Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 423
Filter
1.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 875-878, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339975

ABSTRACT

Resumo A partir de contribuições teóricas do campo da história das ciências, o presente texto debate aspectos das etapas das pandemias entendidas como fenômeno social e como tem ocorrido o processo de interiorização da covid-19 na Amazônia. A chegada da doença aos vastos territórios da floresta tem deixado mais evidente o processo de acesso diferenciado à saúde pública, com concentração de serviços e profissionais nas maiores cidades da região Norte. O crescimento dos índices do coronavírus na floresta evidencia, portanto, as desigualdades sociais históricas da região e os problemas no acesso à cidadania na sociedade brasileira.


Abstract This text uses theoretical contributions from the history of science to discuss aspects of the stages of pandemics understood as social phenomena and how covid-19 moved into the interior of the Amazon region. The arrival of this disease in the vast forest territory made differentiated access to public health more evident, with services and professionals concentrated in the larger cities in the north of Brazil. The rise in coronavirus rates within the forest consequently highlights the history of social inequalities in the region and problems accessing citizenship in Brazilian society.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Forests , Pandemics/history , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Poverty , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Indians, South American , Public Health/history , Cities , Influenza, Human/etiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 665-674, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1278354

ABSTRACT

The objective was to test the response of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu in monoculture and in silvopastoral system (SPS), at two distances from the trees, and define the best defoliation height for SPS. Four intermittent defoliation heights (25, 35, 45 and 55cm) and two distances from tree lines (2.5 and 5.0m) were evaluated in the SPS with a control defoliated with 25cm in full sun. The experiment was performed in a randomized block design with 3 replicates in a 4 × 2 + 1 split plot scheme. The control had higher forage accumulation (46.9kg/ha. day) than the SPS (31.1kg/ha. day). The bulk density was also higher in the control (0.89mg/cm³) than in SPS (0.48mg/cm³). The percentage of leaves (78.06%) and leaf/stem ratio (6.04) did not differ among the treatments. In the SPS, there was an increase of 31.07% in forage accumulation from 25 to 55cm. The forage accumulation and bulk density of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu in monoculture is greater than in the SPS regardless of the management goal and the distance from trees. The goal of 55cm in the SPS presented greater forage accumulation.(AU)


O objetivo foi testar a resposta de pastos de Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu em monocultivo e em sistema silvipastoril (SSP), a diferentes distâncias das árvores, bem como definir qual altura de desfolhação é a mais indicada para manejo em SPS. Foram avaliadas quatro alturas de desfolhação intermitente (25, 35, 45 e 55cm) e duas distâncias das linhas de árvores (2,5 e 5,0m), no SPS, e uma testemunha desfolhada com 25cm, em pleno sol. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas 4 × 2 + 1. O controle apresentou maior acúmulo de forragem (46,9kg/ha.dia) que a média do SSP (31,1kg/ha.dia). A densidade volumétrica da forragem do controle (0,89mg/cm³) foi maior que a do SSP (0,48mg/cm³). A porcentagem de folhas (78,06%) e a relação folha/colmo (6,04) não diferiram entre os tratamentos. O aumento das alturas de 25 para 55cm no SSP resultou em aumento de 31,07% no acúmulo de forragem. O acúmulo e a densidade volumétrica da forragem são maiores no monocultivo, independentemente da meta de manejo e da distância das árvores no sistema silvipastoril. A meta de 55cm no silvipastoril apresenta maior acúmulo de forragem.(AU)


Subject(s)
Plant Leaves/growth & development , Brachiaria/growth & development , Agricultural Cultivation , Forests
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 703-710, May-June 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1278363

ABSTRACT

Aiming to compare integrated crop, livestock (ICL) and forest (ICLF) systems in relation to ingestive behavior of dairy heifers, a 2 × 2 crossover trial was conducted with two periods and two systems. Eight Girolando (3/4holstein × 1/4 Gyr) heifers were evaluated in pasture of Xaraés palisade grass (Urochloa brizantha 'Xaraes' syn Brachiaria brizantha) managed with intermittent stocking. The ICLF systemhad eucalyptus trees planted in tiers with 65% crown cover. Ingestive behavior parameters were obtained using acoustic data collected with mP3 recorders for 48hours. Statistical analysis was performed using the mixed procedure of SAS, and means were compared using the Tukey-Kramer test at 5% significance. The dry mater intake (DMI), number of daily grazing sessions, and the duration of the grazing sessions did not differ (P<0.05) between systems. A higher (P<0.05) bite rate and total daily bites and lower (P<0.05) bite mass was observed in the ICLF system in relation to ICL. Heifers in shaded pasture change their ingestive behavior in comparison with those in full-sun pasture.(AU)


Com o objetivo de comparar sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária (ILP) e lavoura-pecuária-floresta (ILPF) em relação ao comportamento ingestivo de novilhas leiteiras, conduziu-se um ensaio em delineamento crossover 2 × 2, com dois períodos e dois sistemas. Oito novilhas Girolando foram mantidas em pastagens de capim-xaraés (Urochloa brizantha 'Xaraes' syn Brachiaria brizantha) manejadas com lotação intermitente. No sistema ILPF, havia renques de eucalipto com 65% de cobertura de copa. O comportamento ingestivo foi avaliado pela análise de áudios coletados com gravadores de Mp3, durante 48 horas. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas utilizando-se Proc mixed SAS. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey-Kramer, ao nível de 5% de significância. A ingestão de matéria seca (IMS), o número de sessões de pastejo por dia e a duração das sessões de pastejo não diferiram (P<0,05) entre os sistemas. As maiores (P<0,05) médias de taxa de bocado e de número de bocados por dia e a menor (P<0,05) média de massa de bocado foram observadas no ILPF quando comparado ao ILP. Novilhas em pastagem sombreada alteram seu comportamento ingestivo quando comparadas àquelas que são mantidas em pastagem a pleno sol.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Animal Husbandry/methods , Agricultural Cultivation , Forests
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e03232020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143880

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Rhodnius domesticus Neiva & Pinto, 1923 is a rare sylvatic triatomine endemic to the Atlantic Forest, with one known record for Espírito Santo (ES), Brazil from 1969. We present here its rediscovery in ES, 42 years after its first record. METHODS: In January 2011, a triatomine specimen was collected from a rural area of the municipality of Santa Teresa, ES. RESULTS: We confirmed this as a new record of R. domesticus in the Baixo Caldeirão locality. CONCLUSIONS: This finding supports the possibility of a wild population of R. domesticus in the mountainous region of the Atlantic forest of ES.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rhodnius , Triatominae , Brazil , Forests
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210064, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279459

ABSTRACT

Unforeseen Plasmodium infections in the Atlantic Forest of Brazilian Extra-Amazonian region could jeopardise malaria elimination. A human malaria case was registered in Três Forquilhas, in the Atlantic Forest biome of Rio Grande do Sul, after a 45 years' time-lapsed without any malaria autochthonous notification in this southern Brazilian state. This finding represents the expansion of the malaria distribution areas in Brazil and the southernmost human malaria case record in South America in this decade. The coexistence of the bromeliad-breeding vector Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii and non-human primates in the Atlantic Forest regularly visited by the patient claimed for the zoonotic origin of this infection. The reemergence of Atlantic Forest human malaria in Rio Grande do Sul was also discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Malaria/epidemiology , Anopheles , Brazil/epidemiology , Forests , Mosquito Vectors
6.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e210098, 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | ID: biblio-1346607

ABSTRACT

The expansion of agriculture in the southeast Amazon-Savanah transitional area has greatly decreased forest cover and influenced stream structure and functioning. We assessed the effects of forest cover loss on the integrity of streams by assessing stream physical conditions and the taxonomic and functional diversity of fish assemblages in this transitional area. We hypothesize that low forest cover, especially adjacent to streams, results in poor physical conditions (e.g., warmer temperatures, less physical structure, etc.), which in turn will decrease the taxonomic and functional diversity of fish assemblages. We detected that loss of forest cover negatively affects natural stream conditions and reduces the functional diversity of fish assemblages, but we did not find a strong effect on taxonomic diversity. Ambush and stalking predators, diurnal surface pickers (groups that exhibit opportunistic life history strategies), grazers, pickers, and browsers (groups that exhibit equilibrium life history strategies) were the functional groups with the strongest relation to altered environments. These groups can explore different niches, both with natural characteristics or altered by human activities. Our results suggest that the preservation of riparian zones can minimize the loss of specialized fish species in assemblages of Amazon-Savannah stream systems.(AU)


A expansão da agricultura na área de transição Amazônia-Savana diminuiu muito a cobertura florestal, influenciando a estrutura e o funcionamento dos sistemas de riachos. Avaliamos o efeito da perda de cobertura florestal na integridade dos riachos avaliando as condições físicas do ambiente e a diversidade taxonômica e funcional das assembleias de peixes nesta área de transição. Nossa hipótese é que a baixa cobertura florestal, especialmente adjacente ao riacho, resulta em más condições físicas (por exemplo, temperaturas mais quentes, e menos estrutura física) o que por sua vez diminuirá os valores da diversidade taxonômica e funcional das assembleias de peixes. Detectamos que a perda de cobertura florestal afeta negativamente as condições naturais e reduz a diversidade funcional das assembleias de peixes, mas não encontramos um efeito para a diversidade taxonômica. Predadores de emboscada e espreita, catadores de superfície diurnos, pastores, catadores e navegadores foram os grupos funcionais que tiveram a relação mais forte com ambientes alterados. Esses grupos podem explorar diferentes nichos, tanto com características naturais quanto alterados pela ação antrópica. Nossos resultados sugerem a preservação da zona ripária a fim de evitar a perda de espécies especializadas das assembleias de peixes de riachos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Amazonian Ecosystem , Conservation of Natural Resources , Agriculture , Environment , Fishes , Forests
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21210005, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339320

ABSTRACT

Abstract Urbanization changes natural environments making them inhospitable to autochthonous fauna. However, studies have shown that certain groups and animal species tolerate urban habitat or even benefit from it as is the case of some bats. This study assesses the diversity of bats in Curitiba, Southern Brazil, providing a basis for the discussion on their conservation, management, ecological services provide, and the critical evaluation of their role in the zoonoses of interest for public health. The data was compiled from a combination of museum, historical and recent literature (1824 to 2020), records to identify which bat species have actually been captured or recorded in Curitiba. The results indicate 29 species (five of them threatened with extinction) from four families: Phyllostomidae, Noctilionidae, Molossidae and Vespertilionidae. Insectivorous bats (Molossidae and Vespertilionidae) represent 62.1% of the species recorded; and the primarily frugivorous (Phyllostomidae) 24.1%, followed by nectarivorous/polinivorous species (6.9%), insectivorous/frugivorous (ca. 3.4%) and piscivorous/insectivorous (ca. 3.4%). Fruit-eating batsseem to prefer urban green areas while insectivores tend to occupy human-made structures. Our results show that this high-growth potential diversity bears both a numerical and ecological relevance. It is worth remembering that Curitiba is in Brazil's subtropical area, where the richness of bat species is lower, and the predominant species are different from those in the tropical region of the country. Finally, studies on the natural history of bats (feeding, reproduction, roosting, etc.) in Curitiba are scarce and urgently necessary given to the current pandemic scenario where these traditionally stigmatized animals have been even more depreciated by public opinion.


Subject(s)
Forests , Biodiversity , Araucaria , Brazil , Chiroptera
8.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 24-42, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1348445

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de la investigación fue identificar la riqueza de especies de árboles en etapas de sucesión ecoló-gica de áreas perturbadas del ecosistema bosque tropical montano nuboso (btmn) del altiplano occidental de Guatemala. Con el propósito de generar un registro de referencia para promover acciones de restauración ecológica. El btmn provee de agua para consumo humano a diez etnias mayas y población mestiza. La presión por deforestación y cambio de uso de la tierra por demanda de leña, madera, pastoreo y agricultura, ha generado fragmentación y deterioro de su composición y estructura. Se delimitó como área de estudio el territorio de sierra de Los Cuchumatanes y Cadena Volcánica Occidental con cotas superiores a 2,400 m s. n. m. Se seleccionaron 37 sitios con cuatro etapas de sucesión ecológica denominadas de plántula, brinzal, latizal, fustal y bosque maduro. Se evaluó la presencia y densidad de especies de árboles, en transectos de 2 x 50 m, para definir comunidades florísticas para cada etapa de sucesión ecológica. Se encontró una riqueza de 67 especies de árboles en las 16 comunidades florísticas diferenciadas, de ellas 40 especies promisorias para restauración. Significa que el 60% de la diversidad arbórea del btmn es apta para promover acciones efectivas para su restauración, conocimiento clave para reorientar los planes orientados al establecimiento de plantaciones de coníferas con fines maderables que impulsa el estado guatemalteco para restaurar este ecosistema.


The goal in this investigation was to identify the richness species of trees in stages of ecological succesion in perturbed areas of the tropical montane cloud forest (tmcf's) ecosistem in Guatemala ́s western plateau. The intentionally is to generate a reference registration to promote ecological restoration actions, which supply clean water to teen Mayan ethnic groups and mestizo population. However, this forest is being affected due to change of land use for cattle, agriculture, firewood a timber, which has generated fragmentation and deterioration in its composition and structure. The territory of Sierra de los Cuchumatanes and Western Volcanic Chain was de-limited as a study area with dimensions above 2,400 m a. s. l. 37 places with four stages of ecological succession of plantula, brinzal, latizal, fustal and mature forest were selected. The presence and density of trees species was evaluated in 2x50 m transect, to define floristic communities in each stage of ecological succession. In the 16 floristic communities differentiated was found 67 trees species and 40 of them are promising to restoration. This mean that the 60% of the arboreal wealth richness in the tmcf's is suitable to promote effective restoration deeds, this knowledge is the key to update plans to establishment coniferous plantations for timber purposes, promoted by Guatemalan State to assist in the recovery of this ecosystem.


Subject(s)
Trees/classification , Forests , Biodiversity , Water , Conservation of Natural Resources
9.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 43-56, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1352952

ABSTRACT

La fenología estudia los cambios estacionales en los ciclos de vida de los organismos. Una utilidad de la fenología, es que permite establecer periodos en que se pueden colectar semillas para programas de restauración ecológica. Por lo que, de abril de 2017 a mayo de 2019, en el volcán Tacaná, San Marcos, Guatemala, se estableció la estaciona-lidad, variación anual, sincronía, intensidad y duración de las fenofases reproductivas de Prunus lundelliana Standl. Aproximadamente cada 15 días, en 10 individuos se registró la presencia e intensidad de las flores (botones y abiertas) y frutos (inmaduros y maduros). Los datos se analizaron con estadística circular, encontrándose que todas la fenofases fueron estacionales y que solo el patrón de los frutos inmaduros varió significativamente entre los dos periodos. La sincronía fue principalmente alta y la intensidad no superó el 40%. En ambos periodos las intensidades menores las presentaron los frutos maduros (17 y 25%). Los índices de actividad e intensidad se correlacionaron significativamente, por lo que los ángulos medios fueron semejantes en las fenofases y periodos de estudio. Los picos de actividad-in-tensidad de las flores abiertas y de los frutos maduros ocurrieron durante los meses secos (noviembre-abril), patrón que se ha registrado en otros bosques nubosos. La duración de las fenofases varió entre 2.5-3.5 meses, siendo la más pequeña la de frutos maduros. Para fines de manejo, la colecta de frutos maduros puede hacerse desde mediados de marzo hasta finales de mayo, sin embargo, se sugiere hacerlo principalmente entre el 15 de abril y el 15 de mayo.


Phenology studies the seasonal changes in the life cycle of organisms. Phenological data allow to set the periods in which the seeds can be collected for ecological restoration programs. From April, 2017 to May, 2019, in Taca-ná volcano, San Marcos, Guatemala, it was established the seasonality, annual variation, synchrony, intensity, and duration of the reproductive phenophases of Prunus lundelliana Standl. About every 15 days, 10 individuals were observed and it was recorded the presence and intensity of flowers (buds and blossom flowers) and fruits (immature and mature fruits). The data was analyzed with circular statistics, finding that all the phenophases were seasonally distributed and only the immature fruits pattern significantly variated between the two periods. The synchrony was mainly high and the intensity did not exceed 40%. In both of the study periods, the lesser intensities were presented by the mature fruits (17 and 25%). The activity and intensity indexes were significantly correlated; therefore the mid angles were alike in the phenophases and study periods. The activity-intensity highs of blossom flowers and of mature fruits happened in the dry months (November to April), a pattern that has been registered in other cloud forests. The duration of the phenophases ranged from 2.5 to 3.5 months, being the shortest the mature fruits phenophase. For environmental management purposes, the collection of mature fruits can be done from the middle of March to the end of May, nonetheless, it should be done mainly between April 15th and May 15th.


Subject(s)
Trees/growth & development , Forests , Prunus/growth & development , Seeds , Endangered Species , Volcanoes , Flowers/growth & development , Fruit , Guatemala
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879110

ABSTRACT

The ecological environment is closely related to the growth and quality of authentic medicinal materials. Ginseng is very strict with its natural environment and grows mostly in the damp valleys of forests, and the appearance and chemical composition of ginseng under different growth environments are very different. This article reviews the effects of different ecological factors(including light, temperature, altitude, moisture, soil factors, etc.)on the appearance and chemical composition(mainly ginsenosides) of ginseng. Through systematic review, it is found that soil physical factors are the most important ecological factors that affect the appea-rance of ginseng, and soil bulk density plays a key role; temperature affects ginsenosides in ginseng medicinal materials The dominant ecological factors for the accumulation of chemical ingredents; strong light, high altitude, high soil moisture, low soil nutrient and strong acid soil can influence the accumulation of secondary metabolites in ginseng. Environmental stress can also stimulate the formation and accumulation of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants. Appropriate low temperature stress, high or low water stress, acid or alkali stress can also promote the accumulation of ginsenosides. This article systematically reviews the ecological factors that affect the appearance and chemical composition of ginseng, and clarifies the dominant ecological factors and limiting factors for the formation of ginseng's appearance and quality, as well as beneficial environmental stress factors, in order to provide a theoretical basis for ginseng ecological planting and ginseng quality improvement.


Subject(s)
Forests , Ginsenosides , Panax , Plants, Medicinal , Soil
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879103

ABSTRACT

Dendrobium huoshanense is a precious medicinal plant belonging to Dendrobium of Orchidaceae. It is a special medicinal material and extremely scarce in Huoshan county, Anhui province. At present, D. huoshanense has been greatly protected, which also makes it possible to industrialize relying on tissue culture and artificial cultivation technology. Three main planting methods were utilized for cultivating D. huoshanense including facility cultivation, under forest cultivation and simulative habitat cultivation. Firstly, the three cultivation modes and technical characteristics of D. huoshanense were compared and analyzed, and it was found that the ecological environment of D. huoshanense cultivated in the simulated environment was closer to that of wild D. huoshanense. Secondly, based on comparing the characters and quality of three cultivation modes, the results showed that the shape of D. huoshanense cultivated in simulated environment was more similar to that of "grasshopper thigh" recorded in Bencao Jing Jizhu, and its quality was better than that of facilities and under forest cultivation. The comprehensive benefit comparison of three modes showed that the simulated cultivation had high income, the lowest input-output ratio and significant economic benefit. The quality of cultivated D. huoshanense was further evaluated from four aspects of "excellent environment" "excellent shape" "high quality" "excellent effect", which summarized the comprehensive advantages of simulative habitat cultivation of D. huoshanense as follows: the original habitat and site environment of simulated wild D. huoshanense, the closer shape to the wild, the more content of main medicinal components, and higher economic benefit and better efficacy. The quality of D. huoshanense was improved by the use of simulative habitat cultivation, which has practical significance to guide its large-scale cultivation.


Subject(s)
Dendrobium , Ecosystem , Forests , Plants, Medicinal
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878882

ABSTRACT

The natural forest and artificial shed are the main cropping modes of Coptis chinensis. This study is aimed to reveal the rhizosphere soil bacterial community structure difference between under tow C. chinensis cropping modes-natural forest and artificial shed, and to assist us to completely understand soil quality condition,and provide theoretical guidance for soil improvement and C. chinensis planting. The rhizosphere soil samples of 1-5-year-old C. chinensis under tow cropping modes-natural forest and artificial shed were collected. Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the alpha diversity, community composition, community structure of soil bacteria under the tow cropping modes,and the effects of soil nutriment indices on soil bacterial community structure. Through the analysis of species number, Shannon, Chao1 index and ACE index of bacterial community, it was found that the bacterial diversity of 1-year-old C. chinensis soil under natural forest cropping mode was significantly lower than that under artificial shed cropping mode, and the diversity of bacterial communities in soil of 2-5-years old C. chinensis were not significant different between two cropping modes. A total of 53 phyla,60 classes,140 orders and 266 families were detected in the rhizosphere soil of C. chinensis under the cropping modes of natural forest, respectively. The rhizosphere soil of C. chinensis under the cropping modes of artificial shed included 54 phyla,65 classes,140 orders and 264 families, respectively. Under the two cropping modes, the top 10 dominant species of bacterial community abundance are the same, they are Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria,Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia, Gemmatimonadetes, Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria, but there are differences in the abundance sequence. The top 10 dominant species of bacterial community abundance accounted for 74.36% to 74.30% of the total bacteria, and 3.15% to 3.92% of the bacteria are unclassified. The results of Metastat analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonadetes in the rhizosphere soil of C. chinensis under the cropping modes the artificial shed was significantly higher than that under the natural forest cropping mode(P<0.05). MRPP analysis of community structure differences showed that under tow cropping modes, there were significant differences in the bacterial community structure of 1-4-year-old soil bacteria, among which the difference between 1-year-old soil samples was the largest. With the increase of cropping years, the difference gradually decreases, and there is no significant difference in the bacterial community structure between 5-year-old soil samples. RDA analysis and correlation analysis of bacterial community structure and soil physical and chemical properties showed that the order of environmental factors on the rhizosphere soil bacteria of Coptis chinensis was: pH>available P> total P> total K>bulk density>total N>available N>organic matter. The results are helpful to understand the soil health of C. chinensis and provide scientific basis and theoretical guidance for soil improvement and C. chinensis planting.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Coptis , Forests , Humans , Infant , Rhizosphere , Soil , Soil Microbiology
13.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(4): 1311-1340, Oct.-Dec. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142982

