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1.
Acta amaz ; 51(3): 181-190, set 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353488

ABSTRACT

O espaçamento de plantio determina a forma e produtividade das árvores em plantações florestais. Entretanto, seus efeitos sobre a produtividade de plantações de espécies arbóreas da Amazônia ainda são pouco compreendidos. Objetivou-se examinar os efeitos de seis regimes de espaçamento (3 x 4, 4 x 4, 4 x 5, 5 x 5, 5 x 6, e 6 x 6 m) sobre o crescimento e morfometria de plantações de Bertholletia excelsa aos 20 anos de idade. Observamos alta sobrevivência independentemente do espaçamento (> 70%). Para fins de produção de madeira, os regimes de espaçamento intermediário e dois maiores apresentaram valores mais altos de características de produção, principalmente diâmetro, biomassa e volume, embora alguns não diferiram significativamente do menor espaçamento. Um dos espaçamentos intermediários (5 x 5 m) tendeu a maior altura comercial. As copas das árvores tenderam a ser mais largas e longas nos espaçamentos maiores, indicando potencial desses regimes para a produção de frutos. As copas das árvores excederam o espaço vital de crescimento em todos os espaçamentos, sugerindo a necessidade de desbaste antes dos 20 anos em todos os espaçamentos, para reduzir a competição intraespecífica e aumentar a produtividade. Estimamos que uma densidade de 84 árvores remanescentes por hectare seria necessária para atingir um diâmetro médio de 40 cm aos 20 anos. Portanto, B. excelsa apresentou alta sobrevivência em todos os regimes de espaçamento testados, enquanto os regimes de espaçamento intermediário e maiores proporcionaram melhor crescimento e morfometria das árvores. (AU)


Subject(s)
Agricultural Cultivation , Forestry , Bertholletia , Physical Distancing , Growth
2.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00302020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1348972

ABSTRACT

Plant parasitic nematodes are major threats to Brazilian and world agriculture. Among them, Pratylenchus brachyurus and Meloidogyne incognita stand out as major pests for several crops, including corn, cotton, soybean among others, which can be components of integrated crop-livestock-forestry systems (ICLFs). In this context, information about the host status of eucalypts (Corymbia spp. and Eucalyptus spp.) to plant parasitic nematodes becomes more relevant in Brazil, due to the use of eucalypts in ICLFs. If tree components used on this system increase the population density of P. brachyurus and M. incognita, it is possible that these pathogens could damage shorter-cycle crops. Since information about the host status of eucalypts to plant parasitic nematodes is scarce, this study evaluated the host status of some eucalypt species to P. brachyurus and M. incognita. Two greenhouse trials were done to evaluate the reproduction of P. brachyurus and one to M. incognita, using some of the most cultivated species and hybrids of eucalypts in Brazil. The population growth of P. brachyurus increased on Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus dunnii × Eucalyptus urophylla, and E. grandis × E. urophylla after ~90 days of inoculation. Conversely, despite M. incognita reproducing well in the control plants, no individuals were recovered from C. citriodora, E. urophylla and E. grandis × E. urophylla, which were classified as resistant plants. Based on both obtained and available data, M. incognita poses no threat to eucalypt species today. However, P. brachyurus is suggested to be a threat to eucalypts.


Subject(s)
Tylenchoidea , Eucalyptus , Nematoda/pathogenicity , Soybeans , Forestry , Agricultural Pests , Zea mays , Gossypium
3.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 199-203, jul. - set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118820

ABSTRACT

Obtaining juvenile material may favor the clonal propagation of Brazil nut, Bertholletia excelsa. We aimed to assess the emission of epicormic shoots on detached branches of Brazil nut trees as a function of the mother tree and branch diameter, in order to provide juvenile material for use in clonal multiplication. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 6 (mother trees) x 3 (stem diameter: < 20 20-40 and 40-80 mm) factorial design, with four replicates. Every five days the number of shoots emitted was counted and the sprouting speed index and average sprouting time were calculated. The number of epicormic shoots and the sprouting speed index were dependent on the interaction between mother tree and branch diameter. Branches with larger diameter (20-40 and 40-80 mm) showed higher potential for obtaining propagules for use in Brazil nut clonal multiplication (cutting, grafting and in vitro cultivation). (AU)


Subject(s)
Reproduction, Asexual , Forestry , Lecythidaceae , Bertholletia
4.
Rev. latinoam. bioét ; 20(1): 107-122, Jan.-June 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144707

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El presente artículo tiene como objetivo primario reflexionar sobre cómo la bioética puede dar luces para un desarrollo forestal más comprometido con la vida en general. El estudio se focaliza en el Perú; sin embargo, se toma en cuenta información bibliográfica especializada de otros países con bosques tropicales. Se concluye que, aunque hay importantes avances científicos en el conocimiento sobre los bosques tropicales y expectantes experiencias certificadas de manejo forestal, no existe suficiente certeza científica que garantice su sustentabilidad ecológica. Lo anterior es producto tanto de la propia complejidad ecológica de los bosques tropicales, como de la complejidad sociocultural del sector forestal; lo que demanda aproximaciones que complementen los enfoques disciplinarios con perspectivas interdisciplinarias y transdisciplinarias. La realidad de los bosques es multidimensional, interdimensional, multiescalar y multitemporal; esta condición no logra ser captada por los planes de manejo forestal que descansan en el paradigma de una ciencia racional y empírica. A pesar de que hay valiosas medidas orientadas a la conservación de la biodiversidad forestal y previsiones para luchar contra la tala ilegal, el comercio y tráfico ilegal de la fauna silvestre, estas medidas para reducir la ilegalidad aún no son suficientes. A la fecha no existe una orientación específica sobre el respeto a la vida en el bosque en todas sus manifestaciones; además, los intentos que buscan la conservación de las especies de flora y fauna son desarticulados.


Abstract: The main objective of this article is to reflect on how bioethics can shed light on forest development that is more committed to life in general. The study focuses on Peru; however, specialized bibliographic information from other countries with tropical forests is considered. It is concluded that, although there are important scientific advances in knowledge about tropical forests and expectant certified experiences in forest management, there is not enough scientific certainty to guarantee their ecological sustainability. This is a product of both the ecological complexity of tropical forests and the socio-cultural complexity of the forest sector; which demands approaches that complement disciplinary approaches with interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary perspectives. The reality of forests is multidimensional, interdimensional, multiscale and multitemporal; this condition cannot be grasped by forest management plans that lie on the paradigm of a rational and empirical science. Although there are valuable measures aimed at conserving forest biodiversity and provisions to combat illegal logging, illegal trade and trafficking of wildlife, these measures to reduce illegality are still not enough. To the date there is no specific guidance on respect to forest life in all its manifestations, and in addition to that, attempts seeking to conserve the species of flora and fauna are disarticulated.


Resumo: O objetivo principal deste estudo é refletir sobre como a bioética pode guiar um desenvolvimento florestal mais comprometido com a vida em geral. O estudo está focado no Peru; contudo, é considerada informação bibliográfica especializada de outros países com florestas tropicais. Conclui-se que, embora haja importantes avanços científicos no conhecimento sobre as florestas tropicais e esperadas experiências certificadas de gestão florestal, não existe suficiente certeza científica que garanta sua sustentabilidade ecológica. Isso é produto tanto da própria complexidade ecológica das florestas tropicais quanto da complexidade sociocultural do setor florestal, o que demanda aproximações que complementem as abordagens disciplinares com perspectivas inter e transdisciplinares. A realidade das florestas é multi e interdimensional, multiescalar e multitemporal. Essa condição não consegue ser captada pelos planejamentos de gestão florestal que se baseiam no paradigma de uma ciência racional e empírica. Apesar de haver valiosas medidas orientadas à conservação da biodiversidade florestal e previsões para lutar contra o desflorestamento ilegal, o comércio e o tráfico ilegal da fauna silvestre, as medidas para reduzir a ilegalidade ainda não são suficientes. Até o momento não existe uma orientação específica sobre o respeito à vida na floresta em todas as suas manifestações; além disso, as tentativas da conservação das espécies de flora e fauna são desarticuladas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bioethics , Forests , Forestry , Amazonian Ecosystem , Biodiversity , Ethics
5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(5): 1399-1407, sept./oct. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048947

ABSTRACT

The incorporation of the hydrogel into the substrate used in the forest nursery promotes improvements in its physical-chemical attributes. However, several factors influence the hydrogel efficiency, such as the increase of salts, promoted by fertilizer of the substrate. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of the incorporation of fertilizer levels and hydrogel doses on the physical-chemical attributes of a substrate to produce forest seedlings. Different levels of basic fertilizer commonly used in the nursery (100%, 50% and 0%) and different doses of the hydrogel (0, 1, 2 and 3 g L-1) were incorporated into the substrate Tropstrato Florestal®, consisting of 12 treatments in a 3 x 4 factorial scheme. A sample of the substrate in each treatment was sent for analysis of its physical and chemical attributes. To evaluate the effect of the treatments on the physical-chemical attributes of the substrate, was used the multivariate principal components analyses. The levels of fertilizer and hydrogel doses were correlated with the attributes of the substrates obtained in each treatment. The incorporation of different fertilizer levels and hydrogel doses to the substrate modified their chemical and physical attributes. Fertilizers have influenced mainly the chemical attributes of the substrate, whereas hydrogels have influenced the physical attributes, mainly those related to water retention capacity and availability.


A incorporação do hidrogel ao substrato utilizado no viveiro florestal promove melhorias em seus atributos físico-químicos. Porém vários fatores influenciam na eficiência do hidrogel, como o aumento de sais, promovido pela adubação do substrato. Portanto, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da incorporação de níveis de adubação e doses de hidrogel sobre os atributos físico-químicos de um substrato para a produção de mudas florestais. Foram incorporados ao substrato Tropstrato Florestal® diferentes níveis da adubação de base comumente utilizada no viveiro (100%, 50% e 0%) e diferentes doses do hidrogel (0, 1, 2 e 3 g L-1), consistindo em 12 tratamentos em esquema fatorial 3 x 4. Uma amostra do substrato em cada tratamento foi encaminhada para análise de seus atributos físicos e químicos. Para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos sobre os atributos físico-químicos do substrato foi utilizada a análise multivariada de componentes principais. Os níveis de adubação e doses de hidrogel foram correlacionados com os atributos dos substratos obtidos em cada tratamento. A incorporação de diferentes níveis de adubação e doses de hidrogel ao substrato modificaram seus atributos químicos e físicos. A adubação influenciou principalmente os atributos químicos do substrato, enquanto que o hidrogel os atributos físicos, principalmente os relacionados à capacidade de retenção e disponibilidade de água.


Subject(s)
Substrates for Biological Treatment , Forestry , Hydrogel, Polyethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate , Detention Reservoir
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(4): 1179-1187, july/aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048855

ABSTRACT

Silvopastoral system, in which trees and forage species are grown in the same area together with animals, has emerged as a sustainable alternative of agricultural production systems. However, information on different silvicultural arrangements and combinations of forest, animal and grazing components in this system are still scarce. Thus, this study followed the silvicultural performance of the forest component (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, eucalyptus hybrid, clone I-144) under different population arrangements in a silvopastoral system through periodic dendrometric evaluations and determined the impact of animal component (Nellore females) on tree development and ingestive behavior of animals subjected to rotational grazing in Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu. The study was conducted at Agropecuária Ouro Branco, located in Bandeirantes, MS, Brazil. Total height, diameter at breast height, and wood volume per hectare were evaluated in three- and five-row ranks. To indicate plant growth, the current and average annual increments werecalculated. Animal behavior was evaluated based on the periodic observation of 15 animals randomly selected in the lot. The initial performance of forest component was satisfactory in both populations, but growth indicators indicated greater current and average annual increments in the five-row rank. The presence of forest component does not interfere with the ingestive behavior and wellbeing of animals in the silvopastoral system, as well as, the presence of animal component does not interfere in the plants silvicultural development.


O sistema silvipastoril, onde espécies arbóreas e forrageiras são cultivadas em uma mesma área, conjuntamente com o componente animal, vem se despontando como uma alternativa sustentável de sistemas de produção agrícola, no entanto, informações sobre os diferentes arranjos silviculturais e combinações dos componentes arbóreo, animal e pastagem no sistema ainda são incipientes. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo acompanhar o desenvolvimento inicial do componente florestal (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, híbrido de eucalipto, clone I-144), em diferentes arranjos populacionais, em sistema silvipastoril, por meio de avaliações dendrométricas periódicas; e, determinar o impacto da inserção do componente animal(fêmeas da raça Nelore) sobre o desenvolvimento das árvores e sobre o comportamento ingestivo dos animais submetidos ao pastejo rotacionado em Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu. O estudo foi realizado na Agropecuária Ouro Branco, situada em Bandeirantes, MS. Tanto nos renques de três, como no de cinco fileiras, foram avaliados a altura total (H), diâmetro a altura do peito (DAP) e volume de madeira por hectare. Para indicar o crescimento das plantas, foram calculados o Incremento Corrente Anual (ICA) e o Incremento Médio Anual (IMA). O comportamento dos animais foi avaliado baseado na observação periódica de 15 animais selecionados aleatoriamente no lote. Verificou-se que o desempenho inicial do componente arbóreo, em ambos os arranjos populacionais, mostrou-se satisfatório, no entanto, os indicadores de crescimento, apontam para um maior incremento corrente e médio anual nas plantas dos renques com cinco fileiras. A presença do componente arbóreo não interfere no comportamento ingestivo e bem-estar dos animais locados no sistema, assim como, a presença dos animais não interfere no desenvolvimento silvicultural das plantas.


Subject(s)
Forestry , Eucalyptus , Livestock , Crop Production
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(2): 459-466, mar./apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048600

ABSTRACT

Currently, few active principles are authorized by the forest certification for the control of insect pests, with which it is necessary to develop new products, mainly aiming at lower environmental impact. The plants are able to develop substances called secondary metabolites, widely studied as an alternative form of pest control. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal potential of two Musa acuminata extracts, on the control of Atta sexdens rubropilosa. The extracts were obtained from the pseudostem of M. acuminata, which underwent drying and milling, producing two extracts: ethanolic (A1) and hydroethanolic rotaevaporate (A2) extract. For the analysis of the bioactivity of the extracts, a topical application of one milliliter of each extract on the ants was carried out, with the aid of spray, in the concentrations of: 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, and 20%, with distilled water (witness) applied to the test, analyzing the mortality and LC50, in different evaluation periods. At 24 hours the mortality of 90% at the concentration of 20% for the A1 extract was observed. From the 10% concentration there was 100% mortality in this same period for the A2 extract, and at 48 hours the 2% concentration caused 100% mortality. In the LC50 analysis for 24 hours values of 7.94 and 1.09% were obtained for ethanolic extract and rotavaporated ethanolic extract respectively. And the LC50 presented a decrease in values after 48 hours for the ethanolic extract presented value of 2.29%. Thus, it can be concluded that the A2 extract is the most efficient, since it allows the lower consumption of extract in the dilution for later application, due to the presence of insecticidal potential in low concentration.


Atualmente, poucos princípios ativos são autorizados pela certificação florestal para o controle de insetos-praga, sendo necessário desenvolver novos produtos, principalmente visando menor impacto ambiental. As plantas são capazes de desenvolver substâncias chamadas metabólitos secundários,amplamente estudadas como uma forma alternativa de controle de pragas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial inseticida de dois extratos de Musa acuminata, no controle de Atta sexdens rubropilosa. Os extratos foram obtidos a partir do pseudocaule de M. acuminata, que foi submetido a secagem e moagem, produzindo dois extratos: etanólico (A1) e hidroalcoólico rotaevaporado (A2). Para a análise da bioatividade dos extratos, foi realizada uma aplicação tópica de um mililitro de cada extrato sobre as formigas, com o auxílio de spray, nas concentrações de: 2, 6, 10, 14, 18 e 20%, com água destilada (testemunha) aplicada ao teste, verificando-se a mortalidade e a CL50, em diferentes períodos de avaliação. Às 24 horas foi observada mortalidade de 90% na concentração de 20% para o extrato A1. A partir da concentração de 10% houve 100% de mortalidade nesse mesmo período para o extrato A2, e às 48 horas a concentração de 2% causou 100% de mortalidade. Na análise da LC50 para 24 horas obteve-se valores de 7,94 e 1,09% para o extrato etanólico e o extrato rotaevaporado respectivamente. E a CL50 apresentou diminuição nos valores apartir das 48 horas para o extrato etanólico apresentando valor de 2,29%. Assim, pode-se concluir que o extrato A2 é o mais eficiente, pois permite o menor consumo de extrato na diluição para posterior aplicação, devido à presença de potencial inseticida em baixa concentração.


Subject(s)
Solid Waste , Forestry , Entomology , Insecticides
8.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 122-124, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761327

ABSTRACT

Simian malaria is a zoonotic disease caused by Plasmodium knowlesi infection. The common natural reservoir of the parasite is the macaque monkey and the vector is the Anopheles mosquito. Human cases of P. knowlesi infection has been reported in all South East Asian countries in the last decade, and it is currently the most common type of malaria seen in Malaysia and Brunei. Between 2007–2017, 73 cases of P. knowlesi infection were notified and confirmed to the Ministry of Health in Brunei. Of these, 15 cases (21%) were documented as work-related, and 28 other cases (38%) were classified as probably related to work (due to incomplete history). The occupations of those with probable and confirmed work related infections were border patrol officers, Armed Forces and security personnel, Department of Forestry officers, boatmen and researchers. The remaining cases classified as most likely not related to work were possibly acquired via peri-domestic transmission. The risk of this zoonotic infection extends to tourists and overseas visitors who have to travel to the jungle in the course of their work. It can be minimised with the recommended use of prophylaxis for those going on duty into the jungles, application of mosquito/insect repellants, and use of repellant impregnated uniforms and bed nets in jungle camp sites.


Subject(s)
Anopheles , Arm , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Brunei , Culicidae , Forestry , Haplorhini , Humans , Macaca , Malaria , Malaysia , Occupations , Parasites , Plasmodium knowlesi , Plasmodium , Zoonoses
9.
Estud. av ; 33(95): 133-149, 2019. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008308

ABSTRACT

A lenha vem sendo substituída ao longo dos anos por novas formas de energia, como o gás liquefeito de petróleo (GLP) e a eletricidade. Porém, esse combustível ainda representa uma fração significativa da matriz energética brasileira, muito embora as pesquisas referentes ao seu uso ainda sejam limitadas e regionais. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um levantamento da produção, consumo e características da lenha usada com a finalidade de cocção. De acordo com os resultados, em 2016, 26,5% da lenha produzida no Brasil foram empregados com fins residenciais, ou seja, em torno de 2x107 toneladas. A lenha é proveniente tanto da silvicultura, sendo o Paraná o maior produtor, quanto do extrativismo, sendo a Bahia a maior produtora. O estado que apresenta maior dependência desse combustível para a cocção é o Pará, enquanto o Rio de Janeiro, praticamente, não a usa para esse fim. O consumo per capita varia muito de uma região a outra do país. Com base nos dados de 2016, foi estimado um consumo de 1,7 kg/pessoa/dia. No entanto, estudos in loco mostraram variação de 0,7 a 8,5 kg/pessoa/dia. O levantamento aponta que uma parte considerável da lenha é proveniente de matas nativas que têm reflexos no desmatamento de uma dada região. A pouca disponibilidade de dados e a variação entre eles impede uma avaliação mais precisa do uso deste combustível no país e suas implicações para a saúde das florestas. A implantação de políticas públicas deveria ser prioridade do governo, pois o uso da lenha de forma inadequada afeta o manejo da vegetação nativa, além de ser uma questão socioambiental, econômica e de saúde pública.


Firewood has been replaced over the years by new forms of energy, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity. However, this fuel still accounts for a significant fraction of the Brazilian energy matrix. Research regarding its use remains limited and regional in the country. The objective of this study was survey the production, consumption and characteristics of firewood used for cooking. According to the results, in 2016 26.5% of the firewood produced in Brazil was used for residential purposes, around 2×107 metric tons. Firewood comes from both silviculture, Paraná being the largest producer, and extractivism, Bahia being the largest producer. Pará presented the greatest dependence of this fuel, while Rio de Janeiro practically does not use it for this purpose. Per capita consumption varies from one region to another. Based on data from 2016, it was estimated that consumption was 1.7 kg/person/day. In situ studies showed consumption ranges from 0.7 to 8.5 kg/person/day. The study shows an obvious reliance on native forests to obtain firewood, resulting in deforestation in some areas. The low availability of data and the variation among them prevents a better assessment of the use of this fuel in Brazil and the implications for forest health. The im-plementation of public policies should be a priority of the government, as the improper use of firewood negatively affects the management of native vegetation, as well as being a socio-environmental, economic and public health burden.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Wood , Forestry , Fuels , Conservation of Natural Resources , Extraction and Processing Industry
10.
Salud colect ; 14(4): 695-711, oct.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985866

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN En la Argentina, en las últimas décadas, la actividad forestal ha evidenciado una importante expansión promovida por el Estado a través de incentivos que alentaron la implantación de especies forestales. En este artículo se examinan las condiciones laborales de un número de trabajadores forestales de las tres principales provincias productoras de madera de la Argentina (Corrientes, Misiones y Entre Ríos). Con los datos de la Encuesta sobre Empleo, Protección Social y Condiciones de Trabajo de los Asalariados Agrarios se efectuó un procesamiento y análisis de la información referida a los trabajadores forestales de las provincias mencionadas (n=113). A su vez, la realización de entrevistas en profundidad a trabajadores (n=30) y contratistas forestales (n=8), entre 2010 y 2014, contribuyó a explicar el fenómeno estudiado en su totalidad. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que más del 50% de los trabajadores considera estar expuesto a condiciones desfavorables del medio ambiente físico de trabajo. El 16% ha tenido un accidente laboral en el último año. La alta precariedad de este tipo de empleo, sumada a las formas de contratación (tercerización), dificulta la identificación de acciones a seguir para revertir los procesos analizados.


ABSTRACT In the last decades in Argentina, forestry activity has seen an important expansion, promoted by the State through incentives encouraging the implantation of forest species. This article examines the working conditions of a number of forestry workers in the three main timber producing provinces of Argentina (Corrientes, Misiones and Entre Ríos). Using data from the Survey on Employment, Social Protection and Labor Conditions of Salaried Agricultural Workers, information on forest workers of the aforementioned provinces was processed and analyzed (n=113). In addition, in-depth interviews with workers (n=30) and forest contractors (n=8), carried out from 2010-2014, contributed to the explanation of the studied phenomenon as a whole. The results show that more than 50% of workers consider themselves exposed to unfavorable conditions in the physical working environment, with 16% having had a work accident in the last year. The high precariousness of this type of employment, in conjunction with the forms of contracting (outsourcing), makes it difficult to identify actions to be taken to reverse the processes analyzed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Accidents, Occupational/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Forestry , Argentina , Risk , Interviews as Topic
11.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(3): 1009-1017, jul.-sep. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977362

ABSTRACT

Abstract Knowledge of spatial patterns and interactions of tree species allows for understanding the ecological processes of spatiotemporal structures of tropical forests, becoming essential for the establishment of strategies for the conservation and management of their resources in the long term. The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial patterns and interactions of Astronium lecointei, Dinizia excelsa and Peltogyne paniculata, three dominant timber tree species in the Jamari National Forest, Rondônia, Brazilian Amazon. The Kernel estimator was used aiming to verify the possible influence of first-order factors on species distributions. Inhomogeneous K-functions were applied to analyze species spatial patterns and interactions by means of second-order factors. Univariate analyses revealed different scale-dependent spatial patterns for the species. Aggregation related to ecological characteristics, such as habitat preference and dispersal limitation, was verified for A. lecointei and P. paniculata. D. excelsa presented a random spatial pattern, explained by specific features of its establishment, such as the need for clearings due to light requirements. Interspecific associations were evidenced by bivariate analyses, in which spatial attraction of species resulted from the same preference for microhabitats and the repulsion was a result of niche segregation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(3): 1009-1017. Epub 2018 September 01.


Resumen El conocimiento de los patrones e interacciones espaciales de las especies arbóreas permite la comprensión de los procesos ecológicos de estructuración espacio-temporal de los bosques tropicales, tornándose imprescindible para el establecimiento de estrategias de conservación y manejo de sus recursos a largo plazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los patrones y las interacciones espaciales de Astronium lecointei, Dinizia excelsa y Peltogyne paniculata, tres especies arbóreas madereras dominantes en la Selva Nacional del Jamari, Rondônia, Amazonia Brasileña. Para ello, se utilizó el estimador Kernel, con el objetivo de verificar la posible influencia de factores de primer orden en la distribución de las especies. Para el análisis de los patrones e interacciones espaciales de las especies por medio de los factores de segundo orden, se empleó la función K no homogénea. Los análisis univariados revelaron diferentes patrones espaciales dependientes de la escala para las especies. Agregación relacionada a características ecológicas, como preferencia de hábitat y limitación de la dispersión, fue constatada para A. lecointei y P. paniculata. Dinizia excelsa presentó un patrón espacial aleatorio, explicado por características particulares de su establecimiento, como la necesidad de claros debido a sus requisitos lumínicos. Las asociaciones interespecíficas fueron evidenciadas por los análisis bivariados, en que la atracción espacial de las especies resultó de la misma preferencia por micro hábitats y la repulsión fue resultado de la segregación de nichos.


Subject(s)
Trees/growth & development , Wood , Forests , Amazonian Ecosystem , Forestry/trends , Paspalum
12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(5): 1225-1231, sept./oct. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-967310

ABSTRACT

The current success of rubber cultivation is related to the use of clones adapted to different edaphoclimatic regions. Hence, it is important to evaluate variables that are correlated with yield. However, a common problem is choosing the plot dimensions where these variables will be measured. In view of the above, the objective of this work was to evaluate the initial development of two rubber tree clones and to determine the ideal sample unit size to characterize trunk circumference, tree height and bark thickness. The variables circumference at breast height (CBH), total height (Ht) and bark thickness (BT) were measured in seven plots of 680.4 m², in addition to determining the plot size to satisfactorily sample each of the variables measured in each clone, 52 months after planting. At 52 months, clone RRIM 937 showed better development than RRIM600 in relation to the analyzed variables. The ideal sample unit size is different for the variables in the following order: trunk circumference> total height> bark thickness. The measurement of plots with 15 trees is adequate to represent the variability of the analyzed variables, considering the acceptable error of 10%.


O sucesso atual do cultivo de seringueira está relacionado ao uso de clones adaptados a diferentes regiões edafoclimáticas. Portanto, é importante avaliar as variáveis que estão correlacionadas com o rendimento. No entanto, um problema comum é escolher as dimensões da área onde essas variáveis serão medidas. Este trabalho foi conduzido com objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento inicial de dois clones de seringueira e determinar o tamanho da amostra ideal para caracterizar a circunferência do tronco, altura da árvore e espessura da casca. As variáveis circunferência na altura do peito (CBH), altura total (Ht) e espessura da casca (BT) foram medidas em sete parcelas de 680,4 m² e foi estabelecido o tamanho da parcela para amostrar satisfatoriamente cada uma das variáveis medidas em cada clone, 52 meses após o plantio. Aos 52 meses, o clone RRIM 937 apresentou melhor desenvolvimento do que RRIM600 em relação às variáveis analisadas. O tamanho ideal da unidade de amostra é diferente para as variáveis na seguinte ordem: circunferência do tronco > altura total > espessura da casca. A medida de parcelas com 15 árvores é adequada para representar a variabilidade das variáveis analisadas, considerando o erro aceitável de 10%.


Subject(s)
Forestry , Clone Cells , Hevea
13.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(3): 1182-1196, jul.-sep. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977376

ABSTRACT

Resumen En el noroeste de Argentina, los bosques subtropicales de las Yungas son de gran importancia por la gran diversidad vegetal. Las abejas melíferas (A. mellifera) utilizan estos recursos para su alimentación y en consecuencia como un servicio ecosistémico a través de la apicultura. La caracterización de la flora polinífera de una región permite conocer la fuente de alimento y definir la importancia de las diferentes especies vegetales para el desarrollo y mantenimiento de las colonias. El objetivo del presente trabajo es identificar la flora polinífera utilizada por A. mellifera en el sector oeste de las Yungas en Jujuy (Argentina) a través de la caracterización de sus cargas corbiculares y analizar las variaciones a lo largo de la primavera y verano de dos periodos productivos consecutivos. Para ello, se analizaron 14 muestras tomadas mensualmente a la largo de los periodos setiembre 2011 a marzo 2012 y setiembre 2012 a marzo de 2013. Las muestras se obtuvieron a través de trampas caza polen en las entradas de las colmenas y tratadas en el laboratorio según las técnicas convencionales de melisopalinología con posterior acetólisis. Se identificaron un total de 46 tipos polínicos pertenecientes a 25 familias botánicas. Las más importantes de acuerdo a los valores de índice de importancia de familia son: Euphorbiaceae (35.54), Fabaceae (26.27), Asteraceae (20.77), Vitaceae (16.14) y Myrtaceae (9.13). Asimismo, los principales recursos poliníferos fueron Eucalyptus, Eupatorium, Mimosa, Parapiptadenia excelsa, Sebastiania, Viguiera, Zanthoxylum, tipo Cissus y representantes de las familias Cactaceae y Euphorbiaceae. Las variaciones del índice de amplitud de nicho trófico evidencian para la zona una selección de recursos florales, donde se destaca la utilización de especies nativas. La información generada en este estudio, aporta al conocimiento del recurso ofrecido por el bosque y las especies que son de importancia para la producción apícola. Además, de contribuir a potenciar la producción y comercialización de este producto a partir de su valor agregado, permitiendo a los apicultores un buen manejo de las colmenas.


Abstract In Northwest Argentina, Yungas subtropical forests are very important because of their huge vegetal diversity. Honeybees (A. mellifera) use these resources to feed and therefore as an ecosystemic service through beekeeping. The characterization of pollen flora of a region allows getting to know the food source and defining the importance of different plant species for colonies development and maintenance. The aim of the present study is to identify the pollen flora used by A. mellifera in the Yungas Western area in Jujuy (Argentina) by means of their pollen loads characterization and to analyze the variations of two consecutive productive periods throughout spring and summer. To do this, 14 samples taken monthly were analyzed over the periods from September 2011 to March 2012 and September 2012 to March 2013. The samples were obtained from pollen traps at the entrances of the hives and were treated in the laboratory under conventional melisopalinology techniques with subsequent acetolysis. A total of 46 pollen types belonging to 25 botanical families were identified. The most important ones according to the family importance index are Euphorbiaceae (35.54), Fabaceae (26.27), Asteraceae (20.77), Vitaceae (16.14), Myrtaceae (9.13). Zanthoxylum, Sebastiania, Mimosa, Euphorbiaceae, Cactaceae, Parapiptadenia excelsa, Eupatorium, Cissus, Eucalyptus y Viguiera were identified as dominant resources. The variations of the breadth Index trophic niche show a floral resources selection for the area, where the use of native species stands out. The information produced in this study contributes to the knowledge of the resource offered by the forest and the species that are important for beekeeping production. Besides, it contributes to enhance the production and marketing of this product from its added value, allowing beekeepers a good management of hives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(3): 1182-1196. Epub 2018 September 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Argentina , Pollen , Bees , Diet , Pollination , Beekeeping , Forestry
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(2): 863-879, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977351

ABSTRACT

Resumen La Selva Baja Caducifolia (SBC) es de gran importancia por su biodiversidad. En el Istmo-Costa de Oaxaca, México, se encuentran áreas con SBC y distinta categoría de protección (legislación mexicana): (1) Área Natural Protegida (ANP), (2) Área Destinada Voluntariamente para la Conservación (ADVC) y (3) Área de Uso Común (ADUC). En cada una de ellas se analizó la estructura de vegetación leñosa, plantas con DAP ≥ 2.5 cm, muestreando 15 parcelas de 100 m2. La riqueza observada fue de 90 especies incluidas en 36 familias y corresponde al 80 % (Jackknife) y 85 % (ICE) de la esperada. El análisis de agrupamiento identificó dos grupos con 90 % de disimilitud: el primero (G1) incluyó a todas las parcelas muestreadas del ANP; y el segundo (G2) aglomeró las del ADVC y ADUC. Los índices de Shannon, dominancia de Simpson y diversidad verdadera de Jost para el G1 fueron H'= 2.43, D= 0.21 y qD= 11 y para el G2, H'= 2.76, D= 0.28 y qD= 15, sin diferencias entre grupos (P < 0.05). Las especies con Valor de Importancia Relativa más elevado, en ambos grupos, corresponden a vegetación secundaria. La densidad de especies del G1 fue de 1 829 ind/ha y en el G2 de 2 370 ind/ha. Los promedios de altura (6.8 m) y área basal (19.7 m2/ha) del G1 no variaron significativamente (P < 0.05) con los del G2 (7.9 m y 22.1 m2/ha). Las ADVC y ADUC, semejantes en composición y estructura, difieren del ANP. Se sugiere seguir monitoreando la SBC.


Abstract Tropical dry forest (TDF) is important due to its biodiversity. In the Isthmus-Coastal region of the state of Oaxaca, in Southeast Mexico, there are many areas of TDF with varying categories of legal protection (1) Protected Natural Areas (PNA), (2) Voluntarily Designated Conservation Areas (VDCA) and (3) Areas of Common Use (ACU). In each of these, tree vegetation structure was analysed, recording plants with a DBH ≥ 2.5 cm and sampling 15 plots of 100 m2. Observed richness was 90 species, belonging to 36 families and corresponding to 80 % (Jackknife) and 85 % (ICE) of expected richness. A cluster analysis identified two groups with 90 % dissimilitude: the first (G1) included all the sampled plots in the PNA; and the second (G2), grouped together those from the VDCA and the ACU. The Shannon, Simpson dominance and Jost true diversity indices for G1 were H'= 2.43, D= 0.21 and qD= 11 and for G2, H'= 2.76, D= 0.28 and qD= 15 respectively, with no differences between groups (P < 0.05). The species that presented the highest relative importance value (RIV) in both groups, corresponded to secondary vegetation. Species density of G1 was 1 829 ind/ha and 2 370 ind/ha for G2. Mean height (6.8 m) and basal area (19.7 m2/ha) of G1 did not vary significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to G2 (7.9 m y 22.1 m2/ha). The VDCA and ACU presented similar composition and structure, differing from the PNA. Continual monitoring of the TDF is suggested. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(2): 863-879. Epub 2018 June 01.


Subject(s)
Soil , Trees/classification , Forestry/classification , Endangered Species/statistics & numerical data , Conservation of Natural Resources/statistics & numerical data , Protected Areas/analysis , Ecological and Environmental Phenomena , Mexico
15.
Acta amaz ; 48(1): 10-17, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-885982

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Planting of forest species of timber interest helps to reduce the deforestation pressure on the Amazon forest, promotes sustainable development of the producing region and generates ecological benefits. The objective of this work was to evaluate the survival rate and growth of four native (Swietenia macrophylla, Parkia decussata, Dipteryx odorata and Jacaranda copaia) and one exotic (Acacia mangium) species in monospecific plantations (spacing of 2 x 2 m) established on areas previously used for grazing, in Itacoatiara, State of Amazonas, Brazil. When the trees were four years old, we collected biometric data [height at 1.30 m (DBH, cm), crown projection area (CPA, m2), total height (Ht, m), commercial cylinder volume (Vcyl, m3 ha-1)], and qualitative data from visual diagnosis [survival rate (S, %), nutritional status (NS, G = good, D = deficient, %), and phytosanitary status (PS, S = satisfactory, N = non-satisfactory, %)]. Three plots of 128 m2, with 32 plants each, were evaluated for each species. Jacaranda copaia, followed by Dipteryx odorata and Parkia decussata, were the recommended species for planting in areas with edaphoclimatic conditions similar to those of the present work, due to their better performance according to most of the variables.


RESUMO Plantios de espécies florestais de interesse madeireiro contribuem para diminuir a pressão sobre a floresta amazônica, proporcionam o desenvolvimento sustentável na região e geram benefícios ecológicos. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a sobrevivência e o crescimento de quatro espécies nativas (Swietenia macrophylla, Parkia decussata, Dipteryx odorata e Jacaranda copaia) e uma exótica (Acacia mangium), em plantios monoespecíficos (espaçamento de 2 x 2 m) estabelecidos em áreas anteriormente ocupadas por pastagem, em Itacoatiara, Amazonas. Aos quatro anos de idade, foram obtidos dados biométricos [diâmetro à altura de 1,30 m do solo (DBH, cm), área de projeção de copa (CPA, m2), altura total (Ht, m), volume comercial do cilindro (Vcyl, m3 ha-1)], e dados qualitativos obtidos por diagnose visual [taxa de sobrevivência (S; %), estado nutricional (NS, G: bom; D: deficiente; %) e estado fitossanitário (PS, S: satisfatório; NS: não-satisfatório; %). Para cada espécie considerou-se três parcelas de 128 m2, cada uma com 32 plantas. Jacaranda copaia, seguida de Dipteryx odorata e Parkia decussata, foram as espécies mais recomendadas para o plantio em áreas com condições edafoclimáticas semelhantes às do presente trabalho, devido ao seu melhor desempenho para a maioria das variáveis.


Subject(s)
Rainforest , Forestry
16.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 295-309, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886909

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Accurate forest inventory is of great economic importance to optimize the entire supply chain management in pulp and paper companies. The aim of this study was to estimate stand dominate and mean heights (HD and HM) and tree density (TD) of Pinus taeda plantations located in South Brazil using in-situ measurements, airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and the non- k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) imputation. Forest inventory attributes and LiDAR derived metrics were calculated at 53 regular sample plots and we used imputation models to retrieve the forest attributes at plot and landscape-levels. The best LiDAR-derived metrics to predict HD, HM and TD were H99TH, HSD, SKE and HMIN. The Imputation model using the selected metrics was more effective for retrieving height than tree density. The model coefficients of determination (adj.R2) and a root mean squared difference (RMSD) for HD, HM and TD were 0.90, 0.94, 0.38m and 6.99, 5.70, 12.92%, respectively. Our results show that LiDAR and k-NN imputation can be used to predict stand heights with high accuracy in Pinus taeda. However, furthers studies need to be realized to improve the accuracy prediction of TD and to evaluate and compare the cost of acquisition and processing of LiDAR data against the conventional inventory procedures.


Subject(s)
Trees/growth & development , Models, Statistical , Pinus taeda/growth & development , Remote Sensing Technology/methods , Algorithms , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Environmental Monitoring/statistics & numerical data , Forestry/methods , Data Accuracy
17.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 255-265, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886904

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study focuses on the effects of different thinning regimes on clonal Eucalyptus plantations growth. Four different trials, planted in 1999 and located in Bahia and Espírito Santo States, were used. Aside from thinning, initial planting density, and post thinning fertilization application were also evaluated. Before canopy closure, and therefore before excessive competition between trees took place, it was found that stands planted under low densities (667 trees per hectare) presented a lower mortality proportion when compared to stand planted under higher densities (1111 trees per hectare). However, diameter growth prior to thinning operations was not statistically different between these two densities, presenting an overall mean of 4.9 cm/year. After canopy closure and the application of the thinning treatments, it was found that thinning regimes beginning early in the life of the stand and leaving a low number of residual trees presented the highest diameter and height growth. Unthinned treatments and thinning regimes late in the life of the stand (after 5.5 years), leaving a large number of residual trees presented the highest values of basal area production. The choice of the best thinning regime for Eucalyptus clonal material will vary according to the plantation objective.


Subject(s)
Wood/growth & development , Forestry , Eucalyptus/growth & development , Fertilizers , Time Factors , Wood/anatomy & histology , Brazil , Eucalyptus/anatomy & histology
18.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 5(2): 136-150, 2018. ^c27 cmilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-987186

ABSTRACT

The Northern Humid Guatemalan Lowlands contains a significant diversity of tree species, including some valuable-timber producers; these species are threatened by commercial overexploitation and habitat loss due to deforestation. The cultivation of these species in forest and agroforest plantations is a potentially viable option for balancing their conservation and commercial harvesting, something that has been promoted with Government Incentives in Guatemala during the past two decades. However, these species have not been widely planted, among other constraints, because knowledge on their ecological requirements and silviculture is scarce. A characterization of monoculture and mixed plantations with 14 native valuable-timber species was made in the Humid Lowlands of Northern Guatemala, analyzing for each species frequency of association and accompanying species, planted area, the main ecological features and growth rates. To gather information, we combined field observation and measurements with interviews and literature review. Based on our survey, main management challenges for cultivation of the species were identified and described. Valuable-timber native trees could potentially be sustainably cultivated in the study zone in different types of forest plantations and agroforestry schemes of coffee, cacao, cardamom and cattle; considering their suitability to fit in diversified systems, growth performance and farmer's preferences, Swietenia macrophylla, Cedrela odorata, Tabebuia donnell-smithii, Calophyllum brasiliense and Cordia alliodora were the species with the higher potential for inclusion in plantations. However, several unsolved problems continue restricting the cultivation of these species in plantations; therefore, is essential a careful design and management.


Las Tierras Bajas y Húmedas del Norte de Guatemala contienen diversidad relevante de especies arbóreas, incluyendo algunas de madera valiosa; estas especies están amenazadas por sobre explotación comercial de su madera y deforestación. El cultivo de estas especies en plantaciones forestales y agroforestales es una opción potencialmente viable para equilibrar su conservación y aprovechamiento, lo cual ha sido promovido en Guatemala durante las dos décadas pasadas. Sin embargo, estas especies no se cultivan extensivamente, entre otras limitantes, debido al escaso conocimiento sobre su ecología y silvicultura. Se caracterizaron plantaciones puras y mixtas con 14 especies nativas maderables valiosas en Tierras Bajas y Húmedas del Norte de Guatemala, analizando para cada especie, presencia de especies, superficies plantadas, rasgos ecológicos y crecimiento. Para obtener información se combinó observaciones de campo, mediciones, entrevistas, consultas de archivo y revisión bibliográfica. Se identifican y describen los principales desafíos de manejo para cultivar las especies. Las especies nativas de madera valiosa podrían potencialmente ser cultivadas de manera sostenible, en diferentes tipos de plantación forestal y agroforestal con café, cacao, cardamomo y ganadería; considerando idoneidad para encajar en sistemas diversificados, tasas de crecimiento y preferencias de productores, Swietenia macrophylla, Cedrela odorata, Tabebuia donnell-smithii, Calophyllum brasiliense y Cordia alliodora fueron las especies que mostraron mayor potencialidad para ser incluidas en plantaciones en la zona. Sin embargo, aún persisten diferentes aspectos no resueltos que limitan el cultivo de estas especies en plantación, requiriéndose un cuidadoso diseño y manejo.


Subject(s)
Endangered Species/statistics & numerical data , Natural Resources Exploitation/adverse effects , Wood/economics , Agricultural Cultivation , Forestry/economics
19.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 5(2): 182-188, 2018. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-987196

ABSTRACT

El presente reporte de caso tuvo como objetivo generar el modelo de negocios para el pinabete (Abies guatemalensis Rehder) en restauración, no se pretende hacer un análisis profundo de la producción de árboles de pinabete, únicamente mostrar que la producción se puede combinar con la conservación. En la región alta del altiplano occidental de Guatemala hay muchas tierras degradadas fuera de bosques, donde la sucesión vegetal ha promovido el crecimiento de especies arbustivas, útiles como nodrizas en el establecimiento de pinabete para protegerlas de heladas y lograr establecimiento mayor a 80 %, lo cual ya se ha puesto en práctica por varios silvicultores locales. Se realizó un análisis técnico financiero sobre la producción de pinabete con doble propósito: especie comercial y para la restauración de áreas degradadas. El modelo de negocios se estableció para 0.25 ha, con un precio de venta por árbol de Q. 300, con y sin incentivos forestales, considerando establecer previamente plantas arbustivas. Los resultados indican que con una inversión de Q. 45,227 durante ocho años a una tasa de descuento del 13 %, el Valor Actual Neto (VAN) toma valores entre Q. 398,576 a 742,020 con una Tasa Interna de Rendimiento (TIR) entre 30 y 50 %. A la vez se preparó un plan de negocios utilizando la metodología Canvas, que establece un plan estratégico que permite visualizar lo que actualmente se está realizando y qué situaciones hay que mejorar. El modelo propuesto puede utilizarse de una forma mixta para la conservación al dejar al menos un 30 % de los árboles, la otra parte se puede utilizar para comercialización a partir del octavo al 12do año de forma sostenible.


The present case study aimed to generate the business model for the Guatemalan fir (Abies guatemalensis Rehder) under restoration process. In the highlands of the altiplano region in western Guatemala there are many degraded lands outside of forests, where the ecological succession has promoted the growth of shrub species that help to the establishment of the fir and to protect it from frost. This condition also helped the specie to achieve more than 80 % of survival rate. The method has been implemented by several local silvicultors. A technical and financial analysis was carried out on the production of fir with two objectives: production of commercial Christmas trees and for the restoration of degraded areas. The business model was established for an area of 0.25 ha, with an estimated market price per tree of Q. 300, with and without forestry incentives, assuming previously establish shrub plants. The results indicate that with an investment of Q. 45,227 for eight years at a discount rate of 13 %, the Net Present Value (NPV) takes values between Q. 398,576 to 742,020 with an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) ranging between 30 and 50 %. At the same time, a business plan was prepared using the Canvas methodology, which establishes a strategic plan that allows visualizing what is currently being done and what areas need improvement. The proposed model can be used in a mixed way for conservation by leaving at least 30 % of the trees; the other part can be used for trading the trees from the eighth to the twelfth years old in a sustainable way.


Subject(s)
Abies , Environmental Restoration and Remediation , Trees/growth & development , Forestry/economics , Endangered Species/trends
20.
Cienc. Trab ; 19(60): 157-165, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-890086

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: 24. Los conductores de transporte forestal trabajan por largos períodos de tiempo, lo que implica un incremento de fatiga y que, sumado a factores tanto personales como del medio, afectan la capacidad de respuesta ante reacciones inmediatas, pudiendo desencadenar eventos indeseados en la conducción. Por esto, se hace necesario indagar respecto a la personali dad de los individuos y su relación con el comportamiento que manifies tan en su entorno laboral. Se realizó un estudio en 2 empresas del rubro transporte forestal, con el objetivo de analizar la relación entre factores de riesgo psicosocial, el nivel de rasgos de personalidad que poseen los conductores y su posible efecto sobre la accidentabilidad. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 62 conductores, agrupados en dos clasificaciones, según condición de accidentabilidad, en accidentados y no accidentados. Se evaluó el riesgo psicosocial mediante el cuestionario SUSESO/ISTAS 21, y para los rasgos de personalidad, autoestima, impulsividad, locus de control y tensión se utilizaron test especializados; además, se realizó un registro sociodemográfico. Los resultados de la evaluación de riesgo psicosocial determinaron que ambas empresas estaban expuestas a ries go bajo. Según condición de accidentabilidad, en ambos grupos se obtuvo igual nivel de autoestima y prevaleció la ausencia de estrés. Para la condición con accidente, la tendencia fue a la manifestación de nive les altos de impulsividad; y, para la condición sin accidente, a presentar locus de control externo. Se determinaron diferencias significativas, según condición de accidentabilidad, solo en la dimensión de riesgo psicosocial trabajo activo y desarrollo de habilidades. Para el grupo con accidentes, trabajo activo y desarrollo de habilidades fue la dimensión que presentó un mayor número de correlaciones significativas, tanto con otras dimensiones de riesgo psicosocial, así como también con estrés percibido; en cambio, en el grupo sin accidentes, el mayor número de correlaciones significativas se presentó entre doble presencia y los rasgos de personalidad impulsividad, locus de control y tensión.


ABSTRACT: 29. The drivers of forestry transport work for long periods of time, which implies an increase in fatigue and which, added to both personal and environmental factors, affect the ability to respond to immediate reactions, which can trigger unwanted driving events. Therefore, it is necessary to inquire about the personality of individuals and their relationship with the behavior they manifest in their work environ ment. A study was carried out in 2 companies in the forest transport sector, with the aim of analyzing the relationship between psycho social risk factors, the level of personality traits that drivers have and their possible effect on accident rates. The sample consisted of 62 drivers, grouped into two classifications, depending on accident conditions, in accidents and not accidents. Psychosocial risk was assessed using the SUSESO/ISTAS 21 questionnaire, and specialized tests were used for personality trais, self-esteem, impulsivity, locus of control and tension; In addition, a sociodemographic record was made. The results of the psychosocial risk assessment determined that both companies were exposed to low risk. Depending on acci dent condition, in both groups the same level of self-esteem was obtained and the absence of stress prevailed. For the accident condi tion, the tendency was to manifest high levels of impulsivity; and, for the condition without accident, to present locus of external control. Significant differences were determined, according to the accident rate, only in the psychosocial risk dimension, active work and skills development. For the group with accidents, active work and skills development, it was the dimension that presented a greater number of significant correlations, both with other dimen sions of psychosocial risk, as well as with perceived stress; however, in the group without accidents, the greatest number of significant correlations occurred between double presence and personality traits impulsivity, locus of control and tension.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Personality , Automobile Driving , Accidents, Occupational/statistics & numerical data , Forestry , Socioeconomic Factors , Forests , Chile , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Motor Vehicles , Impulsive Behavior , Internal-External Control
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