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2.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e54797, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368766

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological studies, both in general and specifically, are part of the health promotion process and prophylactic actions that can generate treatment plans for a population, however, the accomplishment of prophylactic work in relation to musculoskeletal(i.e., traumatological) problems must start from the specific and go to the general, from cities to a national plan, since each population has its own characteristics in the general picture of conditions. Hypothetically, the epidemiological profile in traumatology and orthopedics, due to the general behavior in the national territory, presents the lack of prevention; in this way, is necessary to verify. This work aims to determine the incidence of orthopedic and traumatological problems in the region of Palmas, state of Tocantins (TO), Brazil, in order to contribute to a possible prophylactic plan for the population of the region. The data of the present study agree with most other studies about the orthopedic profile in terms of gender, age and problems with vertebral column, in general. However, the finding that most of the conditions were associated with scoliosis was unexpected, as it differs from the findings of most studies. It was possible to establish a profile of patients seen at the clinic-school and indicate the management of training for health professionals related to the treatment of people over the age of 40 years. The importance of the action of physiotherapists in the processes of prevention and primary care was evident given the patients indicated in this and other articles who need help with traumatic diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Orthopedics/statistics & numerical data , Patients/statistics & numerical data , Health Profile , Traumatology , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Scoliosis/diagnosis , Spine , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Physical Therapists
3.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(2): e223, tab
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1138897

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La osteoporosis masculina es una enfermedad clínica heterogénea y subdiagnosticada, con múltiples factores de riesgo. Requiere un proceso de diagnóstico en ocasiones más complejo que en las mujeres. Objetivo: Identificar factores biológicos relacionados con la masa ósea en hombres de edad mediana. Métodos: Se realizó estudio descriptivo, transversal, en 43 hombres de edad mediana (40-59 años) entre abril de 2017 y mayo de 2018, que fueron atendidos en el Policlínico Universitario Vedado. Se estudiaron los antecedentes patológicos familiares (APF) de osteoporosis masculina o fracturas por fragilidad, índice de masa corporal (IMC), circunferencia de la cintura (CC), presión arterial (PA), glucemia, colesterol, triglicéridos, creatinina, hormona luteinizante, folículo estimulante, estradiol, testosterona (T), prolactina y paratohormona (PTH) y densitometría dual de Rx (DXA). Según edad y resultado de la DXA, se crearon 4 grupos (de 40-49 y de 50-59 años, en L1-L4 y fémur). Se identificaron hombres con hueso normal y mala masa ósea (MMO). Se determinaron distribuciones de frecuencia (variables cualitativas), y mediana y rango (cuantitativas). Se empleó chi cuadrado para determinar relación entre variables cualitativas y Mann-Whitney para cuantitativas. Para establecer correlación entre variables cuantitativas, se calculó el test de Pearson. Resultados: En hombres de 50-59 años, con antecedentes patológicos familiares de fracturas por fragilidad, predominó la mala masa ósea (75 por ciento). La mediana del índice de masa corporal en hombres de 40-49 años fue mayor (26,7 Kg/m2sc) en los que tenían hueso normal en L1-L4; en los de 50-59 años con aumento de la circunferencia de la cintura predominó la mala masa ósea (3; 75 por ciento). La presión arterial sistólica y diastólica se correlacionaron positivamente con la densidad mineral ósea en L1-L4 ([r = 0,225; p = 0,009], [r = 0,263; p = 0,002]). Hubo correlación positiva entre colesterol y contenido mineral óseo en fémur (r = 0,164; p = 0,002). La testosterona resultó más baja en hombres con hueso normal (40-49 años: 15,3 nmol/L; 50-59 años: 12,5 nmol/L). Se observó correlación negativa entre paratohormona y contenido mineral óseo en fémur (r = -0,324; p = 0,000). Conclusiones: Se puede concluir que, de los factores biológicos estudiados en los hombres de edad mediana del Policlínico Universitario Vedado, los niveles más elevados de presión arterial y colesterol, y más bajos de paratohormona, se asociaron con mejor masa ósea(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Male osteoporosis is a heterogeneous and underdiagnosed clinical condition and with multiple risk factors, which requires a diagnostic process that is sometimes more complex than for women. Objective: To identify biological factors related to bone mass in middle-aged men from "Vedado" University Polyclinic. Methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out with 43 middle-aged (40-59 years old) men, between April 2017 and May 2018. The variables were family pathological history of osteoporosis or fragility fractures, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, glycemia, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, luteinizing hormone, stimulating follicle, estradiol, testosterone, prolactin and parathyroid hormone, and dual x-ray densitometry. According to age and results of the dual x-ray densitometry, four groups were created (40-49 and 50-59 years old, in L1-L4 and femur). The men with normal bone and poor bone mass were identified. Frequency distributions (qualitative variables), as well as median and range (quantitative variables) were determined. The chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between qualitative variables, and the Mann-Whitney test was used for quantitative variables. To establish correlation between quantitative variables, the Pearson test was used. Results: Among men aged 50-59 years and with a family pathological history of fragility fractures, poor bone mass prevailed (75 percent). The median body mass index among men aged 40-49 years was higher (26.7 kg/m2sc) in those with normal bone in L1-L4; among those aged 50-59 years and with increased waist circumference, poor bone mass predominated (3; 75 percent). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were correlated positively with bone mineral density in L1-L4 [(r = 0.225, p = 0.009), (r = 0.263, p = 0.002)]. There was a positive correlation between cholesterol and bone mineral content in the femur (r = 0.164, p = 0.002). T was lower among men with normal bone (15.3 nmol/L for the group 40-49 years old, and 12.5 nmol/L for the group 50-59 years old). A negative correlation was observed between the parathyroid hormone and bone mineral content values in the femur (r = -0.324, p = 0.000). Conclusions: Among the biological factors studied in middle-aged men from "Vedado" University Polyclinic, higher levels of blood pressure and cholesterol, as well as lower levels of the parathyroid hormone were concluded to be associated with better bone mass(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Biological Factors/adverse effects , Body Mass Index , Densitometry/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis
4.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(2): 1735-1742, mar.-abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127031

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las fracturas del Atlas representan el segundo tipo más común de lesiones de la columna cervical alta. Con este trabajo se persigue describir la fijación occipito-cervical como tratamiento de la fractura de atlas tipo Jefferson inestable. Se presenta paciente que sufre trauma raquimedular, después de aplicarle un minucioso examen físico y la tomografía axial computada de columna cervical se detecta una fractura tipo Jefferson de atlas con más de 7 mm de separación de sus fragmentos. Al ser esta una fractura inestable de la región cervical alta se decide realizar una fijación occipito-cervical como método de tratamiento de esta lesión. La evolución postquirúrgica del paciente transcurrió sin complicaciones (AU).


Summary Atlas fractures represent the second most common type of upper cervical spine injury. This work aims to describe the occipito-cervical fixation as a treatment for the unstable Jefferson-type atlas fracture. A patient suffering from spinal cord trauma is presented, after applying a thorough physical examination and the computed tomography of the cervical spine, a Jefferson type fracture of atlas with more than 7 mm of separation of its fragments is detected. As this is an unstable fracture of the upper cervical region, it was decided to perform an occipito-cervical fixation as a treatment method for this lesion. The postoperative evolution of the patient was uneventful (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Cervical Atlas/injuries , Therapeutics/methods , Orthopedic Fixation Devices , Tomography/methods , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Fractures, Bone/therapy
5.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 61(3): 94-100, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177770

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO Mostrar una fractura infrecuente del tubérculo posteromedial del astrágalo diagnosticado y tratado de manera aguda mediante osteosíntesis con tornillo Acutrak® (2014 Acumed® LLC). MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS Varón de 28 años, que acude a Urgencias tras torcedura de tobillo con dolor al mover tobillo y hallux y tumefacción en cara interna. En Urgencias pasó desapercibida. En consulta a la semana refería sensación de que se le engancha el primer dedo con la flexoextensión. Se observa fractura del tubérculo medial de la apófisis posterior del astrágalo con desplazamiento >3mm y clínica de posible interposición del flexor hallucis longus. Se decidió tratamiento quirúrgico con tornillo Acutrak®. Se inmovilizó con férula 3 semanas y descarga 6 semanas. RESULTADOS A los 8 meses balance articular completo, sin dolor ni limitación para las ABVD y sin clínica de atrapamiento del flexor del hallux. Como complicación aguda, se verificó infección de herida quirúrgica que se trató con antibióticos. DISCUSIÓN Ese tipo de fracturas son infrecuentes. El mecanismo lesional suele ser dorsiflexión-pronación. Es importante un diagnóstico temprano y para ello es necesario una alta sospecha diagnóstica. Para su diagnóstico, son necesarias radiografías anteroposterior y lateral y si no se visualiza la lesión, proyección oblicua con 30°- 40° de rotación externa. En casos agudos resulta de utilidad la TAC y en casos crónicos la RM. CONCLUSIÓN Aunque generalmente el tratamiento es conservador, en ocasiones puede ser necesario la cirugía mediante osteosíntesis o exéresis del fragmento cuando la fractura provoca impingement.


OBJECTIVE Show an infrequent fracture of the posteromedial tubercle of the talus diagnosed and treated acutely by Acutrak® screw (2014 Acumed® LLC) osteosynthesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS A 28-year-old man attended the Emergency Department after spraining his ankle with pain when moving his ankle and hallux and swelling on the internal face. In the ER it went unnoticed. A week later in the clinic, he refered to the sensation that the first finger is hooked with the flexion extension. A fracture of the medial tubercle of the posterior process of the talus is observed with a displacement of > 3 mm and clinical signs of possible interposition of the hallucis longus . Surgical treatment with Acutrak® screw was made. He was immobilized with a splint for 3 weeks and discharge for 6 weeks. RESULTS At 8 months complete joint balance, without pain or limitations for BADL and without hallux flexor entrapment symptoms. As an acute complication, surgical wound infection that was treated with antibiotics. DISCUSSION These types of fractures are rare. The injury mechanism is usually dorsiflexion-pronation. Early diagnosis is important and a high diagnostic suspicion is required. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs are necessary for its diagnosis and if the lesion is not visualized, oblique projection with 30°- 40° external rotation. CT is useful in acute cases and MRI in chronic cases. CONCLUSION Although the treatment is conservative, surgery may sometimes be necessary by means of osteosynthesis or excision of the fragment when the fracture causes impingement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Talus/surgery , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Bone Screws , Talus/injuries , Talus/diagnostic imaging , Early Diagnosis
6.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 304-305, Apr.-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012531

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mineral bone disorder is a common feature of chronic kidney disease. Lion face syndrome is rare complication of severe hyperparathyroidism in end-stage renal disease patients, which has been less commonly reported due to dialysis and medical treatment advances in the last decade. The early recognition of the characteristic facial deformity is crucial to prompt management and prevent severe disfigurement. The authors present a rare case of severe hyperparathyroidism presenting with lion face syndrome and bone fractures.


Resumo O distúrbio mineral e ósseo é uma característica comum da doença renal crônica. A síndrome da face leonina é uma complicação rara do hiperparatireoidismo grave em pacientes com doença renal terminal, que tem sido menos relatada devido aos avanços na diálise e tratamento médico na última década. O reconhecimento precoce da deformidade facial característica é crucial para estimular o tratamento precoce e prevenir a desfiguração severa. Os autores apresentam um caso raro de hiperparatireoidismo grave, apresentando síndrome da face leonina e fraturas ósseas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/complications , Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna/diagnosis , Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Bone Density , Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna/surgery , Ergocalciferols/therapeutic use , Calcium/therapeutic use , Parathyroidectomy/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis , Treatment Outcome , Teriparatide/therapeutic use , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Hypocalcemia/etiology , Hypocalcemia/drug therapy
7.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(1): 4-10, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-985133

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar se houve associação entre a ocorrência de fratura após trauma físico e o uso de glicocorticoides nos 12 meses precedentes ao trauma, em crianças e adolescentes atendidos em uma emergência. Métodos: No período de abril a outubro de 2015 foi conduzido em uma emergência pediátrica um estudo tipo caso controle, em pacientes de 3 a 14 anos incompletos, vitimados por trauma físico, com e sem fratura. Os dados analisados foram obtidos pela consulta dos prontuários, pelo exame físico dos pacientes e por entrevista dos responsáveis, comparando-se uso de glicocorticoides nos últimos 12 meses, características demográficas, índice de massa corpórea, ingesta de leite, intensidade do trauma, prática de exercício físico e tabagismo passivo domiciliar nos dois grupos de pacientes. Resultados: Estudaram-se 104 pacientes com trauma físico, 50 com fratura e 54 sem fratura. O uso de glicocorticoides ocorreu em 15,4% dos pacientes estudados, sem diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos. A faixa etária de 10 a 14 anos incompletos, o trauma grave e a prática de exercício físico predominaram entre os pacientes com fratura. Conclusões: Este estudo não mostrou associação entre o uso prévio de glicocorticoides e a ocorrência de fraturas em crianças e adolescentes. A faixa etária de 10 a 14 anos incompletos, o trauma grave e a prática de exercício físico associaram-se com maior risco para fraturas.


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the association between traumatic fractures and glucocorticoids taken 12 months prior to a trauma, in children and adolescents seen at an emergency room. Methods: A case-control study was conducted from April to October 2015, at a pediatric emergency hospital with patients aged 3- to 14 years-old, who had suffered physical trauma. Some of the patients had a fracture and some did not. The data analyzed were obtained from medical records, physical examination of the patients, and interview with the patients' caregivers. Glucocorticoid use in the past 12 months, demographic variables, body mass index, milk intake, trauma intensity, physical activity and smoking in the household were compared between the two patient groups. Results: A total of 104 patients with physical trauma were studied - 50 had a fracture and 54 did not. Of all the patients, 15.4% had previously used glucocorticoids, and there were no statistically significant differences between the groups. The age range of 10- to 14 years-old, severe trauma and physical activity were more prevalent among patients with a bone fracture. Conclusions: This study did not find an association between previous glucocorticoid use and the occurrence of fractures in children and adolescents. The age range of 10- to 14 years-old, severe trauma, and physical activity were associated with an increased risk for fractures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Exercise/physiology , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Trauma Severity Indices , Risk Factors , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 82(2): 116-123, jun. 2017. []
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-896259

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las indicaciones y las complicaciones de una serie consecutiva de niños con fracturas a quienes se les realizó artrografía intraoperatoria. Materiales y Métodos: Se evaluó retrospectivamente a pacientes pediátricos con fracturas de codo o tobillo sometidos a una artrografía intraoperatoria, entre enero de 2009 y julio de 2014. Se analizaron los datos demográficos, la evolución clínica posoperatoria (criterios de la Clínica Mayo y puntaje de la AOFAS), la evolución radiográfica y las complicaciones derivadas del uso de material de contraste intrarticular. Resultados: Se evaluaron 25 pacientes (16 niños, 9 niñas) con una edad promedio de 7.6 años (rango 4-15). El seguimiento promedio fue de 30.1 meses. Quince tenían fracturas de codo y 10, de tobillo. Según el puntaje de la Clínica Mayo, 14 pacientes tuvieron resultados excelentes y uno fue bueno (promedio 99; rango 85-100). Los 10 pacientes con fracturas de tobillo obtuvieron resultados excelentes según el puntaje de la AOFAS (promedio 98,5; rango 95-100). No ocurrieron infecciones ni reacciones adversas relacionadas con el uso del medio de contraste. Tres pacientes tuvieron complicaciones no relacionadas con el uso del medio de contraste. Conclusión: La artrografía es un procedimiento simple, de bajo costo, que agrega poco tiempo quirúrgico y permite una mejor evaluación de estructuras intrarticulares para la toma de decisiones intraoperatorias. Es una herramienta útil que debe ser tenida en cuenta en el tratamiento de algunas fracturas en pediatría. Nivel de Evidencia: IV


Introduction: The objective of this study is to assess the indications and complications of a consecutive series of children with fractures where intraoperative arthrogram was performed. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated children with elbow or ankle fractures who underwent intraoperative arthrogram between January 2009 and July 2014. We assessed demographic data, postoperative clinical outcomes (Mayo Clinic and AOFAS scores), radiographic outcome and complications arising from the use of intra-articular contrast material. Results: Twenty-five patients (16 boys, 9 girls) with an average age of 7.6 years (range 4-15) were evaluated. The average follow-up was 30.1 months. There were 15 patients with elbow fractures and 10 with ankle fractures. According to Mayo Clinic score, results were excellent in 14 patients and good in one patient (average 99; range 85-100). Ten patients with ankle fractures presented excellent results according to AOFAS score (average 98.5; range 95-100). There were no in fections or adverse reactions related to the use of contrast. Three patients presented complications unrelated to the use of contrast. Conclusion: Arthrogram is a simple, low-cost procedure, adds short surgical time and allows better assessment of intraarticular structures for intraoperative decision-making. It is a useful tool that should be taken into account in the treatment of some pediatric fractures. Level of Evidence: IV


Subject(s)
Child , Arthrography/methods , Ankle Injuries/diagnosis , Elbow Joint/injuries , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
9.
Rev. Assoc. Paul. Cir. Dent ; 70(3): 323-329, jul.-set. 2016. graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-797091

ABSTRACT

Fraturas faciais foram provocadas principalmente por acidentes de trânsito (37,3%), e por agressões físicas (33%), vitimando predominantemente pacientes do gênero masculino (83,7%).Ocorreram mais frequentemente na faixa etária entre 21 e 30 anos (38,2%). A frequência de homens e mulheres vitimados entre a primeira e a terceira décadas de vida foi bastante similar.As fraturas mandibulares isoladas foram significativamente predominantes (48%), seguidas pelas zigomáticas (19,7%) e pelas nasais (19,7%). As agressões físicas foram mais frequente mente responsáveis pelas fraturas mandibulares, zigomáticas, nasais, maxilares e frontais, enquanto as fraturas pan faciais e Le Fort resultaram mais frequentemente de acidentes de trânsito.


Facial fractures were mainly caused by traffic accidents (37.3%) and physical abuse (33%), victimizing mostly male patients (83.7%). Occurred more frequently in the age group between21 and 30 years (38.2%). The frequency of men and women victimized between the first and third decades of life was very similar. Isolated mandibular fractures were significantly predominant(48%), followed by zygomatic (19.7%) and the nose (19.7%). The assaults were mostoften responsible for mandibular fractures, zygomatic, nasal, maxillary and frontal, while the panfaciais fractures and Le Fort resulted more often aciteeth transit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Fracture Fixation, Internal/adverse effects , Fracture Fixation, Internal/statistics & numerical data , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Mandibular Fractures/complications , Mandibular Fractures/prevention & control , Maxillary Fractures/complications , Maxillary Fractures/prevention & control , Fractures, Bone/complications , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control
10.
São Paulo; s.n; 2016. 72 p. ilus, tab. (BR).
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-867914

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência à fadiga cíclica flexural dos instrumentos de níquel- titânio, Hyflex CM (Coltène, EUA) e TF Adaptive (SybronEndo, EUA) em diferentes situações experimentais. Todas as limas que foram selecionadas possuíam conicidade 0,04 e diâmetro de ponta 35. Utilizou-se um dispositivo desenvolvido especificamente para realizar o ensaio flexural dinâmico. Os instrumentos TF Adaptive foram divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o ângulo de curvatura do ensaio: 45º, 60º e 90º e cada grupo subdividido em 2 subgrupos de acordo com o tipo de movimento: rotação contínua e Adaptive. Cada subgrupo era composto por 15 instrumentos TF Adaptive, totalizando 90 instrumentos. Quinze instrumentos Hyflex CM formavam o grupo 4, no ensaio com ângulo de curvatura 90 graus e rotação contínua. A simulação foi realizada em canais artificiais de aço com ângulo de 45, 60, 90 graus e raio 5m m. O número de ciclos e o tempo em segundos até a fratura foram tabulados e analisados. Entretanto, a fadiga cíclica flexural foi significante maior nos três grupos em movimento Adaptive. E as limas TF Adaptive em seu próprio movimento tiveram maior número de ciclos e tempo até a fratura quando comparadas as Hyflex CM no ensaio de 90 graus. Portanto, conclui-se que o sistema Adaptive (limas TF Adaptive + movimento Adaptive) foi mais seguro à resistência á fadiga flexural, e no ensaio de 90 graus o sistema Adaptive foi mais resistente quando comparado com as limas Hyflex CM no movimento de rotação contínua.


The aim of this work to evaluate the cyclic fatigue resistance flexural the instruments of nickel-titanium, HyFlex CM (Coltène, USA) and TF Adaptive (SybronEndo, USA) in different experimental situations. All files that were selected had 0.04 taper and tip diameter 35. We used a device developed specifically to perform the dynamic flexural test. The TF Adaptive instruments were divided into 3 groups according to the angle of curvature of the test: 45, 60 and 90 and further divided in two subgroups according to the type of movement: continuous rotation and Adaptive. Each group consisted of 15 instruments TF Adaptive totaling 90 instruments. Fifteen HyFlex CM instruments formed the group 4 in the trial of bend angle 90 degrees and continuous rotation. The simulation was performed in artificial steel angled channels 45, 60, 90 degrees and radius 5m m. The number of cycles and the time in seconds until fracture were tabulated and analyzed. However, the cyclical flexural fatigue was significantly greater in the three groups Adaptive motion. And the TF Adaptive files on your own movement had a higher number of cycles and time to fracture when the HyFlex CM compared in 90-degree test. Therefore, it is concluded that the adaptive system (TF Adaptive Motion + Adaptive files) was safer resistance to flexural fatigue, and 90 degrees test Adaptive system is more resistant when compared with the HyFlex files into continuous.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Fractures, Bone/complications , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Dental Instruments/adverse effects , Dental Instruments/statistics & numerical data , Dental Instruments , Alloys/adverse effects
11.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 428-430, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984872

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To analyze the characteristics and mechanisms of pelvic fractures in the cases of road traffic accident deaths.@*METHODS@#Total 65 cases of road traffic accident deaths with pelvic fracture were collected, and the sites, characteristics and injury mechanisms of pelvic fracture were statistically analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among the 65 cases of pelvic fracture, 38 cases of dislocation of sacroiliac joint were found, and most combined with pubis symphysis separation or fracture of pubis. In the fractures of pubis, ischium and acetabulum, linear fractures were most common, while comminuted fractures were most common in sacrum and coccyx fractures. There were 54 cases combined with pelvic soft tissue injury, and 8 cases with pelvic organ injury and 44 cases with abdominal organ injury. In the types of pelvic ring injury, 32 cases were separation, 49.32%, followed by compression, 26.15% and only one case was verticality, 1.54%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Detailed and comprehensive examination of the body and determination of the pelvic fracture type contribute to analyze the mechanisms of injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Accidents, Traffic , Acetabulum/injuries , Death , Forensic Pathology , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Fractures, Comminuted/diagnosis , Ischium/injuries , Pelvic Bones/injuries , Soft Tissue Injuries/diagnosis , Spinal Fractures/diagnosis
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(4): 961-968, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-759233

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar as implicações e os resultados obtidos frente aos tratamentos conservativo e cirúrgico em 37 cães sem distinção de sexo, raça ou idade, que apresentaram fraturas e luxações vertebrais (FLV) toracolombares. Cada paciente passou por anamnese, seguida por exames clínico, neurológico e radiográficos para se obter o diagnóstico neuroanatômico e a severidade da lesão. Os cães foram submetidos ao tratamento conservativo ou cirúrgico de acordo com as características de cada caso. Dos 37 animais deste estudo, 37,7% tinham percepção de dor profunda (PDP) intacta. Vinte animais foram submetidos ao tratamento conservativo, 14 ao tratamento cirúrgico e três animais faleceram antes do tratamento. Dos animais que mantiveram a PDP intacta, a taxa de recuperação foi de 100%, com tempo de recuperação total variando de sete a 75 dias, ao passo que, dos animais que perderam a PDP, nenhum recuperou a deambulação voluntária. Dos 14 animais operados, 42,8% apresentaram alterações vertebrais não visibilizadas ao exame radiográfico convencional, sendo necessária mudança na técnica cirúrgica planejada em 14,2% desses casos. Nos animais que mantiveram a PDP, não houve diferença significante nas taxas nem no tempo de recuperação da deambulação voluntária, independentemente do tipo de tratamento. Entretanto, houve diferença altamente significante entre os graus que mantiveram a PDP intacta com os animais que perderam a percepção de dor profunda em relação à taxa de recuperação. A taxa de eutanásia foi menor que em outros trabalhos descritos na literatura. Dos animais sem PDP submetidos ao tratamento conservativo ou cirúrgico, 31,25% readquiriram a capacidade de caminhar sem recuperar a PDP, sendo essa deambulação involuntária atribuída ao caminhar espinal.


Our aim of this paper was to study the implications and results associated with conservative and surgical treatment of dogs with thoracolumbar Vertebral fractures and luxations (VFL) so that the information obtained can be used to obtain guidelines that lead to greater recovery rates. For such, 37 dogs presenting VFL were examined, without distinction of sex, breed, or age. Each patient had detailed history obtained, followed by clinical, neurologic and radiographic exams for obtaining neuroanatomic location and severity of the nervous and vertebral lesions. The dogs were submitted to conservative or surgical treatment according to each case. Deep pain perception (DPP) was intact in 37.7% of the 37 dogs in this study. Twenty dogs received conservative treatment, 14 underwent surgery and three dogs died before treatment. Of the dogs with intact DPP, 100% recovered, with a recovery time varying between seven and 75 days, while none of the dogs that lost DPP recovered voluntary motion. Of the 14 dogs submitted to surgery, 42.8% had vertebral lesions that weren't detected using conventional radiography, which demonstrates the low sensitivity of this exam, and led to a need for a change in the planned surgical technique in 14.2% of these cases. In dogs with intact DPP there was no significant difference in time or rate of recovery of voluntary motion, regardless of the treatment method. However, there was a highly significant difference between the dogs which retained and lost DPP regarding recovery rates. The percentage of euthanasia was less than in other reports, probably due to the greater awareness and protectiveness of owners nowadays. Of the dogs without DPP treated either surgically or conservatively, 31.25% recovered ambulation without recovery of DPP, characterizing this ambulation as involuntary, attributed to spinal walk.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Fractures, Bone/therapy , Fractures, Bone/veterinary , Spinal Injuries/diagnosis , Spinal Injuries/veterinary , Spinal Cord Injuries/diagnosis , Spinal Cord Injuries/veterinary , Paraplegia/veterinary , Radiography
13.
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 80(2): 104-112, jun. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-757163

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las fracturas Salter-Harris VI son lesiones cuya característica es la ablación del anillo pericondral. Son infrecuentes, pero potencialmente devastadoras. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el mecanismo, el tratamiento y los resultados funcionales de estas lesiones en pie y tobillo. Materiales y Métodos: Se analizaron retrospectivamente todos los pacientes con lesiones Salter-Harris VI de tobillo y pie, tratadas entre enero de 2010 y enero de 2013. Se documentaron datos demográficos, clasificación, mecanismo de lesión, tipo de lesiones asociadas y número de cirugías necesarias. La evaluación funcional se realizó con el puntaje de la AOFAS y se tomaron radiografías para determinar viabilidad de la fisis, acortamiento o deformidad angular. Resultados: Se analizaron 5 fracturas (4 pacientes). La edad promedio fue de 7.5 años (rango 6-10 años). El seguimiento promedio fue de 26.2 meses. Tres lesiones se produjeron por accidentes de moto y 2, por auto versus peatón. Todos los casos se acompañaron de pérdida de sustancia, el 75% tenía lesiones en más de un hueso y el 50%, lesiones tendinosas asociadas. Cada paciente requirió un promedio de 3,2 cirugías. El puntaje de la AOFAS promedio fue de 79.8 (rango 62-100). Sólo el 40% de las fisis afectadas permanecían viables al último control. Conclusiones: Las fracturas Salter-Harris VI se acompañan de una gran variedad de lesiones asociadas, requieren múltiples cirugías, suelen producir un cierre precoz de la fisis y algún grado de discapacidad. Se requieren medidas preventivas para evitar la exposición de los niños a este tipo de lesiones. Nivel de evidencia: IV - Serie de casos.


Background: Salter-Harris VI fractures (SHVI) are injuries in which part of the physis is missing. They are rare in children but potentially devastating. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of production, treatment, and functional outcomes of these injuries in the foot and ankle. Methods: All patients with foot and ankle SHVI injuries treated between January 2010 and January 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographics, classification, mechanism of injury, type and number of associated injuries that required surgery were documented. Patients were assessed functionally with the AOFAS score and a radiological evaluation was performed to determine the viability of the physis, limb length discrepancies or angular deformities. Results: Five fractures in 4 patients were analyzed. The average age at injury was 7.5 years (range 6-10 years). Mean follow-up was 26.2 months (range 12-37 months). Three injuries occurred as a result of motorcycle accidents, and 2 in a car accident. All were associated with soft-tissue injuries, 75% had more than one injured bone and 50% had tendon lesions. Each patient required an average of 3.2 surgeries (range 2-5). The average AOFAS was 79.8 points (range 62-100). Radiographically, only 40% of the affected physis remained viable at last follow-up. Conclusions: SHVI fractures are associated with several injuries, require multiple surgeries and often result in premature growth arrest and some degree of disability. Prevention measures are required to avoid the exposure of children to this type of injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Ankle Injuries , Epiphyses/injuries , Fracture Healing , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
14.
Acta ortop. mex ; 29(2): 118-122, mar.-abr. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-771825

ABSTRACT

La luxación de codo en niños es un evento traumático muy poco frecuente descrito por primera vez por Stimson en 1900 y por Tachdjian en 1990, con una incidencia estimada que va de 3 a 6% de todas las lesiones en codo, con un pico de incidencia entre los 13 y 14 años, el trauma de codo se clasifica basándose en la dirección que toma el desplazamiento de la articulación radio ulnar proximal con el húmero, dividiéndolas en luxaciones posteriores y anteriores, siendo la primera más frecuente, ocurriendo en 95% de los casos, por otra parte las luxofracturas del codo son eventos aún más raros presentándose fractura por avulsión del epicóndilo medial con una incidencia de 25 a 36%; cóndilo lateral 4%, olécranon 1.7%, cabeza radial 8%, apófisis coronoides 3.5%, y otras 3.5%, hasta el momento no existe en la literatura un consenso sobre cómo manejar este tipo de lesiones, en especial porque hay autores que respaldan el manejo no quirúrgico, y otros que proponen el manejo quirúrgico como método definitivo; sin embargo, lo que sí se tiene claro es que un diagnóstico tardío o un manejo inoportuno puede repercutir en el crecimiento del niño llevando a serias complicaciones, de esta manera con el presente estudio pretendemos dar a reconocer nuestra experiencia en el manejo quirúrgico de estos casos tan poco frecuentes obteniendo buenos resultados.


Elbow dislocation in children is a very infrequent traumatic event which was first described by Stimson in 1900 and then by Tachdjian in 1990. Its estimated incidence ranges from 3% to 6% of all elbow injuries, peaking at 13-14 years. Elbow trauma is classified considering the direction in which the proximal radioulnar joint shifts with respect to the humerus, into posterior and anterior dislocation. The former is the most frequent and accounts for 95% of cases. Elbow fracture dislocation is an even rarer event. The incidence rate of avulsion fracture of the medial epicondyle is 25-36%, of the lateral condyle 4%, of the olecranon 1.7%, of the radial head 8%, of the coronoid process 3.5%, and others, 3.5%. At present there is no consensus in the literature on how to treat this type of lesions, particularly because some authors advocate nonsurgical management, while others propose surgical management as the definitive treatment. What is clear, however, is that a late diagnosis or untimely treatment may affect the child's growth and lead to serious complications. The purpose of this study is to share our experience and good results with the surgical management of these infrequent cases.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Joint Dislocations/pathology , Elbow/injuries , Fractures, Bone/pathology , Joint Dislocations/diagnosis , Joint Dislocations/surgery , Elbow/pathology , Elbow/surgery , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Fractures, Bone/surgery
15.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-784632

ABSTRACT

Determinar la utilidad de la evaluación radiográfica, como único elemento, en el diagnóstico de las fracturas asociadas a la ingestión de bifosfonatos. Materiales y Métodos: De 2006 a 2011, se evaluaron las radiografías de pacientes con fracturas subtrocantéricas y diafisarias de fémur; se excluyeron las fracturas de fémur proximal, distal, patológicas y a los pacientes pediátricos. Se obtuvieron radiografías de 167 pacientes con 169 fracturas (2 bilaterales): 109 mediodiafisarias y 60 subtrocantéricas. Veintinueve de las 169 fracturas estaban asociadas a la ingestión de bifosfonatos. La evaluación estuvo a cargo de siete traumatólogos con distintos años de experiencia: a) 3 con 3 años de formación (3er año de residencia); b) 2 con 6 años de formación (fellowships en hombro y rodilla) y c) 2 con 15 años de formación (especialistas en pie y cadera). Los evaluadores observaron, en forma independiente y en dos oportunidades, las radiografías de los 169 casos. Durante la evaluación, se registraron los resultados en una grilla según: 1) Sí: presentaban 3 criterios; 2) No sé: presentaban 1 o 2 criterios; 3) No: no presentaban criterios. Se utilizó el índice kappa para evaluar el acuerdo intraobservador y el programa G-string para la confiabilidad interobservador. La evaluación fue realizada sobre el resultado “Sí”, con la presencia de los tres criterios radiográficos. Resultados: El acuerdo intraobservador evidenció un valor de kappa de 0,2-0,5 y la confiabilidad interobservador fue del 54% en promedio. Conclusión: La evaluación radiográfica no ha demostrado ser suficiente para arribar al diagnóstico de fractura atípica por ingestión de bifosfonatos. Nivel de Evidencia: III...


To evaluate the usefulness of X-rays for diagnosing bisphosphonate-related atypical fractures. Methods: Patients with a subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femur fracture admitted from 2006 to 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. Exclusion criteria included neck, intertrochanteric and supracondylar femoral fractures, pathological fractures and pediatric patients. Radiographies were taken in 167 patients with 169 fractures (2 bilateral): 109 diaphyseal and 60 subtrochanteric fractures. Twenty nine were bisphosphonate-related atypical femoral fractures. Seven orthopaedics physicians with different expertise levels reviewed independently the X-rays twice: a) 3 third-year residents; b) 2 with fellowships in knee and shoulder; and c) 2 hip, foot and ankle specialists. During the evaluation, results were included in a data collection sheet as follows: 1) Yes: three criteria were present, 2) I don´t know: two criteria present, and 3) No: no criteria. The intraobserver agreement was calculated with kappa coefficient while the interobserver agreement was calculated with the G-string program. The statistical analysis was performed on the Yes result with the three criteria. Results: Kappa coefficient for intraobserver agreement was 0.2 to 0.5. The interobserver agreement was on average 54%. Conclusion: Radiographs alone are not reliable enough for distinguishing complete femoral fractures related to bisphosphonates. Level of Evidence: III...


Subject(s)
Humans , Diphosphonates/adverse effects , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Fractures, Bone , Hip Fractures , Femoral Fractures/diagnosis , Femoral Fractures , Osteoporosis/therapy , Observer Variation
17.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 270-272, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-983917

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the causes of false-positive hyoid fractures and forensic identification.@*METHODS@#Twelve cases of false-positive hyoid fractures were collected and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Improper dissection technique (4 cases) and congenital separation (8 cases) were the main reasons for false-positive hyoid fractures.@*CONCLUSION@#True fractures can be differentiated from false-positive hyoid fractures. False-positive hyoid fracture caused by improper dissection technique can be identified through examination of peripheral muscle, soft tissue hemorrhage, and the characteristics of fracture end.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autopsy , Cell Differentiation , Diagnostic Errors , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Hyoid Bone/injuries , Muscles
18.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 184-187, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-983903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the subtle anatomical structures of the normal nasal bone in multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) image through the observation of the three-dimensional images.@*METHODS@#One hundred and twenty volunteers who had no nasal trauma and disease history were collected. The nasal was scanned using MSCT. Raw data was reconstructed into bone window images (slice thickness 0.6 mm, slice interval 0.5 mm), and then the images were imported into Syngo Imaging XS software to reconstruct three-dimensional images and to summarize the nasal bone's subtle anatomical structures.@*RESULTS@#The subtle anatomy of normal nasal bone generally included four seams, two holes and one edge. The four seams were left and right nasal-maxillary suture, nasal-frontal seam, and internasal suture. The two holes were left and right nasal aperture. The edge of the nasal was the lower edge of the nasal bone. In addition, there was suture bone in internasal suture in some normal nose. The nasal aperture mostly was hole-like, but some nasal apertures were line shape. The nasal edge can be divided into flat type, wave-shaped type, inverted spike type, hook-shaped type and others.@*CONCLUSION@#The anatomy diversity and individual differences in nasal bone are large. MSCT and three-dimensional image reconstruction techniques, combined with the history of trauma could distinguish between the normal anatomy and fractures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Maxilla , Nasal Bone/diagnostic imaging , Software , Tomography, Spiral Computed , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 78(1): 25-30, mar. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-689075

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar el grado de confiabilidad entre dos clasificaciones globalmente empleadas para fracturas de tobillo en la edad pediátrica. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron 53 pacientes: 34 de sexo masculino y 19 de sexo femenino, con antecedentes de fractura de tobillo. Se emplearon dos clasificaciones. Se llevó a cabo un estudio detallado calculando el valor Kappa de Cohen para la confiabilidad intraobservador y, para calcular el acuerdo interobservador, se dedujo el valor Kappa utilizando el método de Fleiss. Resultados: El acuerdo intraobservador e interobservador en las dos clasificaciones no fue convincentemente diferente entre los distintos grupos de examinadores. Conclusiones: Durante la edad pediátrica, es posible encontrar diferentes tipos fracturarios y distintos mecanismos en una misma fractura. Se observó que estos patrones no quedaban englobados en ninguna de las dos clasificaciones, que fueron improductivas para la planificación quirúrgica.


Subject(s)
Child , Fractures, Bone/classification , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Fractures, Bone , Ankle Injuries/classification , Ankle Injuries/diagnosis , Ankle Injuries , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results
20.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2013 Mar-Apr; 79(2): 211-215
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147429

ABSTRACT

Background: Pemphigus vulgaris was almost fatal before the advent of glucocorticoids. Unfortunately, the high doses and prolonged administration of glucocorticoids, which often needed to control the disease, result in numerous adverse effects many of which are serious. Aims: To evaluate the patients with pemphigus vulgaris on treatment in respect of osteoporosis and to compare the frequency of osteoporosis in these patients with the healthy ones. Methods: The study consisted of 40 patients with pemphigus vulgaris and 34 healthy controls. Bone mineral density measurements were obtained by dual- energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood serum, bone parameters, and biochemical hormonal measurements were examined in both groups. Results: When the bone mineral density values of patients with pemphigus vulgaris were compared with those of the control group, there was no significant difference between hip bone mineral density values, while lumbar region T and Z scores were found significantly low in the patient group (p = 0.034 and p = 0.006, respectively). Osteoporosis, osteopenia, and normal dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry rates in the patient group were found to be 32.5%, 32.5%, and 35%, respectively. These rates were found to be 18%, 23%, and 59% in control group, respectively. There were more fractures in the patient group and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.004). Conclusion: An increase in osteoporosis frequency and secondary fracture to osteoporosis in the patients with pemphigus vulgaris was detected.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bone Density/physiology , Female , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Fractures, Bone/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Osteoporosis/epidemiology , Osteoporosis/therapy , Pemphigus/diagnosis , Pemphigus/epidemiology , Pemphigus/therapy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
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