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Prensa méd. argent ; 109(3): 83-91, 20230000. fig
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443767


Este artículo representa una revisión actual y completa de las fuerzas biomecánicas en el fémur proximal, tal como Koch presentó preliminarmente en su trabajo sobre la arquitectura ósea del fémur proximal. Su trabajo reflejó en la complejidad de las fracturas de fémur proximal y el manejo de las fracturas subtrocantéricas en paralelo con su clasificación y con la evolución de implantes. Existen múltiples formas de clasificar las fracturas subtrocantéricas; sin embargo, no existe un sistema de clasificación que se utilice para guiar el manejo quirúrgico. El tratamiento de las fracturas subtrocantéricas es la fijación quirúrgica, que implica el enclavado endomedular y placas de osteosíntesis. El tratamiento estándar es el enclavado endomedular con opciones de enclavado anterógrado y retrógrado. Aunque el enclavado anterógrado presenta una ventaja debido a las fuerzas deformantes, el enclavado retrógrado de las fracturas de fémur proximal ofrece menos tiempo quirúrgico y pérdida de sangre. Se han informado resultados similares entre los dos métodos. La toma de decisiones cuando se contempla el enclavado anterógrado versus retrógrado para las fracturas de fémur se basa principalmente en la constitución corporal y las lesiones asociadas, y no en la distancia de la fractura del fémur proximal a la región trocantérica

This article presents a current and comprehensive review of the biomechanical forces on the proximal femur, as preliminarily presented by Koch's cornerstone work on the bone architecture of the proximal femur. His work reflected on the complexity of proximal femur fractures and subtrochanteric fracture management in parallel with implant evolution and classification. Multiple ways of classifying subtrochanteric fractures exist, however, there is not one classification system that is used to guide operative management. The management of subtrochanteric fractures is surgical fixation which involves intramedullary nailing and plating (e.g., fixed angle and locking). The gold standard management is intramedullary nailing with antegrade and retrograde nail options. Though antegrade nailing presents an advantage due to the deforming forces, retrograde nailing of proximal femur fractures offers less operative time and blood loss. Similar outcomes have been reported between the two methods. Decision making when contemplating antegrade versus retrograde nailing for femur fractures is mostly driven by body habitus and associated injuries, and not by fracture distance of the proximal femur to the trochanteric region

Humans , Male , Female , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods , Proximal Femoral Fractures/surgery , Hip Fractures/surgery
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 111-115, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970981


PURPOSE@#Long proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA-II) is a preferred implant in recent years for fixation of pertrochanteric fractures, especially in osteoporotic patients. The purpose of this study is to prospectively investigate the effect of distal locking in long PFNA-II fixation of stable intertrochanteric fractures.@*METHODS@#A total of 58 patients with isolated stable intertrochanteric fractures and treated in our hospital during the study period of 2017-2019 by distal locked or unlocked long PFNA-II fixation were included in this study. Patients who had multiple injuries or open fractures were excluded. There were 40 female and 18 male patients, with 33 affecting the left side and 25 the right side. Of them, 31 belonged to the distal locked group (group A) and 27 to the unlocked group (group B). Surgical procedures and implants used in both groups were similar except for the distal locking of the nails. General data (age, gender, fracture side, etc.) showed no significant difference between two groups (all p > 0.05). The intraoperative parameters like operative time, radiation exposure and follow-up parameters like functional and radiological outcomes were recorded and compared. Statistical tests like the independent samples t-test Fischer's exact and Chi-square test were used to analyze association.@*RESULTS@#The distribution of the fractures according to AO/OTA classification and 31A1.2 type of intertrochanteric fractures were most common in our study. All the included fractures united and the average functional outcome in both groups were good and comparable at the end of one year. The operative time (mL, 107.1 ± 12.6 vs. 77.0 ± 12.0, p < 0.001) and radiation exposure (s, 78.6 ± 11.0 vs. 40.3 ± 9.3, p < 0.001) were significantly less among the patients in group B. Fracture consolidation, three months after the operative procedures, was seen in a significantly greater proportion of patients in group B (92.6% vs. 67.7%, p = 0.025). Hardware irritation because of distal locking bolt was exclusively seen in group A, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.241).@*CONCLUSION@#We conclude that, in fixation of stable intertrochanteric fractures by long PFNA-II nail, distal locking not only increases the operative time and radiation exposure but also delays the fracture consolidation and increases the chances of hardware irritation, and hence is not required.

Humans , Male , Female , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods , Bone Nails , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Hip Fractures/etiology , Femoral Fractures/etiology
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 203-208, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970848


OBJECTIVE@#To retrospectively analyze efficacy of single structure internal fixation and double structure internal fixation in the treatment of ipsilateral femoral shaft and neck fracture, and analyze their indications.@*METHODS@#From June 2015 to December 2020, 21 patients with ipsilateral femoral shaft and femoral neck fracture were treated, including 14 males and 7 females, aged 23 to 69 years old with an average of(38.1±12.9) years old. According to different femoral shaft fracture sites, some patients were fixed with cephalomedullary implant for both femoral neck and the femoral shaft(single structure, InterTan or PFNA Ⅱ), some patients were fixed with cannulated screws for the femoral neck and a retrograde locking nail for the femoral shaft (dual structure), and postoperative function and complications were recorded during follow-up. In 10 cases of single-structure fixation, the femoral necks were all basicervical fractures, and the femoral shaft fractures were located in the proximal isthmus;11 cases were double-structure fixation, 9 cases in 11 were basal type of femoral neck, 2 cases in 11 were neck type, and the femoral shaft fractures were located in the isthmus and the distal isthmus.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up for 12 to 27 months. No femoral head necrosis, deformity, delay or nonunion occurred in the patients with single-structure fixation, and no delayed union or nonunion occurred in femoral shaft fractures;At the final follow-up, Harris score of patients with single-structure fixation was 91.8±4.1, with 8 cases were excellent and 2 cases were good. The fractures of patients with dual-structure fixation achieved good union without femoral head necrosis, except 1 case of femoral shaft fracture had delayed union;At the final follow-up, Harris score of patients with dual-structure fixation was 92.4±5.9, 7 cases were excellent, 3 cases were good, and 1 case was fair.@*CONCLUSION@#Good reduction and fixation is the key to the treatment of such fractures. Both the single-structure fixation and the dual-structure fixation are good methods, and it should be selected according to the locations of femoral shaft and femoral neck fractures. Single-structure fixation is a good choice for femoral shaft fractures located at the proximal isthmus and basal femoral neck fractures. For isthmus and distal femoral shaft fractures combined with ipsilateral femoral neck fractures, dual-structure fixation is recommended.

Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Femur Neck , Retrospective Studies , Femoral Neck Fractures/complications , Femoral Fractures/complications , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Femoral Fractures, Distal , Treatment Outcome , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 619-622, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981744


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical effect of Kirschner wire intramedullary fixation in the treatment of both-bone forearm fractures in children of high altitude area.@*METHODS@#From August 2020 to December 2021, 19 children were treated with Kirschner wire intramedullary fixation including 11 males and 8 females, aged from 4 to 13 years old with an average of (8.16±2.71) years old. The course of disease was 1 to 10 days, with a mean of (4.11±2.51) d. First, close reduction was performed. If the reduction was unsuccessful, limited open reduction was performed, followed by Kirschner wire intramedullary fixation of the radius and ulna. The fracture healing was evaluated by X-ray after operation, and the curative effect was evaluated by Anderson forearm function score standard.@*RESULTS@#The wound healed well after operation, 2 cases had clinical manifestations of needle tail irritation after operation, and the symptoms disappeared after removing the internal fixation. The average follow-up time was(7.68±3.50) months (3 to 14 months). X-ray showed that all fracture healing in follow-up, Anderson forearm function score showed excellent in 16 cases, good in 2 cases and fair in 1 case at the final follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#Children with fractures in plateau areas often have delayed medical treatment, lack of medical conditions and insufficient compliance. Based on these characteristics, Kirschner wire intramedullary fixation for the treatment of children's double forearm fractures has the advantages of small injury and rapid recovery. It is a kind of operation method that can be popularized.

Male , Female , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Bone Wires , Forearm , Altitude , Treatment Outcome , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Radius Fractures/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 223-227, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981933


PURPOSE@#Intramedullary implants are well accepted fixation of all types of intertrochanteric (IT) fractures, both stable and unstable types. Intramedullary nails have an ability to effectively support the posteromedial part, but fail to buttress the broken lateral wall requiring lateral augmentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of proximal femoral nail augmented with trochanteric buttress plate for broken lateral wall with IT fractures, which was fixed to the femur through hip screw and anti-rotation screw nail.@*METHODS@#Of 30 patients, 20 had Jensen-Evan type III and 10 had type V fractures. Patients with IT fracture of broken lateral wall and aged more than 18 years, in whom satisfactory reduction was achieved by closed methods, were included in the study. Patients with pathologic or open fractures, polytrauma, prior hip surgery, non-ambulatory prior to surgery, and those who refused to participate were excluded. The operative time, blood loss, radiation exposure, quality of reduction, functional outcome, and union time were evaluated. All data were coded and recorded in Microsoft Excel spread sheet program. SPSS 20.0 was used for data analysis and normality of the continuous data was checked using Kolmogorv Smirnov test.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of patients in the study was 60.3 years. The mean duration of surgery (min), mean intra-operative blood loss (mL) and mean number of exposures were 91.86 ± 12.8 (range 70 - 122), 144.8 ± 3.6 (range 116 - 208), and 56.6 (range 38 - 112), respectively. The mean union time was 11.6 weeks and the mean Harris hip score was 94.1.@*CONCLUSION@#Lateral trochanteric wall in IT fractures is significantly important, and needs to be reconstructed adequately. Nail-plate construct of trochanteric buttress plate fixed with hip screw and anti-rotation screw of proximal femoral nail can be successfully used to augment, fix or buttress the lateral trochanteric wall giving excellent to good results of early union and reduction.

Humans , Middle Aged , Bone Nails , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Hip Fractures/surgery , Bone Screws , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 256-260, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009493


PURPOSE@#Intramedullary interlocking nailing is one of the accepted methods of treating humerus diaphyseal fractures. Appropriate nail length and diameter are of paramount importance to achieve a stable fracture fixation. Estimating the nail length can be as challenging in certain cases as it is important. This study aims to provide an easy-to-use formula utilizing clinical measurements from contra lateral arm to accurately estimate humeral nail length.@*METHODS@#This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at 3 tertiary care hospitals in Mangalore, India. Patients above the age of 18 years coming to the outpatient department with elbow, shoulder or arm complaints requiring radiological investigation from July 2021 to July 2022 were included. Patients with fractures or dislocations of upper limbs, malunited or non-united fractures of upper limbs, congenital or developmental deformities and patients with open growth plates were excluded. Patients' variables (like age and gender), radiological humerus length and contralateral arm clinical measurements were recorded. An independent samples t-test was used for univariate analysis, and linear regression analysis was done to estimate the desired nail length using the clinical measurement of the humerus (cm) in both genders separately. The significance level was set at p < 0.05.@*RESULTS@#Our study included 204 participants of which 108 were male and 96 were female. The formula for predicting humeral nail length in males is (-2.029) + (0.883 × clinical measurement). The formula for females is 1.862 + (0.741 × clinical measurement). A simplified formula to determine humeral nail length is 0.9 clinical length - 2 cm (in males) and 0.7 × clinical length + 2 cm (in females).@*CONCLUSION@#To improve the stability of fixation with intramedullary nails it is imperative to select the appropriate nail length. There have been studies that devised reliable methods of determining nail lengths in the tibia and femur using preoperative clinical measurements. A similar clinical method of determining humeral nail length is lacking in the literature. Our study was able to correlate radiological lengths of the humerus medullary canal with clinical measurements performed using anatomical landmarks to arrive at a formula. This allows for a reliable and easy nail length determination preoperatively.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Bone Nails , Humerus/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods , Humeral Fractures/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 249-255, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009487


Surgical management of femoral shaft fractures with intramedullary nails has become the standard of care, with multiple options for entry point described, including piriformis entry, trochanter entry and retrograde femoral nails. Our present review describes the surgical anatomy of the proximal and distal femur and its relation to different entry points for intramedullary femoral nails. In addition, we reviewed relative indications for each technique, difficulties associated and possible complications.

Humans , Femoral Fractures/surgery , Bone Nails , Femur/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods , Lower Extremity
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 1100-1106, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009193


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of intramedullary nail fixation (IMN) and minimally invasive percutaneous plate internal fixation (MIPPO) techniques on tibiofibular fractures and their effect on platelet activation and serum transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2).@*METHODS@#Total of 105 patients with tibiofibular fractures from February 2019 to February 2020 were selected and divided into 53 cases in the MIPPO group and 52 cases in the IMN group. There were 29 males and 24 females with an average age of (41.74±6.05) years old in MIPPO group;in IMN group, 31 males and 21 females with an average age of (40.59±5.26) years old. The perioperative surgical indexes, postoperative complications, ankle function recovery at 12 months postoperatively, platelet activation indexes at 3 and 7 days preoperatively and postoperatively, and serum TGF-β1 and BMP-2 levels at 4 and 8 weeks preoperatively and postoperatively were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The operating time and fracture healing time in the MIPPO group were shorter than those in the IMN group(P<0.05); Compared with the preoperative period, the levels of GMP-140, PAC-1, CD63, and CD61 increased in both groups at 3 and 7 days after surgery, but were lower in the MIPPO group than in the IMN group(P<0.05);the levels of serum TGF-β1 and BMP-2 increased in both groups at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery compared with the preoperative period, and the postoperative complication rate in the MIPPO group was lower than that in the IMN group(P<0.05);the difference was not statistically significant in the excellent rate of ankle function recovery at 12 months follow-up after surgery between two groups(P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Both intramedullary nail fixation and MIPO technique for treatment of tibia and fibula fractures can improve ankle joint function, but the latter has the advantages of short operation time, fast fracture healing, fewer complications, and light platelet activation. Serum TGF-β1, BMP-2 level improves quickly.

Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Tibia/injuries , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods , Tibial Fractures/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Bone Plates , Fracture Healing , Postoperative Complications , Fractures, Multiple , Treatment Outcome , Bone Morphogenetic Proteins , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Retrospective Studies
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 63(3): 205-214, dic.2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437139


Las fracturas de húmero proximal (FHP) son una de las fracturas más frecuentes en la población anciana. La reducción abierta y fijación interna (RAFI) generalmente está indicada para pacientes con una FHP desplazada en jóvenes o pacientes mayores con alta demanda funcional y buena calidad ósea. No se ha llegado a un consenso sobre la técnica de fijación ideal. La RAFI con placas ha sido la más utilizada, pero se han reportado altas tasas de reintervenciones y complicaciones globales en la literatura. La necesidad de agregar técnicas de aumentación a la RAFI con placas bloqueadas en fracturas complejas puede resultar en un tiempo quirúrgico más largo, abordajes extensos y mayores costos. Debido a esto, se hace necesario considerar otras opciones para la osteosíntesis de FHP. Con una mayor comprensión de los mecanismos de falla de la osteosíntesis, la fijación intramedular se ha convertido en una opción de tratamiento aceptada para las FHP con ventajas biomecánicas y biológicas. La fijación intramedular para las FHP ha demostrado menor tiempo quirúrgico, sangrado intraoperatorio, tiempo hasta la unión ósea y menores tasas de infecciones, que las placas bloqueadas. La fijación intramedular es una opción válida para que las fracturas complejas se resuelvan con un implante que por sí solo puede satisfacer en gran medida todas las necesidades de aumento requeridas por una placa bloqueada

Proximal humeral fractures are one of the most frequent fractures in the elderly population. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is generally indicated for young patients and older patients with high functional demands and good bone quality. No consensus has been reached regarding the ideal fixation technique. Although ORIF with plates is the most widely used technique, high re-intervention rates and global complications with locked plate fixation have been reported in the literature. Addition of augmentation techniques to locked plate fixation in complex fractures may result in longer surgical times, extensive approaches, and higher costs. Therefore, considering other options for ORIF is necessary. With a greater understanding of the mechanisms of fixation failure, intramedullary fixation has become the accepted treatment option for proximal humeral fractures considering the specific biomechanical and biological advantages. Compared with ORIF with locked plates, intramedullary fixation for proximal humeral fractures has low surgical time, intraoperative bleeding, time to bone union, and rate of infections. Intramedullary fixation is a valid option to resolve complex fractures with an implant that may largely supply all the augmentation requirements of a locked plate.

Humans , Male , Female , Shoulder Fractures/surgery , Internal Fixators , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods , Biomechanical Phenomena , Bone Nails , Bone Plates
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 90-94, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928480


PURPOSE@#Treatment of distal tibia fractures poses significant challenge to orthopedic surgeon because of poor blood supply and paucity of soft tissue coverage. There is considerable controversy regarding the superior option of treatment for distal tibia fracture between the minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) technique and intramedullary interlocking (IMIL) nailing for extra-articular distal tibia fractures. The aim of our study is to compare the functional outcome between the two treatment methods.@*METHODS@#This was the prospective comparative study of 100 patients with distal third tibia fractures divided into two groups. The first group of patients were treated with MIPPO technique while the second group of patients were managed by IMIL nailing. Patients were followed up in outpatient department to assess the functional outcomes, malunion, delayed union, nonunion, superficial and deep infection between the two groups. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software (version 16.0).@*RESULTS@#Average malunion (degrees) in the MIPPO group was 5 (3-7) ± 1.41 vs. 10.22 (8-14) ± 2.04 in the IMIL group (p = 0.001). Similarly postoperative knee pain in the IMIL group was 10% vs. 2% in the MIPPO group (p = 0.001). In terms of superficial infection and nonunion, the results were 8% vs. 4% and 2% vs. 6% for the MIPPO and IMIL group, respectively (p = 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Both procedures have shown the reliable method of fixation for distal extra-articular tibia fractures preserving the soft tissue, bony vascularity and fracture hematoma that provide a favourable biological environment for fracture healing. Considering the results of the study, we have slightly more preference for the MIPPO technique.

Humans , Bone Plates/adverse effects , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods , Fracture Healing , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Prospective Studies , Tibia/surgery , Tibial Fractures , Treatment Outcome
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 349-352, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928322


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of intermittent pneumatic compression(IPC) combined with 3M thermometer on the prevention of deep venous thrombosis(DVT) in patients with femoral intertrochanteric fracture.@*METHODS@#From March 2016 to August 2019, 127 patients with femoral intertrochanteric fractures who underwent proximal femoral nail antirotation(PFNA) were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into two groups according to different methods of thrombus prevention and treatment. Among them, 63 patients in group A did not use IPC and 3M thermometer;64 cases in group B were treated with IPC combined with 3M thermometer. Color Doppler ultrasound was used to dynamically monitor the DVT and changes of lower limbs during perioperative period. The venous thrombosis of lower limbs was monitored at 0, 24, 72 h and > 72 h after operation(recheck every 3 days until discharge).@*RESULTS@#Occurrence of DVT of lower limbs after PFNA operation in two groups:there were 5 cases (7.8%) in group B and 20 cases (31.7%) in group A, there was significant difference between two groups (P=0.001). There was no significant difference in lower limb DVT between two groups at 0, 72 and > 72 h after operation(P>0.05), but the formation rate of group A was significantly higher than that of group B at 24 h after operation (P=0.049). There was no significant difference in DVT formation between group A and group B(P>0.05). However, the formation of DVT in group A was significantly higher than that in group B(P=0.012).@*CONCLUSION@#Intraoperative IPC combined with 3M thermostat can effectively prevent DVT of lower limbs in patients undergoing PFNA surgery.

Humans , Femoral Fractures/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods , Hip Fractures/surgery , Lower Extremity/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1378010


Objetivo: Comparar los resultados y las complicaciones entre la fijación percutánea con clavijas (FPC) y el enclavado endomedular elástico (EEE). materiales y métodos:Se evaluaron las radiografías para determinar deformidades angulares en la consolidación. Se usó el sistema de Clavien-Dindo adaptado para clasificar las complicaciones. Resultados: El grupo A (FPC) incluyó a 17 pacientes y el grupo B (EEE), a 19. La edad promedio era de 12.5 ± 1.6 años y el seguimiento promedio fue de 27.6 ± 16.6 meses. Los pacientes con EEE requirieron menos tiempo de inmovilización (2.8 ± 1.8 vs. 5.9 ± 1.3 semanas, p 0,00029). Un paciente de cada grupo tuvo una angulación >10° en la consolidación. La tasa de complicaciones fue mayor en el grupo A (18% vs. 5,3%, p 0,27). En el grupo A, hubo 2 complicaciones tipo III (pérdida de corrección) y 2 tipo II (infección y granuloma). Un paciente del grupo B presentó una complicación tipo I (prominencia del implante). Dieciséis pacientes del grupo B se sometieron a una segunda cirugía para extraer el implante. Dos del grupo A requirieron revisión de la fijación por pérdida de alineación. Conclusiones: Ambas técnicas son eficaces para estabilizar fracturas metafiso-diafisarias de radio distal en adolescentes. El EEE tiene la ventaja de una inmovilización más corta y menos complicaciones, pero es más caro y requiere otra cirugía para extraer el implante. La FPC no requiere de anestesia para extraer el implante, aunque sí una inmovilización más prolongada y la tasa de complicaciones es más alta. Nivel de Evidencia: III

Objective: To compare results and complications of closed reduction percutaneous pinning (CRPP) versus dorsal entry elastic intramedullary nails (ESIN). Materials and methods: Radiographs were evaluated to determine angular deformities at the time of radiographic union. Complications were graded with a modification of the Clavien-Dindo classification. Results: The CRPP group consisted of 17 patients (Group A) whereas the ESIN group consisted of 19 patients (Group B). The average age of the patient cohort was 12.5±1.6 years. The average follow-up was 27.6±16.6 months. The demographic data revealed no differences between groups (p> 0.05). Patients treated with ESIN required a shorter immobilization time (2.8±1.8 versus 5.9±1.3 weeks, p 0.00029). One patient in each group presented an angulation >10° at the time of consolidation. The complication rate was higher in group A (18% versus 5.3%, p 0.27). According to the Clavien-Dindo classification, group A presented 2 type II (infection and granuloma), and 2 type III complications (loss of reduction). Group B presented one type I complication (implant prominence). Sixteen patients in group B underwent a second procedure for hardware removal. Two patients (11.8%) in group A required revision due to loss of reduction. Conclusions: Both techniques are effective in stabilizing metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures of the distal radius in the adolescent population. ESIN has the advantage of requiring a shorter immobilization time and fewer complications but needs a second surgery for implant removal. CRPP does not require anesthesia for implant removal, although it requires a longer postoperative immobilization, and has a higher complication rate. Level of Evidence: III

Adolescent , Radius Fractures/surgery , Bone Nails , Treatment Outcome , Forearm Injuries , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1367129


Introducción: Las fracturas de tibia representan aproximadamente el 2% de las fracturas del adulto. El enclavado endomedular es hoy el procedimiento de elección para tratar fracturas diafisarias de tibia; sin embargo, esta técnica no está exenta de complicaciones, la desalineación en el plano coronal es una de las más frecuentes y temidas por los cirujanos. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la relación entre el punto de entrada del clavo y la desalineación en el plano coronal después de la cirugía. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo, observacional, entre enero de 2015 y enero de 2019, de pacientes con fracturas diafisarias de tibia, tratadas con clavo endomedular. Se obtuvieron radiografías en el posquirúrgico inmediato y luego cada dos meses, se tuvo en cuenta la radiografía del octavo mes, en la que se observaban signos francos de consolidación ósea, para valorar la alineación tibial. Resultados:Cuando el punto de entrada del clavo fue central, hubo apenas un 0,021 de posibilidades (o 2,1%) de alguna desalineación significativa en el posquirúrgico inmediato y luego de 8 meses. En cambio, cuando fue medial, las posibilidades de una tendencia al valgo fueron >0,85 (u 85%) ya al tomar la primera imagen, i.e., poscirugía; y cuando fue lateral, esta posibilidad se modifica y profundiza según el tiempo transcurrido hasta la imagen lograda en el paciente. Conclusión: Se observó una relación marcada y continua entre el punto de entrada del clavo endomedular y la alineación de la tibia después de la consolidación ósea. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Introduction: Tibial fractures represent approximately 2% of adult fractures. Today, intramedullary nailing is the procedure of choice to treat diaphyseal fractures of the tibia; however, this technique is not exempt from complications, misalignment in the coronal plane is one of the most frequent and feared by surgeons. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nail entry point and misalignment in the coronal plane after surgery. Materials and Methods: We carried out a retrospective, descriptive, observational study between January 2015 and January 2019 of patients with diaphyseal fractures of the tibia, treated with intramedullary nailing. Radiographs were obtained in the immediate postoperative period and then every two months. The eighth-month radiograph, in which clear signs of bone consolidation could be observed, was taken into account to assess tibial alignment. Results: When the nail entry point was central, there was only a 0.021 chance (or 2.1%) of any significant misalignment in the immediate postoperative period and after 8 months. In contrast, when it was medial, the chances of a valgus tendency were >0.85 (or 85%) already at the first image, i.e., post-surgery; and when it was lateral, this possibility was modified and deepenedaccording to the time elapsed until the image achieved in the patient. Conclusion: A marked and continuous relationship wasobserved between the entry point of the intramedullary nail and the alignment of the tibia after bone consolidation..Level of Evidence: IV

Adult , Tibial Fractures/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Bone Malalignment , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods , Leg Injuries , Diaphyses
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 61(2): 60-68, oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342413


OBJETIVOS: Mostrar resultados, complicaciones y lecciones aprendidas utilizando el clavo intramedular magnético (IML, Intramedullary Magnetic Lengthener) en un grupo de pacientes sometidos a alargamiento óseo. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Entre enero 2017 y diciembre 2019, 9 pacientes (15 segmentos), edad entre 15 y 39 años, fueron sometidos a alargamiento óseo con IML: 5 pacientes tuvieron alargamiento femoral bilateral por talla baja, 1 paciente se sometió a alargamiento de Piernas bilateral por Tibia vara y acortamiento mesomélico y 3 recibieron alargamientos femorales unilaterales por discrepancia de longitud de extremidades. Todos fueron operados por el mismo cirujano, con técnica standard. Se indicó kinesiterapia al menos 5 veces por semana durante la fase de distracción. RESULTADOS: En todos se logró el objetivo de alargamiento planteado. No hubo complicaciones intra ni postoperatorias graves (TVP, TEP, Embolia grasa), ni fallas del sistema distractor. Un paciente desarrolló contracturas articulares de ambas rodillas por no adhesión a Kinesiterapia. Ninguno requirió aporte de injerto óseo, sin embargo en 2 pacientes de alargamiento de Fémur bilateral, se presentó deformidad en varo, que hizo necesario recambio a clavo convencional y un paciente desarrolló una parálisis transitoria del Nervio Peroneo común. CONCLUSIONES: El advenimiento de los IML significó un gran avance en el campo de la osteogénesis por distracción, sin embargo, aún se trata de un procedimiento complejo, que debe ser planificado cuidadosamente para minimizar los riesgos y complicaciones. Una selección meticulosa del paciente y la evaluación física y psicológica previa, son fundamentales para el éxito del procedimiento. Los casos bilaterales requieren de un seguimiento cercano, por el riesgo de falla del implante.

objective: We show our results, complications and lessons learned using the Intramedullary Magnetic Lengthener (IML) in a group of patients who were subjected to bone lengthening. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 2017 and December 2019, 9 patients (15 segments), aged between 15 and 39 years, underwent bone lengthening with IML: 5 patients had bilateral femoral lengthening due to short stature, 1 patient had bilateral leg lengthening due to Tibia vara and mesomelic shortening and 3 had unilateral femoral lengthening for limb length discrepancy. All were operated by the same surgeon, with standard technique. Physical therapy was indicated at least 5 times per week during the distraction phase. RESULTS: In every case, the proposed lengthening amount was achieved. There were no serious intraoperative or postoperative complications (DVT, Pulmonary Embolism, Fat Embolism), nor failures of the distractor system. One patient developed knee joint contracture due to non-adherence to Physical therapy. None required bone grafting, however, in 2 patients with bilateral Femur, a varus deformity appeared, which required nail exchange with a conventional trauma nail. One case developed a transit common Peroneal Nerve palsy. CONCLUSIONS: IMLs represent a great advance in the bone lengthening realm, however, it is still a complex procedure, which must be carefully planned to minimize risks and complications. Meticulous patient selection and prior physical and psychological evaluation are essential to the success of the procedure. Bilateral cases need a closer follow up, because implant failure is a potential risk.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Bone Lengthening/methods , Bone Nails , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods , Postoperative Complications , Bone Lengthening/instrumentation , Treatment Outcome , Osteogenesis, Distraction/instrumentation , Osteogenesis, Distraction/methods , Femur , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/instrumentation , Leg Length Inequality
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 85(2): 99-106, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1125546


Objetivo: El enclavado endomedular de las fracturas metafisarias de tibia se asocia con algunas complicaciones relacionadas con la necesidad de flexionar la rodilla durante la introducción del clavo endomedular con la técnica infrarrotuliana clásica. Es por ello, que se han diseñado diferentes abordajes para la colocación del clavo en una posición de semiextensión de rodilla. El objetivo fue evaluar nuestros resultados, de forma retrospectiva, con el abordaje pararrotuliano medial en semiextensión, para el tratamiento de las fracturas metafisarias proximales y distales de tibia con clavo endomedular. Materiales y Métodos: Se incluyó a 23 pacientes con un seguimiento posoperatorio mínimo de un año. Doce eran fracturas distales de tibia; 9, proximales y 2, segmentarias. Se evaluaron el rango de movilidad de la rodilla, el dolor posoperatorio con la escala de Lysholm, el eje posoperatorio y la tasa de consolidación. Resultados: El arco de movilidad de la rodilla fue de 125° (rango 110-140). Al año de la cirugía, 16 de 23 pacientes no tenían dolor, 5 de 23 refirieron un leve dolor durante la actividad física y 2, dolores intensos durante la actividad física. En todos los casos, se consiguió un eje posoperatorio aceptable y la consolidación ósea. Un paciente requirió un aumento con una placa e injerto óseo. Conclusión: La colocación de un clavo de tibia a través de un abordaje pararrotuliano medial con la rodilla en semiextensión es una técnica segura y simple para el tratamiento de las fracturas metafisarias de tibia. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Objective: To review the results of a series of metaphyseal tibial fractures treated with intramedullary nailing (IMN) in a semiextended position using a medial parapatellar approach. To report reduction quality, bone consolidation, range of motion (ROM) and postoperative knee pain at final follow-up. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three metaphyseal tibia fractures were treated with IMN. Twelve were distal tibial fractures (AO/OTA 43A), nine were proximal tibial fractures (AO/OTA 41A2/3), and two had segmental tibia fractures (AO/OTA 42C2). The minimum follow-up was 1 year. Results: Radiograph angulation at the fracture site was <5 degrees. All patients achieved bone healing. One patient (AO/OTA 42C2) required plate augmentation and bone autografting. Twenty-one out of 23 patients had knee pain scores of >20 according to the Lysholm scale. Conclusion: The parapatellar approach in a semi-extended position is a safe and useful technique for IMN of metaphyseal tibia fracture with no associated increased postoperative knee pain. Level of Evidence: IV

Adult , Middle Aged , Pain, Postoperative , Patella/surgery , Tibial Fractures/surgery , Range of Motion, Articular , Treatment Outcome , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods , Leg Injuries
Rev. cuba. ortop. traumatol ; 34(1): e131, ene.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139112


RESUMEN Introducción: Las fracturas vertebrales por compresión han sido tratadas usando cemento óseo en su interior, con técnicas como la cifoplastia y vertebroplastia. Sin embargo, son conocidos los potenciales efectos adversos, principalmente la fuga del cemento a los tejidos aledaños y, en la mayoría de los casos, la consiguiente afección a la altura vertebral. Es importante lograr una adecuada reducción de la fractura, ya que la esta influye directamente en la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Objetivo: Describir la aplicación, por primera vez, del implante intramedular expandible SpineJack® como método para el tratamiento de fracturas vertebrales por compresión. Presentación del caso: Se presenta una paciente de 65 años que sufrió un traumatismo en su columna lumbar a nivel de L1, con fractura tipo burst, a la que, en junio de 2016, se le realizó un acceso transpedicular percutáneo con guía fluoroscópica con el propósito de insertar el dispositivo SpineJack® en el cuerpo vertebral. Se utilizaron expansores del implante especialmente diseñados para este dispositivo, los cuales abrieron los extremos y desplegaron el componente central de titanio; esto facilitó la inyección de polimetilmetacrilato, el cual finalmente envolvió a los implantes, lo que garantizó la estabilización de la fractura. Resultados: La tomografía de control permitió observar una adecuada reducción del declive central de la vértebra L1 de la paciente y una recuperación de la altura del cuerpo vertebral con valores similares a los reportados por otros investigadores que han trabajado con este método en otros países. Conclusiones: La capacidad anátomo-funcional de la vértebra fracturada, así como la mejoría clínica de la paciente. y su calidad de vida fueron notables. No se observaron complicaciones. El seguimiento del empleo de este dispositivo en otros pacientes en Ecuador, permitirá profundizar en su evaluación(AU)

ABSTRACT Introduction: Vertebral compression fractures have been treated using internal bone cement, using techniques such as kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty. However, the potential adverse effects are known, mainly the leakage of cement to the surrounding tissues and, in most cases, the consequent affection at the vertebral level. Achieving adequate reduction of the fracture is important since it directly influence on the quality of life of patients. Objective: To describe the application, for the first time, of SpineJack® expandable intramedullary implant as a method for treating vertebral compression fractures. Case report: We report a 65-year-old female patient who suffered trauma to her lumbar spine at L1 level, a burst-type fracture, who, in June 2016, underwent percutaneous transpedicular access with fluoroscopic guidance with the purpose of inserting SpineJack® device into her vertebral body. Specially designed implant expanders were used for this device, which opened the ends and deployed the central titanium component. This facilitated the injection of polymethylmethacrylate that eventually enveloped the implants, ensuring stabilization of the fracture. Results: The control tomography allowed to observe adequate reduction of the central decline of the L1 vertebra of this patient and the recovery of the vertebral body height with values similar to those reported by other researchers who have worked with this method in other countries. Conclusions: The anatomy-functional capacity of the fractured vertebra, as well as the clinical improvement of this patient, and her quality of life were remarkable. No complications were observed. Following up the use of this device in other patients in Ecuador will allow to deepen its evaluation(AU)

Humans , Female , Aged , Spinal Fractures/surgery , Vertebroplasty/methods , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods , Ecuador
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202508, 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136540


RESUMO Nosso objetivo é descrever a técnica de fixação intramedular (IM) da fíbula no tratamento cirúrgico das fraturas maleolares do tornozelo. A redução é realizada sempre de forma percutânea: quando o traço de fratura é oblíquo simples, utilizamos uma pinça de redução de pontas e quando a fratura apresenta padrão multifragmentar, usa-se tração longitudinal e rotação. Isso reduz as complicações relacionadas à redução aberta e fixação interna com placa. A técnica demonstrou ser simples e reprodutível. Além disso, essa forma de fixação permite apoio precoce do peso corporal, o que acelera o processo de reabilitação e potencialmente acelera a cicatrização da fratura. A fixação IM da fíbula mostrou-se uma opção viável para a fixação do maléolo lateral nas fraturas do tornozelo, devendo ser considerada no arsenal do cirurgião.

ABSTRACT Our objective is to describe the technique of intramedullary (IM) nailing of lateral malleolus in the surgical management of ankle fractures. Fracture reduction is performed either percutaneously with a small pointed reduction clamp in simple oblique fractures or using longitudinal traction and rotation for comminuted fractures, thus reducing complications related to open reduction and internal fixation with a plate. The technique has been shown to be simple and reproducible. In addition, the technique allows early weight bearing, which accelerates rehabilitation and potentially fasten fracture healing. IM nailing is a viable option for the fixation of the of lateral malleolus in ankle fractures and should be considered in the surgeon's armamentarium.

Humans , Ankle Fractures/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods , Ankle Fractures/diagnostic imaging
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 84(2): 90-98, jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1003016


Objetivo: Comunicar la eficacia del clavo endomedular recubierto con antibiótico (CERA) para erradicar la infección en la seudoartrosis infectada de húmero (SIH). Materiales y Métodos: Once pacientes (edad promedio 48 años). El tiempo entre la fractura y la cirugía fue 25 meses. El CERA se impregnó con vancomicina en 9 pacientes. El seguimiento promedio fue de 54 meses. Resultados: Se aisló S. aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM) en 5 pacientes. Todos recibieron antibióticos sistémicos por 7 semanas. El antibiótico más utilizado fue vancomicina. La mediana entre el primer tiempo quirúrgico y la reconstrucción fue 56 días (RIC 47-98). Luego del desbridamiento quirúrgico del primer tiempo, se midió el defecto óseo remanente y se lo dividió con variables dicotómicas: grupo con defectos <2 cm (7 pacientes) y grupo con defectos ≥2 cm (4 pacientes). No se observaron diferencias significativas entre la mediana de días entre el primero y segundo tiempo quirúrgico comparando el desarrollo de SARM con el de otros gérmenes (48 días [RIC 45-75] vs. 73,5 días [RIC 56-149], p = 0,2002 Mann-Whitney), ni en la proporción del tamaño del defecto óseo según el desarrollo de SARM o de otro germen (60% vs. 17%, p = 0,242 Fisher). Todos los cultivos fueron negativos y se logró la consolidación del foco fracturario, sin recurrencia de la infección. Conclusiones: El CERA es una buena opción terapéutica en el primer tiempo quirúrgico para un paciente con SIH. Se pudo controlar la infección, lo que permitió la reconstrucción secundaria de la seudoartrosis. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Objective: To evaluate the efficiency of the antibiotic cement-coated rods (ACCR) to erradicate infections in infected nonunion of the humerus (INH). Methods: We included 11 patients with INH with a mean age of 48 years. The time from fracture to surgery was 25 months. The ACCR was impregnated with vancomycin in 9 of 11 cases. Follow-up was 54 months. Results: Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated in 5 cases. All patients received systemic antibiotic treatment for 7 weeks. Vancomycin was the most commonly used antibiotic. Time from ACCR placement to reconstructive surgery averaged 56 days [confidence interval range (CIR) 47-98]. After debridement and implant removal, the residual deformity of the nonunion was measured with dichotomous variables and classified into two groups: group 1, <2 cm (7 patients) and group 2, ≥2 cm (4 patients). No significant differences were observed between the number of days from placement of the ACCR to the development of the MRSA infection, compared to other pathogens [48 days (CIR 45-75) vs. 73 days (CIR 56-149) p=0.2002, Mann-Whitney U test], nor were differences observed in the size of the defect in those who developed MRSA or by any other pathogen (p=0.242, Fisher exact test). Reconstruction was performed with different techniques. Laboratory parameters were normal and cultures were negative. Fractures achieved consolidation without recurrence of the infection. Conclusions: ACCRs are an adequate treatment option for patients with an INH. The infection was controlled in all cases, which allowed for the secondary reconstruction of the nonunion. Level of Evidence: IV

Adult , Middle Aged , Pseudarthrosis , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods , Humeral Fractures/surgery , Infections , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. ortop ; 54(2): 149-155, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013697


Abstract Objective This was a retrospective observational study in patients submitted to intramedullary nail fixation after established or impeding pathological humerus-shaft tumoral fracture in the context of disseminated tumoral disease along 22 years of experience at the same institution. Methods Sample with 82 patients and 86 humeral fixations with unreamed rigid interlocking static intramedullary nail by the antegrade or retrograde approaches. Results The most prevalent primary tumors were breast carcinoma (30.49%), multiple myeloma (24.39%), lung adenocarcinoma (8.54%), and renal cell carcinoma (6.10%). The average surgical time was 90.16 ± 42.98 minutes (40-135 minutes). All of the patients reported improvement in arm pain and the mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score rose from 26% in the preoperative period to 72.6% in the evaluation performed in patients still alive 3 months after the surgery. The overall survival was 69.50% 3 months after the surgery, 56.10% at 6 months, 26.70% at 1 year, and 11.90% at 2 years. No death was related to the surgery or its complications. There were only 4 surgery-related complications, 1 intraoperative and 3 late, corresponding to a 4.65% complication risk. Conclusion Closed unreamed static interlocking intramedullary nailing (both in the antegrade or retrograde approaches) of the humerus is a fast, safe, effective, and low morbidity procedure to treat pathological fractures of the humerus shaft, assuring a stable arm fixation and consequently improving function and quality of life in these patients during their short life expectation.

Resumo Objetivo Estudo retrospectivo observacional em pacientes submetidos à fixação com haste intramedular de fratura patológica tumoral consumada ou iminente da diáfise do úmero em contexto de doença tumoral disseminada ao longo de 22 anos na mesma instituição. Métodos Amostra com 82 pacientes e 86 fixações do úmero com haste intramedular rígida bloqueada estática não fresada anterógrada ou retrógrada. Resultados Os tumores primários mais prevalentes foram carcinoma da mama (30,49%), mieloma múltiplo (24,39%), adenocarcinoma do pulmão (8,54%) e carcinoma das células renais (6,10%). O tempo médio de intervenção cirúrgica para fixação com haste foi 90,16 ± 42,98 minutos (40-135). Todos os pacientes referiram melhoria das queixas álgicas no nível do braço e velicou-semelhoria do scoreMSTSmédio de 26% no pré-operatório para 72,6% na avaliação efetuada nos pacientes ainda vivos aos três meses de pós-operatório. A taxa de sobrevivência aos três meses após a cirurgia foi de 69,50%, 56,10% aos seis meses, 26,70% em um ano e 11,90% em dois anos. Nenhuma dasmortes decorreu da cirurgia ou de complicações dela. Apenas se registaramquatro complicações relacionadas com a cirurgia, uma intraoperatória e três tardias, corresponderam a risco de complicações de 4,65%. Conclusão O uso de haste intramedular não fresada estática bloqueada (anterógrado ou retrógrado) no úmero é um método rápido, seguro, eficaz e com baixa morbilidade no tratamento das fraturas patológicas da diáfise umeral, garante fixação estável do braço e consequentemente melhora a funcionalidade e a qualidade de vida desses pacientes durante a sua curta expectativa de vida.

Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/instrumentation , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods , Fractures, Spontaneous/surgery , Humeral Fractures , Neoplasm Metastasis
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 83(4): 242-247, dic. 2018. []
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-984990


Introducción: La diáfisis del antebrazo es el sitio más frecuente de refracturas en niños. Estas lesiones suelen ocurrir en el tercio medio o proximal antes del año de la fractura inicial. Hay poca información sobre el tratamiento de este tipo de lesiones. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los resultados y las complicaciones en pacientes con refracturas de antebrazo que requirieron fijación interna con clavos elásticos endomedulares. Materiales y Métodos: Se registró la siguiente información: datos demográficos, mecanismo de lesión, clasificación, tiempo desde la consolidación de la fractura original hasta la refractura, tipo de reducción y tiempo de consolidación. Los resultados fueron evaluados según la escala propuesta por Martus y las complicaciones, con una adaptación de la clasificación de Clavien-Dindo. Resultados: Se evaluaron 17 pacientes (14 varones) con 17 refracturas de antebrazo (15 cerradas y 2 expuestas). La edad era de 11 años (RIC 7, mín.-máx. 5-15). La lesión ocurrió a las 12 semanas de la fractura inicial (RIC 4.7, mín.-máx. 4-28). El 47% requirió reducción abierta. El tiempo de consolidación fue de 8 semanas (RIC 4, mín.-máx. 6-28). El seguimiento fue de 43 meses (RIC 47, mín.-máx. 12-103). Fue posible evaluar clínicamente a 16 pacientes (1 pérdida en el seguimiento). El resultado fue excelente en 15 casos y regular en uno. Un paciente tuvo pérdida del rango de movilidad (15º); uno, retraso de la consolidación (cúbito) y 3 sufrieron una segunda refractura. Conclusiones: La fijación interna con clavos elásticos endomedulares fue una técnica eficaz para tratar las refracturas de antebrazo en niños. Si bien un alto porcentaje necesita reducción abierta, el tiempo de consolidación y la tasa de complicaciones serían similares a los de las fracturas primarias tratadas con la misma técnica. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Introduction: Forearm diaphysis is the most frequent site of re-fractures in children. These lesions usually occur in the middle or proximal third within a year of the initial fracture. There is little information on the treatment of this type of lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes and complications in patients with forearm re-fractures requiring internal fixation with elastic stable intramedullary nails. Methods: Demographic data, mechanism of injury, classification, time from consolidation of the original fracture to refracture, type of reduction and time of consolidation were documented. Outcomes were evaluated according to Martus scale, and complications were evaluated with an adaptation of Clavien-Dindo classification. Results: Seventeen patients (14 men) with 17 forearm re-fractures (15 closed and 2 open) were identified. Median age was 11 years (IQR 7, min-max 5-15). Lesion occurred 12 weeks after the initial fracture (RIC 4.7, min-max 4-28). Fortyseven percent required open reduction. Union was achieved at 8 weeks (IQR 4, min-max 6-28). Follow-up was 43 months (IQR 47, min-max 12-103). Sixteen patients were clinically evaluated (1 lost at follow-up). Fifteen patients presented excellent results and one had a fair result. One had 15º loss of motion, one had delayed union (ulna) and three patients had a second re-fracture. Conclusions: In this series, elastic stable intramedullary nails represented an effective technique for the treatment of forearm re-fractures in children. Although many require open reduction, time to union and complication rate seem to be similar to primary fractures treated with the same technique. Level of Evidence: IV

Child , Adolescent , Bone Nails , Diaphyses/surgery , Diaphyses/injuries , Forearm Injuries/surgery , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary/methods , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome