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1.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(3): 267-273, jul.set.2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399346

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify possible risks factors of exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP)/outdoor air pollution (OAP) and their relationship with noncommunicable diseases in men and women treated by primary care physicians. Method: In total, 551 patients (382 women) attended three basic health units in Uruguaiana, Brazil, for various complaints, and completed a questionnaire about risk factors for exposure to IAP/OAP. Results: Women were significantly more exposed to wood-burning pollutants (79.6% vs. 52.7%, p < 0.0001) for having more housework-related activities; men had more outdoor activities and spent extended periods in traffic (47.3% vs. 18.8%, p < 0.0001). Arterial hypertension (AH)/ chronic respiratory disease (CRD) were more frequent among women. Patients with AH/CRD were more exposed to OAP because of their work (18.1% vs. 11%, p = 0.02) or for living near a source of air pollution (45.6% vs. 29.6%, p = 0.0002) or on a street with heavy traffic (41.7% vs. 33%, p = 0.04). Passive smoking, active smoking, using wood, charcoal, or firewood for cooking, heating, or drying, or burning charcoal indoors were not associated with a higher prevalence of AH/CRD. Conclusion: Exposure to OAP was associated with AH/CRD. Women were more exposed to IAP from burning firewood, and men were more exposed to fossil fuel burning. Knowledge of these behaviors should be directed to primary care physicians and all health professionals so that preventive and educational measures can be implemented.


Objetivo: Identificar possíveis fatores de risco da exposição à poluição intradomiciliar (PID) e extradomiciliar (PED) e sua relação com doenças não transmissíveis (DNT) em homens e mulheres tratados por médicos de atenção primária. Método: Quinhentos e cinquenta e um pacientes (382 mulheres) atendidos em três unidades básicas de saúde em Uruguaiana, Brasil, por queixas diversas, responderam a um questionário sobre os fatores de risco para exposição à PID/PED. Resultados: As mulheres foram significantemente mais expostas aos poluentes da queima de lenha (79,6% vs. 52,7%, p < 0,0001) por terem mais atividades domésticas; os homens praticaram mais atividades ao ar livre e passaram longos períodos no trânsito (47,3% vs. 18,8%, p < 0,0001). Hipertensão arterial (HA) / Doença respiratória crônica (DRC) foram mais frequentes entre as mulheres. Pacientes com HA/DRC foram mais expostos à PED devido ao trabalho (18,1% vs. 11%, p = 0,02), ou por viver perto de uma fonte de poluição do ar (45,6% vs. 29,6%, p = 0,0002), ou em uma rua com trânsito intenso (41,7% vs. 33%, p = 0,04). O fumo passivo, o fumo ativo, o uso de lenha ou carvão para cozinhar, aquecer ou secar ou queimar carvão em ambientes fechados não foram associados a maior prevalência de HA/DRC. Conclusão: A exposição à PED foi associada a HA/CRD. As mulheres foram mais expostas à PID pela queima de lenha, e os homens foram mais expostos à queima de combustíveis fósseis. O conhecimento destes comportamentos deve ser direcionado aos médicos da atenção básica e a todos os profissionais da saúde, para que medidas preventivas e educacionais possam ser implementadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Air Pollution, Indoor , Air Pollution , Environmental Pollutants , Environmental Pollution , Patients , Primary Health Care , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Tobacco , Wood , Smoking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Health Personnel , Physicians, Primary Care , Fossil Fuels , Hypertension
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62(spe): e19190007, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055429

ABSTRACT

Abstract The electric vehicle (EV) is not a recent invention. Between the end of the XIX century and the beginning of the XX century, most motor vehicles were electric, due to their superior reliability and cleanliness, compared to that of vehicles driven by internal combustion engines (ICE). However, with the development of ICEs and the reduction of their price, electric cars were forgotten. Only almost a century later, they returned in the market due to a significant increase in fossil fuels prices, as well as to a growing environmental concern. EVs present a number of advantages over ICE vehicles: they are simpler and require less use and replacement of parts, resulting in lower maintenance costs; moreover, they do not release pollutants into the environment. However, their production cost is still much higher than that of ICE vehicles. In order to verify the possibility of converting a conventional vehicle into an electric one at a reasonable cost, achieving a good performance and a good kWh/km ratio, an ICE-powered Mercedes-Benz Class A 190 was converted into an EV. The results of several tests indicate that the conversion is feasible, as the car reached an average travelling cost of 0.16 R$/km, assuming a price for the energy of 0.63 R$/kWh. Moreover, this cost could be as low as zero if solar radiation is utilized to generate electricity through photovoltaic panels, which is an even more environmentally sustainable solution..


Subject(s)
Automobiles , Climate , Photovoltaic Energy , Fossil Fuels , Sustainable Development
3.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 44(2)abr.-jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1042981

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La quema de combustibles sólidos en cocinas tradicionales en viviendas rurales del Perú, es una fuente importante de exposición a toxinas, sin embargo, las mujeres lo perciben positivamente. Objetivos: caracterizar una comunidad rural desde la perspectiva socioeconómica y sociocultural para interpretar las circunstancias vinculadas con la prevalencia de síntomas respiratorios en mujeres. Métodos: investigación de tipo cualitativo en 60 viviendas rurales de La Esperanza, Ancash, Perú, en las cuales se utilizaban cocinas tradicionales y cuyas amas de casa, presentaron alta prevalencia de síntomas respiratorios. Para describir la calidad ambiental de la cocina se midió el monóxido de carbono, y se indagó con las participantes la prevalencia de síntomas respiratorios y se les realizaron prueba de capacidad vital forzada. Se evaluó a través de una guía las condiciones higiénico-sanitarias de las viviendas y se organizaron grupos focales para recolectar información acerca de las percepciones de las mujeres. Resultados: Debido a las condiciones contaminantes y las prácticas cotidianas, la cocina fue un recinto de elevada vulnerabilidad para la salud respiratoria. Se puso de manifiesto una escasa percepción del riesgo para la salud asociado al uso de cocinas tradicionales. La persistencia de síntomas respiratorios fue considerada como algo natural. Conclusiones: Lo que las mujeres creen acerca de sus síntomas respiratorios es fundamental para su habitual forma de actuar. En ese sentido, los hallazgos contribuyen a guiar la implementación de nuevas estrategias para la prevención de estos síntomas, con la finalidad de modificar algunas de las circunstancias socioeconómicas y socioculturales que los condicionan(AU)


Introduction: The burning of solid fuels in traditional stoves, in rural homes in Peru, is an important source of exposure to toxins; however, women perceive it positively. Objectives: To characterize a rural community from a socioeconomic and sociocultural perspective to interpret the circumstances related to the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in women. Methods: Qualitative research in 60 rural homes in La Esperanza, Ancash, Peru, in which traditional stoves were used and whose housewives had a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms. To describe the environmental quality of the kitchen, carbon monoxide was measured, and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms was investigated with the participants, and forced vital capacity tests were performed. The hygienic-sanitary conditions of the dwellings were evaluated through a guide and focus groups were organized to collect information about the perceptions of the women. Results: Due to the polluting conditions and daily practices, the kitchen was an area of ​​high vulnerability for respiratory health. A low perception of the health risk associated with the use of traditional kitchens was revealed. The persistence of respiratory symptoms was considered as something natural. Conclusions: What women believe about their respiratory symptoms is fundamental to their usual way of acting. In this sense, the findings contribute to guiding the implementation of new strategies for the prevention of respiratory symptoms, in order to modify some of the socioeconomic and sociocultural circumstances that condition them(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Fossil Fuels/toxicity , Peru
4.
Rev. salud pública ; 20(1): 126-131, ene.-feb. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-962102

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La movilidad motorizada está íntimamente ligada a los combustibles líquidos como la gasolina y el diésel; y en consecuencia, con el medio ambiente. Además de la problemática con el calentamiento global, la utilización de estos combustibles genera compuestos de carácter contaminante que afecta la salud de la población. Entre todos los contaminantes criterio, el material particulado (PM) de tamaño menor o igual a 2,5 micras (PM25) es considerado como uno de los compuestos de mayor peligrosidad debido a que puede penetrar hasta la región de intercambio de gases del pulmón. Los registros para el Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá (AMVA) muestran eventualmente que los niveles promedio de calidad del aire resultan ser nocivos para la salud del habitante metropolitano. Lo anterior se debe principalmente a las altas concentraciones de PM25 generadas por vehículos pesados que usan combustible diésel. Si bien las propiedades de este combustible tienen un efecto directo en el PM respirable, existen otras estrategias que influyen en las características y la cantidad de las emisiones generadas. Por ejemplo, la mejora del nivel tecnológico de los motores a partir de planes de chatarrización y renovación, y de la pauta de conducción, así como la incorporación de vehículos eléctricos. Con todo lo anterior, este trabajo muestra una serie de consideraciones a fin de plantear posibles estrategias de solución a la problemática ambiental de la ciudad y el país.(AU)


ABSTRACT Motorized mobility is closely linked to liquid fuels such as gasoline and diésel and therefore, to the environment. Besides the problems associated with global warming, the use of these fuels also generates polluting compounds affecting the population health. Among all primary pollutants, particulate matter (PM) less than or equal to 2.5 microns (PM25) in size, is regarded as one of the most dangerous compounds because it can penetrate the region lung gas exchange. The records for the Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá (AMVA) often show that the average levels of air quality were found to be harmful to the health of metropolitan habitants. This is mainly attributed to the high concentrations of PM25 generated by heavy-duty vehicles that use diésel fuel. Although the properties of diesel fuel have a direct effect on breathable PM, there are other strategies influencing both nature and amount of emissions. For example, the improvement of the technological level of the engines and the driving pattern, as well as the incorporation of electric vehicles. This paper shows some considerations in order to propose possible strategies to solve the environmental problem of the city and the country.(AU)


Subject(s)
Air Quality Control , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Fossil Fuels/adverse effects , Population Health , Colombia , Motor Vehicles
5.
Rev. luna azul ; (40): 260-276, ene.-jun. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-749491

ABSTRACT

En el año 2007 Ecuador propuso dejar sin explotar en el Parque Nacional Yasuní, una de las regiones más biodiversas del planeta, una de sus reservas de petróleo más importantes a cambio de contribuciones financieras de la comunidad internacional. Esta propuesta ha dado lugar al nuevo mecanismo de mitigación del cambio climático "Emisiones Netas Evitadas" (ENE), en el seno de la Convención Marco de las Naciones Unidas para el Cambio Climático (CMNUCC). Este documento describe la Iniciativa Yasuní Ishpingo Tambococha Tiputini (Yasuní-ITT), las características del mecanismo de mitigación propuesto y lo compara con otros ya existentes, y plantea posibles escenarios frente al inminente fracaso de la Iniciativa Yasuní-ITT. El mecanismo ENE ayuda a complementar otros ya establecidos como el Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio (MDL) y la Reducción de Emisiones derivadas de la Deforestación y la Degradación de los Bosques (REDD/REDD+), y tiene en cuenta varios aspectos innovadores en la mitigación del cambio climático que serían más eficientes en el balance neto de emisiones a la atmósfera. El nuevo mecanismo plantea un consecuente cambio en los esquemas de desarrollo, pero parece condenado al fracaso por la indiferencia de la comunidad internacional y su resistencia a cambiar los esquemas de usos energéticos actuales altamente dependientes de combustibles fósiles.


In 2007, Ecuador proposed to leave unexploited, one of the most bio-diverse regions on the planet, one of its most important oil reserves in the Yasuní National Park in exchange for financial contributions from the international community. This proposal led to the new climate change mitigation mechanism, "Net Avoided Emissions" (NAE), within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This paper describes the Yasuní Ishpingo Tambococha Tiputini (Yasuní-ITT) initiative, the characteristics of its proposed mitigation mechanism and compares it with other existing mechanisms, and poses possible scenarios against the impending failure of the Yasuní-ITT Initiative. The NAE mechanism helps complementing other already established mechanisms such as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Reducing Emissions Derived from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD / REDD+), and takes into account several innovative aspects in climate change mitigation that would be more efficient in the net balance of emissions into the atmosphere. The new mechanism poses consequent changes in the developmental schemes, but seems to be doomed to failure due to the international community indifference and its reluctance to change current patterns of energy use that are highly dependent on fossil fuels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Climate Change , Petroleum , Parks, Recreational , Fossil Fuels
6.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 471-475, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-349642

ABSTRACT

Over half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution from the burning of solid fuels at home. Household air pollution from solid fuel use is a leading risk factor for global disease and remains a major public health problem, especially in low- and mid-income countries. This is a particularly serious problem in China, where many people in rural areas still use coal for household heating and cooking. This review focuses on several decades of research carried out in Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, where household coal use is a major source of household air pollution and where studies have linked household air pollution exposure to high rates of lung cancer. We conducted a series of case-control and cohort studies in Xuanwei to characterize the lung cancer risk in this population and the factors associated with it. We found lung cancer risk to vary substantially between different coal types, with a higher risk associated with smoky (i.e., bituminous) coal use compared to smokeless (i.e., anthracite) coal use. The installation of a chimney in homes resulted in a substantial reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Overall, our research underscores the need among existing coal users to improve ventilation, use the least toxic fuel, and eventually move toward the use of cleaner fuels, such as gas and electricity.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , China , Coal , Classification , Cohort Studies , Cooking , Fossil Fuels , Heating , Humans , Incidence , Lung Neoplasms , Mortality , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 30(5 Supplement 2): 547-554, 2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-947939

ABSTRACT

O combustível fóssil dá sinais de esgotamento das suas reservas além de afetar o meio ambiente devido à poluição decorrente de sua queima. Surgiu assim um novo desafio: encontrar um combustível substituto que seja renovável e que seja menos poluente. O biodiesel surgiu como potencial substituto do combustível fóssil, por ser oriundo de várias matérias primas, reduzir o impacto ambiental gerado por poluição e ainda trazer vários benefícios sociais. Porém essa tecnologia é nova e ainda precisa ser aperfeiçoada. Vários trabalhos científicos vêm surgindo com o intuito de trazer melhoria para o biodiesel. Por meio da Cienciometria é possível saber a tendência de pesquisa desses trabalhos, sendo este fato importante para a sociedade acadêmica, para que possam ser realizados novos estudos de biodiesel. Sendo assim, objetivou-se neste trabalho fazer uma análise cienciométrica do biodiesel. O banco de dados utilizado foi o "SciVerseScopus". Foi realizada uma busca de todos os trabalhos que possuía no título a palavra biodiesel*. Os trabalhos foram analisados a partir de 1993, primeiro ano de registro para o termo, até 2010. As seguintes informações foram levantadas: a)Ano de publicação, b)Tipo de trabalho, c)Tipo do periódico em que o trabalho foi publicado, d)Nome do periódico em que o trabalho foi publicado, e)Área de concentração, f)Palavras-chave, g)Idioma, h)País de publicação, e i)Matéria prima utilizada para a obtenção do biodiesel estudado em trabalhos brasileiros. De uma forma geral os trabalhos analisados acompanham as tendências mundiais de produção e consumo do biodiesel, mostrando-se importantes para o aperfeiçoamento desta tecnologia.


Fossil fuel is showing signs of depletion of its reserves and affect the environment due to pollution from burning. Thus emerged a new challenge: to find a substitute fuel that is renewable and less polluting. Biodiesel has emerged as a potential substitute for fossil fuel, for it comes from various raw materials, reduce the environmental impact of pollution and also bring many benefits. However this technology is new and still needs to be improved. Several scientific studies have emerged in order to bring about improvement for biodiesel. Through scientometrics is possible to know the trend of research work, which is indeed important for the academic society, that may be new studies of biodiesel. Thus, this study aimed to make a scientometric analysis of biodiesel. The database used was the "SciVerseScopus." We performed a search of all studies that had biodiesel* in the title. The studies were analyzed from 1993, the first year of registration for the term until 2010. The following information was obtained: a) Year of publication, b) type of study, c) Type of the journal where the paper was published, d) name of journal in which the study was published, e) Area of concentration, f) keywords, g) Language, h) Country of publication, i) Raw materials used to obtain biodiesel studied in Brazilian studies. In general the studies analyzed follow world trends in production and consumption of biodiesel, being important for the improvement of technology. New jobs scientometrics of biodiesel can be made taking into account their specific characteristics.


Subject(s)
Technology , Biofuels , Fossil Fuels
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation and results from environmental factors and genetic factors. Although cigarette smoking is a major risk factor, other environmental exposures can influence COPD. The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical characteristics of COPD according to the history of environmental exposure. METHODS: The study population comprised of 347 subjects with COPD who were recruited from the pulmonary clinics of 14 hospitals within the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease Study Group. We classified environmental exposures according to history of living near factory, and direct exposure history to firewood or briquette. According to living environmental exposures, we compared the frequency of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, quality of life, exercise capacity, and computed tomography phenotypes. RESULTS: Thirty-one subjects (8.9%) had history of living near factory, 271 (78.3%) had exposure history to briquette, and 184 (53.3%) had exposure history to firewood. Patients with history of living near a factory had a significantly longer duration of sputum, while patients with exposure to firewood tended to have lower forced expiratory volume in one second, and patients with exposure to briquette tended to have lower six minute walk distance. CONCLUSION: COPD subjects with the history of living near factory had more frequent respiratory symptoms such as sputum. Our data suggest that environmental exposure may influence clinical phenotype of COPD.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Environmental Exposure , Forced Expiratory Volume , Fossil Fuels , Humans , Korea , Lung Diseases, Obstructive , Occupational Exposure , Phenotype , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Smoking , Sputum
9.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 1(1): 123-130, oct. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178917

ABSTRACT

Los avances de la tecnología industrial incrementan la concentración y número de contaminantes, excediéndose los valores permisibles 100 mg/m3; por tanto provocando alteraciones en los organismos humanos y de esta forma el desarrollo de mutaciones y cáncer en el ser humano. El incremento de la contaminación del aire se ha ligado a problemas de la función pulmonar y aumentos en los ataques cardíacos. La calidad general del aire ha mejorado en los últimos 20 años pero las zonas urbanas son aún motivo de preocupación. La contaminación atmosférica es la presencia en la atmósfera de sustancias físico, química o biológico o combinaciones que puedan ser nocivos para la salud, la seguridad o para el bienestar de la población. Aunque puede ocurrir por causas naturales, como las erupciones volcánicas, los incendios forestales no provocados o la actividad de algunos seres vivos, pero mayor parte de la contaminación actual la más constante y dañina se debe a las actividades del ser humano, sobre todo a los procesos industriales y a la quema de combustibles fósiles.


Advances in manufacturing technology and increasing the number of pollutants concentration, exceeding the allowable values 100 mg/m3; thus causing changes in human bodies, and thus the development of cancer and mutations in humans. The increase in air pollution problems has been linked to lung function and increases in heart attacks. The overall air quality has improved over the last 20 years but urban areas are still a concern. Air pollution is the presence in the atmosphere of substances physical, chemical or biological or combinations that may be harmful to health, safety or welfare of the population. Although it can occur by natural causes, such as volcanic eruptions, forest fires unprovoked or activity of some living things, but most of the current pollution the most consistent and damaging is due to human activities, especially industrial processes and the burning of fossil fuels.


Subject(s)
Risk , Genotoxicity , Neoplasms , Population , Atmosphere , Wildfires , Air Pollutants , Environmental Pollution , Fossil Fuels , Human Activities , Myocardial Infarction
10.
s.l; Alianza Global para Estufas Limpias; Jul. 2013. 88 p.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022007

ABSTRACT

El Mercado de Estufas y Combustibles fue realizado por Energía Sin Fronteras, Fundación Solar y la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, en colaboración con ONGAWA Ingeniería para el Desarrollo Humano, en nombre de la Alianza Global para Estufas Limpias.


Subject(s)
Socioeconomic Factors , Environmental Management , Fuels , Fossil Fuels/economics , Guatemala
11.
Rev. salud pública ; 15(1): 80-89, ene.-feb. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-703424

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Caracterizar la exposición a la contaminación del aire interior por uso de combustibles sólidos en hogares en situación de pobreza extrema en Colombia. Métodos A partir de la información gubernamental oficial de hogares en situación de pobreza extrema (encuesta Red Unidos de septiembre 2012, n=1,3 millones de hogares y >5 millones de individuos) se estructuraron dos modelos de regresión logística: (i) Factores asociados al uso de combustibles sólidos para cocinar a nivel hogar, (ii) Asociación entre el uso de combustibles sólidos en el hogar y prevalencia de limitaciones de la salud a nivel individuo. Resultados Un total de 530 mil hogares en situación de pobreza extrema donde habitan 2,1 millones de colombianos, enfrentan el factor de riesgo (uso de combustibles fósiles en el hogar). La presencia del factor de riesgo está asociada a la zona rural (odds ratio-OR=19,4; intervalo de confianza al 95 %-IC95 %: 19,2-19,6), la etnia indígena (OR=2,9; IC95 %:2,9-3,0) y, de manera inversa, a la situación de desplazamiento (OR=0,6;IC95 %:0,6-0,6). La prevalencia de limitación cardiovascular y/o respiratoria, así como de limitación en visión se asociaron con la exposición. Discusión Las iniciativas que busquen mejorar la salud ambiental y calidad de vida de la población rural de mayor vulnerabilidad socio-económica del país cuentan con información de caracterización e impacto para priorizar programas tendientes a disminuir la exposición al uso de combustibles sólidos.


Objective Characterising exposure to indoor air pollution arising from solid-fuel use in extremely poor Colombian households. Methods Data from the September 2012 survey by Red Unidos (literally United Network, the Colombian government's official instrument for identifying extremely poor households: n=1.3 million households and >5 million people) was used for two logistic regression models: factors associated with solid fuel used in cooking within households and an association between exposure to solid fuel use in households and the prevalence of limitations regarding individual health. Results According to the Red Unidos data-based models, 2.1 million people living in 530,000 extremely poor households were exposed to environmental health risk (i.e. household air pollution caused by solid fuel use). Such risk was found to be related to living in rural areas (odds ratio (OR)=19.4 95 % confidence interval (95 %CI): 19.2-19.6 %), having an Indian background (OR=2.9: 2.9-3.0 95 %CI) and, inversely (i.e. when living in towns), internal displacement (OR=0.6: 0.6-0.695 %CI). The prevalence of permanent cardiovascular and respiratory limitations and limited vision were associated with exposure to indoor air pollution arising from solid fuel use. Discussion Initiatives for improving environmental health and the quality of life for extremely poor rural households in Colombia must make full use of the available characterisation data and its impact for prioritising programmes aimed at reducing exposure to solid fuel use.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Air Pollution, Indoor/statistics & numerical data , Cooking , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Fossil Fuels/adverse effects , Fossil Fuels/statistics & numerical data , Poverty , Colombia , Family Characteristics
13.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 78(6): 63-68, nov.-dez. 2012. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-660413

ABSTRACT

A ototoxidade dos solventes orgânicos pode atingir o sistema auditivo a nível coclear e retrococlear. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a integridade neurofisiológica do sistema auditivo até tronco cerebral por meio do PEATE. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo. Estudados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria/RS. A amostra ficou composta por 21 sujeitos, que foram avaliados por meio de potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico. RESULTADOS: Alteração nas latências absolutas das ondas I e III e em todas as latências interpicos, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda houve alteração na latência absoluta de todas as ondas, e em todos os intervalos interpicos. Alteração na diferença interaural da onda V foi verificada em 19% dos sujeitos. No grupo exposto há mais de cinco anos, foram estatisticamente significantes o número de sujeitos com alteração: no intervalo interpico I-V da orelha direita; na latência absoluta da onda I e no intervalo interpico III-V da orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: A exposição a combustíveis pode causar alterações no sistema auditivo central.


Ototoxicity of organic solvents can affect the hearing system up to the cochlea level and the central structures of hearing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neurophysiological integrity of the hearing system in subjects exposed to fuels using ABR. METHOD: Prospective study. We evaluated attendants from three gas stations in Santa Maria/RS. The sample had 21 subjects, who were evaluated by auditory brainstem response. RESULTS: We found an alteration in the absolute latencies of Waves I and III and in all the interpeak latencies, in the right ear. In the left ear there was a change in the absolute latencies of all Waves, and in all the interpeak intervals. A change in the interaural difference of Wave V was found in 19% of the individuals. In the group exposed for more than five years, there were subjects with a statistically significant changes: in the I-V interpeak of the right ear; in the absolute latency of Wave I and in the III-V interpeak of the left year. CONCLUSION: Exposure to fuels can cause alterations in the central hearing system.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Brain Stem/physiopathology , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Fossil Fuels/toxicity , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Acoustic Impedance Tests , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Prospective Studies , Reaction Time , Time Factors
14.
Rev. luna azul ; (35): 60-77, jul.-dic. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-675184

ABSTRACT

Se estudió el impacto en la producción de café con diferentes estándares de certificación (producción convencional, producción orgánica -NOP y Unión Europea-, UTZ Kapeh, Comercio Justo, Rainforest Alliance y CAFE Practices) sobre la huella de carbono en Costa Rica. Las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) se estimaron en nueve fincas y ocho empresas procesadoras del grano. Se estimó la fijación de carbono en biomasa total, en árboles de sombra y cafetos, midiendo las plantas, empleando modelos de biomasa y factores de expansión de biomasa, una fracción de carbono de 0,5 e indagando a productores sobre la edad de los componentes del sistema. Se emplearon factores de emisión recomendados por el IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Los sistemas de producción fijaron entre 5,0 y 17,6 t CO2e/ha/año, sin un efecto de los estándares de certificación. La actividad que más emite GEI fue la fertilización nitrogenada (63-82% del total de emisiones). Las dos procesadoras con menor emisión de GEI (156 y 187 kg CO2e/t café verde) son aquellas que emplean la energía solar para secar parcialmente el café. La cadena de producción de café en Costa Rica mostró ser amigable con el medio ambiente, al fijar netamente entre 2,4 y 13,0 kg CO2e/kg de grano de café verde (en promedio 7,6 kg CO2e/kg de café verde y 8,1 t CO2e/ha/año). No se encontró impacto de los estándares de certificación pero si de los componentes del sistema en la huella de carbono en la cadena de producción de café.


The impact in coffee production with different certification standards (conventional production, organic production -NOP and European Union-, UTZ Kapeh, Fairtrade, Rainforest Alliance and CAFE Practices) on Carbon Footprint in Costa Rica was studied. The greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) were estimated in nine farms and eight grain processing industries. Carbon fixation was estimated in total biomass in both shade trees and coffee bushes by measuring the plants, using biomass models and biomass expansion factors, a 0.5 fraction of carbon and asking producers about the age of the components in the system. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) recommended emission factors were used. The production systems fixed between 5,0 and 17,6 t CO2e/ha/year, without an effect of the certification standards. The activity emitting more GHG was nitrogenated fertilization (63-82% of total emissions). The two grain processing industries with less GEE emissions (156 and 187 CO2e/t green coffee) are those using solar energy for partial coffee drying. The coffee production chain in Costa Rica showed to be friendly with the environment while fixing a net between 2.4 and 13.0 kg CO2e/kg of green coffee grain (7.6 kg CO2e/kg of green coffee average and 8.1 t CO2e/ha/year). Impact on the certification standards was not found but it was found in the system components of the carbon footprint in the coffee production chain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomass , Disaster Management , Fertilization , Fossil Fuels
15.
Salud pública Méx ; 54(3): 225-232, mayo-jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626694

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the economic impact of a 100% smoke-free law on bars and restaurants in an Argentinean province. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a time series analysis of restaurant and bar revenues in the province of Santa Fe 31 months before and 29 months after the implementation of the 100% smokefree environment law. The neighboring province of Entre Rios without smoking restrictions at the time of this study, was used as the control province. RESULTS: Average taxable revenues post-legislation in the province of Santa Fe as a whole and in the two most important cities were higher when compared to the total provincial revenue pre-legislation. No significant differences were observed with the total revenue from the province of Entre Rios. CONCLUSIONS: We found no statistically significant evidence that the 100% smoke-free environment legislation in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, had a negative impact on the revenues of local bars and restaurants.


OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el impacto económico de una ley de ambientes 100% libres de humo de tabaco sobre las ventas de bares y restaurantes en una provincia argentina. MATERIAL y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis de serie temporal sobre las ventas de bares y restaurantes en Santa Fe, 31 meses antes y 29 meses después de la ley. Se utilizó a la provincia vecina de Entre Ríos, sin ley en el momento del estudio, como provincia control. RESULTADOS: El promedio de ventas post-ley tanto en la provincia de Santa Fe como en sus dos ciudades más importantes fue mayor al compararse con el promedio provincial total pre-ley. No se observaron diferencias significativas en las ventas totales al ser comparadas con la provincia de Entre Ríos. CONCLUSIONES: No se demostró evidencia estadísticamente significativa sobre el impacto negativo de la legislación de ambientes 100% libres de humo sobre las ventas de bares y restaurantes en la provincia de Santa Fe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Restaurants/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Argentina , Fossil Fuels , Public Policy , Restaurants/economics , Seasons , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , Taxes/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence
16.
17.
Cad. saúde pública ; 27(9): 1678-1698, set. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-600766

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM) and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20 percent of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.


O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar as publicações científicas em relação às características dos poluentes atmosféricos, especialmente material particulado (PM), e os efeitos respiratórios na saúde, segundo diferentes fontes de emissões, no período de 2000 a 2009, no Brasil. Revisão sistemática da literatura realizada em bases de dados eletrônicas. Foram analisadas publicações relacionadas às características físico-químicas dos poluentes, segundo diferentes fontes de emissões e estudos relativos aos efeitos no sistema respiratório. O PM é composto predominantemente de compostos orgânicos e 20 por cento de elementos inorgânicos. Altas concentrações de metais foram identificadas em áreas metropolitanas quando comparadas às regiões de queimadas. O risco relativo de internações hospitalares por doenças respiratórias em crianças foi superior àqueles encontrados em idosos. Os resultados dos estudos sobre os efeitos da poluição do ar na saúde não devem ser transferidos para áreas com diferentes fontes de emissão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollutants , Fossil Fuels/toxicity , Particulate Matter , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Age Factors , Brazil , Risk Assessment
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37690

ABSTRACT

Climactic changes, especially global warming, are potentially the largest global threat to human health and the source of the greatest number of cases of disease. If current emissions and land use trends continue unchecked, future generations will face more serious conditions, including injury, disease, and death related to natural disasters and heat waves, higher rates of climate-related infections, widespread malnutrition, and more allergy and air pollutionrelated morbidity and mortality. This review highlights the relationship between global climate changes and human health and provides some suggestions for improvement. According to the Fourth Assessment Report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published in 2007, global warming is caused by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The most important GHG is carbon dioxide (CO2), which is released by the burning of fossil fuels and, to a lesser extent, by land use practices, followed by nitrous oxide and methane. IPCC predicts that global temperatures will rise 1.8degrees C-4.0degrees C by 2099. According to the report, we can expect a significant rise in sea levels, massive species extinctions, changes in storm and drought cycles, altered ocean circulation, and redistribution of vegetation after crossing the "tipping point" of global warming. Human health will be adversely affected by the accelerating climate change. This review stimulates health care providers to provide quality care to susceptible individuals confronting new threats from climactic changes, as well as to work toward a mitigation of the drivers of climate change at the individual, community, and policy levels as part of a long-term commitment to protecting public health.


Subject(s)
Burns , Carbon Dioxide , Climate , Climate Change , Disasters , Droughts , Extinction, Biological , Fossil Fuels , Global Warming , Health Personnel , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Infrared Rays , Malnutrition , Methane , Nitrous Oxide , Public Health , Social Responsibility
20.
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2011; 8 (1): 57-62
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110907

ABSTRACT

Recently, decreasing of fossil fuel reserves and their negative effect on environment have increased the interest in alternative energy sources. One of the alternative energy sources is vegetable oils. In this study, blends of 50% opium poppy oil 50% diesel fuel mixture are tested as alternative fuel on a single cylinder, 4-stroke, air cooled, pre-combustion chamber diesel engine at different speeds and its effects on engine performance and emissions are investigated. When compared to the diesel fuel as average, engine torque and power decrease at 4% and 5.73%, respectively. Specific fuel consumption increases by using of 50% opium poppy oil 50% diesel fuel mixture. When compared to the diesel fuel as average, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides emissions of 50% opium poppy oil 50% diesel fuel mixture decrease to 15.5% and 5.9%, respectively. Diesel fuelopium poppy oil mixture has been found notably successful and environment friendly as an alternative fuel for diesel engines


Subject(s)
Gasoline , Fossil Fuels , Opium , Ethiodized Oil , Vehicle Emissions , Plant Oils
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