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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2)Maio-Ago. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424869

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a predição de suicídios entre adolescentes a partir da última década pré-pandêmica em Mato Grosso. Método: trata-se de estudo ecológico e retrospectivo. A coleta de dados ocorreu em janeiro de 2021, referente ao recorte temporal de 2009 a 2019. Utilizou-se dados secundários do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade via Secretaria Estadual de Saúde de Mato Grosso. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se o programa STATA 14.0. Resultados: a predição de suicídios entre os adolescentes de Mato Grosso revelou predominância do sexo masculino, cor não branca e com oito anos ou mais de escolaridade. Os suicídios em Mato Grosso apresentam estabilidade em relação ao sexo. Quanto a cor, o Centro-Oeste possui maior disparidade quando comparado ao Mato Grosso. Todavia, ambos exibem comportamentos epidemiológicos semelhantes na escolaridade. Conclusão: a partir da última década pré- pandêmica, previu o crescimento de casos de suicídios entre adolescentes em Mato Grosso, e que não se assemelha à totalidade do perfil esperado para a região Centro-Oeste.


Objective: to analyze the prediction of suicides among adolescents from the last pre-pandemic decade in Mato Grosso. Method: this is an ecological and retrospective study. Data collection took place in January 2021, referring to the time frame from 2009 to 2019. Secondary data from the Mortality Information System via the Mato Grosso State Health Department were used. For data analysis, the STATA 14.0 program was used. Results: the prediction of suicides among adolescents in Mato Grosso revealed a predominance of males, non-white and with eight or more years of schooling. Suicides in Mato Grosso show stability in relation to gender. As for color, the Midwest has greater disparity when compared to Mato Grosso. However, both exhibit similar epidemiological behavior in schooling. Conclusion: from the last pre-pandemic decade, it predicted the growth of suicide cases among adolescents in Mato Grosso, which does not resemble the entire profile expected for the Midwest region.


Objetivo: analizar la predicción de suicidios entre adolescentes de la última década pre-pandemia en Mato Grosso. Método: se trata de un estudio ecológico y retrospectivo. La recolección de datos ocurrió en enero de 2021, con referencia al período de 2009 a 2019. Se utilizaron datos secundarios del Sistema de Información de Mortalidad a través de la Secretaría de Estado de Salud de Mato Grosso. Para el análisis de datos se utilizó el programa STATA 14.0. Resultados: la predicción de suicidios entre los adolescentes de Mato Grosso reveló un predominio del sexo masculino, no blancos y con ocho o más años de escolaridad. Suicidios en Mato Grosso muestran estabilidad en relación al género. En cuanto al color, el Centro-Oeste tiene mayor disparidad en comparación con Mato Grosso. Sin embargo, ambos exhiben un comportamiento epidemiológico similar en la escolaridad. Conclusión: a partir de la última década previa a la pandemia, se predijo el crecimiento de los casos de suicidio entre los adolescentes de Mato Grosso, lo que no se asemeja a todo el perfil esperado para la región del Centro- Oeste.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Suicide/ethnology , Suicide/psychology , Mental Health , Mental Health/ethnology , Adolescent Behavior/ethnology , Students , Health Profile , Forecasting
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535453

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los métodos de aprendizaje automático permiten manejar datos estructurados y no estructurados para construir modelos predictivos y apoyar la toma de decisiones. Objetivo: Identificar los métodos de aprendizaje automático aplicados para predecir el comportamiento epidemiológico de enfermedades arbovirales utilizando datos de vigilancia epidemiológica. Metodología: Se realizó búsqueda en EMBASE y PubMed, análisis bibliométrico y síntesis de la información. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 41 documentos, todos publicados en la última década. La palabra clave más frecuente fue dengue. La mayoría de los autores (88,3 %) participó en un artículo de investigación. Se encontraron 16 métodos de aprendizaje automático, el más frecuente fue Red Neuronal Artificial, seguido de Máquinas de Vectores de Soporte. Conclusiones: En la última década se incrementó la publicación de trabajos que pretenden predecir el comportamiento epidemiológico de arbovirosis por medio de diversos métodos de aprendizaje automático que incorporan series de tiempo de los casos, variables climatológicas, y otras fuentes de información de datos abiertos.


Introduction: Machine learning methods allow to manipulate structured and unstructured data to build predictive models and support decision-making. Objective: To identify machine learning methods applied to predict the epidemiological behavior of vector-borne diseases using epidemiological surveillance data. Methodology: A literature search in EMBASE and PubMed, bibliometric analysis, and information synthesis were performed. Results: A total of 41 papers were selected, all of them were published in the last decade. The most frequent keyword was dengue. Most authors (88.3 %) participated in a research article. Sixteen machine learning methods were found, the most frequent being Artificial Neural Network, followed by Support Vector Machines. Conclusions: In the last decade there has been an increase in the number of articles that aim to predict the epidemiological behavior of vector-borne diseases using by means of various machine learning methods that incorporate time series of cases, climatological variables, and other sources of open data information.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arbovirus Infections , Review , Public Health Surveillance , Bibliometrics , Machine Learning , Forecasting
3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1536340

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En Cuba y en el resto del mundo, las enfermedades cardiovasculares son reconocidas como un problema de salud pública mayúsculo y creciente, que provoca una alta mortalidad. Objetivo: Diseñar un modelo predictivo para estimar el riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular basado en técnicas de inteligencia artificial. Métodos: La fuente de datos fue una cohorte prospectiva que incluyó 1633 pacientes, seguidos durante 10 años, fue utilizada la herramienta de minería de datos Weka, se emplearon técnicas de selección de atributos para obtener un subconjunto más reducido de variables significativas, para generar los modelos fueron aplicados: el algoritmo de reglas JRip y el meta algoritmo Attribute Selected Classifier, usando como clasificadores el J48 y el Multilayer Perceptron. Se compararon los modelos obtenidos y se aplicaron las métricas más usadas para clases desbalanceadas. Resultados: El atributo más significativo fue el antecedente de hipertensión arterial, seguido por el colesterol de lipoproteínas de alta densidad y de baja densidad, la proteína c reactiva de alta sensibilidad y la tensión arterial sistólica, de estos atributos se derivaron todas las reglas de predicción, los algoritmos fueron efectivos para generar el modelo, el mejor desempeño fue con el Multilayer Perceptron, con una tasa de verdaderos positivos del 95,2 por ciento un área bajo la curva ROC de 0,987 en la validación cruzada. Conclusiones: Fue diseñado un modelo predictivo mediante técnicas de inteligencia artificial, lo que constituye un valioso recurso orientado a la prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares en la atención primaria de salud(AU)


Introduction: In Cuba and in the rest of the world, cardiovascular diseases are recognized as a major and growing public health problem, which causes high mortality. Objective: To design a predictive model to estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease based on artificial intelligence techniques. Methods: The data source was a prospective cohort including 1633 patients, followed for 10 years. The data mining tool Weka was used and attribute selection techniques were employed to obtain a smaller subset of significant variables. To generate the models, the rule algorithm JRip and the meta-algorithm Attribute Selected Classifier were applied, using J48 and Multilayer Perceptron as classifiers. The obtained models were compared and the most used metrics for unbalanced classes were applied. Results: The most significant attribute was history of arterial hypertension, followed by high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high sensitivity c-reactive protein and systolic blood pressure; all the prediction rules were derived from these attributes. The algorithms were effective to generate the model. The best performance was obtained using the Multilayer Perceptron, with a true positive rate of 95.2percent and an area under the ROC curve of 0.987 in the cross validation. Conclusions: A predictive model was designed using artificial intelligence techniques; it is a valuable resource oriented to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in primary health care(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care , Artificial Intelligence , Prospective Studies , Data Mining/methods , Forecasting/methods , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Cuba
4.
Medisan ; 27(4)ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1514564

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La escala de riesgo diseñada para estimar la probabilidad de parto pretérmino con enfoque periodontal debe ser validada antes de su implementación en la práctica clínica. Objetivo: Diseñar y validar una escala de riesgo de parto pretérmino con enfoque periodontal. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico, de casos y controles, de 1152 puérperas ingresadas en los hospitales maternos de la provincia de Santiago de Cuba en el período 2011-2022, para lo cual fueron seleccionadas 2 muestras: una de construcción del modelo (n=750) y otra de validación de la escala (n=402). Se determinaron los posibles predictores a través del análisis univariado y el cálculo del odds ratio, con un nivel de significación de p≤0,05; asimismo, se elaboró un modelo de regresión logística binaria multivariada y se obtuvo la escala de riesgo que fue validada por diferentes métodos. Resultados: La escala se obtuvo con 7 predictores y 2 estratos de riesgo. Esta alcanzó buena discriminación (80 %), así como buen nivel de ajuste y validez de constructo (p=0,72). Igualmente, aseguró una predicción correcta de más de 50 % de los partos pretérmino, valores de sensibilidad y especificidad aceptables (79,20 y 70,20 %, respectivamente), así como validez de contenido, validez interna y confiabilidad adecuadas. Conclusiones: La escala de riesgo para estratificar el riesgo de parto pretérmino incluye predictores de gravedad de la enfermedad periodontal, con buenos parámetros de validación para ser usada en la toma de decisiones para prevenir este tipo de parto.


Introduction: The risk scale designed to estimate the probability of preterm birth with periodontal approach should be validated before its implementation in the clinical practice. Objective: To design and validate a risk scale of preterm birth with periodontal approach. Methods: A cases and controls analytic study of 1152 newly-delivered women admitted to maternal hospitals in Santiago de Cuba province was carried out in the period 2011 - 2022, and 2 samples were selected: one of pattern construction (n=750) and another of scale validation(n=402). The possible predictors were determined through the single varied analysis and odds ratio calculation, with a significance level of p≤0.05; also, a multivariate binary logistical regression model was elaborated and the risk scale was obtained, which was validated by different methods. Results: The scale was obtained with 7 predictors and 2 risk stratum. It reached a good discrimination (80%), as well as a good adjustment level and construction validity (p=0.72). Likewise, it assured a correct prediction of more than 50% of preterm births, acceptable sensibility and specificity values (79.20 and 70.20%, respectively), as well as adequate content validity, internal validity and reliability. Conclusions: The risk scale to stratify the risk of preterm birth includes predictors of periodontal disease severity, with good validation parameters to be used in the decisions making to prevent this type of childbirth.


Subject(s)
Forecasting
5.
Rev. cuba. med ; 62(2)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1530122

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Un aneurisma intracraneal roto provoca una hemorragia subaracnoidea. La enfermedad presenta una alta mortalidad y morbilidad. Sin embargo, no todos se rompen. Mejorar la predicción de rotura permitirá un tratamiento quirúrgico preventivo en un grupo de pacientes y evitará una intervención quirúrgica con riesgos en otro grupo de enfermos. Es necesario identificar factores predictivos para mejorar la estratificación del riesgo de rotura y optimizar el tratamiento de los aneurismas intracraneales incidentales. Objetivo: Identificar factores predictivos de rotura de aneurismas intracraneales. Métodos: En una muestra de 152 pacientes espirituanos con aneurismas intracraneales saculares rotos (n = 138) y no rotos (n = 22) y 160 imágenes de angiografía por tomografía computarizada, se realizaron mensuraciones de los índices o factores morfológicos, los cuales se combinaron mediante análisis de regresión logística con variables demográficas y clínicas. Resultados: El grupo de edad con mayor frecuencia de presentación de aneurismas fue el de mayor de 65 años. La muestra estuvo representada, en su gran mayoría, por el sexo femenino. Se identificaron tres factores clínicos y cuatro factores morfológicos estadísticamente significativos, asociados con la rotura. El índice de no esfericidad (p = 0,002 y el sexo femenino (p = 0,02) fueron los de mayor significación estadística. Conclusiones: Se detectaron siete factores predictivos de rotura de aneurismas intracraneales estadísticamente significativos, de los cuales el índice de no esfericidad resultó el de mayor significación(AU)


Introduction: A ruptured intracranial aneurysm causes a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The disease has high mortality and morbidity. However, not all of them break. Improving the rupture prediction will allow preventive surgical treatment in a group of patients and it will avoid risky surgical intervention in another group of patients. It is necessary to identify predictive factors to improve rupture risk stratification and to optimize treatment of incidental intracranial aneurysms. Objective: To identify rupture predictive factors for intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Measurements of the morphological indices or factors were performed in a sample of 152 patients from Sancti Spiritus with ruptured (n = 138) and unruptured (n = 22) saccular intracranial aneurysms and 160 computed tomography angiography images. They were combined using logistic regression analysis with demographic and clinical variables. Results: The age group with the highest frequency of aneurysm presentation was older than 65. The sample was represented, in its vast majority, by the female sex. Three clinical factors and four statistically significant morphological factors associated with rupture were identified. The non-sphericity index (p = 0.002) and the female sex (p = 0.02) were the most statistically significant. Conclusions: Seven statistically significant predictors of intracranial aneurysm rupture were detected, the non-sphericity index being the most significant(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Logistic Models , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Forecasting/methods
6.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 42(1): 23-30, abr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441373

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En nuestro medio, el implante percutáneo de prótesis aórtica (TAVI) se encuentra limitado a pacientes más añosos o de mayor riesgo quirúrgico, en quienes frecuentemente se retarda la intervención hasta que presenten signos avanzados de enfermedad. Objetivo: Evaluar el grado de compromiso miocárdico en pacientes sometidos a TAVI y determinar si la magnitud de este compromiso predice los resultados alejados del procedimiento. Métodos: Registro de pacientes sometidos a TAVI en 2 instituciones de Chile. Según la clasificación propuesta por Genereux el año 2017, se clasificaron desde el punto de vista ecocardiográfico como: 1) compromiso de ventrículo izquierdo; 2) compromiso de aurícula izquierda; 3) hipertensión pulmonar / insuficiencia tricuspídea significativa y 4) disfunción de ventrículo derecho. Resultados: Se incluyeron 209 pacientes. Se logró un procedimiento exitoso en 98,6%, registrándose una mortalidad intrahospitalaria de 2,9%. El compromiso cardíaco se extendió más allá de las cavidades izquierdas en 24,7% de los casos (estadíos 3 y 4). A una mediana de seguimiento de 650 días se registró una mortalidad de 26,8%. El compromiso de cavidades derechas (estadíos 3 y 4) se asoció a una mayor mortalidad (39,6% vs 22,1%, log rank p=0,015). En análisis multivariado, este compromiso fue el único factor que de forma independiente predijo mortalidad (HR 1,87, IC 1,01-3,44, p=0,044). Conclusiones: El compromiso de cavidades derechas se asocia a una mayor mortalidad alejada en pacientes sometidos a TAVI. Estos resultados debiesen estimular una derivación precoz de estos pacientes que, aunque añosos y de alto riesgo, tienen buenos resultados intervenidos precozmente.


Background: Locally, Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is limited to very old or high-risk patients, whose intervention is frequently delayed until they develop signs of advanced disease. Aim: To evaluate the degree of myocardial compromise in patients undergoing TAVI and to determine whether the level of this compromise can predict results during follow-up. Methods: Registry of TAVI patients from 2 institutions in Chile. According to the classification proposed by Genereux in 2017, patients were classified based on the echocardiogram as 1) left ventricular compromise; 2) left atrial compromise; 3) pulmonary hypertension / severe tricuspid regurgitation; 4) right ventricular dysfunction. Results: The study included 209 patients. A successful procedure was achieved in 98.6% of cases, with an in-hospital mortality of 2.9%. Cardiac compromise extended beyond left chambers in 24.7% of cases (stages 3 and 4). During follow-up (median of 650 days) mortality was 26.8%. Right chambers involvement (stages 3 and 4) was associated with increased mortality (39.6% vs 22.1%, log rank p=0.015). In multivariate analysis, this compromise was the only factor that independently predicted mortality (HR 1.87, IC 1.01-3.44, p=0,044). Conclusions: Right chambers involvement was associated to increased mortality during follow-up of patients undergoing TAVI. These results should stimulate earlier referral of these high risk and older patients in order to obtain better results following the intervention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Aortic Valve Stenosis/mortality , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/adverse effects , Aortic Valve Stenosis/classification , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency , Severity of Illness Index , Echocardiography , Survival Analysis , Multivariate Analysis , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Mortality , Forecasting , Myocardium/pathology
7.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(1): 51-56, ene.-mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429574

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: El diagnóstico oportuno del trastorno neurocognitivo es de los principales retos en la atención de los trastornos neurocognitivos. Por esto, se han generado estrategias para la detección preclínica de la enfermedad, entre ellas las destinadas a evaluar síntomas neuropsiquiátricos (NPS) como la escala Mild Behavior Impairment - Checklist (MBI-C). MÉTODOS: Inicialmente se realizó una búsqueda en BVSalud, Medline y PsycNet, luego se realizó una búsqueda en bola de nieve. Se incluyeron términos referentes a deterioro comportamental leve (abarcando los NPS en etapas tempranas), deterioro cognitivo leve y términos específicos del MBI-C. RESULTADOS: La presencia de NPS se asocia con un aumento en la incidencia anual de demencia. Al evaluarlos con MBI-C, su puntuación se correlaciona con biomarcadores como una mayor atrofia cortical, la presencia de la proteína β-amiloide, así como disminución en funciones ejecutivas como la capacidad de enfocar la atención y la memoria de trabajo. DISCUSIÓN: Los hallazgos en la literatura sugieren la utilidad de MBI-C como marcador de neurodegeneración en estadios previos a la demencia, esto mediante la evaluación de su capacidad predictiva de forma independiente y al compararla con otros biomarcadores. CONCLUSIONES: MBI-C supone ser un instrumento de fácil aplicabilidad e interpretación, sostenible e incluyente. Sin embargo, quedan vacíos sobre la pertinencia de esta escala, por lo que surge la necesidad de investigar este tema.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of neurocognitive disorder is the main challenge of dementia health attention. Therefore, strategies for preclinical detection of the disease have been created, like those intended to evaluate neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), like the Mild Behavior Impairment - Checklist (MBI-C). METHODS: Research was performed in BVSalud, Medline, and Psynet. Then a snowball sampling was done. The terms included were mild behavioral impairment (included NPS in initial stages), mild cognitive impairment, and specific terms of MBI-C. RESULTS: The presence of NPS increase the incidence of dementia, with an annual conversion rate of 9%. About MBI-C, the score has been related to biomarkers like worse brain atrophy in patients with Parkinson's Disease and a positive relationship with the presence of B-amyloid protein. Also, Creese and cols. show that mild behavioral impairment (measured by MBI-C) is associated with a faster decrease in attention and working memory. DISCUSSION: MBI-C utility as a neurodegenerative marker has been demonstrated to detect cognitive, neuropsychiatry, and functional symptoms that may precede dementia by evaluating its predictive capacity alone and comparing it to other biomarkers. CONCLUSION: MBI-C is easy to apply and interpret, is sustainable and inclusive. However, there are still gaps in the relevance of the scale, so there is the need to continue investigating this topic.


Subject(s)
Behavioral Symptoms , Dementia , Cognitive Dysfunction , Signs and Symptoms , Neuropsychiatry , Forecasting
8.
ABCS health sci ; 48: e023214, 14 fev. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1516672

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTIONn: Historically, complications of HIV infection have been related to admissions to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Despite therapeutic advances, the results of the analysis of prognostic factors in patients with HIV/AIDS have varied, including late diagnosis and failure to adhere to antiretroviral treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictors of short-term mortality in HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU, as well as their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study including patients admitted to the ICU of a teaching hospital from 2003 through 2012. Data were collected from medical records after the Institutional Review Board approval. RESULTS: 148 HIV-infected patients were identified and 131 were eligible. Among included patients, 42.75% were HIV new diagnoses and 5.34% had no information about the time of diagnosis. The main reasons for admission to the ICU were respiratory failure and sepsis while mortality was 70.23% between 2003 and 2012. Among the risk factors for mortality were low albumin, high APACHE, low CD4+ T lymphocyte count, and not using antiretroviral therapy. CONCLUSION: Despite the availability of diagnosis and treatment for HIV-infected individuals, the number of new cases of advanced Aids diagnosed in high-complexity services such as ICU is high, as well as the non-use of combination antiretroviral therapy. It is necessary to strengthen anti-HIV screening to detect and treat more cases in the early stages.


INTRODUÇÃO: Historicamente, as complicações da infecção pelo HIV estavam relacionadas às internações em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Apesar dos avanços terapêuticos, os fatores prognósticos em pacientes com HIV/AIDS têm variado, incluindo diagnóstico tardio e não adesão ao tratamento antirretroviral. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores preditores de mortalidade a curto prazo em pacientes infectados pelo HIV internados em UTI, bem como suas características sociodemográficas e clínicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo incluindo pacientes internados na UTI de um hospital universitário entre 2003 a 2012. Os dados foram coletados dos prontuários médicos após a aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa com Seres Humanos. RESULTADOS: 148 pacientes infectados pelo HIV foram identificados e 131 eram elegíveis. Entre os pacientes incluídos, 42,75% possuíam diagnósticos recente de HIV e 5,34% não possuíam informação sobre o momento do diagnóstico. Os principais motivos de admissão na UTI foram insuficiência respiratória e sepse, enquanto a mortalidade foi 70,23% entre 2003 e 2012. Entre os fatores de risco para mortalidade identificou-se albumina baixa, APACHE alto, baixa contagem de linfócitos T CD4+ e não uso de terapia antirretroviral. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da disponibilidade de diagnóstico e tratamento para indivíduos infectados pelo HIV, é elevado o número de casos novos em estágio avançado de Aids diagnosticados em serviços de alta complexidade, como UTI, e o não uso de terapia antirretroviral combinada. É necessário fortalecer a triagem anti-HIV, bem como aumentar a repetição da testagem anti-HIV para detectar e tratar mais casos em estágios iniciais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Papillomavirus Infections/mortality , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , CD4 Antigens , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , APACHE , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Albumins , Social Determinants of Health , Forecasting , Sociodemographic Factors
9.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 514-518, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986103

ABSTRACT

With the development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology, it has a wide range of explorations in orthodontics. AI has greater application prospects in precise measurement, multidimensional diagnosis, treatment planning and efficacy prediction. At the same time, there are certain limitations in the application of AI, such as risks caused by individual variability, black box properties and unclear delineation of medical responsibilities. This paper summarized the history and current status of AI applications in orthodontics and discussed future development trends, to provide reference for clinical orthodontics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Orthodontics , Dental Care , Forecasting , Delivery of Health Care
10.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e256659, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529213

ABSTRACT

Em 2020, o mundo enfrentou uma grave emergência de saúde pública devido à pandemia de COVID-19, que impactou significativamente a mobilidade humana e a vida cotidiana de milhares de imigrantes ao redor do mundo. Este artigo fez uso de entrevistas online e por telefone com imigrantes que chegaram ao Brasil a partir de 2016, para identificar as estratégias de enfrentamento adotadas durante a pandemia. Foi realizada uma análise transversal das entrevistas com o auxílio do software Atlas.ti 9, usando a técnica sistemática de categorização iterativa. Com base em uma perspectiva sociocultural em psicologia, o artigo introduz os impactos iniciais da pandemia em diferentes esferas da vida cotidiana desses imigrantes e apresenta as estratégias mobilizadas para restaurar continuidades funcionais e relacionais em um momento no qual as rupturas provocadas pela migração e pela pandemia se sobrepõem. Entre outros, podese identificar como os entrevistados ativaram rapidamente as redes sociais locais e transnacionais virtualmente, mobilizando competências e habilidades aprendidas durante a migração.(AU)


In 2020, the world faced a serious public health emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has significantly impacted human mobility and the daily lives of thousands of immigrants around the world. This article uses online and telephone interviews conducted with migrants who arrived in Brazil in 2016, to identify coping strategies employed during the pandemic. A transversal analysis of all interviews was conducted with the aid of the software Atlas.ti 9, using a systematic approach of iterative categorization. From a sociocultural perspective in psychology, the article introduces the initial impacts of the pandemic in different spheres of everyday life of these immigrants. With this everyday context, we present the strategies mobilized by immigrants to restore functional and relational continuities at a moment in which the ruptures caused by migration and the pandemic overlap. In particular, we identify how interviewees rapidly activated local and transnational social networks virtually, mobilizing skills learnt during migration.(AU)


En 2020, el mundo se enfrentó a un grave estado de emergencia en salud pública debido a la pandemia del COVID-19, que impactó significativamente la movilidad humana y la vida cotidiana de miles de inmigrantes en todo el mundo. Este artículo realizó entrevistas en línea y por teléfono con inmigrantes quienes llegaron a Brasil a partir de 2016, con el fin de identificar sus estrategias de afrontamiento adoptadas durante la pandemia. Se realizó un análisis transversal de las entrevistas con la ayuda del software Atlas.ti 9, utilizando la técnica sistemática de categorización iterativa. Desde una perspectiva sociocultural en Psicología, este artículo expone los impactos iniciales de la pandemia en diferentes ámbitos de la vida cotidiana de estos inmigrantes y presenta las estrategias movilizadas para restaurar las continuidades funcionales y relacionales en un momento en que se superponen las rupturas causadas por la migración y la pandemia. Entre otros aspectos, se puede identificar cómo los entrevistados activaron virtualmente las redes sociales locales y transnacionales movilizando habilidades y destrezas aprendidas durante la migración.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adaptation, Psychological , Cultural Characteristics , Emigration and Immigration , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Aptitude , Politics , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Refugees , Safety , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Social Change , Social Desirability , Social Isolation , Social Mobility , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Social Work , Socioeconomic Factors , Unemployment , Viruses , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Brazil , Career Mobility , Economic Development , Quarantine , Communicable Disease Control , Family Characteristics , Adjustment Disorders , Hygiene , Mental Health , Disease Outbreaks , Mortality , Immunization , Population Growth , Universal Precautions , Clinical Competence , Workplace , Interview , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Disease Notification , Refugee Camps , Endemic Diseases , Credentialing , Crisis Intervention , Affective Symptoms , Culture , Terrorism , Capitalism , Internationality , Disasters , Economics , Employment , Environment and Public Health , Job Market , Ethics , Products Distribution , Cultural Competency , Resilience, Psychological , Fear , Economic Recession , Policy , Remuneration , Forecasting , Faith-Based Organizations , Expression of Concern , Right to seek Asylum , Respect , Psychological Distress , Transtheoretical Model , Physical Distancing , Food Insecurity , Social Vulnerability , Disaster Operations , Human Development , Human Rights , Income , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Learning , Leisure Activities , Life Change Events , Loneliness
11.
São Paulo; s.n; 2023. 101 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527305

ABSTRACT

A utilização de algoritmos de inteligência artificial tem crescido rapidamente nos últimos anos, aumentando o seu potencial de aplicação em saúde pública. Algoritmos de machine learning (ML) são capazes de auxiliar na predição de desfechos complexos e na tornada de decisões por parte dos profissionais da área. da. saúde. Esta tese tem como objetivo analisar a capacidade de generalização dos algoritmos na área da saúde e aplicar modelos de ML para predições utilizando dados tabulares frequentemente coletados nos sistemas de saúde. A tese será defendida sob a forma de três artigos científicos. O primeiro artigo realizou uma revisão sistemática da literatura sobre a capacidade de generalização de modelos de ML em saúde. Os resultados indicaram que, apesar de ainda limitada, a literatura sobre generalização em saúde está crescendo nos últimos anos em parte como uma demanda das próprias revistas científicas. O segundo artigo desenvolveu e avaliou a performance da validação externa de um algoritmo de ML no contexto da predição de risco de mortalidade neonatal. O modelo foi desenvolvido utilizando Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGB) em dados de São Paulo de 2012 a 2015, incluindo 807.932 nascidos vivos e 5.518 óbitos neonatais. Foi realizada a validação externa do algoritmo em 1.161 municípios brasileiros, incluindo todas as capitais de estado para o ano ele 2016, totalizando 2.848.052 nascidos vivos e 23.948 óbitos neonatais. Os resultados mostraram que os municípios que ofertam estruturas de maior complexidade obtiveram uma performance similar ou mesmo superior ao modelo base desenvolvido com dados do município de São Paulo. No terceiro e último artigo desta tese, foi realizada uma análise da aplicação da técnica de generalização conhecida como transfer learning nos dados da Rede IACOV-BR para predizer óbito entre pacientes internados por Covid-19 usando dados de prontuário de 16.236 pacientes de 18 hospitais brasileiros coletados no primeiro trimestre de 2020 durante o início da pandemia de Covid-19 no Brasil. A abordagem desse artigo propôs uma comparação entre uma nova solução capaz de predizer o progresso clínico dos pacientes com Covid- 19 versus a abordagem já aplicada para predições tabulares em saúde. Os resultados indicam que apesar de promissora, a técnica de transfer learning convencional não se mostrou superior aos resultados de performance obtidos localmente com os algoritmos de boosting utilizados para dados tabulares. Os resultados desta tese apontam para a importância da generalização dos algoritmos de i\IL em saúde, ao mesmo tempo que os desafios técnicos ainda persistem em relação à manutenção da performance preditiva nas diferentes localidades.


The use of artificial intelligence algorithms has significantly increased in recent years, increasing their potential for application in public health. ML algorithms (ML) can assist in the prediction of complex outcomes and in decision-making by healthcare professionals. This thesis aims to analyze the algorithmic generalization capability in healthcare and apply ML models for the prediction of health outcomes from tabular data frequently collected in healthcare systems. The thesis will be defended as three scientific articles. The first article conducted a systematic literature review on the generalization capability of ML models in healthcare. The results indicated that, although still limited, the literature on generalization in healthcare has been growing in recent years, in part as demand from journals themselves. The second article evaluated the performance of external validation of an ML algorithm in the context of predicting neonatal mortality risk. The model was developed using Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGB) on São Paulo data from 2012 to 2015, including 807,932 live births and 5,518 neonatal deaths. External validation of the algorithm was performed in 1,161 Brazilian municipalities, including all state capitals in 2016, totaling 2,848,052 live births and 23,948 neonatal deaths. The results showed that municipalities offering more complex structures obtained similar or even superior performance to the base model developed with data from the municipality of São Paulo. In the third and final article of this thesis, an analysis of the application of the generalization technique known as transfer learning was performed on IACOV-BR Network data to predict death from Covid-19 using medical record data from 16,236 patients from 18 Brazilian hospitals collected in the first quarter of 2020 during the early Covid-19 pandemic in Brazil. The results indicate that, although promising, the conventional transfer learning technique did not prove superior to locally obtained performance results with traditional boosting algorithms. The approach of this article proposed a comparison between a new solution for predicting the clinical progress of Covid-19 patients versus the approach already applied for tabular predictions in healthcare. The results of this thesis point to the importance of the generalization of ML algorithms in healthcare, while technical challenges persist regarding the maintenance of predictive performance in different locations.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Epidemiology , Decision Making , Machine Learning , Forecasting
12.
Afr. j. infect. dis. (Online) ; 17(1): 1-9, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1411562

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus pandemic, a serious global public health threat, affects the Southern African countries more than any other country on the continent. The region has become the epicenter of the coronavirus with South Africa accounting for the most cases. To cap the deadly effect caused by the pandemic, we apply a statistical modelling approach to investigate and predict COVID-19 incidence. Methods: Using secondary data on the daily confirmed COVID-19 cases per million for Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) member states from March 5, 2020, to July 15, 2021, we model and forecast the spread of coronavirus in the region. We select the best ARIMA model based on the log-likelihood, AIC, and BIC of the fitted models. Results: The ARIMA (11,1,11) model for the complete data set was finally selected among ARIMA models based upon the parameter test and the Box­Ljung test. The ARIMA (11,1,9) was the best candidate for the training set. A 15-day forecast was also made from the model, which shows a perfect fit with the testing set. Conclusion: The number of new COVID-19 cases per million for the SADC shows a downward trend, but the trend is characterized by peaks from time to time. Tightening up of the preventive measures continuously needs to be adapted in order to eradicate the coronavirus epidemic from the population.


Subject(s)
Moclobemide , Africa, Southern , Forecasting , COVID-19 , Models, Statistical , Epidemics
13.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 17: e20220025, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448107

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Clinical diagnosis of several neurodegenerative disorders based on clinical phenotype is challenging due to its heterogeneous nature and overlapping disease manifestations. Therefore, the identification of underlying genetic mechanisms is of paramount importance for better diagnosis and therapeutic regimens. With the emergence of next-generation sequencing, it becomes easier to identify all gene variants in the genome simultaneously, with a system-wide and unbiased approach. Presently various bioinformatics databases are maintained on discovered gene variants and phenotypic indications are available online. Since individuals are unique in their genome, evaluation based on their genetic makeup helps evolve the diagnosis, counselling, and treatment process at the personal level. This article aims to briefly summarize the utilization of next-generation sequencing in deciphering the genetic causes of Alzheimer's disease and address the limitations of whole genome and exome sequencing.


RESUMO O diagnóstico clínico de vários distúrbios neurodegenerativos com base no fenótipo clínico é difícil devido à sua natureza heterogênea e às manifestações da doença que se sobrepõem. Portanto, a identificação dos mecanismos genéticos subjacentes é de suma importância para um melhor diagnóstico e regimes terapêuticos. Com o surgimento do sequenciamento de próxima geração, o diagnóstico se tornou mais acessível com uma abordagem imparcial em todo o sistema para identificar simultaneamente todas as variantes de genes no genoma. Atualmente, vários bancos de dados de bioinformática sobre variantes genéticas descobertas e indicações fenotípicas estão disponíveis online. Uma vez que os indivíduos são únicos em seu genoma, a avaliação com base em sua composição genética ajudou na evolução do processo de diagnóstico, aconselhamento e tratamento em nível pessoal. Este artigo teve como objetivo resumir brevemente a utilização do sequenciamento de próxima geração para decifrar as causas genéticas da doença de Alzheimer (DA) e abordar as limitações do sequenciamento completo do genoma e do exoma.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Alzheimer Disease , Forecasting
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1423035

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The prediction of potential fishing areas is considered one of the most immediate and practical approaches in fisheries and is an essential technique for decision-making in managing fishery resources. It helps fishermen reduce their fuel costs and the uncertainty of their fish catches; this technique allows to contribute to national and international food security. In this study, we build different combinations of predictive statistical models such as Generalized Linear Models and Generalized Additive Models. Objective: To predict the spatial distribution of PFZs of the dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus L.) in the Colombian Pacific Ocean. Methods: We built different combinations of Generalized Linear Models and Generalized Additive Models to predict the Catch Per Unit Effort of C. hippurus captured from 2002 to 2015 as a function of sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration, sea level anomaly, and bathymetry. Results: A Generalized Additive Model with Gaussian error distribution obtained the best performance for predicting PFZs for C. hipurus. Model validation was performed by calculating the Root Mean Square Error through a cross-validation approach. The R2 of this model was 50 %, which was considered suitable for the type of data used. January and March were the months with the highest Catch per Unit Effort values, while November and December showed the lower values. Conclusion: The predicted PFZs of C. hippurus with Generalized Additive Models satisfactorily with the results of previous research, suggesting that our model can be explored as a tool for the assessment, decision making, and sustainable use of this species in the Colombian Pacific Ocean.


Introducción: La predicción de zonas potenciales de pesca se considera uno de los enfoques más inmediatos y efectivos en las pesquerías, es una técnica importante para la toma de decisiones en el manejo de los recursos pesqueros. Ayuda a los pescadores a reducir su costo de combustible y también a disminuir la incertidumbre de sus capturas, esta técnica permite contribuir a la seguridad alimentaria nacional e internacional. En este estudio, se construyeron diferentes combinaciones de modelos estadísticos predictivos como modelos lineales generalizados y modelos aditivos generalizados. Objetivo: predecir la distribución espacial de las zonas potenciales de pesca del pez dorado (Coryphaena hippurus L.) en el Pacífico colombiano. Métodos: La variable de respuesta se expresó en escala de captura por unidad de esfuerzo, es decir, el número de individuos de C. hippurus capturados por un número total de anzuelos disponibles entre 2002 y 2015. Temperatura de la superficie del mar, concentración de clorofila, anomalía del nivel del mar y batimetría, se utilizaron como variables explicativas para los meses de estacionalidad de C. hippurus (noviembre - marzo). Resultados: El modelo con mejor rendimiento para la predicción de zonas potenciales de pesca fue un modelo aditivo generalizado con distribución de error gaussiana y función de enlace de registro, que se seleccionó en función del criterio de información de Akaike, el R2 y la desviación explicada. La validación del modelo se realizó calculando el error cuadrático medio a través de un enfoque de validación cruzada. El ajuste de este modelo fue del 50 %, lo que puede considerarse adecuado para el tipo de datos utilizados. Enero y marzo fueron los meses con mayor captura por unidad de esfuerzo y noviembre-diciembre los meses con menor. Conclusión: Las zonas potenciales de pesca previstas coincidieron satisfactoriamente con investigaciones anteriores, lo que sugiere que nuestro modelo es una herramienta poderosa para la evaluación, toma de decisiones y uso sostenible de los recursos pesqueros de C. hippurus en el Pacífico colombiano.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fishing Industry , Forecasting , Colombia , Geographic Information Systems
15.
Av. psicol. latinoam ; 40(3): 1-16, sep.-dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1428021

ABSTRACT

Although taxi drivers are more exposed to traffic crashes, they usually exhibit riskier behaviors and more negative attitudes toward road safety. For example, previous research suggests that they are particularly reluctant to wear seat belts. The research aimed (a) to estimate the prevalence of seat belt use among taxi drivers com-pared to other professional and non-professional drivers (Study 1, n = 3.810) and (b) to explore attitudes toward seat belt use in taxi drivers using the Theory of Planned Behavior (tpb) (Study 2, n = 100). Study 1 showed lower seat belt use among taxi drivers (vs. other professional and non-professional drivers). Study 2 showed that self-reported use tends to be higher than the estimated observed use and that negative experiential attitudes appear to be essential for understanding the reluctance of taxi drivers to use seat belts. Practical implications and future lines of research are discussed.


Aunque los taxistas están más expuestos a los siniestros viales, suelen mostrar comportamientos más arriesgados y actitudes más negativas hacia la seguridad vial. Por ejemplo, investigaciones previas sugieren que son especialmente reacios a usar el cinturón de seguridad. En tal sentido, los objetivos de la presente investigación fueron (a) estimar la prevalencia del uso del cinturón de seguridad entre los taxistas en comparación con otros conductores profesionales y no profesionales (Estudio 1, n = 3.810) y (b) explorar las actitudes hacia el uso del cinturón de seguridad en los taxistas utilizando la Teoría del Comportamiento Planificado (tpb) (Estudio 2, n = 100). El estudio 1 mostró un menor uso del cinturón de seguridad entre los taxistas (frente a otros conductores profesionales y no profesionales). El estudio 2 demostró que el uso auto informado tiende a ser mayor que el uso observado estimado, y que las actitudes negativas por la experiencia parecen ser esenciales para entender la reticencia de los taxistas a utilizar el cinturón de seguridad. Se discuten las implicaciones prácticas y las futuras líneas de investigación.


Embora os taxistas estejam mais expostos a acidentes rodoviários, tendem a exibir comportamentos mais arriscados e atitudes mais negativas em relação à segu-rança rodoviária. Por exemplo, investigações anteriores sugerem que estão particularmente relutantes em usar o cinto de segurança. Os objectivos do presente estu-do foram: (a) estimar a prevalência do uso do cinto de segurança entre taxistas em comparação com outros taxistas profissionais e não profissionais (Estudo 1, n = 3.810), e (b) explorar atitudes em relação ao uso do cinto de segurança entre taxistas utilizando a Teoria do Comportamento Planeado (tpb) (Estudo 2, n = 100). O estudo 1 mostrou um menor uso do cinto de segurança entre os taxistas (em comparação com outros motoristas profissionais e não profissionais). O estudo 2 mostrou que o uso auto-relatado tende a ser superior ao uso observado estimado, e que as atitudesexperimentais negativas parecem ser centrais para compreender a relutância dos taxistas em usar cintos de segurança. São discutidas implicações práticas e linhas futuras de investigação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Seat Belts , Behavior , Accidents, Traffic , Forecasting , Road Safety , Theory of Planned Behavior
16.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 73(2): 184-193, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1394962

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: determinar el desempeño predictivo de la definición de retardo de crecimiento fetal (RCF) de ultrasonografía de la Sociedad de Medicina Materno Fetal (SMMF), consenso Delphi (CD) y Medicina Fetal de Barcelona (MFB) respecto a resultados adversos perinatales en cada una, e identificar si hay asociación entre diagnóstico de RCF y resultados adversos perinatales. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron gestantes con embarazo único de 24 a 36 semanas con 6 días, quienes fueron atendidas en la unidad de medicina materna fetal con evaluación ecográfica de crecimiento fetal y atención de parto en una institución hospitalaria pública de referencia ubicada en Popayán, Colombia. Se excluyeron embarazos con hallazgos ecográficos de anomalías congénitas. Muestreo por conveniencia. Se midieron variables sociodemográficas y clínicas de las gestantes al ingreso, la edad gestacional, el diagnóstico de RCF y el resultado adverso perinatal compuesto. Se analizó la capacidad predictiva de tres criterios diagnósticos de restricción de crecimiento fetal para malos resultados perinatales y la asociación entre el diagnóstico de RCF y mal resultado periantal. Resultados: se incluyeron 228 gestantes, cuya edad media fue de 26,8 años, la prevalencia de RCF según los tres criterios fue de 3,95 %, 16,6 % y 21,9 % para CD, MFB y SMMF respectivamente. Ningún criterio aportó área bajo la curva aceptable para predicción de resultado neonatal adverso compuesto, el diagnóstico de RCF por CD y SMMF se asoció a resultados adversos perinatales con RR de 2,6 (IC 95 %: 1,5-4,3) y 1,57 (IC 95 %: 1,01-2,44), respectivamente. No se encontró asociación por MFB RR: 1,32 (IC 95 %: 0,8-2,1). Conclusiones: ante un resultado positivo para RCF, el método Delphi se asocia de manera más importante a los resultados perinatales adversos.Los tres métodos tienen una muy alta proporción de falsos negativos en la predicción de mal resultado perinatal. Se requieren estudios prospectivos que reduzcan los sesgos de medición y datos ausentes.


Objectives: To determine the predictive performance of fetal growth restriction by Maternal Fetal Medicine Society (MFMS) definition of ultrasound, the Delphi consensus (DC) and the Barcelona Fetal Medicine (BFM) criteria for adverse perinatal outcomes, and to identify whether there is an association between the diagnosis of fetal growth restriction (FGR) and adverse perinatal outcomes. Material and methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted including women with singleton pregnancies between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation seen at the maternal fetal medicine unit for ultrasound assessment of fetal growth and delivery care in a public referral hospital in Popayán, Colombia. Pregnancies with ultrasound findings of congenital abnormalities were excluded. Convenience sampling was used. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were measured on admission; additional variables were gestational age, FGR diagnosis and adverse composite perinatal outcome. The predictive ability of three fetal growth restriction diagnostic criteria for poor perinatal outcomes was analyzed and asociation between FGR and adverse perinatlal outcomes. Results: Overall, 228 pregnant women with a mean age of 26.8 years were included; FGR prevalence according to the three criteria was 3.95 %, 16.6 % and 21.9 % for DC, BFM and MFMS, respectively. None of the criteria resulted in an acceptable area under the curve for the prediction of the composite adverse neonatal outcome; FGR diagnosis by DC and MFMS were associated with adverse perinatal outcomes with a RR of 2.6 (95 % CI: 1.5-4.3) and 1.57 (95 % CI: 1.01-2.44) respectively. No association was found for BFM RR: 1.32 (95 % CI: 0.8-2.1). Conclusions: Given a positive result for FGR, the Delphi method is significantly associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. The proportion of false negative results for a poor perinatal outcome is high for the three methods. Prospective studies that reduce measurement and attrition bias are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Fetal Growth Retardation , Forecasting , Negative Results , Ultrasonography , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnant Women , Fetal Development , Perinatal Death
17.
Más Vita ; 4(2): 103-119, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1392128

ABSTRACT

La combinación de los test predictores de la vía área difícil durante la evaluación preanestésica y la preparación de los pacientes quirúrgicos es fundamental para reducir el índice de morbimortalidad. Objetivo: Analizar la relación entre los test predictores de vía aérea difícil y los hallazgos bajo laringoscopia directa en los pacientes que son intervenidos en la sala de operaciones del Hospital General Esmeraldas Sur Delfina Torres de Concha. La institución de salud en mención no registra previamente un estudio de estas características. Materiales y Métodos: El diseño de investigación que se aplicó fue cualitativo, de corte transversal con enfoque descriptivo. En consecuencia, se observaron y se tomaron datos del formulario de anestesiología de 150 historias clínicas de pacientes que fueron derivados a cirugía desde febrero de 2019 hasta julio de 2019. Las variables examinadas correspondieron a paciente adulto, vía aérea difícil, test predictores de VAD y laringoscopia directa. Resultados: Mostraron que el test que alertó más casos de VAD es el de protrusión mandibular con el 59,30%, seguido de la distancia tiromentoniana con el 40,00%. Asimismo, los hallazgos bajo laringoscopia derivaron en procedimientos de intubación difícil, guardando relación con otros test predictores de VAD. Conclusiones: La combinación de varios test de VAD facultan a los médicos a planificar respuestas oportunas ante la presencia de problemas(AU)


The combination of predictive tests of the difficult airway during the pre-anesthetic evaluation and the preparation of surgical patients is essential to reduce the morbidity and mortality rate. Objective: To analyze the relationship between the difficult airway predictive tests and the findings under direct laryngoscopy in patients who are operated on in the operating room of the Hospital General Esmeraldas Sur Delfina Torres de Concha. The aforementioned health institution has not previously registered a study of these characteristics. Materials and Methods: The research design that was applied was qualitative, cross-sectional with a descriptive approach. Consequently, data from the anesthesiology form of 150 medical records of patients who were referred for surgery from February 2019 to July 2019 were observed and collected. The variables examined corresponded to adult patients, difficult airway, VAD predictor tests and direct laryngoscopy. Results: They showed that the test that alerted more cases of VAD is mandibular protrusion with 59.30%, followed by thyromental distance with 40.00%. Likewise, the findings under laryngoscopy led to difficult intubation procedures, being related to other VAD predictive tests. Conclusions: The combination of several VAD tests empower physicians to plan timely responses to the presence of problems(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Airway Management , Forecasting , Anesthesia, General , Laryngoscopy , Operating Rooms , Patients , Hospitals , Intubation, Intratracheal
18.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 38(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408316

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El acoso escolar constituye un problema de salud pública por su repercusión en el presente y futuro de los escolares, donde el rol de espectador cobra cada día mayor relevancia. Objetivo: Describir los conocimientos sobre los sistemas de denuncia del acoso escolar y tipo de intervención del adolescente espectador en escuelas públicas de Lima. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en 668 estudiantes de escuelas públicas ubicadas en Lima, Perú, entre agosto y diciembre del 2019. Muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. Mediante la encuesta y empleo de un cuestionario se evaluó el tipo de intervención ante el acoso escolar y el conocimiento sobre sistemas de denuncia del acoso escolar. Para el análisis de los datos se empleó la prueba estadística de Chi Cuadrado de Pearson con un nivel de significancia p < 0,05. Resultados: Presenció una situación de violencia escolar entre pares el 59,82 por ciento, de ellos 63,34 por ciento intervino ante esa situación. Hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el porcentaje de escolares que intervinieron según sexo y año de estudios. El 51,39 por ciento defendió a la víctima o conversó con el agresor. En cuanto al conocimiento de sistemas de reporte de violencia escolar, 24,21 por ciento conocía SiSeve y 64,73 por ciento conocía la DEMUNA. Conclusiones: El principal tipo de intervención de los estudiantes que fueron espectadores ante una situación de acoso escolar fue defender a la víctima o conversar con el agresor. Por otra parte, existe escaso conocimiento de la existencia de SiseVe entre los escolares, aunque la mayoría conocía la DEMUNA(AU)


Introduction: School bullying is a public health concern due to its impact on the present and future of schoolchildren, where the role of bystander becomes more relevant every day. Objective: To describe the knowledge about the systems for reporting bullying and the type of intervention of adolescent bystanders in public schools in Lima. Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive study carried out with 668 students chosen from public schools in Lima, Peru, by nonprobabilistic convenience sampling between August and December 2019. A survey and a questionnaire permitted to assess the type of intervention in the face of bullying and knowledge about systems for reporting bullying. Pearson's chi-square test was used for data analysis with a significance level of P<0.05. Results: A situation of school violence among peers was witnessed by 59.82 percent of the respondents, 63.34 percent of which intervened in this situation. Based on sex and year of study, there were statistically significant differences in the percentage of schoolchildren who intervened. 51.39 percent defended the victim or talked with the aggressor. Regarding knowledge about school violence reporting systems, 24.21 percent know about the existence of SiSeve, while 64.73 percent knew DEMUNA. Conclusions: The main type of intervention of students who witnessed a bullying situation was to defend the victim or talk with the aggressor. On the other hand, there is little knowledge about the existence of SiseVe among the students, although most of them knew about DEMUNA(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires , Knowledge , Bullying , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Forecasting , Data Analysis
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