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1.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 58-59, Mar. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1087710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methanol can be effectively removed from air by biofiltration (Shareefdeen et al., 1993; Babbitt et al., 2009 [1,2]). However, formaldehyde is one of the first metabolic intermediates in the consumption of methanol in methylotrophic microorganisms (Negruta et al., 2010 [3]), and it can be released out of the cell constituting a secondary emission. RESULTS: The total removal of methanol was achieved up to input loads of 263 g m−3 h−1 and the maximum elimination capacity of the system was obtained at an empty bed residence times of 90 s and reached 330 g m−3 h−1 at an input methanol load of 414 g m−3 h−1 and 80% of removal efficiency. Formaldehyde was detected inside the biofilter when the input methanol load was above 212 g m−3 h−1 . Biomass in the filter bed was able to degrade the formaldehyde generated, but with the increase of the methanol input load, the unconsumed formaldehyde was released outside the biofilter. The maximum concentration registered at the output of the system was 3.98 g m−3 when the methanol load was 672 g m−3 h−1 in an empty bed residence times of 60 s. CONCLUSIONS: Formaldehyde is produced inside a biofilter when methanol is treated in a biofiltration system inoculated with Pichia pastoris. Biomass present in the reactor is capable of degrading the formaldehyde generated as the concentration of methanol decreases. However, high methanol loads can lead to the generation and release of formaldehyde into the environment.


Subject(s)
Pichia/chemistry , Methanol/chemistry , Formaldehyde/analysis , Volatilization , Biological Filters , Biomass , Bioreactors , Environment
2.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782293

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We constructed a new canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) vaccine candidate using the recently isolated Korean CAV-2 strain; we termed the vaccine APQA1701-40P and evaluated its safety and immunogenicity in dogs.MATERIALS AND METHODS: To generate the anti-CAV-2 vaccine, APQA1701 was passaged 40 times in MDCK cells growing in medium containing 5 mM urea and the virus was inactivated using 0.05% (volume per volume) formaldehyde. Two vaccines were prepared by blending inactivated APQA1701-40P with two different adjuvants; both were intramuscularly injected (twice) into guinea pigs. The safety and immunogenicity of the Cabopol-adjuvanted vaccine were evaluated in seronegative dogs. The humoral responses elicited were measured using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA), and via a virus neutralization assay (VNA).RESULTS: The new, inactivated CAV-2 vaccine strain, APQA1701-40P, lacked six amino acids of the E1b-19K protein. In guinea pigs, the Cabopol-adjuvanted vaccine afforded a slightly higher VNA titer and I-ELISA absorbance than an IMS gel-adjuvanted vaccine 4 weeks post-vaccination (p>0.05). Dogs inoculated with the former vaccine developed a significantly higher immune titer than non-vaccinated dogs.CONCLUSION: The Cabopol-adjuvanted, inactivated CAV-2 vaccine was safe and induced a high VNA titer in dogs.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Canine , Amino Acids , Animals , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Formaldehyde , Guinea Pigs , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Urea , Vaccines
3.
Actual. osteol ; 15(3): 205-213, Sept-Dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1104336

ABSTRACT

The dental caries is a progressive destruction of the teeth tissue due to the disbalance in the normal molecule interactions between the enamel and the bio!lm, which alters the demineralization-remineralization process. Milk fermentation produces caseinphosphopeptides with proved remineralizing capacity of the enamel. The presence of these peptides in fermented milk with ke!r grains has been described. The purpose of this work was to evaluate in vitro the capacity of milk ke!r to prevent the demineralization of dental enamel. Bovine incisors (n=68, 17 per group) were treated for 72 h with different solutions: I: artificial saliva at pH 7.2 , II: demineralizing solution at pH 4.5, III: supernatant of kefir fermented milk at pH 4.5, IV: milk supernatant at pH 4.5. The effects of treatments were evaluated by the change in the weight of the specimens, calcium concentration in the solution and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the enamel. Kefir milk supernatant prevented the demineralization process, that was evidenced by a change in weight and calcium concentration that were not different from group I, although the pH was 4.5. In contrast, group IV showed a decrease in weight and an increase in calcium concentration, compared with group I (one way ANOVA, p<0.05). Images of SEM agree with the values of weight and calcium concentration. These results indicate that kefir milk supernatant has a protective effect on enamel demineralization in vitro. (AU)


La caries dental es una patología debido a un desequilibrio en las interacciones moleculares normales entre el esmalte y la biopelícula, que altera el proceso de desmineralización remineralización. La fermentación de la leche produce fosfopéptidos de caseína con probada capacidad remineralizante del esmalte, y se ha descripto la presencia de estos péptidos en la leche fermentada con granos de kéfir. El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar in vitro la capacidad del kéfir de leche para prevenir la desmineralización del esmalte dental. Sesenta y ocho incisivos bovinos (17 por grupo) fueron tratados durante 72 h con diferentes soluciones: I: saliva artificial, pH 7.2, II: solución desmineralizante, pH 4.5, III: sobrenadante de leche fermentada con kefir, pH 4.5, IV: sobrenadante de leche, pH 4.5. El proceso de desmineralización se evaluó mediante el cambio en el peso de las muestras, la concentración de calcio en la solución y microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM) del esmalte. El sobrenadante de leche fermentada con kéfir impidió el proceso de desmineralización, que se evidenció por un cambio en el peso y la concentración de calcio que no discreparon del grupo I, a pesar de haber tenido un pH de 4.5. En contraste, el grupo IV mostró una disminución en el peso y un aumento en la concentración de calcio, en comparación con el grupo I (ANOVA a un criterio, p<0.05). Las imágenes SEM concuerdan con los cambios en el peso y la concentración de calcio en los grupos estudiados. Los datos obtenidos demuestran que el sobrenadante de la leche tratada con kéfir tiene un efecto protector sobre la desmineralización del esmalte in vitro, inducida por el pH ácido. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Kefir/microbiology , Saliva, Artificial/administration & dosage , Tooth Remineralization/methods , In Vitro Techniques , Cattle , Caseins/therapeutic use , Calcium/analysis , Tooth Demineralization/pathology , Tooth Demineralization/therapy , Biofilms , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Enamel/cytology , Dental Enamel/physiopathology , Milk/microbiology , Formaldehyde/administration & dosage
4.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 23(3): 157-161, set-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1046142

ABSTRACT

O processo de alisamento capilar é uma prática comum realizada nos salões de beleza. O procedimento exige a utilização de substâncias com capacidade de rompimento das cadeias dissulfídricas da fibra capilar com posterior modelamento para o efeito desejado, sendo o formol um dos compostos mais utilizados para esta finalidade, porém indevidamente. De acordo com a legislação vigente, o formol só pode ser utilizado em produtos cosméticos com a função de conservante em uma concentração máxima de 0,2%. Devido a seu uso incorreto em produtos capilares o presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma análise semi-quantitativa da presença de formol em amostras de alisantes capilares, bem como verificar o pH destes produtos. Foram obtidas 22 amostras de alisantes capilares doadas por salões de beleza da região de Umuarama - PR. A determinação da presença de formol foi realizada através da reação de Shiff e comparação com escala colorimétrica de concentrações padronizadas de formaldeído variando de 0,005% a 10%. A verificação do pH foi realizada através da preparação de soluções aquosas de 10% do alisante e posterior aferição em pHmetro digital. Das amostras analisadas, verificou-se 22,72% encontraram-se em conformidade, apresentando quantidade de formaldeído adequada com a legislação (até 0,2%) ou ausência do composto, enquanto que 77,28% apresentaram valores acima do permitido. Já o pH adequado foi constatado em apenas 13,64% amostras. O uso incorreto ou exagerado do formol pode acarretar danos à saúde, como cefaléia, dispnéia, queimadura, edema pulmonar e até câncer. Uma maior fiscalização deve ser realizada nos estabelecimentos que realizam procedimentos de alisamento capilar, bem como nas indústrias produtoras e ainda em importadoras, para uma melhor garantia do cumprimento da legislação tanto para a preservação da saúde dos profissionais quando dos usuários.


The hair-straightening process is a common practice in most beauty salons. The procedure requires the use of substances capable of disrupting the disulfide chains of the hair fiber with subsequent modeling for the desired effect, with formaldehyde being one of the most commonly but improperly used compounds for this purpose. According to the current legislation, formaldehyde can only be used in cosmetic products as a preservative function in a maximum concentration of 0.2%. Due to its incorrect use in capillary products, this work has the purpose of developing a semi-quantitative analysis of the presence of formaldehyde in samples of hair straighteners, as well as verifying the pH of those products. Twenty-two samples of hair straighteners were donated by beauty salons from the region of Umuarama-PR. The determination of the presence of formaldehyde was performed using the Shiff reaction and compared using the colorimetric scale for standard formaldehyde concentrations varying from 0.005% to 10%. The pH verification was carried out by the preparation of 10% aqueous solutions of the straightener and subsequent measurement in a digital pH meter. From the analyzed samples, 22.72% were found to be in compliance, presenting the amount of formaldehyde within the legislation (up to 0.2%) or absence of the compound, while 77.28% presenting values above the legal limitations. Additionally, adequate pH was verified in only 13.64% of the samples. Incorrect or exaggerated use of formaldehyde can lead to health issues, such as headache, dyspnea, burns, pulmonary edema and even cancer. Greater surveillance should be carried out in establishments that perform hair straightening procedures as well as in the producing and importing industries in order to guarantee better compliance with the legislation both for the preservation of the health of professionals and users alike.


Subject(s)
Colorimetry/methods , Formaldehyde/toxicity , Hair/chemistry
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 10-16, July. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1053200

ABSTRACT

Background: Methanol can be effectively removed from air by biofiltration. However, formaldehyde is one of the first metabolic intermediates in the consumption of methanol in methylotrophic microorganisms, and it can be released out of the cell constituting a secondary emission. Results: The total removal of methanol was achieved up to input loads of 263 g m−3 h−1 and the maximum elimination capacity of the system was obtained at an empty bed residence times of 90 s and reached 330 g m− 3 h−1 at an input methanol load of 414 g m−3 h−1 and 80% of removal efficiency. Formaldehyde was detected inside the biofilter when the input methanol load was above 212 g m−3 h−1 . Biomass in the filter bed was able to degrade the formaldehyde generated, but with the increase of the methanol input load, the unconsumed formaldehyde was released outside the biofilter. The maximum concentration registered at the output of the system was 3.98 g m−3 when the methanol load was 672 g m−3 h−1 in an empty bed residence times of 60 s. Conclusions: Formaldehyde is produced inside a biofilter when methanol is treated in a biofiltration system inoculated with Pichia pastoris. Biomass present in the reactor is capable of degrading the formaldehyde generated as the concentration of methanol decreases. However, high methanol loads can lead to the generation and release of formaldehyde into the environment


Subject(s)
Pichia/metabolism , Methanol/metabolism , Formaldehyde/metabolism , Biomass , Air Pollutants , Environment , Filtration
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 533-540, June 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1002255

ABSTRACT

Desde la antigüedad se han desarrollado técnicas para el estudio del cerebro con fines didácticos o neuroquirúrgicos. Hacia 1934 Josef Klingler desarrolla una técnica de preparación de hemisferios cerebrales que basada en la fijación con formalina y el congelamiento para aislar los tractos cerebrales. El objetivo de la presente artículo ha sido analizar los métodos de preparación utilizados para la disección de tractos en cerebros humanos y de animales. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura en las bases de datos Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed, Medline y Scielo, utilizando como descriptores: Disección, Cerebro, Tracto, con el operador booleano "AND" entre ellos, en los idiomas inglés y español, hasta junio de 2018. Fueron seleccionados 26 documentos, para el análisis se determinaron las variables: espécimen, número de hemisferios cerebrales, concentración de formalina, tiempo de fijación, temperatura, tiempo de congelamiento y tractos identificados. En la literatura seleccionada, un total de 410 hemisferios cerebrales fueron analizados, 372 de humanos y 38 de animales; 330 fueron conservados en formalina al 10 %, 20 en formalina al 5 % y el resto en otras concentraciones. El tiempo de fijación fue variable entre 10 y 180 días, así como la temperatura y tiempo de congelación (-10 ºC y -20 ºC, entre 8 y 30 días). En todos los casos se reportó que, en su totalidad o parcialmente, los fascículos cerebrales de asociación fueron aislados. En la preparación de hemisferios cerebrales para disección de tractos, Ludwig & Klingler (1956) recomiendan que en la fijación de los especímenes se utilice formalina al 5 %, sin embargo, el 80 % de los hemisferios utilizados fueron fijados en formalina al 10%, y en esta concentración, el tiempo de fijación, temperatura y tiempo de congelación fue variable, lográndose, en todos los casos analizados, la disección parcial o total de los tractos.


Since ancient times, techniques for the study of the brain have been developed for didactic or neurosurgical purposes. By 1934, Josef Klingler developed a cerebral hemisphere preparation technique based on formalin fixation and freezing to isolate the cerebral tracts. The aim of this article was to analyze the preparation methods used for tracts dissection in human and animal brains. A review of the literature using Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed, Medline and Scielo databases, with the following descriptors: Dissection, Brain, Tract, with the boolean operator "AND" among them, also in spanish, until June 2018. Twenty-six documents were selected, and we analized the following variables: specimen, number of cerebral hemispheres, formalin concentration, fixing time, temperature, freezing time and tracts. In the selected literature, a total of 410 cerebral hemispheres were analyzed, 372 from humans and 38 from animals; 330 were preserved in 10 % formalin, 20 in 5 % formalin and the rest in other concentrations. The fixation time was variable between 10 and 180 days, as well as the temperature and freezing time (-10 ºC and -20 ºC, between 8 and 30 days). In all cases it was reported that, in whole or in part, the cerebral fascicles of association were isolated. In the preparation of cerebral hemispheres for dissection of tracts, Klingler recommend that 5 % formalin for the fixation of specimens; however, 80 % of the hemispheres used were fixed in 10 % formalin, and in this concentration, the time of fixation, temperature and time of freezing was variable, achieving, in all the cases analyzed, the partial or total dissection of the tracts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Histocytological Preparation Techniques/methods , Dissection/methods , Cerebrum/anatomy & histology , Time Factors , Tissue Preservation/methods , Fixatives , Formaldehyde/chemistry , Freezing
7.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 385-389, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782324

ABSTRACT

The literature showing information regarding ovarian venous variation, its diameter and termination distance from respective renal venous origin are limited. This information is important in various surgical and clinical procedures including venous embolization, vascular reconstruction during renal transplantation and localizing the source of origin of a pelvic mass. We examined 94 sides of 47 formalin fixed female cadavers and noted the course and termination of ovarian veins. We measured the diameter of ovarian veins at their termination point and the termination distance in respect to the termination point of renal veins at inferior vena cava (IVC) on respective sides. We found two cases of variations related to right ovarian vein -one, right ovarian vein joined the right renal vein; two, right ovarian vein duplicated and joined with IVC at two different points. We found one case of variation related to left ovarian vein—a partially duplicated left ovarian vein. All the variations were unilateral. The mean diameters of right and left ovarian veins were 3.66±1.18 and 4.20±0.96 mm, respectively. The distance of termination of ovarian veins ranged from 19–40 mm and 13–41 mm, respectively from termination points of right and left renal veins at IVC on respective sides. Our study presents a set of data regarding variation of ovarian veins, diameters and termination distances which could be useful for gynecologists, surgeons and radiologists.


Subject(s)
Cadaver , Female , Formaldehyde , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Veins , Surgeons , Veins , Vena Cava, Inferior
8.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 419-425, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782319

ABSTRACT

The formaldehyde (FA) is a universally used chemical for preservation of cadavers in dissection halls. The adverse effects of formalin exposure are health concern to faculty, workers, and students. The benefits of using formalin, its cost effectiveness, and its proper fixation and efficient preservation of tissue, have to outweigh its adverse effects on the health of those working with it. The best way to ensure the benefits outweigh the risks are providing adequate ventilation, using personal protective equipment, and developing awareness of FA's adverse effects. This study observed that both government and private colleges had better ventilation when more windows and doors were present, but active ventilation strategies like powerful exhaust, along with monitoring of FA level (personal or dissection hall), were needed. Students exposed to FA suffered eye and nose mucosal irritation. But faculty and workers with prolonged exposure to FA had more severe respiratory symptoms and suffered migraines. Hence personal FA monitoring and personal protective equipment must be made mandatory for those with prolonged exposure to FA. In addition, proper ventilation should be in place to reduce formalin vapours levels in workspaces.


Subject(s)
Cadaver , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Formaldehyde , Humans , Migraine Disorders , Nose , Personal Protective Equipment , Ventilation
9.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 255-261, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762238

ABSTRACT

In this study, a restoration process was developed with potassium hydroxide (KOH), in order to improve each of the structures for their posterior fixation, through the use of new methods such as the Chilean conservative fixative solution (SFCCh), with exceptional results. Restore anatomical pieces corresponding to corpse and organs, being these last set with the SFCCh. In this work dealt with processes of restoration with potassium hydroxide, sodium chloride, and sodium hypochlorite, the process began with the cleanliness and suture of the structures for subsequent fixing in Chilean conservative fixative solution, making use of a corpse and different anatomical parts. Work based on items found in the database, Elsevier, Science Direct, ProQuest, and MEDLINE. At the end of the process of restoration and conservation of the anatomical pieces, was observed an improvement in muscle pigment with decrease of rigidity in the specimen, additionally a recovery of appearance in the vascular-nervous elements was achieved. The organs were much more malleable and the structures facilitate the identification of specific details, its subsequent immersion in SFCCh allows the longer preservation of the obtained results. The restoration with potassium hydroxide allows the improvement in the appearance of the different anatomical structures and simultaneously to facilitate its study. The SFCCh is an alternative that replaces partially the use of formaldehyde. In addition, it presents toxicity reduction.


Subject(s)
Cadaver , Formaldehyde , Immersion , Potassium , Sodium Hydroxide , Sodium Hypochlorite , Sutures
10.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 262-268, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762237

ABSTRACT

The knowledge about detailed morphology and relation of saphenous nerve is important to obtain successful saphenous nerve regional blocks to achieve pre- and post-operative anesthesia and analgesia, nerve entrapment treatments and to avoid damage of saphenous nerve during knee and ankle surgeries. The literature describing detailed morphology of saphenous nerve is very limited. We dissected 42 formalin fixed well embalmed cadaveric lower limbs to explore detailed anatomy, relation and mode of termination of saphenous nerve and measured the distances from the nearby palpable bony landmarks. The average distance of origin of saphenous nerve from inguinal crease was 7.89±1.42 cm, the distance from upper end of medial border of patella to saphenous nerve at that level was 8.11±0.85 cm, distance from tibial tuberosity was 7.53±0.98 cm and from midpoint of anterior border of medial malleolus was 0.45±0.14 cm. Saphenous nerve provided two infrapatellar branches at the level of mid to lower limit of patellar ligament in 90% cases. It was in close contact or adhered to great saphenous vein across the lower 2/3rd of leg lying either anterior, posterior or deep to the vein. The saphenous nerve terminated by bifurcating proximal to medial malleolus in majority of cases though no obvious bifurcation was observed in 9.52% cases. The detailed morphology, relations and the distances from palpable bony landmarks may be helpful for clinicians to achieve successful saphenous nerve block and to avoid saphenous nerve damage and related complications during orthopedic procedures.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia and Analgesia , Ankle , Cadaver , Deception , Formaldehyde , Knee , Leg , Lower Extremity , Nerve Block , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Orthopedic Procedures , Patella , Patellar Ligament , Saphenous Vein , Veins
11.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 302-311, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762232

ABSTRACT

Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmentally-available pollutant. Since the liver acts as a detoxifier in the human body, it is the first and most affected organ in individuals exposed to higher-than-normal amounts of FA. FA mainly alters oxidant/antioxidant status and initiates oxidative stress, and by means, causes functional damage to the liver. Thus, it is important to identify natural bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties in order to be used as food additives. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) is a popular flavor and also a medicinal plant with a variety of beneficial effects. In the present original study, cinnamon essential oil (CEO) has been administrated at doses of 10, 20, and 100 mg/kg, orally, to hepatotoxicity rat models caused by FA (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Liver enzymes and its histology were assessed and oxidative stress biomarkers in the liver tissue were also examined. CEO administration caused a significant increase in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase and a prominent decrease in nitric oxide levels in the liver tissue. Also, in serum samples, CEO significantly reduced the elevated amounts of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. When assessed histologically, portal area and central vein fibrosis alongside with the hepatocytes' hypereosinophilia and swelling, focal inflammation, and necrotic areas were found to be prominently decreased in the CEO group. In conclusion, our study suggested that the CEO may have the potential for being used against FA-induced hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Animals , Antioxidants , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Biomarkers , Catalase , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Cinnamomum , Fibrosis , Food Additives , Formaldehyde , Glutathione Peroxidase , Human Body , Inflammation , Liver , Models, Animal , Nitric Oxide , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress , Plants, Medicinal , Rats , Superoxide Dismutase , Veins
12.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-758884

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are widely applied in disease diagnoses. Herein, we report a MAb, WF-4, against Influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP), its broad response with Influenza A virus, and its application in an immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. WF-4 was screened by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The results showed that its reactivity with baculovirus-expressed full-length recombinant NP (rNP) in Western blot (WB), indicating its IHC applicability. Fifteen Influenza A virus (reference subtypes H1 to H15) infected chicken embryonated chorioallantoic membranes (CAM), fixed by formalin, were all detectable in the WF-4-based IHC assay. Also, the reactivity of the IHC test with NP from experimentally inoculated H6N1 and from all recent outbreaks of H5 subtype avian Influenza A virus (AIV) field cases in Taiwan showed positive results. Our data indicate that CAM, a by-product of Influenza A virus preparation, is helpful for Influenza A virus-specific MAb characterization, and that the WF-4 MAb recognizes conserved and linear epitopes of Influenza A virus NP. Therefore, WF-4 is capable of detecting NP antigens via IHC and may be suitable for developing various tests for diagnosis of Influenza A virus and, especially, AIV infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Blotting, Western , Chickens , Chorioallantoic Membrane , Diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Epitopes , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Formaldehyde , Immunohistochemistry , Influenza A virus , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Nucleoproteins , Taiwan
13.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-761690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of aroma oils dates back to at least 3000 B.C., where it was applied to mummify corpses and treat the wounds of soldiers. Since the 1920s, the term “aromatherapy” has been used for fragrance therapy with essential oils. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the essential oil of Eucalyptus (EOE) affects pain pathways in various pain conditions and motor coordination. METHODS: Mice were subjected to inhalation or intraperitoneal injection of EOE, and its analgesic effects were assessed by conducting formalin, thermal plantar, and acetic acid tests; the effects of EOE on motor coordination were evaluated using a rotarod test. To determine the analgesic mechanism, 5′-guanidinonaltrindole (κ-opioid antagonist, 0.3 mg/kg), naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist, 5 mg/kg), glibenclamide (δ-opioid antagonist, 2 mg/kg), and naloxone (μ-opioid antagonist, 4, 8, 12 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally. RESULTS: EOE showed an analgesic effect against visceral pain caused by acetic acid (EOE, 45 mg/kg); however, no analgesic effect was observed against thermal nociceptive pain. Moreover, it was demonstrated that EOE did not have an effect on motor coordination. In addition, an anti-inflammatory effect was observed during the formalin test. CONCLUSIONS: EOE, which is associated with the μ-opioid pain pathway, showed potential effects against somatic, inflammatory, and visceral pain and could be a potential therapeutic agent for pain.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Analgesics , Animals , Aromatherapy , Cadaver , Eucalyptus , Formaldehyde , Glyburide , Humans , Inhalation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Mice , Military Personnel , Naloxone , Narcotic Antagonists , Nociceptive Pain , Oils , Oils, Volatile , Pain Measurement , Rotarod Performance Test , Visceral Pain , Wounds and Injuries
14.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 141-150, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-761358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence on associations between occupational diesel exhaust and gasoline exposure and colorectal cancer is limited. We aimed to assess the effect of workplace exposure to diesel exhaust and gasoline on the risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: This caseecontrol study included 181,709 colon cancer and 109,227 rectal cancer cases diagnosed between 1961 and 2005 in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Cases and controls were identified from the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study cohort and matched for country, birth year, and sex. Diesel exhaust and gasoline exposure values were assigned by country-specific job-exposure matrices. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using conditional logistic regression models. The results were adjusted for physical strain at work and occupational exposure to benzene, formaldehyde, ionizing radiation, chlorinated hydrocarbons, chromium, and wood dust. RESULTS: Diesel exhaust exposure was associated with a small increase in the risk of rectal cancer (odds ratio 1/4 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.02–1.08). Gasoline exposure was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: This study showed a small risk increase for rectal cancer after workplace diesel exhaust exposure. However, this finding could be due to chance, given the limitations of the study.


Subject(s)
Benzene , Case-Control Studies , Chromium , Cohort Studies , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Dust , Finland , Formaldehyde , Gasoline , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated , Iceland , Logistic Models , Norway , Occupational Exposure , Odds Ratio , Parturition , Radiation, Ionizing , Rectal Neoplasms , Scandinavian and Nordic Countries , Sweden , Vehicle Emissions , Wood
15.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 114-121, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-761328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The photolithography process in the semiconductor industry uses various chemicals with little information on their constitution. This study aimed to identify the chemical constituents of photoresist (PR) products and their by-products and to compare these constituents with material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and analytical results. METHODS: A total of 51 PRs with 48 MSDSs were collected. Analysis consisted of two parts: First, the constituents of the chemical products were identified and analyzed using MSDS data; second, for verification of the by-products of PR, volatile organic compounds were analyzed. The chemical constituents were categorized according to hazards. RESULTS: Forty-five of 48 products contained trade secrets in amounts ranging from 1 to 65%. A total of 238 ingredients with multiple counting (35 ingredients without multiple counting) were identified in the MSDS data, and 48.7% of ingredients were labeled as trade secrets under the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Act. The concordance rate between the MSDS data and the analytical result was 41.7%. The by-product analysis identified 129 chemicals classified according to Chemical Abstracts Service No., with 17 chemicals that are carcinogenic, mutagenic, and reprotoxic substances. Formaldehyde was found to be released from 12 of 21 products that use novolak resin. CONCLUSION: We confirmed that several PRs contain carcinogens, and some were not specified in the toxicological information in the MSDS. Hazardous chemicals, including benzene and formaldehyde, are released from PRs products as by-products. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a systematic management system for chemical compounds and the working environment.


Subject(s)
Benzene , Carcinogens , Constitution and Bylaws , Formaldehyde , Hazardous Substances , Korea , Material Safety Data Sheets , Occupational Health , Semiconductors , Volatile Organic Compounds
16.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-761772

ABSTRACT

We are going to describe the female soboliphymid nematodes, which were recovered from the stomach of a Asian badger, Meles leucurus (Mammalia: Mustelidae), in Geochang-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. In February 1998, we found 2 peculiar nematodes with a cup-like organ in the anterior end from the stomach of badger. Recovered worms were fixed with 10% formalin, cleared in glycerin-alcohol solution and observed under a light microscope with a micrometer. They were 34.46 (33.43–35.50) mm long by 2.13 mm at maximum width. Cephalic sucker cup-like, 3.34 (3.13–3.55) mm wide, 2.40 (2.25–2.55) mm long, with the oral aperture and meridionally striated on the buccal capsule. Oral aperture 2.38 mm in diameter. Circumoral membrane 0.41 (0.38–0.45) mm wide. Esophagus muscular, 4.81 (4.50–5.00) mm long by 0.80 (0.78–0.83) mm at maximum width. Vulva situated at 3.13 mm ventro-anterior level from the esophago-intestinal junction. Vagina anteriad, 3.38 mm long, making a canal from the uterus to the vulva opening. Uterus single, large. Tail 0.35 (0.33–0.38) mm long. Intrauterine eggs long elliptical, 0.058–0.065 (0.062) mm long and 0.030–0.033 (0.031) mm wide. Based on the some morphological characters and host-specificity, our specimens are nearly identical with S. baturini. Therefore, the present report describes S. baturini for the first time in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Eggs , Esophagus , Female , Formaldehyde , Humans , Korea , Membranes , Mustelidae , Ovum , Republic of Korea , Stomach , Tail , Uterus , Vagina , Vulva
17.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-739800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the role of NR2B in a modulated pain process in the painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) rat using various pain stimuli. METHODS: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly allocated into four groups (n=8): control, diabetes mellitus (DM) rats and diabetic rats treated with ifenprodil at a lower dose (0.5 µg/day) (I 0.5) or higher dose (1.0 µg/day) (I 1.0). DM was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin at 60 mg/kg on day 0 of experimentation. Diabetic status was assessed on day 3 of the experimentation. The responses on both tactile and thermal stimuli were assessed on day 0 (baseline), day 14 (pre-intervention), and day 22 (post-intervention). Ifenprodil was given intrathecally for 7 days from day 15 until day 21. On day 23, 5% formalin was injected into the rats' hind paw and the nociceptive responses were recorded for 1 hour. The rats were sacrificed 72 hours post-formalin injection and an analysis of the spinal NR2B expression was performed. RESULTS: DM rats showed a significant reduction in pain threshold in response to the tactile and thermal stimuli and higher nociceptive response during the formalin test accompanied by the higher expression of phosphorylated spinal NR2B in both sides of the spinal cord. Ifenprodil treatment for both doses showed anti-allodynic and anti-nociceptive effects with lower expression of phosphorylated and total spinal NR2B. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the pain process in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat that has been modulated is associated with the higher phosphorylation of the spinal NR2B expression in the development of PDN, which is similar to other models of neuropathic rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies , Formaldehyde , Humans , Hyperalgesia , Male , N-Methylaspartate , Pain Measurement , Pain Threshold , Phosphorylation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Spinal Cord , Streptozocin
18.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 26: e19376, jan.-dez. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-969670

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar as etapas de gerenciamento dos resíduos químicos perigosos - formaldeído e ortoftaldeído, manuseados pela enfermagem. Método: pesquisa descritiva e coleta de dados realizada de setembro a dezembro de 2012, no Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo, por meio da aplicação da Ficha de Informação de Gerenciamento de Resíduo Químico Perigoso dos resíduos formaldeído e ortoftaldeído gerados, respectivamente, no centro obstétrico e endoscopia. Projeto aprovado por Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Resultados: a análise estatística dos dados evidenciou que foram atendidas 3 (13%) especificações do total de 23 (100%) necessárias, com prevalência da identificação, seguida da segregação e nenhuma do transporte interno dos resíduos. Há necessidade de a instituição cumprir as especificações de identificações gerais em relação ao número total de avaliações nos recipientes de resíduos de formaldeído e ortoftaldeído. Conclusão: esta pesquisa proporcionou importantes diretrizes para a elaboração do Plano de Gerenciamento de Resíduos Químicos Perigosos da atenção hospitalar.


Objective: to evaluate the stages in management of hazardous chemical waste handled by nursing staff. Method: in this descriptive study, data was collected from September to December 2012 at São Paulo University Hospital, by applying the Hazardous Chemical Waste Management Information Sheet for formaldehyde and ortho-phthalaldehyde waste in the obstetric center and endoscopy, respectively. The study was approved by the research ethics committee. Results: data analysis showed that 3 (13%) of the 23 (100%) required specifications were met, predominantly identification, followed by segregation, and that none on internal waste transportation were met. The institution needs to comply with general identification specifications regarding the total number of evaluations of formaldehyde and orthophthaldehyde waste containers. Conclusion: this study also yielded important guidelines for preparation of the hospital care Hazardous Chemical Waste Management Plan.


Objetivo: evaluar las etapas de la gestión de los residuos químicos peligrosos - formaldehído y ortoftaldehído, manejados por la enfermería. Métodos: investigación descriptiva y recolección de datos realizada, de septiembre a diciembre de 2012, en el Hospital Universitario de la Universidad de São Paulo, por medio de la aplicación de la Ficha de Información de Gestión de Residuo Químico Peligroso de los residuos de formaldehído y ortoftaldehído generados, respectivamente, en el Centro de Obstetricia y Endoscopía. Proyecto aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación. Resultados: el análisis estadístico de los datos mostró que fueron atendidas 3 (13%) especificaciones del total de 23 (100%) requeridas, con prevalencia de la identificación, seguida por la segregación y ninguna relacionada al transporte interno de los residuos. Es necesario que la institución cumpla con las especificaciones de identificaciones generales en relación al número total de evaluaciones en los recipientes de residuos de formaldehído y ortoftaldehído. Conclusión: la investigación proporcionó importantes directrices para la elaboración del Plan de Gestión de Residuos Químicos Peligrosos de la atención hospitalaria.


Subject(s)
Hazardous Waste , Occupational Health , Waste Management , Chemical Waste , Occupational Health Nursing , Brazil , Environmental Health , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Formaldehyde
19.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The South Korean criteria for occupational diseases were amended in July 2013. These criteria included formaldehyde as a newly defined occupational carcinogen, based on cases of “leukemia or nasopharyngeal cancer caused by formaldehyde exposure”. This inclusion was based on the Internal Agency for Research on Cancer classification, which classified formaldehyde as definite human carcinogen for nasopharyngeal cancer in 2004 and leukemia in 2012. METHODS: We reviewed reports regarding the causal relationship between occupational exposure to formaldehyde in Korea and the development of these cancers, in order to determine whether these cases were work-related. RESULTS: Previous reports regarding excess mortality from nasopharyngeal cancer caused by formaldehyde exposure seemed to be influenced by excess mortality from a single plant. The recent meta-risk for nasopharyngeal cancer was significantly increased in case-control studies, but was null for cohort studies (excluding unexplained clusters of nasopharyngeal cancers). A recent analysis of the largest industrial cohort revealed elevated risks of both leukemia and Hodgkin lymphoma at the peak formaldehyde exposure, and both cancers exhibited significant dose-response relationships. A nested case-control study of embalmers revealed that mortality from myeloid leukemia increased significantly with increasing numbers of embalms and with increasing formaldehyde exposure. The recent meta-risks for all leukemia and myeloid leukemia increased significantly. In South Korea, a few cases were considered occupational cancers as a result of mixed exposures to various chemicals (e.g., benzene), although no cases were compensated for formaldehyde exposure. The peak formaldehyde exposure levels in Korea were 2.70–14.8 ppm in a small number of specialized studies, which considered anatomy students, endoscopy employees who handled biopsy specimens, and manufacturing workers who were exposed to high temperatures. CONCLUSION: Additional evidence is needed to confirm the relationship between formaldehyde exposure and nasopharyngeal cancer. All lymphohematopoietic malignancies, including leukemia, should be considered in cases with occupational formaldehyde exposure.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Case-Control Studies , Classification , Cohort Studies , Endoscopy , Formaldehyde , Hodgkin Disease , Humans , Korea , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid , Mortality , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Exposure , Plants , Workers' Compensation
20.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are major public health problems worldwide, with high prevalence in low income countries where substandard food hygiene practices are common. Asymptomatic food handlers with poor personal hygiene could be potential sources of parasitic infections. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated factors among asymptomatic food handlers working at Haramaya University cafeterias, eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among asymptomatic food handlers working at Haramaya University cafeterias from August 2015 to January 2016. Population proportion to size allocation and systematic random sampling techniques were used to identify the study participants. Stool samples were collected and examined simultaneouly using direct and modified formol ether concentration wet smear techniques. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software. Logistic regressions were applied to assess association between independent variable and intestinal parasitic infections. Statistical significance was declared at a p-value less than 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 417 asymptomatic food handlers were enrolled in this study. Of these, females comprised 79.4%. Large proportion (39.3%) of food handlers were in the age group of 31–40 years. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 25.2% (95% CI: 18.3, 29.6). Entamoeba histolytica/ dispar (46.7%) and A. lumbricoides (14.3%) were the most frequent isolates. Having no formal education [AOR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.24, 3.67], monthly income of less than 45.7 USD [AOR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.62, 9.20], lack of hand washing after the use of the toilet with soap [AOR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.22, 4.86] and untrimmed fingernails [AOR: 3.31, 95% CI: 1.99, 5.49] have significant association with intestinal parasitic infections. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this study highlights the importance of food handlers as probable sources of parasitic infections. Public health measures and sanitation programs should be strengthened to control the spread of intestinal parasitic infections.


Subject(s)
Cross-Sectional Studies , Education , Entamoeba , Ether , Ethiopia , Female , Formaldehyde , Hand Disinfection , Helminths , Humans , Hygiene , Logistic Models , Nails , Prevalence , Public Health , Sanitation , Soaps
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