnography provides the standard CO2 elimination by the volume expired per respiratory cycle and is a measure to assess pulmonary involvement. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the respiratory dynamics of healthy control subjects and those with cystic fibrosis in a submaximal exercise protocol for six minutes on the treadmill, using volumetric capnography parameters (slope 3 [Slp3], Slp3/tidal volume [Slp3/TV], and slope 2 [Slp2]). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 128 subjects (cystic fibrosis, 64 subjects; controls, 64 subjects]. Participants underwent volumetric capnography before, during, and after six minutes on the treadmill. Statistical analysis was performed using the Friedman, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests, considering age and sex. An alpha = 0.05 was considered. Results: Six minutes on the treadmill evaluation: in cystic fibrosis, volumetric capnography parameters were different before, during, and after six minutes on the treadmill; the same was observed for the controls, except for Slp2. Regarding age, an Slp3 difference was observed in cystic fibrosis patients regardless of age, at all moments, and in controls for age ≥ 12 years; a difference in Slp3/TV was observed in cystic fibrosis and controls, regardless of age; and an Slp2 difference in the cystic fibrosis, regardless of age. Regarding sex, Slp3 and Slp3/TV differences were observed in cystic fibrosis regardless of sex, and in controls in male participants; an Slp2 difference was observed in the cystic fibrosis and female participants. The analysis between groups (cystic fibrosis and controls) indicated that Slp3 and Slp3/TV has identified the CF, regardless of age and sex, while the Slp2 showed the CF considering age. Conclusions: Cystic fibrosis showed greater values of the parameters before, during, and after exercise, even when stratified by age and sex, which may indicate ventilation inhomogeneity in the peripheral pathways in the cystic fibrosis.


Resumo Objetivos: A capnografia volumétrica fornece o padrão de eliminação do CO2, pelo volume expirado por ciclo respiratório e avalia o comprometimento pulmonar. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a dinâmica respiratória de indivíduos controles saudáveis e em indivíduos com fibrose cística, em um protocolo de exercício submáximo por seis minutos em esteira, por parâmetros da capnografia volumétrica [slope 3(Slp3), Slp3/volume corrente (Slp3/TV) e slope 2(Slp2)]. Métodos: Estudo de corte transversal com 128 indivíduos [(fibrose cística) 64 indivíduos; (controles) 64 indivíduos]. Os participantes realizaram capnografia volumétrica antes, durante e após seis minutos em esteira. Análise estatística realizada pelos testes de Friedman, Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis, considerado a idade e o sexo. Alpha = 0,05. Resultados: Avaliação de seis minutos em esteira: na fibrose cística, os parâmetros da capnografia volumétrica foram diferentes antes, durante e após seis minutos em esteira, o mesmo ocorreu nos controles, exceto para o Slp2. Considerando a idade: (Slp3) diferença na FC, independentemente da idade, em todos os momentos e nos controles apenas para ≥ 12 anos; (Slp3/TV) diferença para fibrose cística e controles independentemente da idade; (Slp2) diferença apenas para o grupo fibrose cística, independentemente da idade. Considerando o sexo: (Slp3 e Slp3/TV) diferença para fibrose cística, independentemente do sexo, e controles apenas no sexo masculino; (Slp2) diferença para fibrose cística e sexo feminino. Análise entre grupos (fibrose cística versus controles): Slp3 e Slp3/TV identificou a fibrose cística, independentemente da idade e sexo, enquanto o Slp2 evidenciou a fibrose cística considerando a idade. Conclusão: A fibrose cística apresentou maiores valores dos parâmetros antes, durante e após exercício, inclusive quando se considerou idade e sexo, podendo indicar não homogeneidade da distribuição da ventilação nas vias periféricas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tidal Volume/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Capnography/methods , Cystic Fibrosis/physiopathology , Walk Test/methods , Spirometry , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(8): e8671, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011610

ABSTRACT

Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a neural tube defect that often causes spinal cord injury at the thoracolumbar region, as well as sensory and motor paralysis in the lower limbs. This leads to continuous use of a wheelchair and, consequently, a sedentary lifestyle, predisposition to muscle weakness, cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, obesity, and structural alterations in the spine. We assessed the respiratory function and shoulder strength of MMC participants who were wheelchair-users and had no respiratory complaints and compared them to healthy children and adolescents. MMC (n=10) and healthy (n=25) participants of both genders with a mean age of 12.45 years (SD=2.1) were assessed for weight, height, respiratory performance, and isometric peak for shoulder flexors, extensors, abductors, and adductors, using an isokinetic dynamometer. Medullary lesion, functional levels, and abnormal curvatures of the spine were assessed for MMC participants. The level of spinal cord injury for the majority of the MMC participants was high lumbar and they had scoliosis. MMC showed lower values for forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at the first second, forced expiratory flow (25-75%), maximal voluntary ventilation, and isometric peak for shoulder flexors and adductors compared to healthy participants. This indicated a decreased vital capacity, respiratory muscle endurance, and shoulder muscle strength.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Wheelchairs , Respiratory Muscles/physiopathology , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Meningomyelocele/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Preliminary Data
11.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(4): e20180232, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012565

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the frequency of spirometry in elderly people, by age group, at a pulmonary function clinic, to assess the quality of spirometry in the extremely elderly, and to determine whether chronological age influences the quality of spirometry. Methods: This was a cross-sectional retrospective study evaluating information (spirometry findings and respiratory questionnaire results) obtained from the database of a pulmonary function clinic in the city of Aracaju, Brazil, for the period from January of 2012 to April of 2017. In the sample as a whole, we determined the total number of spirometry tests performed, and the frequency of the tests in individuals ≥ 60 years of age, ≥ 65 years of age, and by decade of age, from age 60 onward. In the extremely elderly, we evaluated the quality of spirometry using criteria of acceptability and reproducibility, as well as examining the variables that can influence that quality, such a cognitive deficit. Results: The sample comprised a total of 4,126 spirometry tests. Of those, 961 (23.30%), 864 (20.94%), 102 (2.47%), and 26 (0.63%) were performed in individuals ≥ 60, ≥ 65, ≥ 86, and ≥ 90 years of age (defined as extreme old age), respectively. In the extremely elderly, the criteria for acceptability and reproducibility were met in 88% and 60% of the spirometry tests (95% CI: 75.26-100.00 and 40.80-79.20), respectively. The cognitive deficit had a negative effect on acceptability and reproducibility (p ≤ 0.015 and p ≤ 0.007, respectively). Conclusions: A significant number of elderly individuals undergo spirometry, especially at ≥ 85 years of age, and the majority of such individuals are able to perform the test in a satisfactory manner, despite their advanced age. However, a cognitive deficit could have a negative effect on the quality of spirometry.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a frequência de idosos que realizaram espirometria num serviço de função pulmonar, e avaliar a qualidade da realização do exame na velhice extrema e se a idade cronológica influencia essa qualidade. Métodos: Estudo transversal retrospectivo utilizando informações (espirometria e questionário respiratório) de um banco de dados de um serviço de função pulmonar em Aracaju (SE) entre janeiro de 2012 e abril de 2017. Com base na amostra geral, determinou-se o número total de espirometrias realizadas em todas as idades, em idosos ≥ 60 anos, ≥ 65 anos, e por década de idade a partir da sexta década. Na velhice extrema, avaliou-se a qualidade da espirometria utilizando critérios de aceitabilidade e reprodutibilidade, e investigaram-se variáveis que influenciam essa qualidade, tal como déficit cognitivo. Resultados: A amostra geral foi composta por 4.126 espirometrias. Dessas, 961 (23,30%), 864 (20,94%), 102 (2,47%) e 26 (0,63%) foram realizadas em idosos com ≥ 60 anos de idade, ≥ 65 anos, ≥ 86 anos e ≥ 90 anos (velhice extrema), respectivamente. Na velhice extrema, os critérios de aceitabilidade e reprodutibilidade foram preenchidos em 88% (IC95%: 75,26-100,00) e 60% (IC95%: 40,80-79,20) das espirometrias, respectivamente. O déficit cognitivo influenciou negativamente a aceitabilidade e a reprodutibilidade (p ≤ 0,015; e p ≤ 0,007, respectivamente). Conclusões: Idosos na velhice extrema são uma realidade atual nos serviços de função pulmonar, e a maioria deles é capaz de realizar espirometrias adequadamente, apesar da idade avançada. O déficit cognitivo influencia negativamente a qualidade da espirometria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , Spirometry/methods , Spirometry/standards , Lung/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/psychology , Spirometry/psychology , Aging/physiology , Comorbidity , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate , Sex Factors , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Cognitive Dysfunction
12.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(6): e20170157, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012581

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the anthropometric data obtained for residents of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in a study of Latin America conducted in two phases (baseline, in 2003, and follow-up, in 2012). Methods: This was an analysis of data obtained for São Paulo residents in a two-phase population-based study evaluating the prevalence of COPD and its relationship with certain risk factors among individuals ≥ 40 years of age. The anthropometric data included values for weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. In the follow-up phase of that study, the same variables were evaluated in the same population sample as that of the baseline phase. Results: Of the 1,000 São Paulo residents enrolled in the baseline phase of that study, 587 participated in the follow-up phase, and 80 (13.6%) of those 587 subjects had COPD. Comparing the baseline and follow-up phases, we found increases in all anthropometric measures in both groups (COPD and non-COPD), although the differences were significant only in the non-COPD group. The subjects with mild COPD showed increases in weight and BMI (Δweight = 1.6 ± 5.7 and ΔBMI = 0.7 ± 2.2), whereas those with moderate or severe COPD showed reductions (Δweight = −1.7 ± 8.1 and ΔBMI = −0.4 ± 3.0), as did those with severe or very severe COPD (Δweight = −0.5 ± 5.4 and ΔBMI = −0.8 ± 3.3). Conclusions: Between the two phases of the study, the subjects with mild COPD showed increases in weight and BMI, whereas those with a more severe form of the disease showed reductions.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a evolução dos dados antropométricos obtidos em uma pesquisa latino-americana realizada em duas fases (basal, em 2003, e seguimento, em 2012) na cidade de São Paulo. Métodos: Estudo de base populacional que avaliou indivíduos com idade ≥ 40 anos com o objetivo de definir a prevalência da DPOC e sua relação com alguns fatores de risco. A avaliação antropométrica incluiu medições de peso, altura, índice de massa corpórea (IMC) e circunferência abdominal. Foram avaliadas as mesmas variáveis na mesma população na fase de seguimento. Resultados: Dos 1.000 indivíduos incluídos inicialmente, 587 participaram da fase de seguimento; desses, 80 (13,6%) tinham DPOC. Entre a avaliação inicial e a de seguimento ambos os grupos (DPOC e não DPOC) apresentaram aumentos nas medidas antropométricas, mas esses somente foram significativos no grupo não DPOC. Os indivíduos com DPOC leve tiveram aumentos de peso e IMC (Δpeso = 1,6 ± 5,7 kg e ΔIMC = 0,7 ± 2,2 kg/m2) enquanto aqueles com doença moderada ou grave tiveram reduções dessas medidas (DPOC moderada: Δpeso = −1,7 ± 8,1 kg e ΔIMC = −0,4 ± 3,0 kg/m2; e DPOC grave ou muito grave (Δpeso = −0,5 ± 5,4 kg e ΔIMC = −0,8 ± 3,3 kg/m2). Conclusões: Entre as duas fases da pesquisa, os pacientes com DPOC leve tiveram aumento de peso e IMC, enquanto aqueles com doença mais grave apresentaram perda ponderal e redução do IMC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Body Weight/physiology , Anthropometry , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Reference Values , Spirometry , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Follow-Up Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Overweight/physiopathology , Overweight/epidemiology
13.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(6): e20180132, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040290

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Preoperative functional evaluation is central to optimizing the identification of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who are candidates for surgery. The minute ventilation/carbon dioxide output (VE/VCO2) slope has proven to be a predictor of surgical complications and mortality. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs (PRPs) could influence short-term outcomes in patients with COPD undergoing lung resection. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of a PRP on the VE/VCO2 slope in a cohort of patients with COPD undergoing lung resection for NSCLC. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 25 consecutive patients with COPD participating in a three-week high-intensity PRP prior to undergoing lung surgery for NSCLC, between December of 2015 and January of 2017. Patients underwent complete functional assessment, including spirometry, DLCO measurement, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Results: There were no significant differences between the mean pre- and post-PRP values (% of predicted) for FEV1 (61.5 ± 22.0% vs. 62.0 ± 21.1%) and DLCO (67.2 ± 18.1% vs. 67.5 ± 13.2%). Conversely, there were significant improvements in the mean peak oxygen uptake (from 14.7 ± 2.5 to 18.2 ± 2.7 mL/kg per min; p < 0.001) and VE/VCO2 slope (from 32.0 ± 2.8 to 30.1 ± 4.0; p < 0.01). Conclusions: Our results indicate that a high-intensity PRP can improve ventilatory efficiency in patients with COPD undergoing lung resection for NSCLC. Further comprehensive prospective studies are required to corroborate these preliminary results.


RESUMO Objetivos: A avaliação funcional pré-operatória é fundamental para otimizar a seleção dos pacientes para cirurgia torácica para tratamento do CPCNP. Uma alta inclinação VE/VCO2 se mostrou um preditor de complicações cirúrgicas e de aumento da mortalidade. Programas de reabilitação pulmonar (PRP) demonstraram aumentar os parâmetros funcionais e os desfechos de curto prazo em pacientes com DPOC submetidos à ressecção pulmonar. O impacto dos PRP na inclinação VE/VCO2 não foi totalmente investigado. Métodos: Avaliamos retrospectivamente 25 pacientes com DPOC consecutivos submetidos aos efeitos de um programa de reabilitação pulmonar de alta intensidade (PRP) na inclinação VE/VCO2. Resultados: Não foram observadas variações significativas nos principais parâmetros espirométricos após o programa de reabilitação de três semanas (pré-reabilitação VEF1 versus pós-reabilitação VEF1 %prev: 61,5 ± 22,0% para 62,0 ± 21,1%, ns; pré-reabilitação DLCO para pós-reabilitação DLCO %prev: 67,2 ± 18,1% para 67,5 ± 13,2%, ns). Por outro lado, o pico de VO2 e a inclinação VE/VCO2 melhoraram significativamente após PRP (pico de VO2 pré-reabilitação para pico de VO2 pós-reabilitação: 14,7 ± 2,5 para 18,2 ± 2,7 mL/kg/min, p < 0,0000001; inclinação pré-reabilitação VE/VCO2 para pós-reabilitação inclinação VE/VCO2: 32,0 ± 2,8 para 30,1 ± 4,0, p<0,01). Conclusão: Documentamos o benefício no desempenho físico de um treinamento de três semanas em um grupo de pacientes com DPOC com um comprometimento funcional notável em parâmetros de esforço. Dados adicionais e mais abrangentes são necessários para esclarecer os mecanismos fisiológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/rehabilitation , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/rehabilitation , Exercise Therapy/methods , Lung Neoplasms/rehabilitation , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Reference Values , Spirometry , Time Factors , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/physiopathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Exercise Test , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Lung Neoplasms/physiopathology
14.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(6): e20180252, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040296

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Estabelecer ponto de corte entre as variáveis clínicas e funcionais para avaliar a prevalência de sarcopenia e dinapenia em pacientes com Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica (DPOC), além de analisar o impacto da Disfunção Muscular Esquelética (DME) nestas variáveis. Métodos Realizado estudo transversal com pacientes diagnosticados com DPOC para determinar sarcopenia ou dinapenia por meio do índice de baixa massa muscular e Força de Preensão Palmar (FPP). Avaliadas a função pulmonar, força muscular respiratória e capacidade funcional (CF). A precisão das variáveis na determinação dos pontos de corte previstos para as doenças em questão foi obtida a partir da curva Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) e de uma análise bidirecional da variância. Resultados Ao final da análise, obtiveram-se 20 pacientes com DPOC estratificados por sarcopenia (n = 11) e dinapenia (n = 07). O grupo com sarcopenia apresentou menor massa magra e menor pressão inspiratória máxima (PImáx), diminuição da Força de Preensão Palmar (FPP) e redução da CF (p<0,050). O grupo com dinapenia apresentou redução da PImáx, menor FPP e menor distância percorrida no teste Incremental Shuttle Walk (ISWT) (p<0,050). Foram encontrados pontos de corte no Volume Expiratório Forçado (VEF1) durante o primeiro segundo na PImáx, na Pressão Expiratória Máxima (PEmáx) e no ISWT, o que possibilitou identificar sarcopenia ou dinapenia nestes pacientes. A partir destes resultados, foi possível encontrar coexistência das condições (efeito DME) na DPOC: redução da distância no ISWT (p = 0,002) e % ISWT (p = 0,017). Conclusões Em pacientes com DPOC moderada a muito grave, a sarcopenia pode ser prevista pelo VEF1 (% previsto) <52, PImáx <73 cm H2O, PEmáx <126 cm H2O e distância percorrida de <295 metros no ISWT. Já a dinapenia pode ser prevista pelo VEF1 <40%, PImáx <71 cm H2O, PEmáx <110 cm H2O e distância de <230 metros percorrida no ISWT.


ABSTRACT Objective To establish a cut-off point for clinical and functional variables to determinate sarcopenia and dynapenia in COPD patients, and to analyze the impact of skeletal muscle dysfunction (SMD) on these variables. Methods Cross-sectional study, screened COPD patients for sarcopenia or dynapenia through low muscle mass and hand grip strength (HGS). Clinical variables: pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity (FC). The precision of the variables in determining points of predictive cut-off for sarcopenia or dynapenia were performed using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve and two-way analysis of variance. Results 20 COPD patients stratified for sarcopenia (n = 11) and dynapenia (n = 07). Sarcopenia group presented lower lean mass and lower maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), decreased HGS, reduced FC (p<0.050). Dynapenia group presented reduced MIP, lower HGS and walked a shorter distance at Incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) (p<0.050). We found cut-off points of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), MIP and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and ISWT. It is possible to identify sarcopenia or dynapenia in these patients. We found the coexistence of the conditions (SMD effect) in COPD - reduction in the distance in the ISWT (p = 0.002) and %ISWT (p = 0.017). Conclusion In moderate to very severe COPD patients the sarcopenia could be predicted by FEV1 (%predicted) < 52, MIP < 73 cmH2O, MEP < 126 cmH2O and distance traveled of < 295 m in ISWT. Whereas dynapenia could be predicted by FEV1 < 40%, MIP < 71 cmH2O, MEP < 110 cmH2O and distance of < 230 m traveled in ISWT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiratory Muscles/physiopathology , Muscle Weakness/physiopathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Sarcopenia/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , ROC Curve , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hand Strength/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Walk Test , Maximal Respiratory Pressures
15.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(6): 449-455, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984607

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To derive reference equations for spirometry in healthy Black adult never smokers in Brazil, comparing them with those published in 2007 for White adults in the country. Methods: The examinations followed the standards recommended by the Brazilian Thoracic Association, and the spirometers employed met the technical requirements set forth in the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society. The lower limits were defined as the 5th percentile of the residuals. Results: Reference equations and limits were derived from a sample of 120 men and 124 women, inhabitants of eight Brazilian cities, all of whom were evaluated with a flow spirometer. The predicted values for FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, and PEF were better described by linear equations, whereas the flows were better described by logarithmic equations. The FEV1 and FVC reference values derived for Black adults were significantly lower than were those previously derived for White adults, regardless of gender. Conclusions: The fact that the predicted spirometry values derived for the population of Black adults in Brazil were lower than those previously derived for White adults in the country justifies the use of an equation specific to the former population.


RESUMO Objetivo: Derivar equações de referência para a espirometria forçada em adultos brasileiros negros, saudáveis, que nunca fumaram, e comparar os resultados com os valores previstos para a raça branca publicados em 2007. Métodos: Os exames seguiram as normas recomendadas pela Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia, e os espirômetros preencheram os requisitos técnicos exigidos pelas diretrizes da American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society. Os limites inferiores foram derivados pela análise do 5º percentil dos resíduos. Resultados: Equações e limites de referência foram derivados de uma amostra com 120 homens e 124 mulheres, habitantes de oito cidades brasileiras, utilizando-se um espirômetro de fluxo. Os valores previstos para CVF, VEF1, relação VEF1/CVF e PFE foram mais bem ajustados por regressões lineares, enquanto os fluxos, por equações logarítmicas. Os valores de referência de VEF1 e CVF para ambos os sexos foram significativamente menores quando comparados aos previstos para adultos da raça branca no Brasil. Conclusões: O fato de que os valores previstos da espirometria forçada derivados para a população negra no Brasil tenham sido inferiores aos previstos para a raça branca no país justifica a utilização de uma equação específica para adultos negros.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Spirometry , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Reference Values , Brazil/ethnology , Sex Factors , Anthropometry , Age Factors , Black People , White People
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 421-426, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957435

ABSTRACT

Abstract Reduced peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is a common clinical finding in progressive Chagas disease. However, the disease stage in which functional impairment is detectable remains uncertain. The present study compared functional capacity between healthy controls and patients with different clinical forms of Chagas disease. A systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO database CRD42017058353) was conducted following a search of the MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, and LILACS databases from September to December 2017 for articles published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese, with no date restrictions. We included studies that compared the VO2peak between healthy and Chagas disease patients, stratified according to 3 clinical forms [no apparent cardiac disease, non-dilated Chagas heart disease (CHD), and dilated CHD]. Seven cross-sectional studies were included. Chagas disease patients without apparent cardiac disease (n=208) had VO2peak values [mean difference, -1.55ml/kg/min; 95% confidence interval (CI), -4.98ml/kg/min to 1.88ml/kg/min] similar to those of healthy controls (n=105; p=0.38, I2=52%). In non-dilated CHD (n=159), VO2peak was 8.71ml/kg/min lower (95% CI, -13.99 to -3.42ml/kg/min) than in healthy controls (n=59; p=0.001, I2=75%). VO2peak was also significantly lower (mean difference, -9.30ml/kg/min; 95% CI, -11.34 to -7.25ml/kg/min) in dilated CHD patients (n=131) than in healthy controls (n=53; p<0.001, I2=0%). Exercise capacity in Chagas disease patients without apparent cardiac disease is similar to that in healthy controls. Functional impairment in Chagas disease is detectable in the early stages of cardiac involvement, even in the absence of systolic dysfunction and signs of heart failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Maximal Voluntary Ventilation/physiology , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies
17.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(3): 202-206, May-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954549

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate whether the presence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) alters the perception of respiratory symptoms and quality of life in COPD patients, by using specific questionnaires, as well as to determine whether scales for assessing daytime sleepiness and for screening for OSAS can be used in the triad of OSAS, COPD, and obesity. Methods: We included 66 patients diagnosed with mild-to-moderate or severe COPD and presenting with a body mass index > 27 kg/m2. After polysomnography, patients completed the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), the Berlin questionnaire (BQ), the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale, the Baseline Dyspnea Index (BDI), and the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results: Patients were first divided into two groups: COPD + OSAS (n = 46); and COPD-only (n = 20). The COPD + OSAS group was subdivided into a COPD + mild-to-moderate OSAS group (n = 32) and a COPD + severe OSAS group (n = 14), all of which were compared with the COPD-only group. There was a significant difference in mean FEV1 (L) between the COPD + OSAS groups and the COPD-only group (p = 0.073). The presence of the triad did not lead to significantly higher ESS scores, and scores > 10 had a specificity of 0.58. The BQ did not identify high risk for OSAS in the presence of the triad (specificity of 0.31). There were no significant differences in domain or total scores of the SGRQ between the COPD + OSAS groups and the COPD-only group. Conclusions: The confounding factors present in the triad of OSAS, COPD, and obesity prevented the perception of increased daytime sleepiness and high risk for OSAS. We observed no worsening of dyspnea perception or quality of life.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar se a presença de síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS) modifica a percepção de queixas respiratórias e de qualidade de vida em pacientes com DPOC por meio de questionários específicos, além de verificar se escalas de sonolência diurna e de rastreamento para SAOS podem ser empregadas na tríade SAOS, DPOC e obesidade. Métodos: Foram incluídos no estudo 66 portadores diagnosticados com DPOC leve/moderada ou grave e com índice de massa corpórea > 27 kg/m2. Após a polissonografia, foram aplicados escala de sonolência de Epworth (ESE), Questionário de Berlim (QB), escala modificada do Medical Research Council (mMRC), Baseline Dyspnea Index (BDI) e Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Resultados: Foram analisados os grupos DPOC e SAOS (n = 46) vs. DPOC sem SAOS (n = 20). Do primeiro grupo, foram formados os subgrupos DPOC+SAOS leve/moderada (n = 32) e DPOC+SAOS grave (n = 14), que foram comparados com o grupo DPOC sem SAOS. Houve diferença significativa nas médias de VEF1 (l) entre os grupos DPOC com e sem SAOS (p = 0,073). A presença da tríade não aumentou significativamente o escore de ESE, tendo o escore > 10 especificidade de 0,58. O QB não identificou alto risco para SAOS na presença da tríade (especificidade de 0,31). Não houve diferenças significativas nos domínios e no escore total do SGRQ entre os grupos DPOC com e sem SAOS. Conclusões: Os fatores de confusão presentes na tríade SAOS, DPOC e obesidade impediram a percepção de maior sonolência diurna e de risco elevado de SAOS. Não foi identificada piora na percepção de dispneia e na qualidade de vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Quality of Life , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Obesity/physiopathology , Reference Values , Sleep/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Body Mass Index , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Sleepiness , Obesity/complications
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 64(4): 361-367, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-956455

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aims at investigating the expressions of TOLL-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9)/ tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) in pulmonary blood vessels with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their relationships with pulmonary vascular remodelling (PVR). METHODS: 60 para-tumour tissues were divided into the COPD group and the control group (n=30); the inflammations, pulmonary artery wall area/total artery area (WA%), and wall thickness/vascular outer diameter (WT%) were compared. The expressions of TLR-4, MMP-9/TIMP-1, and PCNA in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells were detected, and their relationships with PVR were then analysed. RESULTS: The inflammations (1.6±0.8), WA% (44.0±6.4), and WT% (27.3±3.3) in the COPD group were higher than in the control group (0.3±0.5, 26.1±2.8, 15.6±1.8), and the expressions of TLR-4 (31.4±147) and MMP-9/TIMP-1 (2.2±2.6) were increased compared to the control group (4.7±4.5, 1.9±12). Correlation analysis: TLR-4 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 were positively correlated with the inflammations (r=0.18, P<0.01), WA% (r=0.68, P<0.01), and WT% (r=0.73, P<0.01), as well as positively correlated with the expression of PCNA (r=0.44, P<0.01); the upregulation of TLR-4 was positively correlated with the expressions of MMP-9 and TIMP-1. CONCLUSIONS: The upregulation of TLR-4 in the pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells of COPD patients could promote the inflammations and the MMP-9 expression, thus causing abnormal degradation of extracellular matrix, so it played an important role in the process of PVR.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar as expressões de TOLL-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) e metaloproteinase 9 da matriz (MMP-9)/inibidor de tecido da metaloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) em vasos sanguíneos pulmonares com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) e suas relações com o remodelamento vascular pulmonar (PVR). MÉTODOS: Sessenta tecidos paratumorais foram divididos em grupo COPD e o grupo controle (n = 30). Foram comparadas as inflamações, área da parede da artéria pulmonar/área da artéria total (WA%) e espessura da parede/diâmetro externo vascular (WT%). As expressões de TLR-4, MMP-9/TIMP-1 e PCNA em células de músculo liso vascular pulmonar foram detectadas, e suas relações com PVR foram então analisadas. RESULTADOS: As inflamações (1,6 ± 0,8), WA% (44,0 ± 6,4) e WT% (27,3 ± 3,3) no grupo COPD foram maiores que no grupo controle (0,3 ± 0,5; 26,1 ± 2,8; 15,6 ± 1,8). E as expressões de TLR-4 (31,4 ± 14,7) e MMP-9/TIMP-1 (2,2 ± 2,6) foram aumentadas em relação ao grupo controle (4,7 ± 4,5, 1,9 ± 1,2). Na análise de correlação, TLR-4 e MMP-9/TIMP-1 foram positivamente correlacionadas com as inflamações (r = 0,18; P <0,01), WA% (r = 0,68; P <0,01) e WT% (r = 0,73; P <0,01), bem como correlacionadas positivamente com a expressão de PCNA (r = 0,44; P <0,01). A elevação da TLR-4 foi correlacionada positivamente com as expressões de MMP-9 e TIMP-1. CONCLUSÕES: A regulação positiva do TLR-4 nas células do músculo liso arterial pulmonar de pacientes com DPOC poderia promover as inflamações e a expressão de MMP-9, causando assim uma degradação anormal da matriz extracelular, por isso desempenhou um papel importante no processo de PVR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Pulmonary Artery/metabolism , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Vascular Remodeling , Reference Values , Immunohistochemistry , Case-Control Studies , Vital Capacity/physiology , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/metabolism , Hematoxylin , Lung/blood supply , Middle Aged
19.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(2): 176-182, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958398

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study is to characterize the presence of exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) and to relate it with other cardiopulmonary exercise test (CET) responses and clinical variables. Methods: Forty-six male patients (age: 53.1±13.6 years old; left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]: 30±8%) with heart failure were recruited to perform a maximal CET and to correlate the CET responses with clinical variables. The EOV was obtained according to Leite et al. criteria and VE/VCO2 > 34 and peak VO2 < 14 ml/kg/min were used to assess patients' severity. Results: The EOV was observed in 16 of 24 patients who performed the CET, as well as VE/VCO2 > 34 and peak VO2 < 14 ml/kg/min in 14 and 10 patients, respectively. There was no difference in clinical and CET variables of the patients who presented EOV in CET when compared to non-EOV patients. Also, there was no difference in CET and clinical variables when comparing patients who presented EOV and had a VE/VCO2 slope > 34 to patients who just had one of these responses either. Conclusion: The present study showed that there was an incidence of patients with EOV and lower peak VO2 and higher VE/VCO2 slope values, but they showed no difference on other prognostic variables. As well, there was no influence of the presence of EOV on other parameters of CET in this population, suggesting that this variable may be an independent marker of worst prognosis in HF patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise/physiology , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Exercise Test/methods , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Prognosis , Reference Values , Stroke Volume/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Vital Capacity/physiology , Anthropometry , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric
20.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(1): 5-11, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893890

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare diaphragmatic mobility, lung function, and respiratory muscle strength between COPD patients with and without thoracic hyperkyphosis; to determine the relationship of thoracic kyphosis angle with diaphragmatic mobility, lung function, and respiratory muscle strength in COPD patients; and to compare diaphragmatic mobility and thoracic kyphosis between male and female patients with COPD. Methods: Participants underwent anthropometry, spirometry, thoracic kyphosis measurement, and evaluation of diaphragmatic mobility. Results: A total of 34 patients with COPD participated in the study. Diaphragmatic mobility was significantly lower in the group of COPD patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis than in that of those without it (p = 0.002). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups of COPD patients regarding lung function or respiratory muscle strength variables. There was a significant negative correlation between thoracic kyphosis angle and diaphragmatic mobility (r = −0.47; p = 0.005). In the sample as a whole, there were statistically significant differences between males and females regarding body weight (p = 0.011), height (p < 0.001), and thoracic kyphosis angle (p = 0.036); however, there were no significant differences in diaphragmatic mobility between males and females (p = 0.210). Conclusions: Diaphragmatic mobility is lower in COPD patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis than in those without it. There is a negative correlation between thoracic kyphosis angle and diaphragmatic mobility. In comparison with male patients with COPD, female patients with COPD have a significantly increased thoracic kyphosis angle.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a mobilidade diafragmática, a função pulmonar e a força muscular respiratória em pacientes que apresentam DPOC com e sem hipercifose torácica; verificar a relação do ângulo da curvatura torácica com a mobilidade diafragmática, variáveis da função pulmonar e de força muscular respiratória dos pacientes com DPOC; e comparar a mobilidade diafragmática e a cifose torácica entre os gêneros nesses pacientes. Métodos: Foram realizadas as seguintes avaliações: antropometria, espirometria, mensuração do ângulo da curvatura torácica e mobilidade diafragmática. Resultados: Participaram do estudo 34 pacientes com DPOC. No grupo de pacientes com DPOC e hipercifose torácica, a mobilidade diafragmática foi estatisticamente menor quando comparada à do grupo DPOC sem hipercifose torácica (p = 0,002). Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre esses grupos em relação a variáveis de função pulmonar e de força muscular respiratória. Houve uma correlação negativa significante entre o ângulo da curvatura torácica e a mobilidade diafragmática (r = −0,47; p = 0,005). Quando comparados homens e mulheres da amostra geral, houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes em relação à massa corpórea (p = 0,011), estatura (p < 0,001) e ângulo da curvatura da cifose torácica (p = 0,036), mas não em relação à mobilidade diafragmática (p = 0,210). Conclusões: Os pacientes com DPOC e hipercifose torácica apresentaram menor mobilidade diafragmática quando comparados com os pacientes com DPOC sem hipercifose torácica. O ângulo da curvatura torácica se correlacionou negativamente com a mobilidade diafragmática. O grupo feminino apresentou um aumento significante no ângulo da curvatura torácica quando comparado ao grupo masculino.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Diaphragm/physiopathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Organ Motion/physiology , Kyphosis/physiopathology , Spirometry , Thoracic Vertebrae/physiopathology , Respiratory Muscles/physiopathology , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Sex Factors , Vital Capacity/physiology , Anthropometry , Forced Expiratory Volume/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnostic imaging , Muscle Strength/physiology , Kyphosis/diagnostic imaging
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL