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Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 62(1): 27-33, mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342658


INTRODUCCIÓN: Una de las complicaciones de la osteosíntesis retrógrada del escafoides es la protrusión del tornillo en la articulación radiocarpiana, dada la limitada visualización intraoperatoria del polo proximal del escafoides con las proyecciones tradicionales. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la capacidad de una nueva proyección radiológica, la proyección "tangencial del escafoides dorsal", o TED, para identificar tornillos prominentes radiocarpianos durante la osteosíntesis retrógrada del escafoides con tornillos canulados. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio cadavérico en muñecas frescas congeladas. Se introdujo en el escafoides un tornillo canulado con técnica retrógrada estándar. La proyección TED fue evaluada en 5 muñecas, con angulaciones del antebrazo de 15°, 30° y 45° para definir la mejor visualización del polo proximal del escafoides y del tornillo. Se comparó la capacidad para identificar la prominencia del tornillo en el polo proximal de la proyección TED de 30° con 5 proyecciones tradicionales de escafoides en 9 muñecas. El tornillo se posicionó a nivel de la superficie del escafoides, y luego se avanzó a intervalos de 0,5 mm bajo visualización directa por artrotomía dorsal. Tras cada intervalo, se repitieron todas las proyecciones para determinar su capacidad de detectar tornillos prominentes en el escafoides. RESULTADOS: La mejor visualización del polo proximal del escafoides se logró con la proyección TED de 30°. Al comparar la proyección TED de 30° y las tradicionales, con la TED se logró identificar tornillos prominentes a 0,8 mm promedio, seguida por la proyección posteroanterior con cubitalización y extensión a 1.3 mm (p » 0.014), con una alta precisión y correlación interobservador de estas proyecciones. CONCLUSIÓN: La proyección TED demostró ser la más sensible para detectar tornillos prominentes en la articulación radiocarpiana. Su uso rutinario podría evitar complicaciones durante la osteosíntesis.

INTRODUCTION: One of the complications of the retrograde percutaneous scaphoid fixation is the protrusion of the screw in the radiocarpal joint due to the limited intraoperative visualization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid with the traditional radiographic views. OBJETIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity of a novel radiographic view (the skyline scaphoid view, SSV) to detect screws protruding in the radiocarpal joint during the retrograde fixation of the scaphoid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied nine cadaverous fresh frozen wrists. A retrograde cannulated screw was inserted in the scaphoid. To validate the SSV, 5 wrists were studied, comparing 3 forearm angulations (15°, 30° and 45°) to get the best visualization of the proximal pole and screw. We compared the ability to identify the protrusion of the screw in the proximal pole of the 30° SSV with that of 5 standard scaphoid radiographic views in 9 wrists. The screw was positioned at the level of the surface of the scaphoid, and was sequentially protruded in 0.5 mm increments, with direct visualization of its tip through a dorsal capsulotomy. After each increment, all views were repeated to determine if they were able to detect screws projecting from the scaphoid. RESULTS: The best visualization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid was found with the 30° SSV. In the comparison of the 30° SSV and the standard views, with the SSV we were able to identify the protrusion of the screws at an average of 0.8 mm, followed by the posterior-anterior view with ulnar deviation and extension at 1.3 mm (p » 0.014), with high precision and interobserver agreement regarding these views. CONCLUSION: The SSV was the most sensitive view to detect protruding screws in the proximal pole of the scaphoid. Its routine use could avoid complications during osteosynthesis.

Humans , Wrist Joint/diagnostic imaging , Bone Screws/adverse effects , Scaphoid Bone/diagnostic imaging , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Radiology/methods , Wrist Joint/surgery , Cadaver , Observer Variation , Scaphoid Bone/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal/instrumentation
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921914


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of metabolic syndrome on 15 days postoperative adverse events of femoral intertrochanteric fractures with internal fixation.@*METHODS@#From January 2011 to June 2019, 986 elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture were treated with internal fixation, including 312 males and 674 females, with an average age of(77.71± 7.58) years old. And there were 97 patients with metabolic syndrome and 889 patients without metabolic syndrome. Through the electronic medical record system, the patient's age, gender, fracture type, cause of trauma, body mass index, smoking history, preoperative comorbidities, preoperative bloodtransfusion, operation timing, ASA classification, anesthesia method, internal fixation type, operation duration, and 15 days postoperative adverse events, which include surgical site infection, acute heart failure, acute respiratory failure, pulmonary infection, acute renal failure, DVT, embolism in important organs, urinary tract infection, death, and blood transfusion after surgery were collected. The differences of preoperative and intraoperative baseline datas and 15 days postoperative adverse events between the two groups were compared and analyzed by t text or univariate @*RESULTS@#There were statistical differences in age, body mass index, history of cardiac insufficiency, history of COPD, history of renal insufficiency, operation timing, ASA classification, operation duration, surgical site infection, acute heart failure, DVT, urinary tract infection and blood transfusion between two groups (@*CONCLUSION@#Elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture with metabolic syndrome had higher postoperative surgical site infection rate, DVT incidence rate, urinary tract infection rate, and postoperative blood transfusion rate. Therefore, the orthopedic treatment team should give more attentionand optimize the treatment plan during the perioperative period with the cooperation of internal physician and anesthesiologist.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Bone Nails , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/adverse effects , Hip Fractures/surgery , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879417


OBJECTIVE@#To study the relationship between osteonecrosis of femoral head after internal fixation of femoral neck fracture and serum bone metabolism, vascular active factors, and analyze the risk factors.@*METHODS@#Total 150 patients with femoral neck fracture who underwent reduction and internal fixation from April 2016 to April 2019 were selected, including 83 males and 67 females. According to whether there was necrosis of femoral head after operation, they were divided into necrosis group(32 cases) and non necrosis group (118 cases). Before operation and 1, 3, 5 days after operation, the serum levels of beta-C terminal cross-linked telopeptides of typeⅠ collagen(β-CTX), N-telopeptide of typeⅠ procollagen(PINP), nitric oxide (NO), Endothelin-1 (ET-1) were measured. The clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared. The risk factors of postoperative femoral head necrosis were analyzed by logistic regression model. The value of serum indexes in predicting postoperative femoral head necrosis was analyzed by ROC curve.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the levels of serum PINP and β-CTX between necrotic group and non necrotic group before operation and 1, 3 and 5 days after operation(@*CONCLUSION@#The content of serum NO and ET-1 on the first day after operation can predict the necrosis of femoral head.

Female , Humans , Male , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Femur Head , Femur Head Necrosis/etiology , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Osteonecrosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879415


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the related factors of aseptic necrosis of femoral head after closed reduction and internal fixation of femoral neck fracture.@*METHODS@#From January 2009 to January 2016, 236 patients with femoral neck fracture were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation with 3 hollow lag screws, including 111 males and 125 females, aged from 19 to 89 (50.17±12.88) years. According to the follow-up results, the correlation of aseptic necrosis of femoral head was analyzed. Univariate analysis of age, gender, injured side, body weight, injury mechanism, preoperative waiting time, Garden classification and whether there was comminution of femoral neck cortex was conducted to obtain the independent variables with significant difference. Then binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the independent risk factors of avascular necrosis of femoral head.@*RESULTS@#The average follow-up period of 236 cases was 4.58 years. There were significant differences in the range of injury (24.69% vs. 5.16%, @*CONCLUSION@#High energy injury, preoperative waiting time (>48 h) and comminution of femoral neck cortex were independent risk factors for aseptic necrosis of femoral head. In addition, cortical comminution on the pressure side and tension side of the femoral neck is a strong prognostic risk factor for aseptic necrosis of the femoral head, because it indicates a more serious and complex injury mechanism.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Femur Head Necrosis/surgery , Femur Neck , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Fractures, Comminuted , Risk Factors
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353892


Introducción: La fascitis necrotizante es un cuadro infrecuente que provoca una alta morbimortalidad. La comunicación de esta entidad asociada a una osteosíntesis de cadera con tornillos canulados es inusual. Se describe el caso de un paciente con múltiples comorbilidades tratado por una fractura medial de cadera mediante una osteosíntesis con tornillos canulados. El paciente ingresó con un cuadro de shock séptico. Requirió cirugía de urgencia con fasciotomía amplia y limpieza quirúrgica más desbridamiento extenso de tejido necrótico. Esta presentación hace hincapié en la importancia de reconocer las principales manifestaciones de esta enfermedad. El diagnóstico es fundamentalmente clínico y requiere de una alta sospecha para instaurar un tratamiento precoz. Conclusión: A pesar de su baja frecuencia y los escasos reportes relacionados con cirugías ortopédicas, es importante tener en cuenta esta entidad como una posible complicación de la cirugía. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Introduction: Necrotizing fasciitis is an infrequent pathology with a high morbidity and mortality. The report of this entity in relation to hip osteosynthesis with cannulated screws is unusual. The aim of this study is to present a case of necrotizing fasciitis as a complication of hip surgery. A case about a patient with multiple comorbidities treated for a femoral neck fracture with osteosynthesis with cannulated screws is described. The patient was admitted to the emergency department of our hospital suffering from septic shock. He required emergency surgical treatment with a wide fasciotomy and a surgical toilet plus extensive debridement of necrotic tissue. The case report emphasizes the importance of recognizing the main manifestations of this disease. The diagnosis is fundamentally clinical and requires high suspicion to establish treatment early. Conclusion: Despite its low frequency and reporting in relation to orthopedic surgeries, it is important to consider this entity as a possible complication of surgery. Necrotizing fasciitis is characterized by its rapid and torpid evolution. Early debridement has been shown to decrease mortality and is the best treatment along with antibiotic therapy. Level of Evidence: IV

Middle Aged , Fasciitis, Necrotizing , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Hip Fractures/complications
Rev. cuba. ortop. traumatol ; 34(2): e302, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156593


RESUMEN Introducción: La cobertura de dispositivos ortopédicos expuestos y las infecciones en el hueso con colgajos es un tema controvertido. No existe un consenso claro sobre el tratamiento de esta complicación. En los últimos años se aprecia una tendencia a mantener el material de osteosíntesis y a controlar la infección aportando tejido bien vascularizado en forma de colgajo muscular o fasciocutáneo. Objetivo: Evaluar el éxito reconstructivo con colgajos de defectos de partes blandas en miembros que han precisado de una osteosíntesis, en función de la presencia de infección y el estado de los dispositivos de implante en el momento de la reconstrucción. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de una serie de 15 casos con un defecto de partes blandas en las extremidades inferiores secundario a la implantación de dispositivos ortopédicos en el hueso. Todos los casos recibieron cobertura con un colgajo muscular o fasciocutáneo con o sin retirada de los implantes. Se estudió la presencia o ausencia de infección previa a la reconstrucción (signos clínicos, resultado del cultivo microbiológico y exposición del material ortopédico), la retirada o mantenimiento del implante durante la reconstrucción, y la presencia de complicaciones posoperatorias. Se relacionaron estas variables con el éxito reconstructivo posoperatorio. El análisis de las variables se realizó con los estadísticos chi cuadrado, Wilcoxon y U de Mann Whitney, según el tipo de variable, y para una significación de 0,05. Resultados: La frecuencia de éxito reconstructivo fue mayor en aquellos pacientes con cultivo negativo sin exposición de material óseo (p = 0,038). Se encontró menor tasa de complicaciones en los pacientes que presentaban infección antes de la reconstrucción (p = 0,039), y en aquellos con cultivo positivo y exposición del material previos a la cirugía, cuyos implantes habían sido retirados durante la reconstrucción (p = 0,032). Conclusiones: El aporte de tejido bien vascularizado en forma de colgajo permite el mantenimiento del material ortopédico con una frecuencia de éxito de 66,67 %, y resultados favorables de mediano a largo plazo. La exposición y el resultado del cultivo son indicadores predictivos de los resultados de la cirugía(AU)

