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1.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 51-55, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009108

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To report the clinical characteristics and treatment analysis of 3 cases of congenital ulnar collateral flexor contracture of the forearm and take a reference for clinic.@*METHODS@#A total of 3 patients with congenital ulnar collateral flexor contracture of the forearm were admitted between February 2019 and August 2021. Two patients were male and 1 was female, and their ages were 16, 20, and 16 years, respectively. The disease durations were 8, 20, and 15 years, respectively. They all presented with flexion deformity of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints of the middle, ring, and little fingers in the neutral or extended wrist position, and the deformity worsened in the extended wrist position. The total action motion (TAM) scores of 3 patients were 1 and the gradings were poor. The Carroll's hand function evaluation scores were 48, 55, and 57, and the grip strength indexes were 72.8, 78.4, and 30.5. Preoperative CT of case 2 showed a bony protrusion of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon at the proximal end of the ulna; and MRI of case 3 showed that the ulnar flexor digitorum profundus presented as a uniform cord. After diagnosis, all patients were treated with operation to release the denatured tendon, and functional exercise was started early after operation.@*RESULTS@#The incisions of 3 patients healed by first intention. Three patients were followed up for 12, 35, and 12 months, respectively. The hand function and the movement range of the joints significantly improved, but the grip strength did not significantly improve. At last follow-up, TAM scores were 3, 4, and 4, respectively, among which 2 cases were excellent and 1 case was good. Carroll's hand function evaluation scores were 95, 90, and 94, and the grip strength indexes were 73.5, 81.3, and 34.2, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Congenital ulnar collateral flexor contracture is a rare clinical disease that should be distinguished from ischemic muscle contracture. The location of the contracture should be identified and appropriate surgical timing should be selected for surgical release. Active postoperative rehabilitation and functional exercise can achieve good hand function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Forearm/surgery , Contracture/surgery , Muscle, Skeletal , Tendons/surgery , Ulna/surgery , Range of Motion, Articular
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1603-1609, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528770

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Despite attempts to develop the plastination technique in Bolivia, standardized results have not yet been achieved that could be communicated via scientific publications. There is a great deal of misunderstanding around the technique, confusing it with classic techniques of inclusion in different types of resin, such as polyester and epoxy, but these protocols are not plastination. The aim of this work was to communicate the first standardized room-temperature plastination protocol with silicone in Bolivia, with the unique feature of doing so at the altitude of the city of La Paz, thus constituting the first communication of a plastination technique at 4,150 m.a.s.l. sub sede La Paz, La Paz, Bolivia.


En Bolivia, a pesar de los intentos en el desarrollo de la técnica de Plastinación, aún no se han alcanzado resultados estandarizados que pudieran ser comunicados por medio de publicaciones científicas. Existe una gran confusión al momento de desarrollar la técnica, confundiéndola con técnicas clásicas de inclusión en distintos tipos de reina, como poliéster y epoxy, pero no correspondiendo estos protocolos desarrollados a la técnica de plastinación. En este sentido, el objetivo de esta trabajo consistió en comunicar el primer protocolo estandarizado de plastinación a temperatura ambiente con silicona de Bolivia, con la particularidad de desarrollarlo en la altura de la ciudad de La Paz, constituyéndose, de esta manera, en la primera comunicación de una técnica de plastinación a 4.150 metros sobre el nivel del mar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Altitude , Forearm/anatomy & histology , Plastination , Hand/anatomy & histology , Silicones , Temperature , Bolivia
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 764-768, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514307

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The purpose of this research is to determine a regression equation for estimation of stature from forearm length measurements. This research was carried out on 1200 subjects (604 male and 596 female) among the population of Montenegrin adolescents. The stature and forearm length measurements were taken according to the ISAK protocol, and the data were analyzed statistically. Linear regression analysis determined the prediction of forearm length on the criterion variable a body height at the significance level of p <0.05. These relations are presented in the form of scatter diagram. Thereby, we obtained the coefficient of determination, the multiple correlation coefficients, the partial correlation coefficient, the regression, t-test and standardized beta coefficient. The results of this research study confirmed that forearm length reliably predicts stature in both sexes of Montenegrin adolescents and revealed a very useful finding for physical anthropologists and experts from related fields. It was confirmed that there is a correlation between forearm length and body height (males: 31.9 %, females: 33.3 %).