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo apresenta uma visão geral da produção de livros sobre a história ambiental do Brasil. Da grande diversidade de temas ambientais presentes na historiografia brasileira, selecionamos os autores que de alguma forma se identificam como relacionados com a comunidade acadêmica da história ambiental. Embora a ênfase tenha sido dada aos livros autorais, buscamos ao menos mencionar as principais coletâneas produzidas no campo. Com esse mapeamento, demonstramos quais têm sido os temas e os recortes espaçotemporais priorizados pelos historiadores ambientais em seus estudos sobre o Brasil. Além disso, buscamos mostrar como as lacunas ainda presentes nessa produção oferecem caminhos promissores para a futura expansão desse campo.


Abstract This article provides an overview of books published on Brazilian environmental history. Among the large variety of environmental themes seen in Brazilian historiography, we selected the authors who in some way identify themselves as explicitly related to the academic environmental history community. Although the emphasis was on authored books, we sought to at least mention the principal edited books produced in the field. With this mapping, we demonstrate the themes and spatial-temporal foci prioritized by environmental historians in their studies on Brazil. Additionally, we sought to show how the gaps still existing in the literature provide promising paths for future expansion of this field.


Subject(s)
History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Ecology/history , Environment , Historiography , Books , Brazil , Forests
14.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 260-262, jul. - set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118854

ABSTRACT

The first record of Vanilla labellopapillata is presented for the state of Amazonas, Brazil, in the region of Manaus, now the western limit of the species, which was previously known only from the type locality in the state of Pará. A brief description is provided and taxonomic and ecological aspects of the species are discussed in the light of this new finding. (AU)


Subject(s)
Forests , Classification , Amazonian Ecosystem , Vanilla
15.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 252-255, jul. - set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118849

ABSTRACT

The rare Amazonian snake Eutrachelophis papilio is known from only five individuals, from four localities, belonging to its type-series, the more recent collected over 10 years ago. Here, we expand its distribution and describe its color in life for the first time. We also provide an estimate of its distribution area using the minimum convex polygon method and identify the values of anthropic pressure within its known distribution range with the Human Footprint Index. The new occurrence is located 291 km from the nearest known locality and its distribution is associated with pristine forests. Considering its rarity, and the absence of demographic and biological data, we suggest that the species should be classified as Data Deficient by IUCN criteria. (AU)


Subject(s)
Snakes , Forests , Animal Distribution
16.
Rev. latinoam. bioét ; 20(1): 107-122, Jan.-June 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144707

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El presente artículo tiene como objetivo primario reflexionar sobre cómo la bioética puede dar luces para un desarrollo forestal más comprometido con la vida en general. El estudio se focaliza en el Perú; sin embargo, se toma en cuenta información bibliográfica especializada de otros países con bosques tropicales. Se concluye que, aunque hay importantes avances científicos en el conocimiento sobre los bosques tropicales y expectantes experiencias certificadas de manejo forestal, no existe suficiente certeza científica que garantice su sustentabilidad ecológica. Lo anterior es producto tanto de la propia complejidad ecológica de los bosques tropicales, como de la complejidad sociocultural del sector forestal; lo que demanda aproximaciones que complementen los enfoques disciplinarios con perspectivas interdisciplinarias y transdisciplinarias. La realidad de los bosques es multidimensional, interdimensional, multiescalar y multitemporal; esta condición no logra ser captada por los planes de manejo forestal que descansan en el paradigma de una ciencia racional y empírica. A pesar de que hay valiosas medidas orientadas a la conservación de la biodiversidad forestal y previsiones para luchar contra la tala ilegal, el comercio y tráfico ilegal de la fauna silvestre, estas medidas para reducir la ilegalidad aún no son suficientes. A la fecha no existe una orientación específica sobre el respeto a la vida en el bosque en todas sus manifestaciones; además, los intentos que buscan la conservación de las especies de flora y fauna son desarticulados.


Abstract: The main objective of this article is to reflect on how bioethics can shed light on forest development that is more committed to life in general. The study focuses on Peru; however, specialized bibliographic information from other countries with tropical forests is considered. It is concluded that, although there are important scientific advances in knowledge about tropical forests and expectant certified experiences in forest management, there is not enough scientific certainty to guarantee their ecological sustainability. This is a product of both the ecological complexity of tropical forests and the socio-cultural complexity of the forest sector; which demands approaches that complement disciplinary approaches with interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary perspectives. The reality of forests is multidimensional, interdimensional, multiscale and multitemporal; this condition cannot be grasped by forest management plans that lie on the paradigm of a rational and empirical science. Although there are valuable measures aimed at conserving forest biodiversity and provisions to combat illegal logging, illegal trade and trafficking of wildlife, these measures to reduce illegality are still not enough. To the date there is no specific guidance on respect to forest life in all its manifestations, and in addition to that, attempts seeking to conserve the species of flora and fauna are disarticulated.


Resumo: O objetivo principal deste estudo é refletir sobre como a bioética pode guiar um desenvolvimento florestal mais comprometido com a vida em geral. O estudo está focado no Peru; contudo, é considerada informação bibliográfica especializada de outros países com florestas tropicais. Conclui-se que, embora haja importantes avanços científicos no conhecimento sobre as florestas tropicais e esperadas experiências certificadas de gestão florestal, não existe suficiente certeza científica que garanta sua sustentabilidade ecológica. Isso é produto tanto da própria complexidade ecológica das florestas tropicais quanto da complexidade sociocultural do setor florestal, o que demanda aproximações que complementem as abordagens disciplinares com perspectivas inter e transdisciplinares. A realidade das florestas é multi e interdimensional, multiescalar e multitemporal. Essa condição não consegue ser captada pelos planejamentos de gestão florestal que se baseiam no paradigma de uma ciência racional e empírica. Apesar de haver valiosas medidas orientadas à conservação da biodiversidade florestal e previsões para lutar contra o desflorestamento ilegal, o comércio e o tráfico ilegal da fauna silvestre, as medidas para reduzir a ilegalidade ainda não são suficientes. Até o momento não existe uma orientação específica sobre o respeito à vida na floresta em todas as suas manifestações; além disso, as tentativas da conservação das espécies de flora e fauna são desarticuladas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bioethics , Forests , Forestry , Amazonian Ecosystem , Biodiversity , Ethics
17.
Acta amaz ; 50(2): 155-158, abr - jun. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118403

ABSTRACT

Crypturellus duidae (Tinamidae) is a poor-soil specialist with isolated populations in Amazonia, and is considered restricted to white-sand forest habitats. We report the first record of C. duidae in a peatland forest in northern Peru, in the Putumayo River basin. Our record extends the known distribution of C. duidae between two disjoint areas of occurrence in Peru and Colombia, and shows its presence in peatland forest, another forest type on nutrient-poor soils. Additionally, we report the presence of other poor-soil specialist bird species that were previously registered in peatlands. Together with the new record of C. duidae, these bird records provide evidence of the diversity of poor-soil specialists in peatland forests. (AU)


Subject(s)
Forests , Amazonian Ecosystem , Soil Conditions , Wetlands
18.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 41(2): 203-216, jun./dez. 2020. Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224373

ABSTRACT

Os epífitos desempenham importantes funções ecológicas, e em particular as samambaias, mostram uma diversidade significativa em ambientes florestais, ocupando microambientes específicos e diversos. A diversidade de samambaias epifíticas no estado do Paraná ainda é relativamente pouco conhecida. A região de Paula Freitas, em particular, não apresenta estudos específicos para este grupo de plantas. Neste sentido, o presente estudo teve por finalidade avaliar a riqueza de espécies de samambaias epífitas em regiões de trilhas no Parque Municipal Guairacá em Paula Freitas, Paraná. Foram registradas 10 espécies distribuídas em oito gêneros e quatro famílias. A família Polypodiaceae foi a mais rica na área avaliada (oito espécies), reflexo das características morfoanatômicas comuns às espécies da família. Os resultados encontrados contribuem com o reconhecimento das características florísticas e ecológicas de samambaias epífitas ocorrentes no estado do Paraná.(AU)


Epiphytes play important ecological role, and the ferns shows a significant diversity in the forest environments, due to the numerous specific and diverse microenvironments. The diversity of epiphytic ferns in Paraná state is still relatively unknown. The Paula Freitas region, in particular, does not present specific studies for this group of plants. In this sense, the present study aimed to evaluate the diversity of epiphytic ferns in regions of trails in the Guairacá Municipal Park in Paula Freitas, Paraná. Ten species in eight genera and four families were recorded. The family Polypodiaceae (eight species) was the richest in the evaluated area, reflecting the morphoanatomic characteristics common to the family species. The results contribute to the recognition of the floristic and ecological characteristics of epiphytic ferns occurring in the state of Paraná.(AU)


Subject(s)
Plants , Polypodiaceae , Reflex , Forests
19.
Acta amaz ; 50(2): 124-132, abr - jun. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118271

ABSTRACT

Shade-tolerant forest species are among the most susceptible to habitat loss in agricultural mosaics, where a variety of croplands is connected to forests at different levels of anthropogenic disturbance. We aimed to evaluate the community similarity of shade-tolerant species among different land use types across agricultural mosaics with different levels of disturbance. The study was conducted in three municipalities in southern and southeastern Pará state, in eastern Amazonia. A multiple-community similarity measure based on the Horn similarity index was used to compare land use types and assess the resilience of shade-tolerant species towards forest loss and disturbance at the landscape level. High shade-tolerant species similarity was found between mature forest fragments that underwent different levels of disturbance in all three agricultural mosaics, but secondary forests had lower similarity with mature forest in the most fragmented and altered mosaic. Shade-tolerant species showed very low density in croplands, but the same group of species seemed to colonize agricultural fields of annual crops and clean pasture, as they showed high community similarity. Another group of species was present in invaded pastures, probably due to the effects of time since land abandonment after woody species colonization. Mixed tree plantations were more similar to mature and secondary forests than other types of croplands. Shade-tolerant species similarity was higher among land use types inserted in agricultural landscapes that maintained conserved forest fragments. Our results suggest that the conservation of mature forests and landscape connectivity are crucial to the maintenance of shade-tolerant species in agricultural mosaics. (AU)


Subject(s)
Land Use , Pasture , Forests , Amazonian Ecosystem
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 743-760, 01-05-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146750

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to evaluate the carbon content of the physical, chemical and oxidizable fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) and to calculate the carbon management index (CMI) in an area managed under an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) in the western region of Paraná - Brazil. The experiment was carried out at the experimental farm, belonging to the Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná. Seventeen areas, which are managed in different ways, fifteen in ICLS and two areas of controls (Forest and Haymaking), using the design divided with two nested controls, with three replications were evaluated. Deformed and undisturbed soil samples were collected from all the areas to determine the total organic carbon (TOC), carbon stock, the physical, chemical and oxidizable fractions of SOM and the CMI in the layers of 0-0.05, 0.05-0.1 and 0.1-0.2 m. Little significant changes in the fractions were found for the management of the ICLS area in relation to the Forest and the area of Haymaking, although the Forest presented the best values for most of the studied fractions. It is recommended to adopt sustainable practices, such as ICLS, even though the average fractions tend to take time to match reference areas.


O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar os teores de carbono das frações física, química e oxidável da matéria orgânica do solo (MOS) e calcular o índice de manejo de carbono (IMC) em uma área manejada em sistema de integração lavoura pecuária (ILP) na região Oeste do Paraná - Brasil. O experimento foi realizado na fazenda experimental, pertencente à Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná. Foram avaliadas dezessete áreas, que foram manejadas de diferentes formas, quinze em ILP e duas testemunhas (Mata e Fenação), sendo empregado o delineamento subsubsubdividido com duas testemunhas aninhadas, com três repetições. Em todas as áreas foram coletadas amostras deformadas e indeformadas de solo para serem determinados o carbono orgânico total, estoque de carbono e as frações físicas granulométricas, oxidáveis e químicas da MOS e o IMC nas camadas de 0-0,05, 0,05-0,1 e 0,1-0,2 m. Alterações pouco significativas das frações foram encontradas para os manejos da área em ILP em relação a mata e a área de fenação, entretanto a mata apresentou os melhores valores para a maioria das frações estudadas. Recomenda-se a adoção de práticas sustentáveis, como a ILP, mesmo que os teores médios das frações tendem a demorar tempo para igualar-se a áreas de referência.


Subject(s)
Soil , Carbon , Soil Characteristics , Forests , Crops, Agricultural , Fertility
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL