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Protein & Cell ; (12): 203-219, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929177


Many people affected by fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autism spectrum disorders have sensory processing deficits, such as hypersensitivity to auditory, tactile, and visual stimuli. Like FXS in humans, loss of Fmr1 in rodents also cause sensory, behavioral, and cognitive deficits. However, the neural mechanisms underlying sensory impairment, especially vision impairment, remain unclear. It remains elusive whether the visual processing deficits originate from corrupted inputs, impaired perception in the primary sensory cortex, or altered integration in the higher cortex, and there is no effective treatment. In this study, we used a genetic knockout mouse model (Fmr1KO), in vivo imaging, and behavioral measurements to show that the loss of Fmr1 impaired signal processing in the primary visual cortex (V1). Specifically, Fmr1KO mice showed enhanced responses to low-intensity stimuli but normal responses to high-intensity stimuli. This abnormality was accompanied by enhancements in local network connectivity in V1 microcircuits and increased dendritic complexity of V1 neurons. These effects were ameliorated by the acute application of GABAA receptor activators, which enhanced the activity of inhibitory neurons, or by reintroducing Fmr1 gene expression in knockout V1 neurons in both juvenile and young-adult mice. Overall, V1 plays an important role in the visual abnormalities of Fmr1KO mice and it could be possible to rescue the sensory disturbances in developed FXS and autism patients.

Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/metabolism , Fragile X Syndrome/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Neurons/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879582


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the correlation between Fragile X mental retardation gene-1 (FMR1) gene CGG repeats with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR).@*METHODS@#For 214 females diagnosed with DOR, DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples. FMR1 gene CGG repeats were determined by PCR and capillary electrophoresis.@*RESULTS@#Three DOR patients were found to carry FMR1 premutations, and one patient was found to carry gray zone FMR1 repeats. After genetic counseling, one patient and the sister of another patient, both carrying FMR1 permutations, conceived naturally. Prenatal diagnosis showed that both fetuses have carried FMR1 permutations.@*CONCLUSION@#FMR1 gene permutation may be associated with DOR. Determination of FMR1 gene CGG repeats in DOR patients can provide a basis for genetic counseling and guidance for reproduction.

Female , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/metabolism , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Humans , Ovarian Diseases , Ovarian Reserve/genetics , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency/genetics , Trinucleotide Repeats/genetics
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(1): 60-66, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249871


Resumen El síndrome X frágil es la condición monogenética que produce más casos de autismo y de discapacidad intelectual. La repetición de tripletes CGG (> 200) y su metilación conllevan el silenciamiento del gen FMR1. La proteína FMRP (producto del gen FMR1) interacciona con los ribosomas, controlando la traducción de mensajeros específicos y su pérdida produce alteraciones de la conectividad sináptica. El tamizaje de síndrome X frágil se realiza por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. La recomendación actual de la Academia Americana de Pediatría es realizar pruebas a quienes presenten discapacidad intelectual, retraso global del desarrollo o antecedentes familiares de afección por la mutación o premutación. Países hispanos como Colombia, Chile y España reportan altas prevalencias de síndrome X frágil y han creado asociaciones o corporaciones nacionales de X frágil que buscan acercar a los pacientes a redes disponibles de diagnóstico y tratamiento.

Abstract Fragile X syndrome is the monogenetic condition that produces more cases of autism and intellectual disability. The repetition of CGG triplets (> 200) and their methylation entail the silencing of the FMR1 gene. The FMRP protein (product of the FMR1 gene) interacts with ribosomes by controlling the translation of specific messengers, and its loss causes alterations in synaptic connectivity. Screening for fragile X syndrome is performed by polymerase chain reaction. Current recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics is to test individuals with intellectual disability, global developmental retardation or with a family history of presence of the mutation or premutation. Hispanic countries such as Colombia, Chile and Spain report high prevalence of fragile X syndrome and have created fragile X national associations or corporations that seek to bring patients closer to available diagnostic and treatment networks.

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Autistic Disorder/genetics , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Pedigree , Phenotype , Ribosomes/metabolism , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/genetics , Sex Factors , Genetic Testing , Synaptic Transmission , Gene Silencing , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/metabolism , Checklist , Fragile X Syndrome/complications , Fragile X Syndrome/diagnosis , Fragile X Syndrome/therapy , Mutation
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(12): 1234-1239, Dec. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659630


Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized as needed by NO synthase (NOS), is involved in spinogenesis and synaptogenesis. Immature spine morphology is characteristic of fragile X syndrome (FXS). The objective of this research was to investigate and compare changes of postnatal neuronal NOS (nNOS) expression in the hippocampus of male fragile X mental retardation 1 gene knockout mice (FMR1 KO mice, the animal model of FXS) and male wild-type mice (WT) at postnatal day 7 (P7), P14, P21, and P28. nNOS mRNA levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR (N = 4-7) and nNOS protein was estimated by Western blot (N = 3) and immunohistochemistry (N = 1). In the PCR assessment, primers 5’-GTGGCCATCGTGTCCTACCATAC-3’ and 5’-GTTTCGAGGCAGGTGGAAGCTA-3’ were used for the detection of nNOS and primers 5’-CCGTTTCTCCTGGCTCAGTTTA-3’ and 5’-CCCCAATACCACATCATCCAT-3’ were used for the detection of β-actin. Compared to the WT group, nNOS mRNA expression was significantly decreased in FMR1 KO mice at P21 (KO: 0.2857 ± 0.0150, WT: 0.5646 ± 0.0657; P < 0.05). Consistently, nNOS immunoreactivity also revealed reduced staining intensity at P21 in the FMR1 KO group. Western blot analysis validated the immunostaining results by demonstrating a significant reduction in nNOS protein levels in the FMR1 KO group compared to the WT group at P21 (KO: 0.3015 ± 0.0897, WT: 1.7542 ± 0.5455; P < 0.05). These results suggest that nNOS was involved in the postnatal development of the hippocampus in FXS and impaired NO production may retard spine maturation in FXS.

Animals , Male , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/metabolism , Fragile X Syndrome/physiopathology , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/physiology , Hippocampus/growth & development , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/genetics , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hippocampus/physiopathology , Mice, Knockout , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism