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Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(1): 144-149, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365753


Abstract Objective The present study aims to evaluate the treatment of hip wave lesion using reverse microfracture, which is a simple and cheap surgical procedure. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 19 patients with acetabular wave lesion treated with reverse microfracture. The patients were assessed by magnetic nuclear resonance imaging (MRI) at the time of diagnosis and 6 months after the surgery and functionally evaluated using the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain in the preoperative period, and 3 and 6 months after the surgery. Results The statistical data showed a significant improvement in HHS and VAS 6 months after the surgery. Six months after the surgery, the MRI revealed that the area subjected to reverse microfracture presented cartilage with the same visual characteristics observed in areas with no chondral injury. Conclusion We conclude that the reverse microfracture proved to be an effective, reproducible method for the treatment of wave lesion.

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o tratamento desta lesão, através da microfratura reversa, que é um procedimento simples e sem aumento de insumos na cirurgia. Métodos Foram analisados retrospectivamente 19 pacientes submetidos a tratamento da lesão em onda no acetábulo, através da microfratura reversa. Utilizamos a ressonância nuclear magnética (RNM) no momento do diagnóstico e 6 meses após a cirurgia, avaliação funcional pelo Harris Hip Score (HHS) e escala visual e analógica (EVA) da dor no pré-operatório, e 3 e 6 meses após a cirurgia. Resultadoos dados estatísticos mostraram melhora significativa do HHS e EVA da dor após 6 meses da cirurgia. A RNM após 6 meses da cirurgia mostrou que na área que foi submetida à microfratura reversa, a cartilagem se apresentou com as mesmas características visuais que nas áreas sem lesão condral. Conclusão Concluímos que a microfratura reversa se mostrou eficaz e reprodutível no tratamento da lesão em onda.

Humans , Male , Female , Arthroscopy , Fractures, Stress , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Femoracetabular Impingement
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(1): 175-179, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365750


Abstract A teenage male tennis player had chronic pain in his dominant arm during tennis practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested humerus diaphyseal stress injury. After 4 weeks, he became asymptomatic and resumed playing. However, pain recurred after 3 days. A new MRI revealed a diaphyseal undisplaced humerus fracture and significant bone marrow edema. The patient remained in rest for 4 weeks. After that, strengthening exercises were introduced and return to training was allowed after 12 weeks. Even if asymptomatic, we suggest that these patients should not return to play before 12 weeks, depending on the physical exam and imaging findings.

Resumo Um tenista adolescente tinha dor crônica no braço dominante durante os treinos de tênis. A ressonância magnética (RM) sugeriu lesão por estresse na diáfise do úmero. Depois de 4 semanas, ele se tornou assintomático e voltou a jogar. No entanto, houve recidiva da dor após 3 dias. A nova RM revelou fratura diafisária não desviada do úmero e edema significativo da medula óssea. O paciente ficou em repouso por 4 semanas. Depois disso, exercícios de fortalecimento foram introduzidos e o retorno aos treinamentos foi permitido após 12 semanas. Mesmo que assintomáticos, sugerimos que esses pacientes não voltem a jogar antes das 12 semanas, dependendo dos exames físicos e dos achados por imagem.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Fractures, Stress , Tennis/injuries , Humeral Fractures
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220003122, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386369


Abstract Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the strength and ratios of the plantar flexors and ankle dorsiflexors in recreational runners with medial tibial stress syndrome and to assess the association between muscle strength and the level of pain in this population. Methods: Two groups (control and medial tibial stress syndrome) of eighteen runners each participated in this cross-sectional study. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to evaluate muscle strength, and for the analysis, the normalized isokinetic peak torque controlled by gender was used. Results: The medial tibial stress syndrome group showed lower normalized isokinetic peak torque in the dorsiflexors in the concentric (p = 0.008) eccentric (p = 0.011) contraction, as well as a lower plantar flexor, normalized isokinetic peak torque in the concentric (p = 0.001) and eccentric (p = 0.02) when compared to the control group. However, there was no difference in the normalized isokinetic peak torque ratio representative of the stance (p = 0.62) and swing phase (p = 0.16), and the level of pain was not correlated with the strength concentric (p = 0.32) and eccentric (p = 0.621) of plantar flexors, nor to the concentric (p = 0.21) and eccentric of dorsiflexors (p = 0.54). Conclusion: Recreational runners with MTSS showed decreased muscle strength in the sagittal plane of the ankle, no correlation with the level of pain, and no changing the ratio between plantar flexors and dorsiflexors.

Humans , Running/physiology , Pain Measurement , Fractures, Stress , Muscle Strength/physiology , Ankle Joint , Cross-Sectional Studies
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(6): 813-818, Nov.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357147


Abstract Recurrent stress fractures rarely affect the same athlete. We present the case of a female triathlete who suffered multiple stress fractures in both tibias, the right fibula, and the left femoral neck. Conservative treatment was instituted in all episodes, with rest, reduced training load, and physical therapy rehabilitation. The relative energy deficiency in sport syndrome, along with an eating disorder, training overload, and osteopenia, was identified as a risk factor. Although rare, multiple stress fractures can occur in female triathletes. These patients must be screened for risk factors associated with biomechanics, nutrition, and training to develop an effective prevention and treatment program.

Resumo Fraturas por estresse recorrentes num mesmo atleta são raras. Apresentamos o caso de uma triatleta que sofreu múltiplas fraturas por estresse na tíbia bilateral, na fíbula direita e no colo femoral esquerdo. O tratamento conservador foi instituído em todos os episódios, com repouso, redução da carga de treino e reabilitação fisioterápica. Foi identificada como fator de risco a síndrome da deficiência energética relativa no esporte, com distúrbio alimentar, sobrecarga de treino e osteopenia. Mesmo que seja raro, múltiplas fraturas por estresse podem ocorrer em mulheres triatletas, nas quais é importante avaliar os fatores de risco associados à biomecânica, nutrição e ao treinamento para arquitetar um programa de prevenção e tratamento efetivos.

Humans , Female , Adult , Tibia/injuries , Fractures, Stress , Risk Factors , Physical Therapy Modalities , Lower Extremity , Female Athlete Triad Syndrome , Athletes
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 500-504, July-Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339102


SUMMARY The occurrence of fractures in young individuals is frequently overlooked by physicians, especially when associated with exercise or trauma. Nevertheless, multiple fractures should always be investigated since underlying conditions can predispose to such events. We describe here the case of a young, healthy woman who sustained multiple fractures in the lower limbs, which were initially considered to be "stress fractures". Further investigation, including a panel of genes associated with osteogenesis imperfecta, revealed that the patient is a heterozygous carrier of a SERPINF1 variant. According to criteria recommended by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology, this variant is classified as likely benign (PM2, PP3, PP4, BP1, and BP4). The patient's mother and brother were also asymptomatic carriers of the variant and had sustained previous minor fractures. The patient had normal biochemical profile and bone density. This condition has been rarely described and is not associated with low bone mineral density or altered bone turnover markers. This case highlights the importance of investigating multiple fractures in young patients who are otherwise healthy since these may be a warning sign of rare genetic conditions associated with fragility fractures.

Humans , Male , Female , Osteogenesis Imperfecta/genetics , Fractures, Stress/genetics , Fractures, Stress/diagnostic imaging , Bone Density/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics
Rev. Asoc. Argent. Ortop. Traumatol ; 86(4) (Nro Esp - ACARO Asociación Argentina para el Estudio de la Cadera y Rodilla): 537-544, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353955


La fractura por estrés del pubis es un cuadro poco frecuente, se ha descrito en corredores de larga distancia y reclutas militares. Se han publicado 193 casos que fueron tratados de forma conservadora. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar un caso resuelto de manera alternativa, analizar los casos ya publicados, las enfermedades asociadas, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. Se presenta el caso de una paciente añosa, deportista, con fractura por estrés del pubis, que no respondió al tratamiento conservador y fue tratada con cirugía. La paciente evolucionó favorablemente, retornó a sus actividades y el dolor desapareció. La indicación del tratamiento no solo debe limitarse al grado de inestabilidad de la fractura, sino que también se debe considerar el contexto médico y social del enfermo. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Pubic stress fracture (PSF) is a rare condition, described in long-distance runners and military recruits. One hundred and ninety-three conservatively managed cases have been documented in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to report an alternatively resolved case, and to review previously reported cases, associated pathologies, diagnosis, and treatment. We report a case of an elderly patient, sportingly active, with PSF, who did not respond to conservative treatment and was surgically treated. Follow-up of the patient was favorable with remission of pain and return to activities. The indication for treatment should not be limited only to the degree of instability of the fracture, but should also take into account the medical and social context of the patient. Level of Evidence: IV

