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1.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1551610

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La Sociedad Latinoamericana de Genética Forense, desde el año 2003 organiza ejercicios colaborativos de comparación interlaboratorios a fin de apoyar el fortalecimiento de los laboratorios de Genética Forense de Latinoamérica, siendo el ejercicio de calidad de SLAGF el único que incluye muestras óseas. Objetivo: Presentar los resultados del análisis del ejercicio de calidad de SLAGF correspondientes al año 2023. Metodología: Se diseñó un ejercicio práctico con cinco muestras: dos hisopados bucales (M1 y M2), una muestra de sangre en FTA (M3), una muestra mezcla 1:1 de sangre- sangre en FTA (M4) y un resto óseo (M5), Se envió a los laboratorios un ejercicio teórico con cinco casos; dos de los cuales eran opcionales. Al igual que cinco ejercicios teóricos para los peritos independientes participantes. Por primera vez se incluyó un ejercicio de IVD opcional, los ejercicios están disponibles en: http://slagf.org/resultados-control- slagf-2023/x Resultados: Participaron 30 laboratorios y 12 peritos independientes. En el ejercicio práctico, la muestra cadavérica de restos óseos presentó los mayores desafíos, en la parte teórica fue el ejercicio de IVD. Conclusión: Los desafíos que enfrentan los laboratorios de Genética Forense Latinoamericanos, reflejados en el ejercicio de calidad de SLAGF 2023, son similares a los encontrados por otros grupos que realizan ejercicios de control de calidad en Genética Forense...(AU)


Subject(s)
Forensic Genetics , Laboratory Proficiency Testing , Quality Control , Forensic Medicine
2.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 231-239, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981855

ABSTRACT

Kinship testing is widely needed in forensic science practice. This paper reviews the definitions of common concepts, and summarizes the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages, and application scope of kinship analysis methods, including identity by state (IBS) method, likelihood ratio (LR) method, method of moment (MoM), and identity by descent (IBD) segment method. This paper also discusses the research hotspots of challenging kinship testing, complex kinship testing, forensic genetic genealogy analysis, and non-human biological samples.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Fingerprinting , Forensic Genetics/methods , Forensic Sciences , Pedigree
3.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 161-167, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981850

ABSTRACT

With the advance of molecular biology, DNA analysis technology has been widely applied in forensic science. Non-human DNA analysis can be used in some special cases and has unique forensic value to provide investigation clues and trial basis. Animal DNA typing plays a more prominent role in the detection of all kinds of non-human DNA related cases and is the main content of forensic non-human DNA analysis. This paper reviews the development history, present situation, advantages and disadvantages of animal DNA typing according to its technology, characteristic, challenges facing forensic science application scenarios, and also its future development.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA Fingerprinting , Forensic Medicine , DNA/analysis , Forensic Sciences , Molecular Biology , Forensic Genetics
4.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 72-82, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984183

ABSTRACT

With the improvement of DNA methylation detection techniques, studies on age-related methylation sites have found more age-specific ones across tissues, which improves the sensitivity and accuracy of age estimation. In addition, the establishment of various statistical models also provides a new direction for the age estimation of tissues from different sources. This review summarizes the related studies of age estimation based on DNA methylation from the aspects of detection technology, age-related cytosine phosphate guanine site and model selection in recent years.


Subject(s)
DNA Methylation , Forensic Genetics/methods , CpG Islands , Forensic Medicine
5.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 601-607, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009393

