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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928153

ABSTRACT

An UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was employed to characterize and classify the chemical components of the standard decoction of Yiguanjian, a classical famous recipe. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity HSS T3(2.1 mm ×100 mm, 1.8 μm) column with a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid water-0.1% formic acid acetonitrile using gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.4 mL·min~(-1) and the column temperature was 40 ℃. Mass spectrometry was performed on electrospray ionization source(ESI) with positive and negative ion scanning modes. The potential compounds were identified by comparing the reference compounds, analyzing the mass spectrometry data and matching the published articles on Masslynx 4.1 software and SciFinder database. Finally, a total of 113 compounds, including 11 amino acids, 19 terpenoids, 13 phthalides, 11 steroidal saponins, 10 coumarins, 9 alkaloids, 7 flavonoids, 8 phenylethanoid glycosides, 8 organic acids and 17 other categories were identified. The established method systematically and accurately characterized the chemical components in Yiguanjian, which could provide experimental evidences for the subsequent studies on the pharmacodynamical material basis and quality control of Yiguanjian.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Formates , Glycosides/analysis , Prescriptions
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1031-1040, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826873

ABSTRACT

The use of microbial cell factories to achieve efficient conversion of raw materials and synthesis of target substances is one of the important research directions of synthetic biology. Traditional industrial microorganisms have mainly used sugar-based raw materials as fermentation substrates. How to adopt cheaper carbon resources and realize their efficient use has been widely concerned. Formic acid is an important organic one-carbon source and widely used in industrial manufacturing of pesticides, leather, dyes, medicine and rubber. In recent years, due to the demand fluctuation in downstream industries, formic acid production is facing the dilemma of overcapacity, and therefore, requiring new conversion paths for expansion and extension of the related industrial chain. Biological route is one of the important options. However, natural formate-utilizing microorganisms generally grow slowly when metabolizing formic acid, and moreover, are difficult to be artificially modified by the absence of effective genetic tools. Construction of non-natural formate-utilizing microorganisms is another alternative strategy, but still in its infancy and has a huge space for further improvements. Here, we briefly summarize the recent research progress of biological utilization of formic acid, and also propose the future research focus and direction.


Subject(s)
Fermentation , Formates , Metabolism , Industrial Microbiology , Synthetic Biology
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 659-666, July-Sept. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755822

ABSTRACT

Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters.

.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Bacillus/metabolism , Cyanides/metabolism , Pseudomonas putida/metabolism , Waste Water/chemistry , Ammonia/metabolism , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bioreactors/microbiology , Formates/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , India , Manihot , Pseudomonas putida/isolation & purification , /genetics
4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1174-1179, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257010

ABSTRACT

In this study, the buffering capacity of amphiphilic pH-sensitivity copolymer poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-cholesteryl methyl carbonate (PEOZ-CHMC) was evaluated. The ammonium sulfate gradient method was used to prepare doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX x HCl)-loaded liposomes (DOX-L), and then the post-insertion method was used to prepare PEOZ-CHMC and polyethylene glycol-distearoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PEG-DSPE) modified DOX x HCl-loaded liposomes (PEOZ-DOX-L and PEG-DOX-L). The physico-chemical properties, in vitro drugs release behavior, cellular toxicity and intracellular delivery of liposomes were evaluated, separately. The results showed that PEOZ-CHMC has a satisfactory buffering capacity. The sephadex G-50 column centrifugation method and dynamic light scattering were used to determine the encapsulation efficiency (EE) and particle size of liposomes. The EE and particle size of DOX-L were (97.3 ± 1.4) % and 120 nm, respectively, and the addition of PEOZ-CHMC or PEG-DSPE had no influence on EE and particle size. The zeta potentials of three kinds of liposomes were negative. The release behavior of various DOX liposomes in vitro was investigated by dialysis method. In phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.4, DOX x HCl was released from PEOZ-DOX-L in a sustained manner. While in PBS at pH 5.0, the release rate of DOX x HCl from PEOZ-DOX-L increased significantly, which suggested DOX x HCl was released from PEOZ-DOX-L in a pH-dependent manner. The intracellular delivery of liposomes was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The CLSM images indicated that PEOZ-DOX-L showed efficient intracellular trafficking including endosomal escape and release DOX x HCl into nucleus, as well as the DOX-L and PEG-DOX-L had no this effect. The cytotoxicity of liposomes against MCF-7 cells was detected by using MTT assay. The results showed that antiproliferative effects of PEOZ-DOX-L enhanced with pH value decreased, whereas DOX-L and PEG-DOX-L did not have any significant difference in inhibitions at different pH conditions. Therefore, the problems of the inhibition of cellular uptake of liposomes and the failed endosomal escape of pH-sensitive liposomes by PEG chain can be overcome by the pH-sensitive liposomes constructed by PEOZ-CHMC.


Subject(s)
Cell Nucleus , Doxorubicin , Chemistry , Endosomes , Formates , Chemistry , Humans , Liposomes , Chemistry , MCF-7 Cells , Microscopy, Confocal , Particle Size , Phosphatidylethanolamines , Polyamines , Chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols , Chemistry
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341852

ABSTRACT

A qualitative analytical method of liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was developed for identification of multi-constituents and an analytical method was developed for simultaneously determining 4 major compounds (rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-3-0-rutinoside, and astragalin) in Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg. The HPLC-Q-TOF-MS assay was performed on a Welch Ultimate XB-C18 column (4.6 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm) with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (A) and water containing 0.1% Formic acid (B) in gradient mode at a flow rate of 0.8 mL x min(-1). The column temperature was at 30 degrees C, and negative ion mode was used for TOF-MS. The UPLC-QqQ-MS assay was performed on a Waters CORTECS C18 (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.6 microm) with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (A) and water containing 0.1% formic acid (B) in gradient mode at a flow rate of 0.25 mL x min(-1). The column temperature was at 45 degrees C, and MRM mode was used for QqQ-MS. Based on the retention time and MS spectra, 24 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized by comparing with reference substances or literatures. For quantitative the linear range of 4 detected compounds were good (r > 0.9966), and the overall recoveries ranged from 98.27% to 101.58%, with the RSD ranging from 3.15% to 5.88%. The results indicated that new approach conbined HPLC-Q-TOF-MS and UPLC-QqQ-MS was applicable in qualitative and quantitative quality control of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum.


Subject(s)
Acetonitriles , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Formates , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Vitaceae , Chemistry , Water , Chemistry
6.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 188-196, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-31226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has been recently shown to play important roles in the functioning of various systems. Most of the current analytical methods for measuring vitamin D levels are based on immunoassays. We simultaneously measured the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [ 25(OH)D3 ] and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 [ 25(OH)D2 ] in human serum by performing ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) after Diels-Alder derivatization with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) and evaluated the performance of our method. METHODS: After liquid-liquid extraction, samples were dried under N2 at 50degrees C for 1 hr followed by Diels-Alder derivatization with ethyl acetate containing 0.1 mg/mL PTAD. The samples were resuspended in 60 microL of methanol:10 mM ammonium formate solution (1:1, V/V). C18 UPLC column and positive ion multiple reaction monitoring transitions such as m/z 558.35-->298.1, 25(OH)D3; m/z 570.35-->298.1, 25(OH)D2; and m/z 564.35-->298.1, hexadeuterated-25(OH)D3 were used for UPLC-MS/MS. RESULTS: The within-run imprecision (CVs) for 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2 were 3.5-4.0% and 3.8-4.2%, respectively, and the corresponding between-run CVs were 3.3-5.5% and 4.7-5.8%. The lower limit of quantification for 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2 were 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL, respectively. The curve for interassay calibration variability data obtained over concentrations of 0-120 ng/mL for 25(OH)D3 and 0-90 ng/mL for 25(OH)D2 was linear and reproducible [ 25(OH)D3, R2=0.993; 25(OH)D2, R2=0.998]. The total 25(OH)D levels in Koreans (average, 18.7 ng/mL) were lower than those in American Caucasians, and the percentage of people with total 25(OH)D levels under 10 ng/mL was 8.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Our method to measure 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2 levels by performing UPLC-MS/MS after PTAD derivatization showed good performance as a sensitive and reproducible method for routine analysis of vitamin D status.


Subject(s)
25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2 , Acetates , Calcifediol , Calibration , Formates , Humans , Immunoassay , Liquid-Liquid Extraction , Mass Spectrometry , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Triazoles , Vitamin D
7.
Jordan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 4 (1): 20-28
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-131231

ABSTRACT

The most practical measure of therapeutic equivalence between two commercially available and generic formulation of a certain drug is to determine their in vivo bioavailability. However, for the oral dosage from that is not intended to be absorbed [e.g. orlistat], in vivo bioavailability studies are irrelevant to the achievement of the product's intended purposes. However, specific requirements for these drug products may be set in a way that they should meet acceptable in vitro standards. For this purpose, a comparative enzymatic inhibition assay of the target enzyme, pancreatic lipase, was developed to demonstrate orlistat products' pharmaceutical and potency equivalence. In this study we compared the pancreatic lipase inhibition that is achieved by two orlistat formulations: a generic product manufactured by local company [Jordan Sweden Medical Company, JOSWE] and the reference one Xenical [Registered sign] manufactured by Roche. The inhibition was expressed by the concentration of product which inhibits 50% of the activity of the pancreatic lipase enzyme [1C[50]]. The results of these studies showed that both formulations have equivalent potency that was demonstrated by in vitro studies


Subject(s)
Acetonitriles/pharmacokinetics , Biological Availability , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methanol/pharmacokinetics , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Formates , Ethylamines , Anti-Obesity Agents
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227296

ABSTRACT

This study was developed and validated for the determination of oxyclozanide residue concentrations in beef and commercial milk, using high-performance liquid chromatography system. Oxyclozanide was successfully separated on a reverse phase column (Xbridge-C18, 4.6x250 mm, 5 microm) with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid (60:40, v/v%). This analytical procedure involved a deproteinization process using acetonitrile for beef and 2% formic acid in acetonitrile for commercial milk, dehydration by adding sodium sulfate to the liquid analytical sample, and a defatting process using n-hexane; after these steps, the extract was exposed to a stream of nitrogen dryness. The final extracted sample was dissolved in the mobile phase and filtered using a 0.45 microm syringe filter. This method had good selectivity and recovery (70.70+/-7.90-110.79+/-14.95%) from the matrices. The LOQs ranged from 9.7 to 9.8 microg/kg for beef and commercial milk. The recoveries met the standards set by the CODEX guideline.


Subject(s)
Acetonitriles , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Dehydration , Formates , Milk , Nitrogen , Oxyclozanide , Phosphoric Acids , Rivers , Sodium , Sulfates , Syringes
9.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 15(1): 1895-1896, ene.-abr. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-621940

ABSTRACT

Pues son lo mismo, son acrónimos; el primero corresponde al idioma inglés (I = introduction; M = methods; R = results; a = and; D = discussion) y el segundo al español (I = introducción; M = métodos; R = resultados; y = y, D = discusión) y es el formato adoptado por las revistas científicas e investigadores para la publicación de sus manuscritos desde hace más de cien años (1). Surge entonces una pregunta. Si el tema es tan antiguo, ¿por qué se aborda hoy? Pues bien, con frecuencia recibimos como editores consultas sobre el tema y en particular sobre los resúmenes estructurados, y en algunos casos, los consultores manifiestan con extrañeza no conocer del tema. En consecuencia, y por curiosidad editorial se realizó una pequeña investigación interna sobre el origen de estas consultas, la cual por razones obvias se reservan y, como resultado se obtuvo que gran parte de dichas consultas provenían de autores recién iniciados en las lides de la publicación de los resultados de su investigación.


Subject(s)
Formates , Manuscript , Periodicals as Topic
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-651780

ABSTRACT

Now a days, people eat outside of the home more and more frequently. Menu labeling can help people make more informed decisions about the foods they eat and help them maintain a healthy diet. This study was conducted to develop menu labeling system using Nutri-API (Nutrition Analysis Application Programming Interface). This system offers convenient user interface and menu labeling information with printout format. This system provide useful functions such as new food/menu nutrients information, retrieval food semantic service, menu plan with subgroup and nutrient analysis informations and print format. This system provide nutritive values with nutrient information and ratio of 3 major energy nutrients. MLS system can analyze nutrients for menu and each subgroup. And MLS system can display nutrient comparisons with DRIs and % Daily Nutrient Values. And also this system provide 6 different menu labeling formate with nutrient information. Therefore it can be used by not only usual people but also dietitians and restaurant managers who take charge of making a menu and experts in the field of food and nutrition. It is expected that Menu Labeling System (MLS) can be useful of menu planning and nutrition education, nutrition counseling and expert meal management.


Subject(s)
Counseling , Diet , Fees and Charges , Formates , Meals , Menu Planning , Nutritive Value , Restaurants , Semantics
11.
Mycobiology ; : 302-309, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729910

ABSTRACT

Formic acid is a representative carboxylic acid that inhibits bacterial cell growth, and thus it is generally considered to constitute an obstacle to the reuse of renewable biomass. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to elucidate changes in protein levels in response to formic acid. Fifty-seven differentially expressed proteins in response to formic acid toxicity in S. cerevisiae were identified by 1D-PAGE and nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) analyses. Among the 28 proteins increased in expression, four were involved in the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway and one in the oxidative stress-induced pathway. A dramatic increase was observed in the number of ion transporters related to maintenance of acid-base balance. Regarding the 29 proteins decreased in expression, they were found to participate in transcription during cell division. Heat shock protein 70, glutathione reductase, and cytochrome c oxidase were measured by LC-MS/MS analysis. Taken together, the inhibitory action of formic acid on S. cerevisiae cells might disrupt the acid-base balance across the cell membrane and generate oxidative stress, leading to repressed cell division and death. S. cerevisiae also induced expression of ion transporters, which may be required to maintain the acid-base balance when yeast cells are exposed to high concentrations of formic acid in growth medium.


Subject(s)
Acid-Base Equilibrium , Biomass , Cell Division , Cell Membrane , Electron Transport Complex IV , Formates , Glutathione Reductase , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Ion Transport , Mass Spectrometry , Oxidative Stress , Phosphotransferases , Proteins , Proteomics , Saccharomyces , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Signal Transduction , Yeasts
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159553

ABSTRACT

Formic acid or formate is a common industrial compound used in the production of ensilage, disinfectants, decalcifying agents and mainly as a precursor in industrial chemical synthesis. It is also a well-known toxic metabolite produced in methanol poisoning. Thus, formate is a potential source of both accidental and deliberate poisoning. Very few reports have been published thus far, on the toxicology of direct formic acid poisoning. Here, we report a case of a 74-year-old man without a history of depression, who ingested about 30 gm of formic acid. The patient presented with profound high anion gap metabolic acidosis, acute renal failure and esophageal stricture. The patient was successfully treated with hemodialysis and supportive measures. But permanent esophageal stricture was complicated by formic acid burns in the gastrointestinal tract. We discuss the pathophysiology and treatment of this case.


Subject(s)
Acid-Base Equilibrium , Acidosis , Acute Kidney Injury , Aged , Burns , Depression , Disinfectants , Esophageal Stenosis , Formates , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Methanol , Renal Dialysis , Toxicology
13.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2008 Dec; 45(6): 374-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-27413

ABSTRACT

The expression of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein is extensively utilized in the study of protein-protein interactions. In the commonly used purification method, the overexpressed GST fusion protein is bound to the glutathione (GSH)-coupled resins via affinity chromatography, and then eluted by an excessive quantity of reduced GSH. However, this technique has certain limitations, such as low product purity, retention of GSH in the sample, as well as relatively high cost. To overcome these limitations, in this study, elution buffer containing 2% formic acid was utilized rather than GSH to elute the GST-fusion protein, and thereafter the acidic samples were neutralized using collecting buffer. By using this method, highly purified GST-cyclophilin A (CypA) fusion protein was obtained, without affecting the structural and functional characteristics such as PPIase and chaperone activities. Moreover, the procedure is also cost-effective, due to the low cost of formic acid as compared with GSH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cloning, Molecular , Cyclophilin A/genetics , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Formates/chemistry , Glutathione Transferase/genetics , Molecular Chaperones/genetics , Protein Binding , Protein Folding , Rats , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics
14.
Veterinary Medical Journal. 2008; 56 (2): 115-133
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-90749

ABSTRACT

In this study the bactericidal efficacy of four reference disinfectants used as standards in the recently published DVG-guidelines was assessed against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in dairies in the presence of organic matter [milk] by using two test methods according to the DVG-guidelines [2007] and European Standards which specify a test methods and minimum requirements for bactericidal activity of chemical disinfectants and antiseptics that are used in the dairies. This test methods are based on European standards [EN] which were prepared by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 216 [Chemical Disinfectant and Antiseptic]. The results showed that when we used suspension test which was the limiting test method for the listing of disinfectants for the food industries in the former DVG-guideline [2000] for determining the bactericidal efficacy of the tested reference disinfectants against tested organisms, Staphylococcus aureus [ATCC 6538] and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [ATCC 15442] were highly sensitive to formic acid while, Escherichia coli [ATCC 10536] and Enterococcus hirae [ATCC 10541] were more resistant. With application of peracetic acid the most resistant microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. While, the other two bacterial strains were highly susceptible. With glutaraldehyde the highly sensitive microorganisms were Enterococcus hirae and Escherichia coli. Benzyl-alkyl-dimethyl ammonium chloride showed higher bactericidal effect against Enterococcus hirae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa than against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli which needed longer exposure times at the same concentration. So, the limiting test organism when using formic acid as reference substance was Enterococcus hirae. While, with peracetic acid application was Staphylococcus aureus. Both Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa appear to be the limiting test organisms with glutaraldehyde. When using benzyl-alkyl-dimethyl ammonium chloride were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coll. Higher concentration and prolonged exposure times where necessary when test organisms were dried onto the surface of steel disks [carrier tests] as they were when the organisms were placed in suspension [suspension test] mainly with Gram negative organisms. This appears when using formic acid as reference substance against Gram negative test organisms we need higher concentrations in the same contact time. Also, with peracetic acid and benzyl-alkyl-dimethyl ammonium chloride applications higher concentrations respectively prolonged exposure time were required. This also was observed with Gram positive test organisms when using peracetic acid as reference substance. Differences in the disinfectant susceptibility were noticed between the four strains of microorganisms where, Escherichia coli was highly resistant to formic acid, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most resistant strain to peracetic acid. Glutaraldehyde gave the same bactericidal effect against all tested strains. With benzyl-alkyl-dimethyl ammonium chloride the highly sensitive microorganism was Enterococcus hirae. These findings emphasize the need for caution in selecting an appropriate disinfectant for use on contaminated surfaces in dairies and dairy industry particularly in the presence of organic material [milk] as well as the need to include reference substances in the disinfectant testing procedure to be able to compare the activity of different products and check the susceptibility of the test organisms used


Subject(s)
Gram-Positive Bacteria , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Disinfectants , Formates , Peracetic Acid , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264386

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish determination method of formic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid and succinic acid in dental plaque with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>After the samples were centrifuged, 2 microL supernatant was transferred to a 1 mL centrifuge tube and diluted in water, then was determined with HPLC. The mixture of phosphate buffer and methanol (97:3) as mobile phase throughout the experiment. The determination of organic acid was performed on Phenomenex C18 column and at their maximum absorption wave.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The linear ranges of formic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid and succinic acid were 0.110-500, 0.049-500, 0.047-500, 0.084-500 microg/mL. The detection limits were 0.110, 0.049, 0.047, 0.084 microg/mL. The relative standard derivation were 9.5%, 7.9%, 4.3%, 4.2%. The average recoveries of samples were 82%-112%, 82%-102.5%, 90%-115%, 80%-110%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The method was simple, quick and adapt for analysis of organic acid in dental plaque.</p>


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Dental Plaque , Formates
16.
Braz. oral res ; 21(2): 134-139, 2007. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-453192

ABSTRACT

The rat model is widely used in periodontal research and the quality of histological sections is essential. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histological characteristics of periodontal tissues in Wistar rat maxillae, with different times of fixation and decalcified by nitric acid or formic acid (Anna Morse Solution). Fifteen rats were used. Fixation was performed for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The maxillae were hemi-sectioned and each part was decalcified either in nitric acid for 7 days or in Anna Morse solution for 35 days. Two trained and blinded examiners performed the evaluation. Fourty eight hours of fixation and decalcification with Anna Morse solution showed more clear characteristics of the epithelium-connective tissue interface and of the periodontal structures. Mean measurements between the cementum-enamel junction and the bone crest varied in the different experimental times from 176.5 (± 60.45) to 210.94 (± 39.33) pixels on the buccal aspect, and from 199.69 (± 38.33) to 298.55 (± 70.81) pixels on the palatal aspect, with no statistically significant differences (ANOVA, p > 0.05). In the same fixation period, decalcification with nitric acid or Anna Morse solution did not display any statistically significant differences. It may be concluded that for a qualitative histological analysis, fixation should preferably be for 48 hours and the demineralization should be made by Anna Morse solution. For a histomorphometric analysis, the decalcification solution does not interfere in the results.


O modelo rato é extensamente usado na pesquisa periodontal, e a qualidade dos cortes histológicos é essencial. A proposta deste estudo foi avaliar as características histológicas dos tecidos periodontais nas maxilas de ratos Wistar, após diferentes períodos de fixação e descalcificação pelo ácido nítrico ou pelo ácido fórmico (Solução de Anna Morse). Quinze ratos foram usados. A fixação foi realizada nos períodos de 24, 48 e 72 horas. As maxilas foram divididas e parte foi descalcificada em ácido nítrico durante 7 dias e parte com solução de Anna Morse por 35 dias. Dois examinadores treinados e cegos executaram a avaliação. Quarenta e oito horas de fixação e descalcificação com solução de Anna Morse mostraram características mais evidentes da interface epitélio-conjuntivo, assim como das estruturas periodontais. As médias, por vestibular, entre a junção cemento-esmalte e a crista óssea nos diferentes tempos experimentais variaram entre 176,5 (± 60,45) e 210,94 (± 39,33) "pixels", e, na face palatina, entre 199,69 (± 38,33) e 298,55 (± 70,81) "pixels", sem nenhuma diferença estatisticamente significativa (ANOVA, p > 0,05). No mesmo período de fixação, a descalcificação com ácido nítrico ou solução de Anna Morse não mostrou diferenças estatisticamente significantes. Pode-se concluir que, para a análise histológica qualitativa, a fixação deve ser preferivelmente em 48 horas e a desmineralização por solução de Anna Morse. Para a análise histo-morfométrica, a solução descalcificadora não interferiu nos resultados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Formates , Nitric Acid/pharmacology , Periodontal Diseases/pathology , Periodontal Ligament/pathology , Periodontium/pathology , Tissue Fixation/methods , Analysis of Variance , Decalcification Technique , Disease Models, Animal , Maxilla , Microscopy, Electron , Periodontal Ligament/ultrastructure , Periodontium/drug effects , Periodontium , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
17.
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research. 2007; 8 (1): 32-39
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-83129

ABSTRACT

The chemical composition, degradability coefficients [in situ] and ruminal-intestinal disappearance [mobile bag procedure] of dry matter [DM] and crude protein [CP] were evaluated for olive cake [OC] silages treated [DM basis] with additives as follows: [1] untreated OC, [2] OC + 0.5% urea, [3] OC + 0.4% formic acid, [4] OC + 8% molasses, [5] OC + 0.5% urea + 8% molasses, [6] OC + 0.5% urea + 0.4% formic acid, [7] OC + 8% molasses + 0.4% formic acid and [8] OC + 8% molasses + 0.4% formic acid + 0.5% urea. The highest reduction in cellulose and ADF content was found for treatment 8 [120 and 117 g kg[-1] DM, respectively], as compared with the raw material [not ensiled]. Taking into consideration the chemical composition, pH values, and the general appearance of silages, ensiling of OC with additives preserved well and enhanced the nutritive value of olive cake. Ruminal maximum potential degradability of DM [a+b], effective and rapid degradability and rate of degradation of treatment 8 were higher than others. The same trend was found for CP except fraction [a] which was highest for treatment 6. Mean ruminal DM [P<0.05] and CP disappearances in treatment 8 after 12 hrs incubation were higher than the other treatments. Intestinal digestibility of undegraded DM for treatment 5 was higher [P<0.05] than treatment 6 with no differences among other treatments. Intestinal digestibility of undegraded CP for treatments 3, 5, 6 and 7 was higher [P<0.05] than the other treatments. Total tract DM disappearance of treatments 4, 5 and 8 was higher [P<0.05] than others. Total tract CP disappearance of treatment 8 was higher [P<0.05] than treatment 4. Results indicated that treating OC before ensiling with 8% molasses, 0.4% formic acid and 0.5% urea [DM basis] could provide a good and economical source of a non-conventional feed in areas where OC is available; thus, it helps to improve the diet formulation for ruminants


Subject(s)
Dietary Fats, Unsaturated , Food Additives , Silage , Urea , Formates , Proteins
18.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 150-151, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-333381

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the methods of decalcification for making united slices of tooth and affiliated periodontic tissues.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twenty-one samples containing dog molars and affiliated periodontic tissues were divided into seven mean groups. The pH value of solution, time of decalcification, weight and volume of samples, and content of decalcified calcium were detected. The slices were observed by HE, specific, and immunohistochemical stain.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The velocity of decalcification increased with decrease of solution pH. The weight of samples lightened by 37.61%, the volume reduced by 25.97% on average, and calcium decalcified was 174.49 mg per gram humid samples. The EDTA decalcification was slowest, but it was best. Decalcification was fast in Plank-Rycho solution while the section was worst, and faster in the formyl solution containing aluminium chloride than in EDTA, and the section was better.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The 50% formyl solution containing aluminium chloride is an ideal decalcifying solution.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Decalcification Technique , Methods , Dogs , Edetic Acid , Formates , Microtomy , Molar , Periodontium
19.
IJMS-Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2005; 30 (4): 199
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-70864
20.
Rev. ADM ; 61(1): 35-38, ene.-feb. 2004. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-358136

ABSTRACT

En los últimos años se ha incrementado el número de demandas en México, por lo que cada vez resulta más importante un consentimiento informado por parte del paciente, por lo cual es importante conocer el porcentaje de aplicación de técnicas de conducta que utilizan los odontopediatras en pacientes pediátricos en la ciudad de México. ¿Cómo ayuda el consentimiento informado para la aplicación de técnicas de manejo conductual en pacientes pediátricos en prevenir demandas? ¿Estarían los odontopediatras dispuestos a aceptar un formato preestablecido de consentimiento informado para dicha aplicación? El método utilizado en dicha investigación fue la aplicación de un cuestionario directo de 8 preguntas, el cual nos arrojó que la mayoría de los odontopediatras utilizan el consentimiento informado, las técnicas de manejo de conducta las explican de forma verbal y están conscientes de que este documento puede prevenir posibles demandas, estando dispuestos a utilizar algún formato preestablecido.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Informed Consent , Pediatric Dentistry/trends , Audiovisual Aids , Child Behavior , Formates , Mexico , Pediatric Dentistry/statistics & numerical data , Patient Care Planning , Public Sector , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Surveys and Questionnaires
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