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1.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(2): 133-139, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279092

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: Las caídas tienen un origen multifactorial. Objetivo: Estimar el riesgo de caídas y su asociación con algunos factores intrínsecos y extrínsecos en adultos mayores. Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles que incluyó pacientes de ambos sexos con edades ≥ 60 años. Los casos fueron pacientes que ingresaron al servicio de urgencias de un hospital de segundo nivel, con diagnóstico de lesión o fractura secundaria a una caída; los controles fueron pacientes que acudieron a unidades de medicina familiar. El análisis estadístico que se realizó fue descriptivo, bivariante y multivariante. Se utilizó el programa SPSS versión 22.0. Resultados: Se incluyeron 342 pacientes (171 casos y 171 controles). La edad promedio fue 76.1 ± 8.8 años, el 66 % fueron mujeres y por autorreporte el 97.1 % tenían enfermedades crónicas. Se observaron diferencias en el índice de masa corporal, en la proporción de casos con deterioro cognitivo, uso de dispositivos para caminar y dependencia para realizar actividades básicas e instrumentales de la vida diaria. El análisis multivariante ajustado reveló asociación entre el evento caída con deterioro cognitivo y dependencia para realizar actividades instrumentales de la vida diaria. Conclusiones: El deterioro cognitivo y la dependencia para realizar actividades instrumentales de la vida diaria se asociaron al riesgo de caer.


Abstract Background: Falls have a multifactorial origin. Objective: To estimate the risk of falls and their association with some intrinsic and extrinsic factors in elderly. Methods: Case-control study that included individuals of both genders aged ≥ 60 years. Cases were patients who were admitted to the emergency department of a secondary care hospital diagnosed with injury or fracture secondary to a fall; the controls were patients who attended family medicine units. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis was carried out. The SPSS program, version 22.0, was used. Results: Three-hundred and forty-two patients were included (171 cases and 171 controls). Mean age was 76.1 ± 8.8 years, 66 % were women and 97.1 % had self-reported chronic diseases. Differences were observed in body mass index, in the proportion of cases with cognitive impairment, use of walking devices and dependence to perform basic and instrumental activities of daily living. Adjusted multivariate analysis revealed an association between the fall event and cognitive impairment and dependence to perform instrumental activities of daily living. Conclusions: Cognitive impairment and dependence to perform instrumental activities of daily living were associated with the risk of falling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Accidental Falls , Activities of Daily Living , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Walkers , Canes , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Mobility Limitation , Independent Living , Mexico
2.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 61(2): 40-46, oct. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342377

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Evaluar los resultados radiológicos a corto y mediano plazo de pacientes operados de fractura de pared posterior de acetábulo, describir la morfología de la fractura, presencia de lesiones asociadas y la necesidad de artroplastia total de cadera (ATC) durante la evolución. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo-descriptivo de una serie consecutiva de 40 pacientes operados entre julio de 2012 y julio de 2017 por fractura de pared posterior de acetábulo. Treinta y siete hombres y tres mujeres con una edad promedio de 41 años fueron operados (mediana de seguimiento 17,7 meses). Se registró el mecanismo del accidente y presencia de lesiones asociadas. Se registraron el número de fragmentos que presentaba la fractura, presencia de impactación marginal, compromiso de la cabeza femoral, presencia de fragmentos intra-articulares y complicaciones postoperatorias. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el test de Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: Todos los casos fueron secundarios a un accidente de alta energía. Un 70% de los pacientes presentó luxación posterior. La mayoría de los pacientes presentó una fractura entre 2 y 5 fragmentos (70%), 47,5% de los pacientes presentó impactación marginal, 37,5% compromiso de la cabeza femoral en zona de carga, 30% fragmentos intra-articulares. La complicación que más frecuente se observó fue la artrosis post-traumática la cual se presentó en un 22,5%. Cinco pacientes (12,5%) requirieron ATC. CONCLUSIÓN: Aunque se categorizan dentro de los patrones simples, las fracturas de pared posterior son lesiones complejas. La tomografía axial computada preoperatoria es esencial para determinar lesiones intra-articulares dada su alta frecuencia y también permite realizar un buen plan preoperatorio.


OBJECTIVE: Evaluate radiologic results in short and medium-term in surgically treated patients with acetabular posterior wall fracture. Describe fracture morphology, the presence of associated lesions and the necessity of total hip arthroplasty (THA) during the evolution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective-descriptive study design of 40 patients treated during July 2012 and July 2017 for acetabular posterior wall fracture. 37 men and 3 women, 41 years old mean age. The mean follow-up was 17.7 months. Accident mechanism and presence of associated lesions were registered, as well as the number of fragments of the fracture, the presence of marginal impaction, femoral head compromise, intra-articular fragments and postoperatory complications. Wilcoxon test was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: Every case resulted due to a high energy accident. 70% of patients had posterior luxation of the hip. 70% of patients presented 2 to 5 fragments. 47.5% of patients presented marginal impaction, 37.5% compromised femoral head and 30% intra-articular fragments. The most frequent complication was post-traumatic arthrosis, which appeared in 22.5% of patients. Five patients required THA. CONCLUSION: Though it is categorized as simple fracture pattern, posterior wall fractures are complex. Preoperatory CT scan is essential to determine intra-articular lesions due to its high frequency and permits to plan an adequate intervention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Fracture Fixation/methods , Acetabulum/injuries , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/diagnostic imaging , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Acetabulum/surgery , Acetabulum/diagnostic imaging
4.
Rev. colomb. ortop. traumatol ; 34(1): 65-73, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1117659

ABSTRACT

Introducción Tanto las fracturas traumáticas del acromion, así como las fracturas acromiales por insuficiencia posterior a artroplastia reversa del hombro, son entidades poco frecuentes. Con la ampliación des los criterios operativos para la artroplastia reversa del hombro, es de suponer un aumento en el caso des las fracturas acromiales por insuficiencia posteriores a dicho procedimiento quirúrgico. Al ser estas entidades poco frecuentes hacen falta en la literatura recomendaciones basadas en la evidencia para el manejo de estas, las cuales representan un reto para el especialista tratante. Materiales y Métodos Reporte de seis casos entre 2013 y 2016 en el hospital cantonal de Frauenfeld (Suiza) de dos grupos de pacientes con fracturas del Acromion. En el grupo A se clasificaron tres pacientes que presentaron fractura por insuficiencia del acromion posterior a artroplastia reversa del Hombro. En el grupo B clasificaron tres pacientes con fracturas traumáticas del acromion en las cuales el manejo conservador no fue exitoso. Los dos grupos de pacientes fueron sometidos al mismo método quirúrgico con reducción abierta y reconstrucción anatómica del Acromion por medio de fijación con placa y tornillos interfragmentarios. Resultados Posterior a la intervención quirúrgica, la función del hombro se recuperó en todos los pacientes del Grupo A. La flexión anterior aumentó en promedio de 53° a 127°, y la abducción mejoró de 52° a 125°. Las mediciones posteriores al año de la intervención mostraron puntajes constantes entre 55-71, así como un valor subjetivo de hombro (SSV) de 50-90. En el Grupo B, el rango de movimiento preoperatorio se mantuvo constante. La flexión hacia delante mejoró de 133° a 157° y la abducción aumentó de 147° a 153°. Un año después de la cirugía, los puntajes de Constant en el grupo B variaron de 70 a 86 y el SSV se encontró entre 80 a 100. Los tres pacientes del Grupo B consiguieron retomar sus actividades diarias sin dolor y pudieron regresar al trabajo. La extracción de la placa fue necesaria en la mitad de los pacientes de la cohorte (Grupo A n=1, Grupo B n=2). Discusión La fractura del acromion es una condición seria que puede causar daño significativo al funcionamiento del hombro. Tanto en pacientes con ARH así como en pacientes sin ARH previa, nuestra técnica operativa abierta de reconstrucción anatómica del acromion mostró buenos resultados. Recomendamos el manejo quirúrgico por medio de reconstrucción con placa y clavos de fijación. Nivel de evidencia: IV


Aim To propose a surgical technique to treat the traumatic acromion fractures, as well as acromion fractures before reverse total Shoulder Replacement (TSR). Methods Six patients were treated with the same fixation technique between December 2013 and December 2016. Three patients had acromial insufficiency fractures (type II) following TSR (Group A). The other three patients, who had traumatic acromion fractures, underwent unsuccessful conservative treatment (Group B). Surgical treatment involved reconstruction of the acromion using an open technique with plate and interfragmentary screw fixation. Results Following reconstruction, shoulder function was regained in all patients in Group A. Forward flexion increased, on average, from 53° to 127°, and abduction improved from 52° to 125°. Measurements at one-year follow-up were Constant scores from 55-71, and subjective shoulder value (SSV) from 50-90. In Group B, preoperative range of motion was not substantially diminished. Forward flexion improved from 133° to 157°, and abduction increased from 147° to 153°. One year following surgery, the Constant scores in Group B ranged from 70-86, and SSV was 80-100. All three patients performed daily activities without pain, and were able to return to work. Plate removal was necessary in half the patients in the cohort (Group A n=1; Group B n=2). Conclusion An acromion fracture is a serious condition that can cause significant damage to shoulder functioning. In patients with or without previous TSR, this fixation technique was used successfully to reconstruct the anatomic lateral and basal acromion. Evidence Level: IV


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Acromion/surgery , Acromion/injuries , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder , Follow-Up Studies , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder/adverse effects , Shoulder Prosthesis , Fracture Fixation, Internal
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(6): 902-908, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012998

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological data and available treatments for fractures secondary to radiotherapy treatment. METHODS: Identification of publications on pathological skeletal fractures previously exposed to ionizing radiation. RESULTS: The incidence of fractures after irradiation varies from 1.2% to 25% with a consolidation rate of 33% to 75%, being more frequent in the ribs, pelvis, and femur. The time elapsed between irradiation and fracture occurs years after radiotherapy. Risk factors include age above 50 years, female gender, extensive periosteal detachment, circumferential irradiation, tumor size, and anterior thigh location. The etiology is still uncertain, but cellular disappearance, reduction of bone turnover and activity were observed hematopoietic as possible causes of failure of consolidation. CONCLUSION: There is no consensus in the literature on the factors related to the development of fractures, with radiation dose, previous tumor size and periosteal detachment being suggested as potential factors.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar dados epidemiológicos e tratamentos disponíveis para fraturas secundárias ao tratamento radioterápico. MÉTODOS: Identificação de publicações sobre as fraturas patológicas ocorridas em esqueleto previamente exposto à radiação ionizante. RESULTADOS: A incidência de fraturas após irradiação varia de 1,2% a 25% com taxa de consolidação de 33% a 75%, sendo mais frequente em costelas, pelve e fêmur. O tempo decorrido entre a irradiação e a fratura ocorre anos após a radioterapia. Os fatores de risco incluem idade acima de 50 anos, sexo feminino, descolamento periosteal extenso, irradiação circunferencial, tamanho do tumor e localização anterior na coxa. A etiologia ainda é incerta, mas foram observados desaparecimento celular, redução do turnover ósseo e da atividade hematopoiética como possíveis causas da falha de consolidação. CONCLUSÃO: Não há consenso na literatura avaliada sobre os fatores relacionados ao desenvolvimento de fraturas, sendo a dose de radiação, o tamanho prévio do tumor e o descolamento periosteal sugeridos como fatores potenciais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Injuries/complications , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Risk Factors , Fractures, Bone/physiopathology
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(3): 1143-1152, mar. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-989620

ABSTRACT

Resumo Em países desenvolvidos, a violência é a principal causa de lesões bucomaxilofaciais (LBMF). No Brasil, há poucas evidências sobre tais lesões. Objetivou-se caracterizar as LBMF resultantes de agressão física em uma capital do nordeste brasileiro e analisar diferenças entre gêneros. Foram investigados 15.847 laudos do Instituto Médico Legal de São Luís/MA, ocorridos em 2012. Coletaram-se dados socioeconômicos, demográficos e características das LBMF. Utilizaram-se os testes Qui-quadrado e Exato de Fisher para avaliar diferenças entre gêneros. Dos casos periciados, 1977 eram LBMF. Vítimas do sexo feminino, com 20-59 anos de idade, cor parda, sem companheiro e empregadas foram mais afetadas. Lesões do tipo equimose, nas regiões bucinadora e labial, decorrentes do uso de instrumentos contundentes, ocasionando debilidade funcional permanente foram mais incidentes em mulheres (P < 0,05), ao passo que fratura dental, ferida contusa e perfurocontusa, decorrentes de instrumentos cortantes e perfurocontundentes, ocasionando deformidade permanente, incapacidade ocupacional e perigo de vida, em homens (P < 0,05). Conclui-se que a incidência de LBMF decorrente de agressão física é alta em São Luís, MA, e, embora as mulheres sejam mais acometidas, as LBMF em homens são mais severas.


Abstract In developed countries, violence is the main cause of oral maxillofacial (OMF) injuries. In Brazil, there are scant records of such lesions. The scope of this study was to detail the OMF injuries resulting from physical aggression in a capital of the Brazilian northeast and analyze gender differences. The Forensic Medicine Institute of São Luís, state of Maranhão, featured 15,847 reports, which occurred in 2012, and they were investigated. Socioeconomic, demographic data and OMF characteristics were analyzed. The Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests were applied to assess gender differences. Of the cases examined, 1977 were OMF. Female victims, aged 20-59, dark-skinned, without a partner and maids were the most affected. Ecchymosis-type lesions, in the mouth and lip regions arising from the use of blunt instruments, causing permanent functional impairment, were the most prevalent in women (P < 0.05), whereas dental fracture and contusion arising from sharp instruments causing permanent deformity, occupational disability, and threat to life were detected in men (P < 0.05). The conclusion drawn is that the incidence of OMF due to physical aggression is high in São Luís, state of Maranhão, and although women are the most affected, the OMF in men are more severe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Aggression , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Maxillofacial Injuries/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Trauma Severity Indices , Sex Factors , Incidence , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Contusions/etiology , Contusions/epidemiology , Disability Evaluation , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Maxillofacial Injuries/etiology , Middle Aged
8.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(1): 4-10, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-985133

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar se houve associação entre a ocorrência de fratura após trauma físico e o uso de glicocorticoides nos 12 meses precedentes ao trauma, em crianças e adolescentes atendidos em uma emergência. Métodos: No período de abril a outubro de 2015 foi conduzido em uma emergência pediátrica um estudo tipo caso controle, em pacientes de 3 a 14 anos incompletos, vitimados por trauma físico, com e sem fratura. Os dados analisados foram obtidos pela consulta dos prontuários, pelo exame físico dos pacientes e por entrevista dos responsáveis, comparando-se uso de glicocorticoides nos últimos 12 meses, características demográficas, índice de massa corpórea, ingesta de leite, intensidade do trauma, prática de exercício físico e tabagismo passivo domiciliar nos dois grupos de pacientes. Resultados: Estudaram-se 104 pacientes com trauma físico, 50 com fratura e 54 sem fratura. O uso de glicocorticoides ocorreu em 15,4% dos pacientes estudados, sem diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos. A faixa etária de 10 a 14 anos incompletos, o trauma grave e a prática de exercício físico predominaram entre os pacientes com fratura. Conclusões: Este estudo não mostrou associação entre o uso prévio de glicocorticoides e a ocorrência de fraturas em crianças e adolescentes. A faixa etária de 10 a 14 anos incompletos, o trauma grave e a prática de exercício físico associaram-se com maior risco para fraturas.


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the association between traumatic fractures and glucocorticoids taken 12 months prior to a trauma, in children and adolescents seen at an emergency room. Methods: A case-control study was conducted from April to October 2015, at a pediatric emergency hospital with patients aged 3- to 14 years-old, who had suffered physical trauma. Some of the patients had a fracture and some did not. The data analyzed were obtained from medical records, physical examination of the patients, and interview with the patients' caregivers. Glucocorticoid use in the past 12 months, demographic variables, body mass index, milk intake, trauma intensity, physical activity and smoking in the household were compared between the two patient groups. Results: A total of 104 patients with physical trauma were studied - 50 had a fracture and 54 did not. Of all the patients, 15.4% had previously used glucocorticoids, and there were no statistically significant differences between the groups. The age range of 10- to 14 years-old, severe trauma and physical activity were more prevalent among patients with a bone fracture. Conclusions: This study did not find an association between previous glucocorticoid use and the occurrence of fractures in children and adolescents. The age range of 10- to 14 years-old, severe trauma, and physical activity were associated with an increased risk for fractures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Exercise/physiology , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Trauma Severity Indices , Risk Factors , Fractures, Bone/diagnosis , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
9.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(2): 221-226, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887648

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Thyrotoxicosis is established risk factor for osteoporosis due to increased bone turnover. Glucocorticoids often administered for Graves' orbitopathy (GO) have additional negative effect on bone mineral density (BMD). Our aim was to examine the influence of thyroid hormones, TSH, TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb) and glucocorticoid treatment on bone in women with Graves' thyrotoxicosis and Graves' orbitopathy (GO). Subjects and methods Forty seven women with Graves' disease, mean age 55.6 ± 12.8 (23 women with thyrotoxicosis and 24 hyperthyroid with concomitant GO and glucocorticoid therapy) and 40 age-matched healthy female controls were enrolled in the study. We analyzed clinical features, TSH, FT4, FT3, TRAb, TPO antibodies. BMD of lumbar spine and hip was measured by DEXA and 10-year fracture risk was calculated with FRAX tool. Results The study showed significantly lower spine and femoral BMD (g/cm2) in patients with and without GO compared to controls, as well as significantly higher fracture risk. Comparison between hyperthyroid patients without and with orbitopathy found out significantly lower spine BMD in the first group (p = 0.0049). Negative correlations between FT3 and femoral neck BMD (p = 0.0001), between FT4 and BMD (p = 0.049) and positive between TSH and BMD (p = 0.0001), TRAb and BMD (p = 0.026) were observed. Fracture risk for major fractures and TRAb were negatively associated (p = 0.05). We found negative correlation of BMD to duration of thyrotoxicosis and cumulative steroid dose. Conclusions Our results confirm the negative effect of hyperthyroid status on BMD. TRAb, often in high titers in patients with GO, may have protective role for the bone, but further research is needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Hormones/physiology , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/physiopathology , Graves Disease/complications , Immunoglobulins, Thyroid-Stimulating/physiology , Graves Ophthalmopathy/complications , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Reference Values , Thyrotropin/physiology , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density/drug effects , Bone Density/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Graves Disease/physiopathology , Graves Disease/drug therapy , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/physiopathology
10.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 44(5): 491-497, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896619

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to investigate the incidence and etiology of face trauma with diagnosis of facial fracture treated at the Buccomaxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology Service of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital Complex in Porto Alegre. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective epidemiological study of 134 trauma victims with 153 facial fractures. Results: the male gender was the most affected (86.6%) and the incidence was higher in the age group from 21 to 30 years. The main etiology was assault (38.8%), followed by motor vehicle accidents (14.2%), motorcycle accidents (13.4%), falls (9%), road accidents (6.7%), sports accidents (5.2%), work accidents (5.2%), firearm injuries (4.5%) and cycling accidents (3%). The most frequent fractures were those of the zygomatic complex (44.5%), followed by fractures of the mandible (42.5%), maxillary bone (5.2%), nasal bones (4.5%) and zygomatic arch (3.3%). Conclusion: the fractures of the zygomatic complex and the mandible were the ones with the highest incidence in the facial traumas, having physical assaults as their main cause.


RESUMO Objetivos: pesquisar a incidência e etiologia dos traumas de face com diagnóstico de fratura facial atendidos no Serviço de Cirurgia e Traumatologia Bucomaxilofacial do Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre. Métodos: estudo epidemiológico, transversal, retrospectivo de 134 pacientes vítimas de trauma com 153 fraturas faciais. Resultados: o gênero mais acometido foi o masculino (86,6%) e sua incidência foi maior na faixa etária dos 21 aos 30 anos. A principal etiologia foi a agressão (38,8%), seguida de acidentes automobilísticos (14,2%), acidentes motociclísticos (13,4%), quedas (9%), atropelamentos (6,7%), acidentes esportivos (5,2%), acidentes de trabalho (5,2%), ferimentos por arma de fogo (4,5%) e acidentes ciclísticos (3%). As fraturas mais frequentes foram as do complexo zigomático (44,5%), seguidas das fraturas da mandíbula (42,5%), osso maxilar (5,2%), ossos próprios nasais (4,5%) e arco zigomático (3,3%). Conclusões: as fraturas do complexo zigomático e da mandíbula foram as de maior incidência nos traumas de face, e tiveram como principal causa as agressões físicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Facial Bones/injuries , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals , Middle Aged
11.
Acta ortop. mex ; 31(4): 202-205, jul.-ago. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-886566

ABSTRACT

Resumen: En este trabajo se ha estudiado, a propósito de un caso, la cirugía de artroplastía total de cadera en un paciente con osteogénesis imperfecta. Las características propias de esta enfermedad, como son el elevado riesgo de fractura y la presencia de deformidades, convierten esta cirugía en un reto para el cirujano ortopédico. En este manuscrito se revisa, de forma inédita para esta indicación, la planificación preoperatoria y la elección del tipo de implantes, con especial interés en las medidas para la prevención de complicaciones.


Abstract: We study, apropos of a case, a total hip arthroplasty in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta. The characteristics of this disease, such as high risk of fracture and the presence of deformities, make this surgery a challenge for the orthopedic surgeon. In this manuscript, we review for the first time in this indication the preoperative planning and the selection of implants, with special emphasis on measures for the prevention of complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/surgery , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/complications , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Fractures, Bone/etiology
12.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 44(3): 222-230, mai.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-896582

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a associação de mortalidade com variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas, lesões e complicações em pacientes com trauma de pelve decorrente de trauma contuso. Métodos: estudo retrospectivo e observacional com dados de registro de trauma obtidos durante cinco anos. O óbito foi a variável de estratificação das análises. Para verificar se as variáveis de interesse tinham associação com o óbito, foi realizado o teste t de Student e teste do Qui-quadrado (ou Fisher) e Wilcoxon-Mann Whitney. Os fatores independentemente associados ao óbito foram analisados por modelo logístico binomial, e com base nos testes de Wald e por Critérios de Informação de Akaike (AIC) e Bayesiano de Schwarz (BIC). Resultados: dos 28 pacientes com fratura de pelve por trauma contuso, 23 (82,1%) eram homens; 16 (57,1%) com média de idade de 38,8 anos (desvio padrão 17,3). Houve 98 lesões ou fraturas nos 28 pacientes. Quanto à gravidade, sete pacientes tiveram Injury Severity Score superior a 24 (25%). O tempo de internação hospitalar médio foi 26,8 dias (DP=22,4). Quinze pacientes (53,6%) tiveram internação em UTI. A incidência de óbito foi de 21,4%. A análise mostrou que idade igual ou maior do que 50 anos e presença de coagulopatia foram fatores independentemente associados ao óbito. Conclusão: as fraturas de pelve podem ter mortalidade elevada. Neste estudo a mortalidade foi superior ao que é descrito na literatura. A idade acima de 50 anos e a coagulopatia se revelaram fatores de risco nessa população.


ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the association of mortality with sociodemographic and clinical variables, as well as lesions and complication in patients with pelvic trauma due to blunt trauma. Methods: we conducted a retrospective, observational study with five-year trauma record data. Death was considered as the main stratification variable for the analyzes. We used the Student t test to compare means, the Chi-Square or Fisher exact test for proportions, and the Wilcoxon-Mann Whitney test for medians. We analyzed the independent factors using a logistic regression model with penalized likelihood, based on the Wald tests, the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Schwarz Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). Results: of the 28 patients with blunt trauma fracture, 23 (82.1%) were men; 16 (57.1%) were, in average, 38.8 years old (±17.3). There were 98 lesions or fractures in the 28 patients. As for severity, seven people had Injury Severity Score higher than 24 (25%). The mean hospital stay was 26.8 days (±22.4). Fifteen patients (53.6%) had ICU admission. Mortality was 21.4%. The analysis showed that age 50 years or more and presence of coagulopathy were factors independently associated with death. Conclusion: pelvic fractures can have high mortality. In this study, mortality was higher than that described in the literature. Age above 50 years and the presence of coagulopathy are risk factors in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pelvic Bones/injuries , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/mortality , Fractures, Bone/mortality , Prognosis , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/complications , Retrospective Studies , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Middle Aged
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(1): 46-60, feb. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-841633

ABSTRACT

La osteoporosis es una enfermedad en constante crecimiento y que afecta a más de 200 millones de personas en todo el mundo. Nuestras recomendaciones son guías para el diagnóstico, la prevención y tratamiento, pero no normas para las decisiones clínicas en casos individuales. El médico debe adaptarlas a situaciones en la práctica clínica cotidiana, incorporando factores personales que trascienden los límites de estas guías y hacen al saber y al arte de la práctica médica. Como todo conocimiento científico, deben ser actualizadas periódicamente a medida que se adquieran nuevas, mejores y más efectivas herramientas diagnósticas y terapéuticas.


Osteoporosis is an evolving disease which affects over 200 million people worldwide. Our recommendations are guidelines for its diagnosis, prevention and treatment, but they do not constitute standards for clinical decisions in individual cases. The physician must adapt them to individual special situations, incorporating personal factors that transcend the limits of these guidelines and are dependent on the knowledge and art of the practice of Medicine. These guidelines should be reviewed and updated periodically as new, better and more effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools become available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoporosis/diagnosis , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Argentina , Risk Factors , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 57(2): 64-68, mayo-ago. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-909726

ABSTRACT

La única patología asociada al déficit de vitamina D fue durante el siglo XX el raquitismo. Nuevas consecuencias asociadas a esta deficiencia han surgido destacando la osteomalacia, mayor riesgo de fracturas, mayor incidencia de caídas en los adultos mayores y una peor coordinación neuromuscular. El propósito de la presente revisión es proporcionar una actualización dirigida a especialistas en ortopedia y traumatología, respecto a definiciones, beneficios, patologías relevantes y guías de manejo que el especialista debe conocer respecto a este problema.


The only condition related to vitamin D deficiency during the 20th century was rickets. New conditions associated with this deficiency have been increasingly reported including: osteomalacia, increased fracture risk, greater incidence of falls among the elderly population, and a worse neuromuscular coordination. The main purpose of this review is to present an update regarding the useful aspects for the orthopaedic community related to vitamin D deficiency, including definitions, benefits, significant diseases, and management guidelines that the specialist must know.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Vitamin D/metabolism
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 114(3): e179-e183, jun. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-838222

ABSTRACT

Las fracturas en edad pediátrica son una entidad importante para considerar. Hay enfermedades en que los huesos del niño se fracturan ante traumatismos de menor energía. La picnodisostosis es un tipo inusual de displasia cráneo-metafisaria autosómica recesiva, cuya primera manifestación clínica suele ser una fractura en hueso patológico. Se presenta a una paciente, caucásica, de 9 años de edad, con diagnóstico de picnodisostosis, que ingresó al hospital por fractura del fémur derecho, por un mecanismo de baja energía. Los estudios radiográficos mostraron fracturas del fémur bilateral, fractura proximal de la tibia izquierda y consolidación viciosa en antecurvatum. Esta rara enfermedad se diagnostica a edades tempranas por talla baja, por fracturas repetidas o por traumas de baja energía. Las opciones terapéuticas son limitadas, y no se ha desarrollado una cura definitiva. Es importante, ante un paciente pediátrico con rasgos dismórficos faciales y fracturas en hueso patológico, sospechar displasias óseas, tales como la picnodisostosis y sus diagnósticos diferenciales.


Fractures are an important entity to consider in pediatric patients. There are certain diseases in which bones fracture with a minimal trauma. Pycnodysostosis is an autosomal recessive unusual type of cráneo metaphyseal dysplasia, that presents frequently as fracture in a pathological bone. A 9 year old caucasian female, diagnosed with pycnodysostosis, was admitted with a right femur fracture as a result of a low energy trauma. Radiographic studies showed bilateral femur fractures, proximal fracture and non-union in antecurvatum of the left tibia. Pycnodysostosis is a rare disease, generally diagnosed at an early age by growth restriction, frequent fractures or fractures with low energy trauma. Therapy alternatives are limited, and no permanent cure has been developed. If a patient has dysmorphic facial features and fractures in a pathological bone, it is important to suspect bone dysplasia, such as pycnodysostosis and its differential diagnoses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Multiple Trauma/etiology , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Pycnodysostosis/complications
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(3): 401-405, mar. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-784912

ABSTRACT

Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is characterized by pathologic expansion and activation of mast cells. The main clinical manifestations of SM include skin involvement, gastrointestinal symptoms and anaphylaxis due to the release of its mediators. Thirty percent of pat ients with SM have a low bone mass and 20% fractures. At the same time, SM affects 10% of male patients with idiopathic osteoporosis. Measuring serum tryptase is essential for the screening of MS. We report two cases of SM with bone involvement. A 25-year- old woman with prior diagnosis of SM, based on skin involvement, flushing, high serum tryptase and compatible bone marrow (BM) biopsy and genetic study. Low bone mass was diagnosed and treatment was started with calcium and vitamin D plus oral bisphosphona tes with adequate response. A 47 years old man who presented with multiple osteoporotic vertebral fractures and low bone mass. Treatment with vitamin D and alendronate was started, but the patient developed new vertebral fractures. The study was extended w ith measurement of serum tryptase that was elevated. Diagnosis of SM was confirmed with BM biopsy and the patient was referred to hematology for specific care. These cases emphasize the importance of bone assessment in SM, as well as the need to rule out S M in patients with osteoporosis and no evident cause.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Osteoporosis/etiology , Mastocytosis, Systemic/complications , Osteoporosis/pathology , Biopsy , Urticaria Pigmentosa/etiology , Urticaria Pigmentosa/pathology , Risk Factors , Mastocytosis, Systemic/pathology , Densitometry , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Tryptases/blood
17.
Actual. osteol ; 12(3): 215-220, 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1371450

ABSTRACT

La cirugía bariátrica es un recurso terapéutico cuyo uso para el manejo de la obesidad mórbida crece rápidamente. La intervención induce varios cambios en el perfil hormono-metabólico de los pacientes: disminuye la absorción de calcio, caen los niveles de vitamina D, se produce un hiperparatiroidismo secundario que acelera el recambio óseo, aumentan algunas citoquinas como la adiponectina, el GLP-1 y la esclerostina, y disminuyen otras como la leptina, la ghrelina, el GIP y la amilina. El estradiol cae por disminución de la aromatización periférica de la testosterona. Hay disminución de la carga mecánica en el esqueleto, especialmente en los miembros inferiores. Todo esto lleva a pérdida de la masa ósea, que es variable y más marcada en el fémur proximal que en la columna. El riesgo de fractura aumenta, aunque no todas las series lo han demostrado. Los pacientes con marcada disminución del peso corporal poscirugía deberían ser controlados, procurandoun buen aporte de calcio y otros nutrientes, la suplementación con vitamina D y el monitoreo de la densitometría ósea. (AU)


Bariatric surgery is a therapeutic resource for the management of morbid obesity; its use is growing rapidly. The intervention induces several changes in the hormonal and metabolic profile of patients: decreased calcium absorption, falling levels of vitamin D, secondary hyperparathyroidism which accelerates bone turnover; increased level of some cytokines such as adiponectin, GLP-1 and sclerostin, and decreased levels of others such as leptin, ghrelin, GIP and amylin. Estradiol falls due to decreased peripheral aromatization of testosterone. There is a decrease in the mechanical load on the skeleton, especially in the lower limbs. All this leads to loss of bone mass, which is variable and more marked in the proximal femur than in the spine. The risk of fracture increases, although it has not been shown in all series. Patients with marked decrease in body weight after bariatric surgery should be controlled carefully to insure a good supply of calcium and other nutrients, vitamin D supplementation, and the monitoring of bone mineral density. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bone and Bones/pathology , Bone Resorption/physiopathology , Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Vitamin D Deficiency , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/prevention & control , Bone Resorption/etiology , Bone Density , Risk Factors , Calcium Deficiency , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/physiopathology , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/etiology , Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary/physiopathology , Obesity/surgery
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225576

ABSTRACT

Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional physical measurements and tests. Of the 317 respondents, 68.5% reported at least one fall in the past year. Of the fallers, 42.5% experienced at least one fall during one month. Most falls occurred during ambulation (76.6%), outside (75.2%) and by slipping down (29.7%). Of fallers, 45% reported any injuries caused by falls, and 23.3% reported fractures specifically. Female sex, old age, low bone mineral density, the presence of symptoms related to post-polio syndrome (PPS), poor balance confidence, short physical performance battery and weak muscle strength of knee extensor were not significantly associated with falls. Only leg-length discrepancy using spine-malleolar distance (SMD) was a significant factor associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. Our findings suggest that malalignment between the paralytic and non-paralytic limb length should be addressed in polio survivors for preventing falls.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asians , Female , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Interviews as Topic , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome/pathology , Postural Balance , Republic of Korea , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telephone , Young Adult
19.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 12(3): 2-12, oct. 2015. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-776771

ABSTRACT

La fractura de pelvis en niños es infrecuente. Su incidencia es 2,4-7.5 por ciento de las fracturas. El mecanismo de daño es traumatismos de alta energía. El diagnostico se realiza con radiografía y TAC de pelvis. El tratamiento puede ser conservador o quirúrgico, según: edad, clasificación, estabilidad del anillo, lesiones concomitantes y hemodinamia. La mayoría es conservador. En este estudio describimos el manejo de esta patología en el SOTI del HCSBA. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, de 6 pacientes entre los años 2005-2014, analizamos: sexo, edad, mecanismo de daño, tratamiento recibido, tiempo de recuperación, seguimiento y complicaciones. Resultados: 83,3 por ciento correspondió al sexo femenino, la edad promedio fue 11,3 años, el daño ocurrió por: atropello (50 por ciento),accidente de tránsito (33,3 por ciento) y caída de altura (16,7 por ciento), los tratamientos fueron: conservador (83,3 por ciento) y quirúrgico (16,7 por ciento), la marcha se inició en promedio a las 3,6 semanas, la media de meses de seguimiento fue de 5,1; las complicaciones fueron inherentes a la fractura .Discusión: la literatura coincide con los resultados obtenidos con respecto a edad, mecanismo de daño y tratamiento. En cuanto a la recuperación, no se encontró tiempo específico. Conclusiones: el manejo realizado en este centro es acorde a la evidencia actual.


The pelvic fracture in children is rare. Its incidence is 2,4-7.5% of fractures. The mechanism of injury high energy trauma. The diagnosis is made with radiographs and CT pelvis. Treatment can be conservative or surgical, according to age, classification, stability ring, concomitant injuries and hemodynamics. Most are conservative. In this study we describe the management of this condition in the HCSBA SOTI. Materials and Methods :retrospective descriptive study, of 6 patients between 2005-2014, we analyzed: sex, age, mechanism of injury, treatment received, recovery time, complications and follow. Results: 83.3 percent were female, the average age was 11.3 years, the damage occurred by: motor vehicle–pedestrian injury (50 percent), traffic accident (33.3 percent) and fall from height (16.7 percent). The treatments were: conservative (83.3 percent) and surgical (16.7 percent), the march began on average at3.6 weeks, months average follow-up was 5.1; complications were inherent to fracture. Discussion: The literature agrees with the results obtained with respect to age, mechanism of injury and treatment. As for the recovery time is not found specific time. Conclusions: The management held in this center is in line with the current evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Fractures, Bone/therapy , Pelvic Bones/injuries , Fractures, Bone/complications , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 75(3): 155-158, June 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-757096

ABSTRACT

Identificar pacientes con alto riesgo de fractura utilizando factores de riesgo clínicos podría reducir los gastos en salud derivados de la realización de una densitometría ósea. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el score de FRAX sin determinación de densidad mineral ósea (DMO) con los criterios propuestos por la Sociedad Argentina de Osteoporosis (SAO), para considerar el inicio de tratamiento antirresortivo. Realizamos un estudio observacional, transversal. Se incluyeron 330 mujeres postmenopáusicas entre 40 y 90 años de edad. Se determinó la cantidad de tratamientos indicados según se utilice la herramienta FRAX sin DMO, o los criterios de la SAO. Utilizando los criterios de la SAO, 85 (25.8%) pacientes recibirían tratamiento, mientras que si se utilizara la herramienta FRAX sin DMO, lo harían 15 (4.5%) pacientes (p = 0.0019). De los 67 pacientes con diagnóstico de osteoporosis por densitometría ósea, todas recibirían tratamiento utilizando los criterios de la SAO y solo 10 (15%) lo harían si utilizáramos el score de FRAX sin DMO (p = 0.011). La utilización del score de FRAX sin DMO reduce en forma significativa la cantidad de pacientes tratables en comparación con los criterios actuales de la SAO. En pacientes con diagnóstico de osteoporosis por DMO, el score de FRAX subestima los pacientes a tratar.


To identify patients at high risk of fracture using clinical risk factors could reduce health costs arising from the realization of a bone densitometry. The aim of this study was to compare the FRAX score without bone mineral density (BMD) with the criteria proposed by the Argentine Society of Osteoporosis (SAO) to consider starting antiresorptive treatment. We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study where 330 postmenopausal women between 40 and 90 years of age were included. The number of treatments given if the FRAX tool without BMD had been followed was compared with the number of treatments indicated using the SAO criteria. Using the SAO criteria, 85 (25.8%) patients would initiate antiresorptive treatment compared with 15 (4.5%) using the FRAX without BMD (p = 0.0019). Among the 67 patients with a diagnosis of osteoporosis by BMD determination, all of them (100%) would have received treatment by using the SAO criteria compared with 10 (15%) using the FRAX score (p = 0.011). The use of FRAX without BMD significantly underestimates the number of patients who should receive antiresorptive treatment. In patients diagnosed with osteoporosis by BMD, the FRAX score underestimates the number of patients to be treated.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Bone Density , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/prevention & control , Absorptiometry, Photon , Argentina , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/etiology , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Risk Assessment , Sensitivity and Specificity , Societies, Medical
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