ABSTRACT Introduction: The covering of exposed orthopedic devices and bone infections with flaps are a controversial issue. There is no clear consensus concerning the treatment of this complication. In recent years, there has been a trend to maintain the osteosynthesis material and to control the infection by providing well vascularized tissue in the form of a muscular or fasciocutaneous flap. Objective: To assess the reconstructive success with flaps of soft tissue defects in limbs that have required osteosynthesis, based on the presence of infection and the status of the implant devices at the time of reconstruction. Methods: Retrospective study of a series of 15 cases with soft tissue defect in the lower limbs after implantation of orthopedic devices to the bone. All the cases were covered with muscle or fasciocutaneous flap, with or without removal of the implants. The presence or absence of infection prior to reconstruction (clinical signs, results of microbiological culture, and exposure of the orthopedic material), removal or maintenance of the implant during reconstruction, and the presence of postoperative complications were studied. These variables were associated with postoperative reconstructive success. The analysis of the variables was performed using the chi-square, as well as Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney U tests, according to the type of variable, and for a significance of 0.05. Results: The frequency of reconstructive success was higher in those patients with negative culture and without exposure of bone material (P=0.038). A lower rate of complications was found in patients with infection before reconstruction (P=0.039), and in those with positive culture and exposure of the material prior to surgery, whose implants had been removed during reconstruction (P=0.032). Conclusions: The provision of well vascularized tissue in the form of flap allows maintenance of the orthopedic material with a success rate of 66.67%, as well as favorable outcomes in the mid to long terms. The results of exposure and culture are predictive indicators of surgery outcomes(AU)

Humans , Arthroplasty/adverse effects , Surgical Flaps/transplantation , Lower Extremity/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1142103


Introducción: Las fracturas ipsilaterales proximales de fémur ocurren en el 1 al 9% de las fracturas diafisarias. Existen múltiples tratamientos propuestos para dicha asociación lesional. El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar los diferentes métodos de tratamiento propuestos, y comparar sus resultados funcionales y principales complicaciones. Materiales y Métodos: Se utilizaron los buscadores electrónicos: PubMed, Lilacs, Cochrane y Ovid SP. La búsqueda llegó a un total de 1829 trabajos, de los cuales se seleccionaron 21 según criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Discusión: No existe un consenso acerca de cuál es el mejor método de fijación para esta asociación lesional. Esta ocurre en pacientes jóvenes por un mecanismo axial de alta energía cinética y la opción elegida debe buscar la reducción anatómica de la fracturas proximales de fémur. Las complicaciones como la pseudoartrosis de cuello femoral y la necrosis avascular son de difícil manejo en este grupo etario. Conclusión: Las fracturas ipsilaterales proximales y diafisarias de fémur son lesiones que presentan un problema diagnóstico y terapéutico. Hay un subdiagnóstico de las mismas y no existe un implante ideal, ni un consenso de cual es el mejor método de fijación.

Introduction: Ipsilateral proximal femoral fractures ocurred in 1 to 9% of femoral shaft fractures. There are multiple treatments proposed for these injuries. The objetive of the present work is revise the different treatment options and compare their functional results and main complications Materials and methods: A comprehensive literature search was carried out using: Pubmed, Lilacs, Cochrane and OVID SP. Initially there were identified a total of 1829 studies. Only 21 studies remained after inclusion and exclusion were applied. Discussion: There is no consensus about which is the best fixation option for these injuries. These occurred in young patients as a result of a high energy axial trauma, and the selected treatment must achieve anatomic reduction of the proximal femoral fracture. Complications such as femoral neck no-union and avascular necrosis are difficult to manage at this age. Conclusion: Ipsilateral proximal and shaft femoral fractures present diagnostic and therapeutic problems. There is an underdiagnosis of these injuries, and there is no ideal implant or consensus on which is the best fixation method.

Introdução: As fraturas proximais ipsilaterais do fêmur ocorrem em 1 a 9% das fraturas diafisárias. Existem vários tratamentos propostos para essa associação lesional. O objetivo deste trabalho é rever os diferentes métodos de tratamento propostos, e comparar os seus resultados funcionais e principais complicações. Materiais e Métodos: Foram utilizados os buscadores eletrônicos: Pubmed, Lilacs, Cochrane e Ovid SP. A busca chegou a um total de 1829 trabalhos, dos quais foram selecionados 21 segundo critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Discussão: Não há consenso sobre qual é o melhor método de fixação para esta associação lesional. Esta ocorre em pacientes jovens por um mecanismo axial de alta energia cinética e a opção escolhida deve procurar a redução anatômica da fratura proximal do fêmur. Complicações como a pseudoartrose do pescoço femoral e a necrose avascular são de difícil manejo neste grupo etário. Conclusão: As fraturas ...(SUPRIMIR LO PRECEDENTE)Conclusão: As fracturas ipsilaterais proximais e diafisárias do fémur são lesões que apresentam um problema diagnóstico e terapêutico. Há um subdiagnóstico das mesmas e não existe um implante ideal, nem um consenso de qual é o melhor método de fixação.

Humans , Bone Nails/adverse effects , Bone Plates/adverse effects , Bone Screws/adverse effects , Femoral Neck Fractures/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Hip Fractures/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1142104


Introducción: Las fracturas del húmero distal corresponden al 2% de todas las fracturas. Son los pacientes más añosos, los que presentan mayor desafío terapéutico. Suelen presentarse con huesos osteoporóticos, lo que conlleva a producir fracturas con mayor conminución articular y metafisaria; así como también dificultar una fijación estable y rígida de las mismas, que permita una movilidad precoz. Estas características generan controversia a la hora de elegir el tratamiento adecuado. El objetivo de este estudio es revisar la bibliografía de la última década, acerca de cuál es la mejor opción terapéutica para las fracturas de húmero distal en pacientes añosos. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda sistematizada a través de los buscadores electrónicos PubMed y Timbó en agosto 2019. La búsqueda llego a un total de 475 artículos, de los cuales se seleccionaron 24 según criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Discusión: La mayoría de los estudios analizados son estudios de serie de casos retrospectivos. En los trabajos revisados, existen fracturas tanto extra como intra-articulares. Se analizaron los resultados de los distintos tratamientos realizados según parámetros clínicos, scores funcionales y complicaciones. Conclusiones: El tratamiento conservador es una opción válida para aquellos pacientes en los que el terreno no permita una intervención quirúrgica. Para las fracturas tipo extra-articulares y parcialmente articulares, la reducción abierta y fijación interna es el tratamiento de elección. Para las fracturas articulares completas, no hay diferencias significativas en cuanto a scores utilizados entre la reducción abierta y fijación interna con la artroplastia de codo. Faltan estudios prospectivos que comparen ambos tratamientos.

Introduction: Distal humerus fractures account for 2% of all fractures. It is the elderly patients who present the greatest therapeutic challenge. Osteoporotic bones, more common in this population, lead to the production of fractures with greater joint and metaphyseal comminution. As a result, stable and rigid fixation becomes more difficult, hindering early mobility. These characteristics generate controversy when choosing the appropriate treatment. The aim of this study is to review the literature of the last decade regarding the best therapeutic option for distal humerus fractures in elderly patients. Methods: A systematized search was performed through the electronic search engines PubMed and Timbó in august 2019. The search reached a total of 475 articles, of which 24 were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Discussion: Most of the studies analyzed are retrospective case series studies. In the articles reviewed, there are both extra and intra-articular fractures. The results of the different treatments performed were analyzed according to clinical parameters, functional scores and complications. Conclusions: Conservative treatment is a valid option for those patients where the terrain does not allow surgical intervention. For extra-articular and partial-articular fractures, open reduction and internal fixation is the treatment of choice. For complete articular fractures, there are no significant differences in scores used between open reduction and internal fixation and elbow replacement. There is a lack of prospective studies comparing both treatments.

Introdução: Fraturas do úmero distal correspondem a 2% de todas as fraturas. São os pacientes mais idosos os que apresentam maior desafio terapêutico. Geralmente apresentam-se com ossos osteoporóticos, o que implica produzir fraturas com maior cominuição articular e metafisária; assim como também dificultar uma fixação estável e rígida das mesmas, que permita uma mobilidade precoce. Estas características geram controvérsia na escolha do tratamento adequado. O objetivo deste estudo é rever a bibliografia da última década, sobre qual é a melhor opção terapêutica para fraturas de úmero distal em pacientes idosos. Materiais e métodos: Foi realizada uma pesquisa sistematizada através dos buscadores eletrônicos Pubmed e Timbó em agosto 2019. A pesquisa chegou a um total de 475 artigos, dos quais 24 foram selecionados segundo critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Discussão: A maioria dos estudos analisados são estudos de série de casos retrospectivos. Nos trabalhos revisados, existem fraturas tanto extra como intra-articulares. Foram analisados os resultados dos diferentes tratamentos realizados segundo parâmetros clínicos, scores funcionais e complicações. Conclusões: O tratamento conservador é uma opção válida para os pacientes em que o terreno não permita uma intervenção cirúrgica. Para fraturas tipo extra-articulares e parcialmente articulares, a redução aberta e fixação interna é o tratamento de escolha. Para fracturas articulares completas, não há diferenças significativas em termos de scores utilizados entre a redução aberta e a fixação interna com artroplastia do cotovelo. Faltam estudos prospectivos que comparem os dois tratamentos.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , External Fixators/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Elbow/adverse effects , Conservative Treatment/adverse effects , Fracture Fixation/adverse effects , Humeral Fractures/surgery , Humeral Fractures/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Ilizarov Technique/adverse effects , Closed Fracture Reduction/adverse effects , Open Fracture Reduction/adverse effects , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 84(4): 328-336, dic. 2019. []
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1057057


Introducción: El uso de los sistemas placa/tornillo deslizante para fracturas intertrocantéricas ha demostrado ser un método de fijación eficaz, pero no está exento de fallas. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar las causas de falla en los pacientes con fracturas laterales de cadera, tratados con placa/tornillo deslizante, puntualizando los defectos técnicos en la colocación. Materiales y Métodos: En nuestro centro, se trató a 177 pacientes por fractura lateral de cadera, a 151 de ellos se les practicó osteosíntesis con placa/tornillo deslizante. Se analizaron la adecuada reducción posoperatoria, la medición de la distancia punta a vértice, la posición del tornillo cefálico en la cabeza femoral y las posibles complicaciones. Resultados: La serie quedó conformada por 143 pacientes. El seguimiento promedio fue de 18 meses (rango 12-48). La tasa de fallas fue del 8,4% (n = 12): 7 (4,8%) por migración cefálica (cut-out) del tornillo proximal, 2 (1,4%) por migración medial (cut-through), 2 (1,4%) presentaron seudoartrosis y un caso (0,70%) de reducción inadecuada en varo. El porcentaje de una segunda operación fue del 7,7% (n = 11). La peor posición fue la superior/posterior con un 100% de migración (n = 4) (p <0,001, diferencia estadísticamente significativa). Conclusión: El posicionamiento superior/posterior del tornillo cefálico podría incrementar la posibilidad de migración y, en consecuencia, la tasa de falla del sistema. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Objectives: The use of dynamic hip screws (DHS) for intertrochanteric fractures has proven to be an effective, but infalible, fixation method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reason behind fixation failure in patients with this type of hip fracture treated with a DHS. Materials and Methods: 177 patients were treated in our center for intertrochanteric hip fractures. A DHS was placed in 151 of them. Our analysis included quality of reduction after surgery, tip-apex distance, femoral head lag screw position, and possible complications. Results: The series included 143 patients. The average follow-up was 18 months (range 12-48). The failure rate was 8.4% (n = 12): 7 (4.8%) cases were due to intrapelvic migration of the lag screw ("cut-out") and 2 (1.4%) were due to medial perforation ("cut-through"), while 2 (1.4%) cases presented with pseudarthrosis and 1 (0.70%) with varus deformity after reduction. The revision rate was 7.7% (n = 11). Lag screws placed in a superior/posterior position had the highest failure rate (100% migration rate) (n = 4) (p <0.001, statistically significant difference). Conclusions: Superior/posterior positioning of the lag screw may increase the possibility of migration and, consequently, the failure rate of the DHS system. Level of Evidence: IV