Aged , Pelvic Bones/injuries , Fractures, Stress , Fractures, Bone , Fracture Fixation, Internal
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353913


Las fracturas por insuficiencia subcondral son una causa poco frecuente de cadera dolorosa. A diferencia de las fracturas traumáticas agudas, las fracturas por insuficiencia del acetábulo son menos frecuentes que las femorales. Ocurren habitualmente en mujeres posmenopáusicas con comorbilidades. Su diagnóstico inicial suele ser dificultoso y la sospecha clínica es de gran importancia. La resonancia magnética es una herramienta fundamental para detectar este cuadro. Subestimar estas lesiones puede llevar al desarrollo de una artrosis rápidamente progresiva y al reemplazo articular como desenlace. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 68 años con una fractura por insuficiencia subcondral del acetábulo a quien se le indicó una artroplastia total de cadera no cementada. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Subchondral insufficiency fractures are a rare cause of hip pain. Unlike acute traumatic fractures, acetabulum insufficiency fractures are less common than femoral fractures. They commonly occur in postmenopausal women with comorbidities. Its initial diagnosis is usually difficult and clinical suspicion is of great importance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a fundamental tool for the detection of this pathology. Underestimating these injuries can lead to the development of rapidly progressive osteoarthritis and joint replacement as an outcome. We present the case of a 68-year-old patient with a subchondral insufficiency fracture of the acetabulum who underwent uncemented total hip arthroplasty. Level of Evidence: IV

Aged , Osteoarthritis, Hip , Fractures, Stress , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Hip Joint/pathology , Acetabulum/injuries
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 673-680, Nov.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156196


Abstract Chronic compartment syndrome is a common and often underdiagnosed exercise-induced condition, accounting on average for a quarter of cases of chronic exertional pain in the leg, second only to the fracture/tibial stress syndrome spectrum. It traditionally occurs in young runner athletes, although more recent studies have demonstrated a considerable prevalence in low-performance practitioners of physical activity, even in middle-aged or elderly patients. The list of differential diagnoses is extensive, and sometimes it is difficult to distinguish them only by the clinical data, and subsidiary examinations are required. The diagnosis is classically made by the clinical picture, by exclusion of the differential diagnoses, and through the measurement of the intracompartmental pressure. Although needle manometry is considered the gold standard in the diagnosis, its use is not universally accepted, since there are some important limitations, apart from the restricted availability of the needle equipment in Brazil. New protocols of manometry have recently been proposed to overcome the deficiency of the traditional ones, and some of them recommend the systematic use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the exclusion of differential diagnoses. The use of post-effort liquid-sensitive MRI sequences is a good noninvasive option instead of needle manometry in the diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome, since the increase in post-exercise signal intensity is statistically significant when compared with manometry pressure values in asymptomatic patients and in those with the syndrome; hence, the test can be used in the diagnostic criteria. The definitive treatment is fasciotomy, although there are less effective alternatives.

Resumo A síndrome compartimental crônica é uma condição comum e frequentemente subdiagnosticada, induzida pelo exercício, que corresponde em média a um quarto dos casos de dor crônica na perna relacionada ao exercício, e que perde em frequência apenas para o espectro fratura/reação ao estresse tibial. Tradicionalmente ocorre em jovens atletas corredores, embora estudos mais recentes tenham demonstrado uma prevalência considerável em praticantes de atividade física de baixo rendimento, mesmo em pacientes de meia-idade ou idosos. A lista de diagnósticos diferenciais é extensa, e por vezes é difícil fazer a distinção apenas pelos dados clínicos, sendo necessários exames subsidiários. Classicamente, o diagnóstico é feito pelo quadro clínico, pela exclusão dos diferenciais, e pela medida pressórica intracompartimental. Embora a manometria por agulha seja considerada o padrão-ouro no diagnóstico, seu uso não é universalmente aceito, visto que existem algumas limitações importantes, além da disponibilidade restrita do equipamento com agulha no Brasil. Recentemente, novos protocolos de manometria têm sido propostos a fim suplantar a deficiência dos tradicionais, com algum deles inclusive recomendando o uso sistemático da ressonância magnética (RM) na exclusão dos diagnósticos diferenciais. O uso de sequências de RM sensíveis a líquido pós-esforço é uma ótima opção não invasiva à manometria por agulha no diagnóstico da síndrome compartimental crônica, uma vez que o aumento da intensidade de sinal pós-exercício é estatisticamente relevante quando comparados os valores pressóricos de manometria em pacientes com a síndrome e assintomáticos; portanto, o exame pode ser usado no critério diagnóstico. O tratamento definitivo é a fasciotomia, embora existam alternativas menos eficazes.

Humans , Pain , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Exercise , Fractures, Stress , Compartment Syndromes , Diagnosis, Differential , Fractures, Bone , Athletes , Chronic Pain , Fasciotomy , Motor Activity
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 61(2): 69-74, oct. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342414


Las lesiones osteocondrales de la articulación subtalar es una patología infrecuente y de incidencia variable, dado su reporte principalmente como hallazgo en el estudio de dolor crónico de tobillo y ya con cambios degenerativos articulares. La sospecha clínica y el estudio imagenológico dirigido, permiten investigar esas lesiones en estadios iniciales, evitando así el uso de técnicas que no preservan la articulación para su manejo. La artroscopía subtalar es una excelente herramienta tanto diagnóstica como terapéutica para la resolución de dichas lesiones. Dadas las características anatómicas y biomecánicas de la articulación, en estadios iniciales, el manejo mediante sinovectomía y microfracturas es una alternativa con excelentes resultados funcionales. Este trabajo incluye dos casos de lesiones osteocondrales de la faceta posterior de la articulación subtalar manejadas vía artroscópica mediante sinovectomía y microfracturas y su posterior evolución.

Osteochondral lesions in the subtalar joint are an uncommon pathology with a variable incidence, being mainly reported as a finding in chronic ankle pain studies and with already visible degenerative joint changes at time of diagnosis. Clinical suspicion and directed imaging study, allows to investigate these lesions during early stages, thus avoiding the use of invasive techniques with scarce joint preservation. Subtalar arthroscopy is an excellent diagnostic and therapeutic tool for the resolution of these lesions. Given the anatomical and biomechanical characteristics of the joint, in the early stages the management by synovectomy and microfractures is an alternative with excellent functional results. This study includes two cases of osteochondral lesions of the posterior facet of the subtalar joint managed through arthroscopically synovectomy and microfractures and their subsequent evolution.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Arthroscopy/methods , Subtalar Joint/surgery , Talus/surgery , Talus/injuries , Subtalar Joint/diagnostic imaging , Talus/diagnostic imaging , Fractures, Stress , Treatment Outcome , Synovectomy
Rev. medica electron ; 42(4): 2086-2093, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139298


RESUMEN Se presentó el caso de un adolescente que sufrió fractura por estrés del húmero izquierdo, mientras lanzaba en un partido de béisbol. Las fracturas de húmero por estrés son infrecuentes. Generalmente ocurre en los atletas que practican deportes de lanzamiento, es más frecuente en los lanzadores de béisbol amateurs de poca experiencia. Esta lesión es debida a la tracción muscular incoordinada y fuerza de torsión cuando la pelota es lanzada, asociada a la fatiga física. Puede ocurrir a nivel de los tercios medio y superior del húmero, entre las inserciones del deltoides y el pectoral mayor, así como en el tercio distal. Es común la presencia de dolor poco antes de producirse la fractura. Se enfatizó en la importancia de tener presente la posibilidad de presentación de este tipo de fractura en los atletas que practican deportes de lanzamientos, así como tener presente además las complicaciones que puedan presentarse a partir de este tipo de lesión. Se analizaron los datos recogidos en la historia clínica del paciente. Es importante pensar en este tipo de lesión, pues en ocasiones el cuadro clínico no es evidente. Se señaló además la necesidad de realizar un estricto seguimiento del paciente ante la posibilidad de lesión del nervio radial (AU).

ABSTRACT The authors present the case of a teenager who suffered left humerus fracture due to stress while he was pitching a baseball game. Humerus fractures caused by stress are infrequent. They commonly occur in athletes practicing throwing sports, being more frequent in amateur baseball pitchers with little experience. This lesion is due to uncoordinated muscular traction and torsion strength when the ball is thrown, all associated to physical fatigue. It can happen at the level of the medial and upper third of the humerus, between the insertions of deltoids and pectoral major muscles, and also in the distal third. The presence of pain is common a little before the fracture happens. The authors emphasize in the importance of taking into account the possibility of this kind of fracture occurring in athletes practicing throwing sports, and also the complications appearing after this kind of lesion. Data collected from the patient?s clinical record were analyzed. It is important to think in this kind of lesion because sometimes clinical characteristics are not evident. It was also pointed out the necessity of performing a strict follow-up of the patient given the possibility of radial nerve lesion (AU).

Humans , Male , Adult , Athletic Injuries/diagnosis , Fractures, Stress/diagnosis , Humeral Fractures/diagnosis , Athletic Injuries/surgery , Athletic Injuries/complications , Athletic Injuries/rehabilitation , Fractures, Stress/surgery , Fractures, Stress/complications , Fractures, Stress/rehabilitation , Fatigue/complications , Humeral Fractures/surgery , Humeral Fractures/pathology
Dent. press endod ; 10(2): 29-33, maio-ago.2020. Tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344315


Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar três sistemas de instrumentação de NiTi, tratados termicamente, quanto ao número de condutos instrumentados até a fratura. Métodos: Foram utilizados 210 molares humanos inferiores e superiores com curvaturas leves a moderadas, comprimentos reais entre 19 e 21 mm e forames apicais até 200µm. Esses foram randomicamente divididos em três grupos de acordo com o sistema de instrumentação utilizado: Reciproc (REC; R25), ProDesign Duo Híbrido (PDH; #25/.01 e #25/.08) e TF Adaptive (TFA; #25/.08). Foram utilizados 5 instrumentos/kits de cada sistema. Registrou-se, então, o número de condutos instrumenta- dos até a fratura e o número de reinserções necessárias até o alcance do comprimento de trabalho. Resultados: A análise estatística apontou diferenças significativas quando comparada a durabilidade dos sistemas, tendo os instrumentos do grupo PDH oferecido os maiores valores (29,2), seguido de REC (21,6) e TFA (15,4) (p<0,05). Quanto ao número de reinserções, o sistema TFA foi o que necessitou do menor número de reinserções (p<0,05). Conclusão: Nas condições do estudo, pode-se concluir que o sistema ProDesign Duo Híbrido foi o mais durável; ainda que o sistema TF Adaptive tenha alcançado o comprimento de trabalho com maior facilidade

Objective: The present study compared three systems of thermally treated NiTi endodontic files regarding their achieved number of prepared root canals before fracture. Methods: Two hundred and ten slightly and moderately curved upper and lower molars with actual length ranging from 19 to 21 mm and apex foramens diameters up to 200 µm were used. The sample was allotted to three groups according to the instrumentation system in use: Reciproc (REC; R25), ProDesign Duo Hybrid (PDH; #25/.01 and #25/.08), and TF Adaptive (TFA; #25/.08). Five instruments/kits of each system were used. Then, it was registered the number of root canals prepared until the instrument fractured and the number of reinsertions needed until the working length was achieved. Results: The statistical analysis showed significant differences among the durability of the three systems, being the instruments of group PDH the ones that yielded higher reuses (29.2) followed by groups REC (21.6), and TFA (15.4) (P < .05). Regarding the number of insertions, the TFA system was the one that needed the lowest number of reinsertions (P < .05). Conclusion: Under this study conditions, ProDesign Duo Hybrid was the most durable system, whereas TF Adaptive system was the one that most easily achieved the working length.

Humans , Fractures, Stress , Dental Instruments , Molar
Medwave ; 20(5): e7936, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116859


INTRODUCCIÓN: Las fracturas por estrés son lesiones producidas por el sobreuso de ciertas extremidades, generando fatigas repetitivas en el hueso con insuficientes periodos de descanso, trastornos hormonales, entre otras. Se produce una elevada actividad osteoclástica y una menor actividad de los osteoblastos a nivel cortical. OBJETIVO: Determinar los factores asociados a fractura por estrés en un centro médico de la Marina de Guerra de Perú. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó una investigación de tipo observacional analítica de casos y controles. La variable dependiente fue la fractura por estrés, confirmada por resonancia magnética de los pacientes. Las variables independientes fueron edad, sexo y nivel de calcemia tomadas a partir de la historia clínica; el nivel socioeconómico y tiempo de actividad física diaria fueron datos recogidos mediante encuesta. Se obtuvieron los Odds ratio crudos y ajustados con un intervalo de confianza de 95%. RESULTADOS: Se trabajó con un total de 238 pacientes (119 casos y 119 controles), de los cuales 79,8% fueron varones y 20,2% fueron mujeres; la media de edad fue de 20,25 años. En el análisis bivariado se encontró asociación de fracturas por estrés con el sexo masculino (Odds ratio: 3,00; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,51 a 5,95), hipocalcemia (Odds ratio: 2,83; intervalo de confianza 95%: 2,32 a 3,44), más de dos horas de actividad física diaria (Odds ratio: 24,74; intervalo de confianza 95%: 12,51 a 48,95) y un nivel socioeconómico C (Odds ratio: 6,66; intervalo de confianza 95%: 2,82 a 15,74). Mantuvieron su asociación en el análisis multivariado el tiempo de actividad física (Odds ratio: 44,46; intervalo de confianza 95%: 17,93 a 110,22) y el nivel socioeconómico C (Odds ratio: 22,57; intervalo de confianza 95%: 7,03 a 72,74). CONCLUSIÓN: Las fracturas por estrés estuvieron asociadas al tiempo de actividad física y a un nivel socioeconómico menor. Son necesarios más estudios para evaluar la relación con otros factores en la población militar de Perú.

INTRODUCTION: Stress fractures are injuries produced by the overuse of certain extremities, generating repetitive fatigue in the bone with insufficient rest periods and hormonal disorders, among others. High osteoclastic activity and lower activity of the osteoblasts at the cortical level occurs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with a stress fracture in a single medical center of the Peruvian navy. METHODS: We conducted an observational, analytical case-control study. The dependent variable was stress fracture confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging of the patients; the independent variables were age, sex, calcemia, socioeconomic status, and time of daily physical activity. All data were extracted from the medical records. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The sample was comprised of 238 patients (119 cases and 119 controls), of which 79.8% were male, and 20.2% were female; the average age was 20.25. In the bivariate analysis, stress fractures were associated with male sex (odds ratio 3.00; 95% confidence interval 1.51 to 5.95), hypocalcemia (2.83; 2.32 to 3.44), more than two hours of daily physical activity (24.7; 12.51 to 48.95) and socioeconomic level C (6.66; 2.82 to 15.74). Time dedicated to physical activity (adjusted odds ratio 44.46; 95% confidence interval 17.93 to 110.22) and socioeconomic level C (adjusted odds ratio 22.57; 95% confidence interval 7.03 to 72.74) were associated in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: We found that stress fractures were associated with physical activity time and a lower socioeconomic level. Further studies are needed to evaluate the relationship with other factors in the military population of Peru.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Exercise , Fractures, Stress/epidemiology , Military Personnel , Peru , Socioeconomic Factors , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Case-Control Studies , Fractures, Stress/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Hospitals, Military
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810965


A bone stress injury (BSI) means that the bones cannot tolerate repeated mechanical loads, resulting in structural fatigue and local bone pain. A delay in BSI diagnosis can lead to more serious injuries, such as stress fractures that require longer treatment periods. Therefore, early detection of BSI is an essential part of management. Risk factors for BSI development include biological and biomechanical factors. Medical history and physical examination are the basics for a BSI diagnosis, and magnetic resonance imaging is helpful for confirming and grading. In this paper, the authors review the overall content of BSI and stress fractures which are common in runners. Through this review, we hope that interest in stress fractures will be raised in Korea and that active researches will be conducted.

Diagnosis , Fatigue , Fractures, Stress , Hope , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Physical Examination , Risk Factors
Rev. bras. ortop ; 54(1): 104-108, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003606


Abstract Varus stress radiographs are reported as an effective and cost-beneficial diagnostic and decision-making tool for lateral knee injuries, both in the acute and chronic settings. The opening of the lateral compartment is reported to vary according to the number of structures injured, helping to differentiate isolated fibular collateral ligament injury from grade-III posterolateral corner injury. The conventional technique requires the physician or another healthcare provider to applymanual varus stresswhile obtaining the radiograph on one knee at a time. The present study aimed to describe, in detail, the preferred method of the authors to assess the opening of the lateral compartment in both knees simultaneously, which also avoids the need for the examiner to be present in the imaging room.

Resumo As radiografias de estresse em varo são descritas como uma técnica efetiva e econômica de diagnóstico e tomada de decisão em lesões laterais do joelho, tanto no contexto agudo quanto crônico. A abertura do compartimento lateral varia de acordo com o número de estruturas danificadas, ajudando a diferenciar lesões isoladas do ligamento colateral fibular das lesões do canto posterolateral de grau III. A técnica convencional exige que o médico ou outro profissional de saúde aplique estresse em varo manual ao obter a radiografia em um joelho de cada vez. O presente estudo teve como objetivo descrever, em detalhes, o método preferido dos autores para avaliar a abertura do compartimento lateral em ambos os joelhos simultaneamente, o que também evita a necessidade da presença do examinador na sala de imagem.

Fractures, Stress , Knee , Knee Injuries
Rev. colomb. ortop. traumatol ; 33(3-4): 128-132, 2019. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1378124


En la actualidad es cada vez mayor el número de adultos jóvenes que inician actividad deportiva sin valoración previa de su acondicionamiento físico. En los atletas maduros, con mayor riesgo de presentar hueso osteoporótico, pueden aparecer fracturas por estrés ante traumatismos de menor intensidad repetitivos. En el dolor de cadera en el adulto es importante tener presente la fractura por estrés de cuello femoral, realizando las maniobras exploratorias que permitan su diagnóstico y pedir la prueba de imagen más indicada. Ante una alta sospecha y estudio radiográfico normal debe considerarse la realización de TAC o RMN. El diagnóstico precoz y tratamiento oportuno de esta patología disminuye el riesgo de complicaciones y ofrece la posibilidad de optimizar el uso de recursos.

The number of young adults who start sports activity without prior assessment of their physical conditioning is increasing. In mature athletes, with a higher risk of presenting osteoporotic bone, stress fractures may occur due to repetitive minor trauma. When assesing hip pain in adults it is important to keep in mind femoral neck stress fracture, as well as how to perform exploratory maneuvers that allow diagnosis and request the most appropriate imaging test. In case of high suspicion and normal radiographic study, CT or MRI should be considered. Early diagnosis and timely treatment of this pathology reduces the risk of complications and offers the possibility of optimizing the use of resources.

Humans , Adult , Fractures, Stress , Adult , Hip
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763618


Acromial fractures are well-documented complications subsequent to reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA), and most appear as stress fractures with no history of single trauma. To date, no study has reported the occurrence of acute displaced acromial fracture due to sudden strong deltoid contraction during heavy work. Displacement of the fracture results in a challenging surgery since it is difficult to obtain adequate fixation in thin and osteoporotic bones. We report a rare case of acute displaced acromial fracture after successful RSA treatment, using a novel technique of open reduction and internal fixation, applying two 4.5 mm cannulated screws and lateral clavicle precontoured plate.

Acromion , Arthroplasty , Clavicle , Fractures, Stress , Scapula , Shoulder
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773908


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical effect of knee denervation combined with micro-fracture under arthroscope in the treatment of patellofemoral arthritis.@*METHODS@#From May 2015 to May 2018, 60 patients with knee joint degenerative patellofemoral arthritis were treated, including 28 males and 32 females, aged from 24 to 56(40.5±3.35) years old. Among them, 30 cases underwent arthroscopic debridement alone(control group), 30 cases underwent arthroscopic debridement, peripatellar denervation combined with cartilage cone and patellofemoral articular surface microfracture treatment (treatment group). VAS, Lysholm and Kujala scores were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect.@*RESULTS@#No complications such as wound infection, vascular nerve injury and deep venous thrombosis occurred in all patients. The patients were followed up for 7 to 36 months with an average of 12.5 months. The VAS scores of the two groups were improved 4 weeks after operation, and the improvement of the treatment group was significantly better than that of the control group, the difference was statistically significant (<0.05). Lysholm and Kujala scores were compared at the last follow-up of the two groups, the improvement of the treatment group was significantly better than that of the control group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The treatment of patellofemoral arthritis with patellar denervation combined with microfracture can better relieve pain and improve knee function.

Adult , Aged , Arthritis , Denervation , Female , Femur , Fractures, Stress , Humans , Knee Joint , Male , Patella , Patellofemoral Joint , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773882


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical outcomes of microfracture and autogenous osteochondral mosaic transplantation in the treatment of knee joint cartilage injury.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis of 71 patients with articular cartilage defects on the femoral condyles who were by autogenous osteochondral mosaic transplantation or microfracture from February 2011 to February 2016, and these patients were followed up for at least 2 years. According to the sugical procedures, the patients were divided into two groups. In the microfracture group, there were 33 patients, 20 males and 13 females, with a mean age of(28.1±4.2) years old; in the mosaicplasty group, there were 38 patients, 26 males and 12 females, with a mean age of(27.8±3.5) years old. The Lysholm knee score, Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score and the Ahlbäck classification grade were recorded to evaluate the clinical efficacy. Complications were also recorded.@*RESULTS@#The mean Lysholm scores of the microfracture group and the mosaicplasty group improved from 62.9±6.8 and 60.3±7.5 preoperatively to 77.0±5.4 and 85.8±5.6 post-operatively, respectively(<0.05). Mean HSS scores of the microfracture group and the mosaicplasty group improved from 81.5±7.6 and 79.6±8.6 preoperatively to 88.0±4.7 and 91.9±4.7 post-operatively, respectively(<0.05). The mean Lysholm score and HSS score were significantly higher in the mosaicplasty group than those in the microfracture group at the latest follow-up. One patient in the mosaicplasty group suffered superficial wound infection. During the follow-up, no knee osteoarthritis was observed in two groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Autogenous osteochondral mosaicplasty and microfracture are proved to be safe and effective procedures for knee articular cartilage defects. However, the mosaicplasty has better clinical outcome than the microfracture.

Adult , Cartilage, Articular , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Fractures, Stress , Humans , Knee Joint , Male , Retrospective Studies , Transplantation, Autologous , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770054


Although acute traumatic fractures of the clavicle are relatively common, stress fractures of the proximal clavicle are extremely rare. Stress fractures of the clavicle have often been reported after a radical neck dissection or radiation but rarely occur during excessive repetitive exercise in professional athletes. The authors report a case of a stress fracture of the proximal clavicle during exercise in a young man with no specific preceding factors, which has not been reported in the Korean literature.

Athletes , Clavicle , Fractures, Stress , Humans , Male , Neck Dissection
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766418


PURPOSE: Recent literature has noted incidences of subtrochanteric atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) in patients who have taken long-term bisphosphonates (BPs). Most cases of subtrochanteric AFFs have been treated with intramedullary nailing and cases of delayed union have been reported. On the other hand, there is no data available on the complications associated with endosteal thickening or cortical thickening. This study evaluated the results of surgical treatment according to the endosteal thickening of the lateral cortex in subtrochanteric AFFs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Investigation was performed at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jeju National University Hospital. The study consisted of patients with subtrochanteric AFFs, defined by the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) major criteria, who underwent intramedullary nailing from March 2012 to October 2014. The cases were categorized into two groups based on the presence of endosteal thickening. The evaluation included the demographic data, radiographic data of initial reduction state, and duration of BPs. RESULTS: The demographic data and duration of BPs were similar in the two groups. On the other hand, varus reduction (Group I: 12.5% vs. Group II: 78.9%; p=0.001), delayed union (Group I: 0% vs. Group II: 70.0%; p=0.003), nonunion (Group I: 0% vs. Group II: 47.4%; p=0.017), and union time (Group I: 5.5 months vs. Group II: 8.3 months; p<0.001) were significantly different in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Endosteal thickening of the lateral cortex in subtrochanteric AFFs was identified as an independent factor that decides the reduction of the fracture and nonunion. The endosteal thickening should be removed to obtain anatomical alignment for successful surgical results.

Bone Nails , Diphosphonates , Femoral Fractures , Femur , Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary , Fractures, Stress , Hand , Humans , Incidence , Miners