ABSTRACT

Age estimation based on tissues or body fluids is an important task in forensic science. The changes of DNA methylation status with age have certain rules, which can be used to estimate the age of the individuals. Therefore, it is of great significance to discover specific DNA methylation sites and develop new age estimation models. At present, statistical models for age estimation have been developed based on the rule that DNA methylation status changes with age. The commonly used models include multiple linear regression model, multiple quantile regression model, support vector machine model, artificial neural network model, random forest model, etc. In addition, there are many factors that affect the level of DNA methylation, such as the tissue specificity of methylation. This paper reviews these modeling methods and influencing factors for age estimation based on DNA methylation, with a view to provide reference for the establishment of age estimation models.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Methylation , CpG Islands , Forensic Genetics , Neural Networks, Computer , Linear Models , Aging/genetics
6.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 557-563, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the possibility of using human skin and oral microorganisms to estimate the geographic origin of an individual through the sequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene.@*METHODS@#Microbial DNA was extracted from the palm and oral microorganisms of the Han population in Shanghai and Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, and the composition and diversity of the microbiota were analyzed by full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Then, differential species were screened and a geographic location prediction model was constructed.@*RESULTS@#The compositions of palm and oral microorganisms between Shanghai and Chifeng samples were both different. The abundance and uniformity of palm side skin microorganisms were higher in Chifeng samples than in Shanghai samples, while there was no significant difference in oral microorganisms. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) confirmed that th e β -diversity between the samples from the two places were statistically significant, and the coefficients of determination (R2) for skin and oral samples were 0.129 and 0.102, respectively. Through principal co-ordinates analysis (PCoA), the samples from the two places could be preliminarily distinguished. The predictive model had the accuracies of 0.90 and 0.83 for the geographic origin using the skin and oral samples, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are differences in the compositions of palm and oral microbiota between Han populations in Shanghai and Chifeng. The prediction model constructed by the random forest algorithm can trace the unknown individuals from the above two places.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Microbiota/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Skin/microbiology , Forensic Genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Mouth/microbiology
7.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 487-492, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009382

ABSTRACT

As an important anthropometric characteristic, human height not only contributes to the recognition of other anthropological characteristics and genetic risk factors, but also is an important part of forensic DNA phenotyping studies. Accurate estimation of height can provide more complete information about the phenotype of suspects and provide help to solve cases. In recent years, having benefited from the rapid development of molecular biological techniques and bioinformatics, height-related genetics research has made some progress. This paper describes the research progress of human height estimation from the genetic variation and the epigenetic inheritance perspectives and looks into the future research direction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenotype , DNA/genetics , Molecular Biology , Forensic Genetics/methods
8.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 465-470, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009379

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the feasibility of genetic marker detection of semen-specific coding region single nucleotide polymorphism (cSNP) based on SNaPshot technology in semen stains and mixed body fluid identification.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA (gDNA) and total RNA were extracted from 16 semen stains and 11 mixtures composed of semen and venous blood, and the total RNA was reverse transcribed into complementary DNA (cDNA). The cSNP genetic markers were screened on the validated semen-specific mRNA coding genes. The cSNP multiplex detection system based on SNaPshot technology was established, and samples were genotyped by capillary electrophoresis (CE).@*RESULTS@#A multiplex detection system containing 5 semen-specific cSNPs was successfully established. In 16 semen samples, except the cSNP located in the TGM4 gene showed allele loss in cDNA detection results, the gDNA and cDNA typing results of other cSNPs were highly consistent. When detecting semen-venous blood mixtures, the results of cSNP typing detected were consistent with the genotype of semen donor and were not interfered by the genotype of venous blood donor.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The method of semen-specific cSNPs detection by SNaPshot technology method can be applied to the genotyping of semen (stains) and provide information for determining the origin of semen in mixed body fluids (stains).


Subject(s)
Genetic Markers , Semen , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Body Fluids , RNA, Messenger/genetics , DNA , Saliva , Forensic Genetics/methods
9.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 447-451, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009376

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To establish the menstrual blood identification model based on Naïve Bayes and multivariate logistic regression methods by using specific mRNA markers in menstrual blood detection technology combined with statistical methods, and to quantitatively distinguish menstrual blood from other body fluids.@*METHODS@#Body fluids including 86 menstrual blood, 48 peripheral blood, 48 vaginal secretions, 24 semen and 24 saliva samples were collected. RNA of the samples was extracted and cDNA was obtained by reverse transcription. Five menstrual blood-specific markers including members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family MMP3, MMP7, MMP11, progestogens associated endometrial protein (PAEP) and stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) were amplified and analyzed by electrophoresis. The results were analyzed by Naïve Bayes and multivariate logistic regression.@*RESULTS@#The accuracy of the classification model constructed was 88.37% by Naïve Bayes and 91.86% by multivariate logistic regression. In non-menstrual blood samples, the distinguishing accuracy of peripheral blood, saliva and semen was generally higher than 90%, while the distinguishing accuracy of vaginal secretions was lower, which were 16.67% and 33.33%, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The mRNA detection technology combined with statistical methods can be used to establish a classification and discrimination model for menstrual blood, which can distignuish the menstrual blood and other body fluids, and quantitative description of analysis results, which has a certain application value in body fluid stain identification.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Bayes Theorem , Logistic Models , Menstruation , Body Fluids , Saliva , Semen , Forensic Genetics/methods
10.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 441-446, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the forensic application value of an age estimation model based on DNA methylation in eastern Chinese Han population, and to provide a theoretical basis for exploring age estimation models suitable for different detection platforms.@*METHODS@#According to the 6 age-related methylation sites in the published blood DNA methylation age estimation models of Chinese Han population, the DNA methylation level of 48 samples was detected by pyrosequencing and next-generation sequencing (NGS). After submitting DNA methylation levels to the age estimation model, the DNA methylation ages were predicted and compared with their real ages.@*RESULTS@#The 6 DNA methylation sites in both detection techniques were age-related, with an R2 of 0.85 and a median absolute deviation (MAD) of 4.81 years when using pyrosequencing;with an R2 of 0.84 and MAD of 4.41 years when using NGS.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The blood DNA methylation age estimation model can be used under pyrosequencing and multi-purpose regional methylation enrichment sequencing technology based on NGS and it can accurately estimate the age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aging/genetics , CpG Islands , DNA Methylation , East Asian People , Forensic Genetics/methods
11.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 241-248, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929055

ABSTRACT

Due to the virtues of no stutter peaks, low rates of mutation, and short amplicon sizes, insertion/deletion (InDel) polymorphism is an indispensable tool for analyzing degraded DNA samples from crime scenes for human identifications (Wang et al., 2021). Herein, a self-developed panel of 43 InDel loci constructed previously by our group was utilized to evaluate the genetic diversities and explore the genetic background of the Han Chinese from Beijing (HCB) including 301 random healthy individuals. The lengths of amplicons at 43 InDel loci in this panel ranged from 87 to 199 bp, which indicated that the panel could be used as an effective tool to utilize highly degraded DNA samples for human identity testing. The loci in this panel were validated and performed well for forensic degraded DNA samples (Jin et al., 2021). The combined discrimination power (PD) and combined probability of exclusion (PE) values in this panel indicated that the 43 InDel loci could be used as the candidate markers in personal identification and parentage testing of HCB. In addition, population genetic relationships between the HCB and 26 reference populations from five continents based on 19 overlapped InDel loci were displayed by constructing a phylogenetic tree, principal component analysis (PCA), and population genetic structure analysis. The results illustrated that the HCB had closer genetic relationships with the Han populations from Chinese different regions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beijing , China , Forensic Genetics/methods , Gene Frequency , Genetics, Population , INDEL Mutation , Phylogeny
13.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1519464

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El aumento en la sensibilidad de las técnicas empleadas ha permitido la obtención de perfiles genéticos a partir de trazas de ADN que se hayan depositado mediante contacto antes, durante o después de la comisión de los hechos investigados. Por otro lado, la contaminación accidental de los indicios biológicos, con la consecuente interpretación errónea de los resultados genéticos, tienen importantes consecuencias en el proceso judicial. Debido a ello, minimizar las contaminaciones que se pueden generar durante algunas de las fases de recolección o análisis genético, como así también la detección de estos eventos, es una prioridad para los laboratorios forenses. Objetivo: analizar las publicaciones más relevantes respecto a las trazas de ADN, los diferentes tipos de transferencia y contaminación que se pueden obtener en una evidencia. Metodología: se realizó la búsqueda en PubMed, del Instituto Nacional de Salud (NIH), y Google Académico usando las palabras clave en español e inglés: ADN de toque, Transferencia de ADN, Contaminación, Trazas, DNA-TTPR, Persistencia del ADN, Perfiles genéticos contaminados. Resultados: se encontraron más de 500 trabajos relacionados a la temática propuesta en esta revisión. El criterio de selección fue el número de citas, el enfoque y el impacto de estos. Se analizaron 71 artículos donde evaluaron la composición de las muestras de contacto y el origen del material genético que contienen. Además, de las metodologías de recolección, análisis de dichas muestras, la importancia que tiene la transferencia y contaminación del ADN en distintos escenarios posibles. Conclusión: existe riesgo de transferencia de ADN que puede conducir a resultados erróneos, por lo tanto es importante asegurar la actualización de los procedimientos de la práctica y brindar la capacitación adecuada para garantizar que el personal policial y del que recolecta indicios sea consciente de los riesgos de contaminación y de los diferentes mecanismos de transferencia de material genético...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA , Forensic Genetics , Research , Databases, Bibliographic , Forensic Sciences , Genetic Profile
14.
Rev. cienc. forenses Honduras (En línea) ; 8(supl.2): 29-35, 2022. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1519469

ABSTRACT

Justificación: En Colombia, el comercio de especies de fauna silvestre sin la documentación necesaria es prohibido por ley, por lo que, en el contexto de una investigación penal sobre venta de reptiles a través de internet, como parte de una diligencia de allanamiento y registro, se realizó el procesamiento del lugar de los hechos. Objetivo: realizar la asignación taxonómica más probable utilizando análisis genético en muestras biológicas recolectadas del lugar de los hechos para establecer la presencia de reptiles, dada la ausencia de animales en el momento del allanamiento. Métodos: se recolectaron seis muestras biológicas que incluyeron un trozo de muda de piel, hisopados de superficies y materia fecal, para su posterior procesamiento siguiendo los protocolos de análisis establecidos. Se realizó extracción de ADN empleando sílice y se amplificó un marcador mitocondrial 12S-120pb; los fragmentos resultantes fueron secuenciados y las secuencias fueron comparadas con la información disponible en la base de datos Genbank mediante el algoritmo BLASTn. Resultados y discusión: a partir de los datos obtenidos de la comparación realizada, 100% de cobertura y 100% de identidad y tras analizar las características de cada grupo taxonómico y la información genética disponible se realizó la asignación taxonómica. En la muestra de muda de piel se encontró dificultad para la amplificación y secuenciación de todo el fragmento, lo que limitó el empleo de marcadores de mayor tamaño, sin embargo, a partir de la información obtenida se logró la identificación de la especie Boa constrictor (boa común); en el caso de la materia fecal y los hisopados se determinó la presencia de muestras provenientes de grupos taxonómicos comúnmente empleados para alimentación de algunas especies de reptiles, como Mus musculus (ratón común) y el género Rattus (especies de ratas). Conclusión: El marcador mitocondrial 12S-120pb empleado en este caso resultó exitoso para la obtención de secuencias a partir de muestras forenses, sin embargo, la utilización de cualquier marcador para la asignación taxonómica depende en gran medida de la información disponible y las características propias de cada grupo taxonómico...(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Reptiles , Forensic Genetics , DNA , Wildlife Trade
15.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 763-773, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984169

ABSTRACT

In forensic physical evidence identification, the accurate identification of the individual origin and their body fluid composition of the biological samples obtained from the crime scene play a critical role in determining the nature of a crime. In recent years, RNA profiling has become one of the fastest developing methods for body fluids identification. Due to the characteristics of tissue or body fluid specific expression, various types of RNA markers have been proven to be promising candidate markers for body fluids identification in previous studies. This review summarizes the research progress of RNA markers in body fluids identification, including the RNA markers that have been effectively verified in current research and their advantages and disadvantages. Meanwhile, this review prospects the application of RNA markers in forensic medicine.


Subject(s)
Forensic Medicine/methods , Body Fluids/chemistry , RNA/analysis , Feces , Forensic Genetics , Semen/chemistry , Saliva/chemistry
16.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 267-279, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984120

ABSTRACT

In recent years, more and more forensic genetics laboratories have begun to apply massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology, that is, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, to detect common forensic genetic markers, including short tandem repeat (STR), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), the control region or whole genome of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as well as messenger RNA (mRNA), etc., for forensic practice, such as individual identification, kinship analysis, ancestry inference and body fluid identification. As the most widely used genetic marker in forensic genetics, STR is currently mainly detected by capillary electrophoresis (CE) platform. Compared with CE platform, MPS technology has the advantages of simultaneous detection of a large number of genetic markers, massively parallel detection of samples, the polymorphism of sequence detected by NGS makes STR have the advantages of higher resolution and system efficiency. However, MPS technology is expensive, there is no uniform standard so far, and there are problems such as how to integrate MPS-STR data with the existing CE-STR database. This review summarizes the current status of the application of MPS technology in the detection of STR genetic markers in forensic genetics, puts forward the main problems that need to be solved urgently, and prospects the application prospect of this technology in forensic genetics.


Subject(s)
DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Forensic Genetics/methods , Genetic Markers , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Technology
17.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 134(2): 21-25, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551191

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este artículo es introducir al médico generalista en los adelantos científicos y técnicos de la genética forense. A partir de los trabajos de Mendel en 1865 sobre hibridación en las plantas se sucedieron avances en el conocimiento del ADN y se incorporaron nuevas técnicas de laboratorio, que permitieron detectar en el ADN un sector no codificante. El conocimiento de este sector junto con los adelantos de informática (software) han permitido progresos innovadores en el desarrollo de las técnicas de identificación forense, logrando que la Genética Forense se convierta en un auxiliar de la justicia para la resolución de casos de filiación, el reconocimiento de restos humanos y el descubrimiento de responsables de crímenes a través de la identificación de ADN encontrado en la escena. (AU)


The objective of this article is to introduce the general practitioner to the scientific and technical advances of forensic genetics. From the work of Mendel in 1865 on hybridization in plants, advances were made in the knowledge of DNA and new laboratory techniques were incorporated, which made it possible to detect a non-coding sector in DNA. Knowledge of this sector together with the advances in computer science (software) have allowed innovative progress in the development of forensic identification techniques, making Forensic Genetics an auxiliary of justice, for the resolution of filiation cases, the recognition of human remains and the discover of the person responsible for the crimes through the identification of their DNA found at the scene of a crime. (AU)


Subject(s)
Forensic Genetics/trends , Bioethics , Medical Informatics/trends , DNA , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Forensic Medicine
18.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 555-560, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985248

ABSTRACT

Cartridge cases are crucial physical evidence in gun-related crimes. The successful identification of the touch DNA on cartridge cases can help to screen the suspects and reconstruct the gun-related crime scene. With the improvement of DNA extraction methods and the sensitivity of amplification kit, forensic examiners are expected to obtain more valuable information by testing the touch DNA on cartridge cases. In practical cases, the touch DNA detection on cartridge cases often encounters with low DNA content degradation, mixing and the gunshot residual interference, which brings more challenges to DNA examination and identification. This article reviews forensic research of touch DNA on the cartridge cases from the aspects of factors affecting touch DNA on cartridge cases, advances in the extraction and amplification methods, and the practical applications in order to provide reference for forensic identification of touch DNA on the cartridge cases in real cases.


Subject(s)
Crime , DNA/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting , Forensic Genetics , Touch
19.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 192-195, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985208

ABSTRACT

Objective To conduct bibliometric analysis of forensic genetics literatures published by Chinese mainland scholars in SCIE journals from 1989 to 2019, to show the research achievements of the past three decades and predict future research fields and directions. Methods Microsoft Office Excel 2019 was utilized to analyze the general situation, research institutions, authors, funds, author keywords, etc. of the literatures. The status of research in forensic genetics in Chinese mainland was visualized by PlotDB, Gephi 0.9.2 software and literature interpretation. Results During the last three decades, 1 126 forensic genetics literatures were published by scholars from Chinese mainland on SCIE journals, mostly articles. The quantity and quality of the literatures were both on the increase. The number of literatures published in Forensic Science International-Genetics was the highest, and 60.83% of the literatures were funded, mainly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (498 literatures). The current research hotspots were STR, SNP, InDel polymorphisms, linkage genetic markers, mtDNA genetic markers, epigenetic markers, RNA genetic markers, chip technology and omics research method. Conclusion The forensic genetics in China has developed rapidly along with the promotion of forensic science in universities. The SCIE literatures on forensic genetics published by Chinese mainland scholars increased rapidly with the funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China and Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China, which positively contributes to the development of basic research and the improvement of overall level in forensic genetics in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bibliometrics , China , Forensic Genetics , Forensic Sciences , Publications
20.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 91-98, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985200

ABSTRACT

The paternal inheritance characteristics of Y chromosome have been widely used in the forensic genetics field to detect the genetic markers in the non-recombining block, and used in the studies such as, genetic relationship identification, mixed stain detection, pedigree screen and ethnicity determination. At present, capillary electrophoresis is still the most common detection technology. The commercial detection kits and data analysis and processing system based on this technology are very mature. However, the disadvantages of traditional detection technology have gradually appeared with the rapid growth of bio-information amount, which promotes the renewal of forensic DNA typing technology. In recent years, next generation sequencing (NGS) technology has developed rapidly. This technology has been applied to various fields including forensic genetics and has provided new techniques for the detection of Y chromosome genetic markers. This article describes the current situation and application prospects of the NGS technology in forensic Y chromosome genetic markers detection in order to provide new ideas for future judicial practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chromosomes, Human, Y/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting , Forensic Genetics , Genetic Markers , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Microsatellite Repeats , Technology , Y Chromosome
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