Middle Aged , Aged , Bone Plates/adverse effects , Bone Screws/adverse effects , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Hip Fractures/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 83(2): 85-93, jun. 2018. []
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-956422


Introducción: El objetivo de este estudio fue revisar los aspectos técnicos de la artroplastia de cadera como rescate de una osteosíntesis fallida de una fractura intertrocantérica o subtrocantérica, y evaluar los resultados funcionales y las complicaciones en una serie consecutiva de 61 casos. Materiales y Métodos: Sesenta y un pacientes fueron sometidos a una artroplastia de cadera como rescate de una osteosíntesis fallida de una fractura intertrocantérica o subtrocantérica. La edad promedio era de 76 años (rango 50-93). Treinta y cuatro casos (56%) fueron tratados inicialmente con un tornillo deslizante de cadera; 8 (13%), con un DCS; 2 (3%), con clavos de Ender y 17 (28%), con un clavo de fémur proximal (corto o largo). Cincuenta y cinco (90%) fueron rescatadas con una artroplastia total y 6 (10%), con una hemiartroplastia. Se utilizaron tallos no cementados en 17 casos (28%) y cementados en 44 (72%). El largo del tallo fue estándar en 12 pacientes y de revisión en 49 casos. Resultados: El HHS mejoró de 47 (rango 32-54) antes de la cirugía a 84 (rango 67-93) al año posoperatorio. Siete pacientes (11,5%) presentaron complicaciones: 3 (4,9%) fracturas femorales periprotésicas, 2 (3,2%) luxaciones, 1 (1,6%) infección y 1 (1,6%) hematoma de la herida. Conclusiones: La artroplastia de cadera se presenta como un método eficaz para el rescate de las osteosíntesis fallidas de fracturas intertrocantéricas y subtrocantéricas. El dolor y la capacidad funcional mejoran significativamente en la mayoría de los pacientes. Sin embargo, es un procedimiento más demandante y con más complicaciones asociadas que el de una artroplastia de cadera primaria. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Introduction: The aim of this study was to review technical issues of hip arthroplasty after a failed proximal femur fixation, as well as to evaluate results and complications associated with this procedure. Methods: Sixty-one hip arthroplasties after a failed intertrochanteric or subtrochanteric fixation were performed. Average age of patients was 76 years (range 50-93). Thirty-four patients (56%) were originally treated with a dynamic hip screw, 8 (13%) with a DCS, 2 (3%) with Ender nail and 17 (28%) with proximal femoral nail. Fifty-five patients (90%) were treated with total hip arthroplasty and 6 (10%) with hemiarthroplasty. Uncemented stem was used in 17 patients (28%) and a cemented stem in 44 (72%). A standard length stem was used in 12 patients, and a long stem in 49 cases. Results: The HHS improved from 47 (range 32-54) before surgery to 84 (range 67-93) at one-year follow-up. Seven patients (11.5%) had complications: 3 (4.9%) periprosthetic femoral fractures, 2 (3.2%) dislocations, one (1.6%) wound hematoma, and one (1.6%) deep infection. Conclusions: Hip arthroplasty after a failed fixation of an intertrochanteric or subtrochanteric fracture is an effective method. Pain and functional outcomes improve significantly in most patients. However, it is a more technically challenging procedure and causes more complications than primary hip replacement. Level of Evidence: IV

Middle Aged , Aged , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/methods , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Hip Fractures/surgery , Hip Fractures/complications , Postoperative Complications , Treatment Outcome
Rev. cuba. cir ; 57(2): 1-7, abr.-jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978377


El tratamiento de las fracturas costales debe ser individualizado de acuerdo con la severidad de las lesiones y a la magnitud del trauma. El objetivo de esta investigación es presentar un caso donde se utilizaron láminas de titanio, en un paciente con fracturas múltiples de las costillas. Se reporta el caso de un paciente con múltiples fracturas costales de forma lineal y paralelas de los arcos costales con un tórax batiente, que llega al cuerpo de guardia con dolor torácico moderado y disnea. Aunque aún no existe suficiente evidencia científica a favor de los métodos de fijación costal, se realizó la fijación con láminas de titanio logrando la estabilidad de la pared, aliviando el dolor, mejorando la mecánica ventilatoria y logrando su rápida reincorporación a la sociedad(AU)

The treatment of costal fractures should be individualized according to the severity of the injuries and the magnitude of trauma. The objective of this investigation is to present a case where titanium plates were used in a patient with multiple rib fractures. We report the case of a patient with multiple rib fractures of a linear and parallel shape of the costal arches with a swinging thorax, who arrives the emergency room with moderate chest pain and dyspnea. Although there is still not enough scientific evidence that favors the costal fixation methods, the fixation with titanium plates was performed, achieving the stability of the wall, relieving pain, improving the ventilatory mechanics, and achieving the patient's quick reincorporation to the society(AU)

Humans , Male , Aged , Rib Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Thoracic Injuries/surgery , Titanium/adverse effects , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 83(1): 12-19, mar. 2018. []
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-896284


Introducción: El objetivo de este estudio retrospectivo fue evaluar el comportamiento clínico-radiológico, las complicaciones y las dificultades técnicas de los reemplazos de cadera luego de una osteosíntesis fallida con tornillo placa dinámico (DHS) en fracturas laterales de cadera. Materiales y Métodos: Se analizaron 38 reemplazos de cadera en 38 pacientes (31 mujeres y 7 hombres, edad promedio 75.59 años [rango 67-90]), con un seguimiento de 45.5 meses (rango 16-128). Se realizaron 30 reemplazos totales, 7 con prótesis bipolares y uno con una endoprótesis no convencional. En 29 casos, la longitud del tallo femoral fue estándar y 9 eran largos. Clínicamente se evaluó la presencia de dolor y objetivamente se utilizó el puntaje de cadera de Harris. En las radiografías, se analizaron la calidad del cementado (Barrack), las demarcaciones protésicas, la presencia de aflojamiento, seudoartrosis del trocánter mayor y sus complicaciones. Resultados: El puntaje de Harris promedio posoperatorio fue de 79 (rango 70-88). De los 35 tallos cementados, 30 fueron clase A; cuatro, B y uno, C de Barrack. No hubo revisiones. Cuatro cotilos cementados presentaron demarcación en zona I; uno, en zona II y III; y otro, en las tres zonas. Hubo 5 seudoartrosis del trocánter mayor, 3 infecciones agudas que evolucionaron favorablemente con limpieza quirúrgica y antibióticos. Tres pacientes sufrieron luxaciones, uno requirió revisión. Conclusiones: El rescate de un DHS fallido mediante un reemplazo de cadera representa un procedimiento con resultados funcionales aceptables, devuelve a los pacientes la capacidad de marcha. Es un procedimiento técnicamente demandante y se asocia a una alta tasa de complicaciones. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Introduction: The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes, complications, and technical problems of total hip arthroplasty following failure of dynamic screw fixation of the intertrochanteric fractures. Methods: Thirty-eight total hip arthroplasties in 38 patients were reviewed (31 women and 7 men, with a mean age of 75.5 9 years [range 67-90]), with a follow-up of 45.5 months (range 16-128). Thirty were total hip arthroplasties, 7 bipolar hip arthroplasties and an unconventional prosthesis. Nine large femoral stems and 29 standard stems were used. The presence of pain was clinically evaluated, and the Harris hip score was objectively used. Quality of cementation (Barrack), prosthetic demarcations, loosening, pseudoarthrosis of the greater trochanter and its complications were analyzed in X-rays. Results: Average Harris Hip Score was 79 points (range 70-88). Thirty of 35 cemented femoral stems were type A (Barrack), 4 type B and one type C. There were no revisions. Four cemented cotyles had a demarcation line in zone I, one, in zones II and III; and the other in the three zones. There were 5 nonunion of greater trochanter, 3 acute infections with favorable outcome after toilette and antibiotics. Three patients suffered dislocations, one of them needed revision. Conclusions: Total hip arthroplasty as salvage procedure after failed dynamic screw fixation achieves acceptable functional results and allows ambulation. This procedure is technically challenging with a high complication rate. Level of Evidence: IV

Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Postoperative Complications , Bone Screws/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/methods , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Hip Fractures/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2017; 33 (4): 798-803
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-188589


Background and Objective: Hip fracture is common osteoporotic fracture associated sometimes with failed internal fixation. Joint replacement is commonly used to salvage failed internal fixation of hip fractures [FIFHF].Our objective was to present the outcome of Arthroplasty after FIFHF in our patients

Methods: A prospective analysis was made on consecutive patients who underwent prosthetic replacements for FIFHF in Orthopaedics Department of Xuanwu Hospital between June 2012 and January 2015. Fifty six patients were included. There were 32 cases of failed internal fixation of femoral neck fracture [FIFFNF] and 24 cases of failed internal fixation of intertrochanteric fracture [FIFIF]. The reoperations included 36 cases of total hip replacements, and 20 cases of bipolar femoral head replacements. Cemented prostheses were used in 19 patients [long-stems in 7 patients], and uncemented prostheses in 37 patients [long-stems in 12 patients]. The patients were followed up for a minimum of 12 months or until their death

Results: Two patients died of pulmonary infection in the perioperative period, two died of myocardial infarction in two months after the operation, and the rest survived 12 month follow-up at the least. The mean Harris hip scores of the patients were 47 and 85 before and after the operation, respectively. The rate of Excellent and Good results is 82.7%. T tests showed that difference between pre and post-operation Harris hip scores is statistically significant [p <0.001]

Conclusions: Arthroplasty may serve as a suitable salvage technique for FIFHF, and long-stem prosthesis replacement is proved to obtain reliable curative effect, especially in FIFIF

Humans , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Arthroplasty/statistics & numerical data , Review Literature as Topic , Clinical Studies as Topic , Prostheses and Implants/adverse effects , Cementation
Rev. Assoc. Paul. Cir. Dent ; 70(3): 323-329, jul.-set. 2016. graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-797091


Fraturas faciais foram provocadas principalmente por acidentes de trânsito (37,3%), e por agressões físicas (33%), vitimando predominantemente pacientes do gênero masculino (83,7%).Ocorreram mais frequentemente na faixa etária entre 21 e 30 anos (38,2%). A frequência de homens e mulheres vitimados entre a primeira e a terceira décadas de vida foi bastante similar.As fraturas mandibulares isoladas foram significativamente predominantes (48%), seguidas pelas zigomáticas (19,7%) e pelas nasais (19,7%). As agressões físicas foram mais frequente mente responsáveis pelas fraturas mandibulares, zigomáticas, nasais, maxilares e frontais, enquanto as fraturas pan faciais e Le Fort resultaram mais frequentemente de acidentes de trânsito.

Facial fractures were mainly caused by traffic accidents (37.3%) and physical abuse (33%), victimizing mostly male patients (83.7%). Occurred more frequently in the age group between21 and 30 years (38.2%). The frequency of men and women victimized between the first and third decades of life was very similar. Isolated mandibular fractures were significantly predominant(48%), followed by zygomatic (19.7%) and the nose (19.7%). The assaults were mostoften responsible for mandibular fractures, zygomatic, nasal, maxillary and frontal, while the panfaciais fractures and Le Fort resulted more often aciteeth transit.

Humans , Male , Female , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Fracture Fixation, Internal/statistics & numerical data , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Mandibular Fractures/complications , Mandibular Fractures/prevention & control , Maxillary Fractures/complications , Maxillary Fractures/prevention & control , Fractures, Bone/complications , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: lil-789901


El número de fracturas de cadera en pacientes ancianos aumenta proporcionalmente al incremento de la expectativa de vida. Por lo tanto, no resulta infrecuente hallar una fractura de fémur, distal a un implante de osteosíntesis extramedular (clavo compresivo deslizante o clavo placa de ángulo fijo) previamente colocado en fracturas intertrocantérica o subtrocantérica de cadera, pese a la tasa de mortalidad anual comunicada del 30-50 % en los pacientes con fractura de cadera. Ante dicha situación, hemos utilizado un clavo endomedular retrógrado asociado a la extracción, de forma percutánea, de los tornillos del implante previo. Se presentan ocho casos de fracturas periosteosíntesis en pacientes con una edad promedio de 85.6 años (5 mujeres y 3 hombres) y un tiempo promedio desde la osteosíntesis de fémur proximal hasta la fractura periosteosíntesis de 3.5 años. El seguimiento fue de 36 meses y se evaluaron la movilidad y el dolor posoperatorios. Se logró la consolidación de la fractura en todos los casos. Dicho procedimiento nos ha resultado una técnica eficaz, se puede lograr una fijación estable sin agregar morbilidad debido a la posibilidad de solapar los dos implantes y disminuir el potencial riesgo de una nueva fractura interimplantes.

The number of hip fractures in the elderly elevates as life expectancy increases. Therefore it is not infrequent to observe a femur fracture, distal to a previous proximal femur fixation (dynamic hip screw or fixed angle plate) used in intertrochanteric femur fractures, despite the reported annual mortality rate of 30-50% in patients with a femoral fracture. Given this situation, we used a retrograde intramedullary nail together with the percutaneous removal of previously implanted screws. We present eight cases of peri-osteosynthesis fractures in patients with an average age of 85.6 years (5 women and 3 men) and an average time from the proximal femur fixation to the new fracture of 3.5 years. The follow-up was 36 months and postoperative motion and pain were evaluated. Consolidation of the fracture was achieved in all cases. We found this technique effective; it was possible to achieve a stable fixation without adding morbidity due to the possibility of overlapping two implants, thus reducing the potential risk of a new fracture between implants.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Periprosthetic Fractures , Hip Fractures/complications , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216512


BACKGROUND: The Stoppa (intrapelvic) approach has been introduced for the treatment of pelvic-acetabular fractures; it allows easy exposure of the pelvic brim, where the bone quality is optimal for screw fixation. The purpose of our study was to investigate the surgical outcomes of unstable pelvic ring injuries treated using the Stoppa approach for stable anterior ring fixation. METHODS: We analyzed 22 cases of unstable pelvic ring injury treated with plate fixation of the anterior ring with the Stoppa approach. We excluded cases of nondisplaced rami fracture, simple symphyseal diastasis, and parasymphyseal fractures, which can be easily treated with other techniques. The average age of the study patients was 41 years (range, 23 to 61 years). There were 10 males and 12 females. According to the Young and Burgess classification, there were 12 lateral compression, 4 anteroposterior compression, and 6 vertical shear fracture patterns. The fracture location on the anterior ring was near the iliopectineal eminence in all cases and exposure of the pelvic brim was required for plate fixation. All patients were placed in the supine position. For anterior plate fixation, all screws were applied to the anterior ramus distally and directed above the hip joint proximally. Radiologic outcomes were assessed by union time and quality of reduction by Matta method. The Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score was used to evaluate the functional results. RESULTS: The average radiologic follow-up period was 16 months (range, 10 to 51 months). All fractures united at an average of 3.5 months (range, 3 to 5 months). According to the Matta method, the quality of reduction was classified as follows: 16 anatomical (73%) and 6 nearly anatomical (27%) reductions. There were no cases of screw or implant loosening before bone healing. The functional results were classified as 7 excellent (32%), 12 good (55%), and 3 fair (13%) by the Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score. There were no wound complications, neurovascular injuries, or other complications related to the surgical approach. CONCLUSIONS: Stable anterior ring fixation placed via the Stoppa approach can result in excellent reduction and stable screw fixation with a low complication rate.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Hip Fractures/surgery , Pelvic Bones/injuries , Pelvis/injuries , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101620


BACKGROUND: Distal humerus intercondylar fractures are intra-articular and comminuted fractures involving soft tissue injury. As distal humerus is triangle-shaped, parallel plating coupled with articular fixation would be suitable for bicolumn restoration in treatment of distal humerus intercondylar fracture. METHODS: This study included 38 patients (15 males and 23 females) who underwent olecranon osteotomy, open reduction and internal fixation with the triangle-shaped cannulated screw and parallel locking plates (triangular fixation technique). Functional results were assessed with the visual analog scale (VAS) scores, Mayo elbow performance (MEP) scores and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaires. Anteroposterior and lateral elbow radiographs were assessed for reduction, alignment, fracture union, posttraumatic arthrosis, and heterotopic ossification, and computed tomography (CT) scans were used to obtain more accurate measurements of articular discrepancy. RESULTS: All fractures healed primarily with no loss of reduction. The mean VAS, MEP, and DASH scores of the affected elbow were not significantly different from those of the unaffected elbow (p = 0.140, p = 0.090, and p = 0.262, respectively). The mean degree of flexion was significantly lower in the affected elbow than in the unaffected elbow, but was still considered as functional (p = 0.001, > 100degrees in 33 of 38 patients). Two cases of articular step-offs (> 2 mm) were seen on follow-up CT scans, but not significantly higher in the affected elbow than in the unaffected elbow (p = 0.657). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that only Association for Osteosynthesis (AO) type C3 fractures correlated with good/excellent functional outcome (p = 0.012). Complications occurred in 12 of the 38 patients, and the overall reoperation rate for complications was 10.5% (4 of 38 patients). CONCLUSIONS: Triangular fixation technique for bicolumn restoration was an effective and reliable method in treatment of distal humerus intercondylar fracture. This technique maintained articular congruency and restored both medial and lateral columns, resulting in good elbow function.

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Humeral Fractures/surgery , Intra-Articular Fractures/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Range of Motion, Articular , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101612


BACKGROUND: The development of pedicle screw-based posterior spinal instrumentation is recognized as one of the major surgical treatment methods for thoracolumbar burst fractures. However, the appropriate level in posterior segment instrumentation is still a point of debate. To assesses the long-term results of two-level and three-level posterior fixations of thoracolumbar burst fractures that have load-sharing scores of 7 and 8 points. METHODS: From January 1998 to May 2009, we retrospectively analyzed clinical and radiologic outcomes of 45 patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures of 7 and 8 points in load-sharing classification who were operated on using two-level posterior fixation (one segment above and one segment below: 28 patients, group I) or three-level posterior fixation (two segments above and one segment below: 17 patients, group II). Clinical results included the grade of the fracture using the Frankel classification, and the visual analog score was used to evaluate pain before surgery, immediately after surgery, and during follow-up period. We also evaluated pain and work status at the final follow-up using the Denis pain scale. RESULTS: In all cases, non-union or loosening of implants was not observed. There were two screw breakages in two-level posterior fixation group, but bony union was obtained at the final follow-up. There were no significant differences in loss of anterior vertebral body height, correction loss, or change in adjacent discs. Also, in clinical evaluation, there was no significant difference in the neurological deficit of any patient during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, two-level posterior fixation could be used successfully in selected cases of thoracolumbar burst fractures of 7 and 8 points in the load-sharing classification.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Back Pain , Follow-Up Studies , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Pedicle Screws , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Fractures/physiopathology , Thoracic Vertebrae/injuries , Treatment Outcome
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 61(4): 341-346, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761720


SummaryObjective:to evaluate the cases of wound infections in orthopedic postoperative period.Methods:postoperative patients who developed infection during the period from November 2012 to November 2013 were studied. Secretions were collected during surgery using sterile swabs, and sent for microbiological analysis.Results:during the period analyzed, 38 surgical procedures progressed to infection. The type of surgery presenting the largest number of infections was osteosynthesis, in 36 (94.7%) patients. Among the materials used, 18 (36%) surgeries that used external fixator were infected, and 17 (34%) using plate. The species of bacteria that caused the largest number of infections were Staphylococcus aureus, infecting 16 (43.9%) patients, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii, which infected four (10.5%) patients. Regarding the resistance profile of Gram-positive strains to antibiotics, 100% of Staphylococcus aureus strains were susceptible to vancomycin and 31.3%, to ceftriaxone. As for the Gram-negative bacteria, 100% of Acinetobacter baumannii strains were resistant to ceftriaxone, gentamicin and imipenem.Conclusion:infection control in the postoperative period is necessary, using antibiotics correctly and consciously, avoiding resistance of bacterial agents.

ResumoObjetivo:avaliar os casos de feridas infectadas em pós- -operatório ortopédico.Métodos:foram estudados pacientes de pós-operatório que evoluíram com processo infeccioso, durante o período de novembro de 2012 a novembro de 2013. Foi realizada coleta intraoperatória de secreções com o auxílio de swabs estéreis, e o material foi encaminhado para análise microbiológica.Resultados:durante o período analisado, 38 procedimentos cirúrgicos evoluíram para processo infeccioso. O tipo de cirurgia que apresentou o maior número de infecções foi a osteossíntese, em 36 (94,7%) pacientes. Em relação ao material utilizado, 18 (36%) cirurgias que empregaram fixador externo e 17 (34 %) que fizeram uso de placa se infectaram. A bactéria que causou o maior número de infecções foi a Staphylococcus aureus, acometendo 16 (43,9%) pacientes, seguida pela Acinetobacter baumannii, que acometeu 4 (10,5%) pacientes. Em relação ao perfil de resistência das cepas Gram-positivas aos antibióticos, 100% das cepas de Staphylococcus aureus foram sensíveis à vancomicina, e 31,3%, à ceftriaxona. Quanto às bactérias Gram-negativas, 100% das cepas de Acinetobacter baumannii apresentaram resistência a ceftriaxona, gentamicina e imipenem.Conclusão:o controle de infecções em pós-operatório se faz necessário, utilizando antibióticos de forma correta e consciente, evitando a resistência aos agentes bacterianos.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cross Infection/complications , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Air Conditioning/adverse effects , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Postoperative Period , Prospective Studies , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Surgical Wound Infection/microbiology