El propósito de esta investigación fue determinar una ecuación de regresión para la estimación de la estatura a partir de medidas de la longitud del antebrazo. Esta investigación se llevó a cabo en 1200 sujetos (604 hombres y 596 mujeres) entre la población de adolescentes montenegrinos. Las medidas de estatura y longitud del antebrazo se tomaron de acuerdo con el protocolo ISAK y los datos se analizaron estadísticamente. El análisis de regresión lineal determinó la predicción de la longitud del antebrazo en la variable de criterio una altura del cuerpo en el nivel de significación de p <0,05. Estas relaciones se presentan en forma de diagrama de dispersión. De tal manera obtuvimos el coeficiente de determinación, los coeficientes de correlación múltiple, el coeficiente de correlación parcial, la regresión, la prueba t y el coeficiente beta estandarizado. Los resultados de este estudio confirmaron que la longitud del antebrazo predice de manera confiable la estatura en adolescentes montenegrinos de ambos sexos y reveló un hallazgo muy útil para los antropólogos físicos y expertos en áreas relacionadas. Se confirmó que existe una correlación entre la longitud del antebrazo y la altura del cuerpo (hombres: 31,9 %, mujeres: 33,3 %).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Body Height , Forearm/anatomy & histology , Linear Models , Anthropometry , Montenegro
4.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(2): 227-229, March-Apr. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439582

ABSTRACT

Abstract A male patient was scheduled for urgent amputation of his right forearm. His right forearm was stuck inside the insertion slot of a meat grinder, resulting in severe pain to his injured arm. His upper body could not move to sit in a semi-upright position. An endotracheal tube was successfully placed after rapid sequence intubation using a video laryngoscope from behind the patient on the first attempt. This case report is the first documentation of successful anesthetic induction with subsequent endotracheal intubation using a video laryngoscope from behind an injured patient whose upper body was upright with limited positioning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Laryngoscopes , Anesthetics , Forearm/surgery , Sitting Position , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/methods
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 9-18, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430504

ABSTRACT

El ramo comunicante mediano-ulnar (RCMU) es la conexión que se origina del nervio mediano (NM) o alguno de sus ramos, para unirse al nervio ulnar (NU) en el antebrazo humano. Cuando este RCMU está presente, determina una prevalencia que oscila entre un 8 % y un 32 %, de tal manera los axones del NM se trasladen al NU, modificando la inervación habitual de los músculos de la mano. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia, biometría, topografía y relaciones anatómicas del RCMU. Adicionalmente, se estableció la coexistencia de otras conexiones entre los NM y NU en el antebrazo y la mano. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, no experimental y transeccional. Disecamos 30 antebrazos humanos de individuos adultos, pertenecientes al programa de donación cadavérica de la Pontificia Universidad Católicade Chile. Las muestras estaban fijadas en formalina y a 4 °C. El RCMU se presentó en 5 casos (17 %). De estos ramos, tres surgieron del nervio interóseo anterior (NIA) (60 %) y dos (40 %) del ramo que el NM aporta a los músculos superficiales del compartimiento anterior del antebrazo. Estos se clasificaron de acuerdo a la literatura, así el tipo Ic se presentó en tres casos (60 %), y el tipo Ia en dos (40 %). La longitud promedio del RCMU fue de 53,9 mm. El origen del RCMU se ubicó en el tercio proximal y la conexión de este con el NU se estableció en el tercio medio del antebrazo. En tres casos (60 %) se observó la coexistencia del RCMU y una conexión entre los ramos digitales palmares comunes. Estos hallazgos confirman que el RCMU mayoritariamente se extiende entre el nervio interóseo anterior y el NU, y su presencia podría modificar la distribución nerviosa de la mano.


SUMMARY: The median-ulnar communicating branch (MUCB) is the communication that originates from the median nerve (MN) or one of its branches, to join the ulnar nerve (UN) in the human forearm. With a prevalence that oscillates between 8% and 32%, when this MUCB is present, it establishes that axons from the MN move to the UN, modifying the normal innervation of the muscles of the hand. Our aim was to determine the prevalence, biometry and topography and anatomical relationships of the MUCB. Additionally, the coexistence of this MUCB with other connections between the MN and UN was established. A descriptive, quantitative, non experimental and transectional study was conducted. Thirty adult human forearms belonging to the cadaveric donation program of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile were dissected. The samples were fixed in formalin and stored at 4 °C. The MUCB appeared in 5 cases (17%). Of these, three originated from the anterior interosseous nerve (60%) and two (40%) arose from the branch that the MN gives it to the superficial muscles of the anterior compartment of the forearm. These were classified according to the literature consulted, obtaining that Group Ic occurred in three cases (60%), and Group Ia in two (40%). The average MUCB length was 53.9 mm. The origin of the MUCB was on average 21% of the length of the forearm from the biepicondylar line. The connection of this MUCB with the UN was located on average at 44% from this line. In three cases (60%) the coexistence of the MUCB and a connection between the common palmar digital nerves was observed. These findings confirm that the RCMU is generally established between the anterior interosseous nerve of forearm and NU, and its presence could modify the nerve distribution of the hand.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Ulnar Nerve/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Variation , Forearm/innervation , Median Nerve/anatomy & histology , Cadaver
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 30-34, feb. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430515

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The deep branch of the radial nerve (DBRN) runs through the radial tunnel, which is a muscle-aponeurotic structure that extends from the humeral lateral epicondyle to the distal margin of the supinator muscle (SM). The Posterior Interosseous Nerve (PIN) originates as a direct continuation of the DBRN as it emerges from the SM and supplies most of the muscles of the posterior compartment of the forearm. The PIN can be affected by compressive neuropathies, especially at the "Arcade of Frohse". Its preservation is of special interest in surgical approaches to proximal radius fractures and in compressive syndromes release, for which surgeons must have an adequate anatomical knowledge of its course. This descriptive cross-sectional study evaluated 40 upper limbs of fresh cadavers. The diameters of the DBRN, the length of the radial tunnel, and the distances to the supinator arch, PIN emergence and PIN bifurcation were measured. The deep branch of the radial nerve (DBRN) has a course of 23.8 ± 3.7 mm from its origin to the supinator arch, presenting a diameter of 2.2 ± 0.3 mm at that level. The length of the radial tunnel was 42.2 ± 4 mm. The PIN originated 70.7 ± 3.5 mm distal to the lateral epicondyle. Type I corresponds to the division of the PIN during its journey through the radial tunnel, presenting in 35 % of cases, and Type II corresponds to the division of the PIN distal to its emergence from the radial tunnel presenting in the remaining 65 %. This study enriches the knowledge of the PIN and provides useful reference information on a Latin American mestizo sample. We propose the division pattern of the PIN into two types. Future studies may use this classification not only as a qualitative variable, but also include quantitative morphometric measurements.


El ramo profundo del nervio radial (RPNR) discurre por el túnel radial, que es una estructura músculo- aponeurótica que se extiende desde el epicóndilo lateral del húmero humeral hasta el margen distal del músculo supinador (MS). El nervio interóseo Posterior (NIP) se origina como una continuación directa del RPNR cuando emerge del MS e inerva la mayoría de los músculos del compartimiento posterior del antebrazo. El NIP puede verse afectado por neuropatías compresivas, especialmente en la "Arcada de Frohse". Su conservación es de especial interés en los abordajes quirúrgicos de las fracturas proximales de radio y en la liberación de síndromes compresivos, para lo cual los cirujanos deben tener un adecuado conocimiento anatómico de su curso. Este estudio descriptivo transversal evaluó 40 miembros superiores de cadáveres frescos. Se midieron los diámetros de la RPNR, la longitud del túnel radial y las distancias al arco supinador, la emergencia del NIP y la bifurcación del NIP. El RPNR tenía un recorrido de 23,8 ± 3,7 mm desde su origen hasta el arco supinador, presentando un diámetro de 2,2 ± 0,3 mm a ese nivel. La longitud del túnel radial fue de 42,2 ± 4 mm. El NIP se originó 70,7 ± 3,5 mm distal al epicóndilo lateral. El tipo I corresponde a la división del NIP durante su recorrido por el túnel radial presentándose en el 35 % de los casos, y el tipo II corresponde a la división del NIP distal a su salida del túnel radial presentándose en el 65 % restante. Este estudio enriquece el conocimiento del NIP y proporciona información de referencia útil sobre una muestra de mestizos latinoamericanos. Proponemos el patrón de división del NIP en dos tipos. Futuros estudios pueden utilizar esta clasificación no solo como una variable cualitativa, sino también incluir medidas morfométricas cuantitativas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radial Nerve/anatomy & histology , Forearm/innervation , Cadaver , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 619-622, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981744

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical effect of Kirschner wire intramedullary fixation in the treatment of both-bone forearm fractures in children of high altitude area.@*METHODS@#From August 2020 to December 2021, 19 children were treated with Kirschner wire intramedullary fixation including 11 males and 8 females, aged from 4 to 13 years old with an average of (8.16±2.71) years old. The course of disease was 1 to 10 days, with a mean of (4.11±2.51) d. First, close reduction was performed. If the reduction was unsuccessful, limited open reduction was performed, followed by Kirschner wire intramedullary fixation of the radius and ulna. The fracture healing was evaluated by X-ray after operation, and the curative effect was evaluated by Anderson forearm function score standard.@*RESULTS@#The wound healed well after operation, 2 cases had clinical manifestations of needle tail irritation after operation, and the symptoms disappeared after removing the internal fixation. The average follow-up time was(7.68±3.50) months (3 to 14 months). X-ray showed that all fracture healing in follow-up, Anderson forearm function score showed excellent in 16 cases, good in 2 cases and fair in 1 case at the final follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#Children with fractures in plateau areas often have delayed medical treatment, lack of medical conditions and insufficient compliance. Based on these characteristics, Kirschner wire intramedullary fixation for the treatment of children's double forearm fractures has the advantages of small injury and rapid recovery. It is a kind of operation method that can be popularized.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Bone Wires , Forearm , Altitude , Treatment Outcome , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Radius Fractures/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods
8.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 447-451, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981613

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis, and treatment methods of finger flexion contracture caused by three kinds of forearm flexor diseases.@*METHODS@#Between December 2008 and August 2021, 17 patients with finger flexion contracture were treated, including 8 males and 9 females, aged 5-42 years, with a median of 16 years. The disease duration ranged from 1.5 months to 30 years, with a median of 13 years. The etiology included 6 cases of Volkmann's contracture, all of which were flexion deformity of the 2nd to 5th fingers, accompanied by limitation of thumb dorsiflexion in 3 cases and limitation of wrist dorsiflexion in 3 cases; 3 cases of pseudo-Volkmann's contracture, including 2 cases of flexion deformity of middle, ring, and little fingers, and 1 case of flexion deformity of ring and little fingers; 8 cases of ulnar finger flexion contracture caused by forearm flexor disease or anatomical variations, all of which were flexion deformity of middle, ring, and little fingers. Operations such as slide of flexor and pronator teres origin, excision of abnormal fibrous cord and bony prominence, and release of entrapped muscle (tendon) were performed. Hand function was evaluated according to WANG Haihua's hand function rating standard or modified Buck-Gramcko classification standard, and muscle strength was evaluated according to British Medical Research Council (MRC) muscle strength rating standard.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up 1-10 years (median, 1.5 years). At last follow-up, 8 patients with contracture caused by forearm flexor disease or anatomical variations and 3 patients with pseudo-Volkmann's contracture achieved excellent hand function, with muscle strength of grade M5 in 6 cases and grade M4 in 5 cases. One patient with mild Volkmann's contracture and 3 patients with moderate Volkmann's contracture without severe nerve damage had excellent hand function in 2 cases and good in 2 cases, with muscle strength of grade M5 in 1 case and grade M4 in 3 cases. Two patients with moderate or severe Volkmann's contracture had poor hand function, with 1 case of muscle strength of grade M3 and 1 case of grade M2, which improved when compared with those before operation. The overall excellent and good rate of hand function and the proportion of patients with muscle strength of grade M4 and above were 88.2% (15/17), respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The finger flexion contracture caused by different etiology can be differentiated by analyzing the history, physical examination, radiographs, and intraoperative findings. After different surgical treatments, such as resection of contracture band, release of compressed muscle (tendon), and downward movement of flexor origin, most patients have a good outcome.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Forearm/surgery , Contracture/surgery , Ischemic Contracture/surgery , Fingers/surgery , Muscle, Skeletal/surgery
9.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 436-439, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981288

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical value of high-frequency ultrasound in the diagnosis of pronator teres syndrome (PTS). Methods The high-frequency ultrasound was employed to examine and measure the median nerve of the pronator teres muscle in 30 patients with PTS and 30 healthy volunteers (control group).The long-axis diameter (LA),short-axis diameter (SA) and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve were measured.The receiver operating characteristic curve of the median nerve ultrasonic measurement results was established,and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated.The diagnostic efficiency of each index for PTS was compared with the surgical results as a reference. Results The PTS group showed larger LA[(5.02±0.50) mm vs.(3.89±0.41) mm;t=4.38,P=0.013],SA[(2.55±0.46) mm vs.(1.70±0.41) mm;t=5.19,P=0.009],and CSA[(11.13±3.72) mm2 vs.(6.88±2.68) mm2;t=8.42,P=0.008] of the median nerve than the control group.The AUC of CSA,SA,and LA was 94.3% (95%CI=0.912-0.972,Z=3.586,P=0.001),77.7% (95%CI=0.734-0.815,Z=2.855, P=0.006),and 78.8% (95%CI=0.752-0.821,Z=3.091,P=0.004),respectively.With 8.63 mm2 as the cutoff value,the sensitivity and specificity of CSA in diagnosing PTS were 93.3% and 90.0%,respectively. Conclusion High-frequency ultrasound is a practical method for diagnosing PTS,and the CSA of median nerve has a high diagnostic value.


Subject(s)
Humans , Forearm/innervation , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Median Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Rev. argent. cir. plást ; 28(2): 75-80, 20220000. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1413535

ABSTRACT

El colgajo antebraquial anterior es una excelente área dadora para transferir tejido. A lo largo de los años el colgajo antebraquial libre ha tomado fuerza dado que proporciona la cantidad de tejido a donar, su localización y, por sobre todo, la facilidad de disección, que se necesita para cubrir diferentes defectos en todo el cuerpo. Además, debe optimizar los resultados funcionales y estéticos. El sitio receptor debe cumplir en la medida de lo posible, utilizando colgajos con características similares, restablecer la integridad estructural o la función. Material y métodos. Se han realizado desde marzo 2021 a marzo del corriente año un total de 26 colgajos antebraquial libre. Los pacientes de esta serie fueron 80% hombres y 20% mujeres con un rango de edad de 25 a 73 años. Se utilizó tanto para patologías oncológicas, traumáticas e incluso colgajo de elección en pacientes trans para la creación del falo. Se tuvo en cuenta la utilización de la mano no hábil del paciente para así disminuir los riesgos de secuelas funcionales. Este colgajo aporta buen volumen de isla de piel, su pedículo es constante y confiable. La disección del colgajo, en manos entrenadas, acorta los tiempos quirúrgicos y demostró ser útil en muchísimas zonas receptoras del cuerpo. Resultados. Se logró el aporte de tejido necesario en todas las patologías a tratar, utilizando como zonas receptoras diferentes tipos de pedículos. También se logró un buen resultado tanto estético como funcional, volviendo a dar al paciente una calidad de vida aceptable. Conclusiones. El colgajo antebraquial libre ha demostrado ser útil en diversas patologías a tratar. Buen tegumento, su disección es fácil y accesible para cirujanos reconstructivos que recién comienzan su formación así como para cirujanos ya entrenados. Consta de un pedículo confiable con buen diámetro y longitud, lo cual lo hace aún más verídico para contar como primera opción cuando se lo necesita como colgajo libre.


The anterior antebrachial flap is an excellent donor area for tissue transfer. Over the years the free antebrachial flap has gained strength since it provides the amount of tissue to donate, its location and above all the ease of dissection, which is needed to cover different defects throughout the body. It must also optimize functional and aesthetic results. The receiving site should comply as far as possible, using flaps with similar characteristics, restore structural integrity or function


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Surgical Flaps , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Free Tissue Flaps/surgery , Forearm , Hand
13.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 192-196, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935201

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effect of trifoliate flap design of radial forearm flap in reconstruction of defects after mouth floor cancer resection. Methods: From June 2016 to December 2019, 12 patients with defect after resection of mouth floor cancer were treated with trifoliate flap design of radial forearm flap. All of these patients were T2 stage, included 9 well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 3 moderate differentiated SCC. The defect size ranged from 8.0 cm×6.0 cm to 5.0 cm×4.5 cm after resection of tumor and neck dissection. All defects were repaired with trifoliate flap design of radial forearm flap. The flap size ranged from 8.0 cm×2.0 cm to 4.0 cm×1.5 cm, the donor site was sutured directly on Z plasty. Results: All flaps completely survived well. Both the wound and the donor site were stage Ⅰ healing. With the average follow-up of 38.6 months, the swallowing and speech function were satisfactory. Conclusions: Trifoliate flap design of radial forearm flap can effectively repair the postoperative defect of mouth floor cancer, and the donor site can be directly sutured on Z plasty. This technique can avoid forearm scar caused by skin grafting and the formation of the second donor site.


Subject(s)
Humans , Forearm/surgery , Mouth Floor , Neoplasms , Plastic Surgery Procedures/methods , Skin Transplantation , Surgical Flaps , Treatment Outcome
14.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 77-82, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928472

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Secondary displacement represents a frequent complication of conservative treatment of fractures, particularly of the distal radius. The gap space between skin and cast may lead to a certain degree movements and this increased mobility might favor redisplacement. The aim of this study was to develop a new 3D method, to measure the gap space in all 3 geometrical planes, and to validate this new technique in a clinical setting of distal radius fractures.@*METHODS@#This study applies 3D imaging to measure the space between plaster and skin as a potential factor of secondary displacement and therefore the failure of conservative treatment. We developed and validated a new methodology to analyze and compare different forearm casts made of plaster of Paris and fiberglass. An unpaired t-test was performed to document differences between the investigated parameters between plaster of Paris and fiberglass casts. The significance level was set at p < 0.05.@*RESULTS@#In a series of 15 cases, we found the width of the gap space to average 4 mm, being slightly inferior on the radial side. Comparing the two different casting materials, plaster of Paris and fiberglass, we found a significantly larger variance of space under casts made of the first material (p=0.39). A roughness analysis showed also a markedly significantly higher irregularity of the undersurface of plaster of Paris as compared with fiberglass.@*CONCLUSION@#This study allows for a better understanding of the nature of the "gap space" between cast and skin and will contribute to develop and improve new immobilization techniques and materials.


Subject(s)
Humans , Casts, Surgical , Forearm , Radius , Radius Fractures/therapy , Wrist Joint
15.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 49-53, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928265

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of suture of pronator muscle on forearm function after modified Henry approach for distal radius fractures.@*METHODS@#from January 2018 to December 2020, 220 patients with distal radius fractures were treated with open reduction and locking plate internal fixation through the modified Henry approach. They were divided into two groups according to different suture methods. There were 112 cases in the intraoperative suture group, including 35 males and 77 females;The age ranged from 37 to 65(48.5±7.4) years;AO classification of fracture, 46 cases of type B and 66 cases of type C;After fracture reduction and locking plate fixation, the pronator muscle was opened and sutured. There were 108 cases in the non suture group, 32 males and 76 females;The age ranged from 34 to 67(47.6±7.8) years;There were 41 cases of fracture type B and 67 cases of fracture type C;After fracture reduction and locking plate fixation, the open pronator muscle was not sutured, and it was laid on the surface of the plate in situ. The range of wrist motion (pronation, supination, palmar inclination and dorsiflexion), the score of disability of arm shoulder and hand dash and visual analog scale(VAS) were compared between the two groups at 6 weeks and 6 months after operation.@*RESULTS@#All 220 patients were followed up for 6 to 18 (8.5±1.3) months. There was no significant difference in the range of motion and DASH score of forearm and wrist between the two groups 6 weeks after operation (P>0.05);There was significant difference in VAS score between suture group (2.6±1.2) and non suture group (5.8±2.3)(P<0.05). Six months after operation, there was no significant difference in the range of motion, DASH score and VAS score of forearm and wrist between the two groups(P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The modified Henry approach has no obvious advantages in the range of wrist movement and upper limb function, but the intraoperative suture of pronator can reduce the early postoperative pain. It is suggested that the pronator should be sutured during the operation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bone Plates , Forearm , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Muscle, Skeletal/surgery , Radius Fractures/surgery , Range of Motion, Articular , Sutures , Treatment Outcome
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(6): 721-725, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355630

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cast immobilization is used in the management of various injuries of joints and/or limbs. A variety of nail disorders have been reported in association with cast immobilization of the forearm and wrist among a limited number of patients so far. The mechanism was not clearly identified in some of these cases. Here, the authors report two patients with nail disorders appeared after the removal of immobilization cast of forearm and wrist and review the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Forearm , Nail Diseases/etiology , Wrist , Immobilization/adverse effects
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(6): 1769-1775, dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385545

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El nervio interóseo posterior (NIP) ha sido utilizado como sinónimo ocontinuación inmediata del ramo profundo del nervio radial (RPNR) al emerger en el compartimiento posterior del antebrazo. Su origen tampoco es claro, describiéndose como nervio interóseo posterior a su trayecto proximal, intermedio o distal al músculo supinador. El objetivo de esta revisión es detallar la visión de diversos autores respecto al origen y trayecto del NIP, proponiendo una correcta terminología para estas estructuras. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de varios textos y de algunos artículos utilizados para la enseñanza de la anatomía humana, publicados entre los años 1800 y la actualidad. En la búsqueda, se determinaron criterios de inclusión que consideraban, anatomía humana, escritos en español, francés o inglés y que aludieran al NIP. Tras la exploración inicial se localizaron 18 libros, procedentes de Francia, Rusia, España, Argentina, Estados Unidos, Canadá, Reino Unido, Alemania, India y México. Una descripción del NIP más precisa, en cuanto al origen, trayecto y función, es aquella postulada por la vertiente francesa, correspondiendo a un origen terminal del ramo profundo del nervio radial, luego de emitir sus ramos musculares. Este delgado nervio transcurre adosado a la membrana interósea para luego avanzar por el cuarto compartimiento extensor, distribuyéndose en las articulaciones dorsales del carpo a quienes inerva sensitiva y propioceptivamente.


SUMMARY: The posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) has been used as a synonym or immediate continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve as it emerges in the posterior compartment of the forearm. Its origin is not clear either, being described as a posterior interosseous nerve to its proximal, intermediate or distal path to the supinator muscle. The objective of this review is to detail the vision of various authors regarding the origin and path of the PIN, proposing a correct terminology for these structures. A bibliographic review of several texts and some articles used for the teaching of human anatomy, published between the 1800s and the present day, was carried out. In the search, inclusion criteria were determined that considered human anatomy, written in Spanish, French or English and that alluded to the PIN. After the initial exploration, 18 books were located, coming from France, Russia, Spain, Argentina, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, India and Mexico. A more precise description of the PIN, in terms of origin, path and function, is that postulated by the French literature, corresponding to a terminal origin of the deep branch of the radial nerve, after emitting its muscular branches. This thin nerve runs attached to the interosseous membrane to then advance through the fourth extensor compartment, distributing itself in the dorsal carpal joints to which it innervates sensitively and proprioceptively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peripheral Nerves/anatomy & histology , Forearm/innervation
18.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(2): 152-158, 15/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362205

ABSTRACT

There are four types of anastomoses between themedian and ulnar nerves in the upper limbs. It consists of crossings of axons that produce changes in the innervation of the upper limbs, mainly in the intrinsic muscles of the hand. The forearm has two anatomical changes ­ Martin-Gruber: branch originating close to the median nerve joining distally to the ulnar nerve; and Marinacci: branch originating close to the ulnar nerve and distally joining the median nerve. The hand also has two types of anastomoses, which are more common, and sometimes considered a normal anatomical pattern ­ Berrettini: Connection between the common digital nerves of the ulnar and median nerves; and Riche-Cannieu: anastomosis between the recurrent branch of the median nerve and the deep branch of the ulnar nerve. Due to these connection patterns, musculoskeletal disorders and neuropathies can be misinterpreted, and nerve injuries during surgery may occur, without the knowledge of these anastomoses. Therefore, knowledge of them is essential for the clinical practice. The purpose of the present review is to provide important information about each type of anastomosis of the median and ulnar nerves in the forearm and hand.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Anastomosis/anatomy & histology , Ulnar Nerve/anatomy & histology , Median Nerve/anatomy & histology , Axons , Hand Joints/innervation , Forearm/innervation
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(3): 705-709, jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385388

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Las venas superficiales de la fosa cubital se han estudiado con varios fines, venopunciones, cateterismos, fístulas, entre otros. Se han descrito varios patrones venosos en esta región en diferentes poblaciones. En uno de estos la vena cefálica termina en la vena basílica a nivel del antebrazo generando posibles riesgos de lesiones durante la canalización. En el presente estudio se evaluaron 200 miembros superiores de 100 personas colombianas, 50 mujeres y 50 hombres, 70 de ellas nacidas en la ciudad de Bucaramanga y 30 en la ciudad de Villavicencio. Se registró el número de venas cefálicas y su sitio de terminación, en el brazo o antebrazo. El patrón venoso que predominó en ambos miembros superiores fue el tipo I. El patrón IV en el cual la vena cefálica termina en la vena basílica se presentó en 12 casos (6 %) en el miembro superior derecho y en 17 casos (8,5 %) en el miembro superior izquierdo. Se encontró dos venas cefálicas entre el 13 % y 13,5 % dependiendo del lado y tres venas cefálicas entre el 1 % y 2 %. Conocer esta particularidad de los patrones venosos podría disminuir el riesgo de complicaciones durante la venopunción.


SUMMARY: The superficial veins of the ulnar fossa have been studied for various purposes, venipuncture, catheterization, fistulae, among others. Various venous patterns have been described in this region in different populations. In one of these, the cephalic vein ends in the basilic vein at the level of the forearm, generating possible risks of injury during cannulation. In the present study, 200 upper limbs of 100 Colombians, 50 women and 50 men, were evaluated, 70 of them born in the city of Bucaramanga and 30 in the city of Villavicencio. The number of cephalic veins and their termination site, on the arm or forearm, were recorded. The venous pattern that predominated in both upper limbs was type I. Pattern IV in which the cephalic vein ends in the basilic vein occurred in 12 cases (6 %) in the right upper limb and in 17 cases (8.5 %) in the left upper limb. Two cephalic veins were found between 13 % and 13.5 % depending on the side and three cephalic veins between 1 % and 2 %. Knowing this particularity of venous patterns could reduce the risk of complications during venipuncture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Veins/anatomy & histology , Forearm/blood supply , Colombia
20.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 1158-1163, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942593

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the clinical application results of the FPTF (free posterior tibial artery perforator flap) and RFFF (radial forearm free flap) for reconstruction of head and neck defects. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 27 cases treated with FPTF (19 males and 8 females, aged 14-69 years) and 24 cases with RFFF (11 males and 13 females, aged 22-69 years) for head and neck defect reconstruction at Beijing Tongren Hospital of Capital Medical University from January 2015 to December 2020 was conducted. Flap size, vascular pedicle length, matching degree of recipient area blood vessels, preparation time, total operation time, hospital stay, recipient area complications, donor area complications and scale-based patient satisfaction were compared between two groups of patients with FTPF and RFFF. SPSS 26.0 statistical software was used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups of patients in tumor T staging (P=0.38), primary sites (P=0.05) and mean flap areas ((53.67±29.84) cm2 vs. (41.13±11.08) cm2, t=-1.472, P=0.14). However the mean vascular pedicle length of FPTF was more than that of RFFF ((11.15±2.48)cm vs. (8.50±1.69)cm, t=-4.071, P<0.01). The donor sites of 4 patients in FPTF group could be sutured directly, while all the 24 patients in RFFF group received skin grafts from the donor sites. There was no statistically significant difference in the recipient area arteries between two groups of flaps (P=0.10), with more commonly using of the facial artery (RFFF: FPTF=21∶27), but there was significant difference in the recipient area veins (P<0.01), with more commonly using of the external jugular vein in RFFF (14/24) than FPTF (4/32) and the posterior facial vein in FPTF (27/32) than RFFF (9/24). There were 10 recipient complications and 3 donor complications in RFFF group; no recipient complication and 3 donor complications occurred in FPTF group. With patient's subjective evaluation of the donor site at 12 months after surgery, FPTF was better than RFFF (χ²=22.241, P<0.01). Conclusions: FPTF is an alternative to RFFF in head and neck reconstruction and has unique advantages in aesthetics and clinical application.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Forearm/surgery , Free Tissue Flaps , Perforator Flap , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Skin Transplantation , Tibial Arteries/surgery
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