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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879600

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To screen for mutations of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene during early and middle pregnancy and provide prenatal diagnosis for those carrying high-risk CGG trinucleotide expansions.@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples of 2316 pregnant women at 12 to 21(+6) gestational weeks were collected for the extraction of genomic DNA. CGG repeats of the FMR1 gene were detected by fluorescence PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis were provided for 3 women carrying the premutations.@*RESULTS@#The carrier rate of CGG repeats of the FMR1 gene was 1 in 178 for the intermediate type and 1 in 772 for the premutation types. The highest frequency allele of CGG was 29 repeats, which accounted for 49.29%, followed by 30 repeats (28.56%) and 36 repeats (8.83%). In case 1, the fetus had a karyotype of 45,X, in addition with premutation type of CGG expansion of the FMR1 gene. Following genetic counseling, the couple chose to terminate the pregnancy through induced labor. The numbers of CGG repeats were respectively 70/- and 29/30 for the husband and wife. In case 2, amniocentesis was performed at 20 weeks of gestation. The number of CGG repeats of the FMR1 gene was 29/-. No abnormality was found in the fetal karyotype and chromosomal copy number variations. The couple chose to continue with the pregnancy. Case 3 refused prenatal diagnosis after genetic counseling and gave birth to a girl at full term, who had a birth weight of 2440 g and no obvious abnormality found during follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#Pregnant women should be screened for FMR1 gene mutations during early and middle pregnancy, and those with high-risk CGG expansions should undergo prenatal diagnosis, genetic counseling and family study.


Subject(s)
DNA Copy Number Variations , Female , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Genetic Counseling , Humans , Mutation , Pregnancy , Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion , Trinucleotide Repeats
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879598

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the (CGG)n repeats of FMR1 gene among patients with unexplained mental retardation.@*METHODS@#For 201 patients with unexplained mental retardation, the (CGG)n repeats of the FMR1 gene were analyzed by PCR and FragilEase@*RESULTS@#For the 201 patients with unexplained mental retardation, 15 were identified with full mutations of the FMR1 gene. The prevalence of fragile X syndrome (FXS) in patients with unexplained mental retardation was determined as 7.5% (15/201). Prenatal diagnosis was provided for 6 pregnant women with pre- or full mutations. Analysis revealed that women with mental retardation and full FMR1 mutations exhibited a skewed XCI pattern with primary expression of the X chromosome carrying the mutant allele.@*CONCLUSION@#FXS has a high incidence among patients with unexplained mental retardation. Analysis of FMR1 gene (CGG)n repeats in patients with unexplained mental retardation can facilitate genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for their families. FMR1 gene (CGG)n repeats screening should be recommended for patients with unexplained mental retardation.


Subject(s)
Female , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Humans , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Mutation , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879582

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the correlation between Fragile X mental retardation gene-1 (FMR1) gene CGG repeats with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR).@*METHODS@#For 214 females diagnosed with DOR, DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples. FMR1 gene CGG repeats were determined by PCR and capillary electrophoresis.@*RESULTS@#Three DOR patients were found to carry FMR1 premutations, and one patient was found to carry gray zone FMR1 repeats. After genetic counseling, one patient and the sister of another patient, both carrying FMR1 permutations, conceived naturally. Prenatal diagnosis showed that both fetuses have carried FMR1 permutations.@*CONCLUSION@#FMR1 gene permutation may be associated with DOR. Determination of FMR1 gene CGG repeats in DOR patients can provide a basis for genetic counseling and guidance for reproduction.


Subject(s)
Female , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/metabolism , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Humans , Ovarian Diseases , Ovarian Reserve/genetics , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency/genetics , Trinucleotide Repeats/genetics
4.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(1): 60-66, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249871

ABSTRACT

Resumen El síndrome X frágil es la condición monogenética que produce más casos de autismo y de discapacidad intelectual. La repetición de tripletes CGG (> 200) y su metilación conllevan el silenciamiento del gen FMR1. La proteína FMRP (producto del gen FMR1) interacciona con los ribosomas, controlando la traducción de mensajeros específicos y su pérdida produce alteraciones de la conectividad sináptica. El tamizaje de síndrome X frágil se realiza por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. La recomendación actual de la Academia Americana de Pediatría es realizar pruebas a quienes presenten discapacidad intelectual, retraso global del desarrollo o antecedentes familiares de afección por la mutación o premutación. Países hispanos como Colombia, Chile y España reportan altas prevalencias de síndrome X frágil y han creado asociaciones o corporaciones nacionales de X frágil que buscan acercar a los pacientes a redes disponibles de diagnóstico y tratamiento.


Abstract Fragile X syndrome is the monogenetic condition that produces more cases of autism and intellectual disability. The repetition of CGG triplets (> 200) and their methylation entail the silencing of the FMR1 gene. The FMRP protein (product of the FMR1 gene) interacts with ribosomes by controlling the translation of specific messengers, and its loss causes alterations in synaptic connectivity. Screening for fragile X syndrome is performed by polymerase chain reaction. Current recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics is to test individuals with intellectual disability, global developmental retardation or with a family history of presence of the mutation or premutation. Hispanic countries such as Colombia, Chile and Spain report high prevalence of fragile X syndrome and have created fragile X national associations or corporations that seek to bring patients closer to available diagnostic and treatment networks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Autistic Disorder/genetics , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Pedigree , Phenotype , Ribosomes/metabolism , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/genetics , Sex Factors , Genetic Testing , Synaptic Transmission , Gene Silencing , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/metabolism , Checklist , Fragile X Syndrome/complications , Fragile X Syndrome/diagnosis , Fragile X Syndrome/therapy , Mutation
5.
Colomb. med ; 48(3): 148-151, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890870

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The FMR1 gene has four allelic variants according to the number of repeats of the CGG triplet. Premutation carriers with between 55 and 200 repeats are susceptible to developing pathologies such as tremor and ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) syndrome. Case description: The patient was a 53-year-old female farmer with severe tremor in the upper limbs at rest that worsens with movement, tremor in the jaw and tongue, and generalized cerebral atrophy. She is a carrier of the FMR1 premutation diagnosed by PCR and Southern Blot, complying with the clinical and radiological criteria of FXTAS, and in addition, has a history of vagal symptoms suggestive of ovarian failure and menstrual cycle disorders that led to hysterectomy at age 33 and was subsequently diagnosed with FXPOI. Conclusion: An unusual case of FXTAS and FXPOI complying with clinical and radiological criteria is reported in a premutation carrier of the FMR1 gene.


Resumen Introducción: el gen FMR1 tiene cuatro variantes alélicas según el número de repeticiones de la tripleta CGG. Los portadores de la premutación con un número entre 55 y 200 repeticiones son susceptibles de desarrollar patologías como el síndrome de temblor y ataxia (FXTAS) y síndrome de falla ovárica prematura (FXPOI) asociados al X frágil. Descripción del caso: Mujer de 53 años, agricultora, con temblor severo en miembros superiores en reposo que empeora con el movimiento, temblor en mandíbula y lengua, atrofia cerebral generalizada, portadora de la premutación del gen FMR1 diagnosticada por PCR y Southern Blot, cumpliendo con criterios clínicos y radiológicos de FXTAS; ademas, historia de síntomas vagales sugestivos de falla ovárica y trastornos del ciclo menstrual que llevaron a histerectomía a los 33 años, haciendose diagnóstico FXPOI. Conclusión: Se reporta un caso inusual en portadoras de la premutación del gen FMR1, con criterios clínicos y radiológicos de FXTAS y FXPOI.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Ataxia/genetics , Tremor/genetics , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency/genetics , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Blotting, Southern , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Trinucleotide Repeats/genetics , Alleles
6.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 38(5): 347-354, Nov. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772129

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore distributional inequality of key health outcomes as determined by access coverage to water and sanitation (WS) between countries in the Region of the Americas. METHODS: An ecological study was designed to explore the magnitude and change-over-time of standard gap and gradient metrics of environmental inequalities in health at the country level in 1990 and 2010 among the 35 countries of the Americas. Access to drinking water and access to improved sanitation facilities were selected as equity stratifiers. Five dependent variables were: total and healthy life expectancies at birth, and infant, under-5, and maternal mortality. RESULTS: Access to WS correlated with survival and mortality, and strong gradients were seen in both 1990 and 2010. Higher WS access corresponded to higher life expectancy and healthy life expectancy and lower infant, under-5, and maternal mortality risks. Burden of life lost was unequally distributed, steadily concentrated among the most environmentally disadvantaged, who carried up to twice the burden than they would if WS were fairly distributed. Population averages in life expectancy and specific mortality improved, but whereas absolute inequalities decreased, relative inequalities remained mostly invariant. CONCLUSIONS: Even with the Region on track to meet MDG 7 on water and sanitation, large environmental gradients and health inequities among countries remain hidden by Regional averages. As the post-2015 development agenda unfolds, policies and actions focused on health equity-mainly on the most socially and environmentally deprived-will be needed in order to secure the right for universal access to water and sanitation.


OBJETIVO:Explorar la desigualdad distributiva de resultados clave en salud determinada por la cobertura de acceso a agua y saneamiento (AS) entre países en la Región de las Américas. MÉTODOS: Se diseñó un estudio ecológico para explorar la magnitud y el cambio en el tiempo de métricas estándar de brecha y gradiente de desigualdades ambientales en salud a nivel país en 1990 y 2010 entre los 35 países de las Américas. El acceso a agua potable y el acceso a instalaciones sanitarias mejoradas fueron seleccionados como estratificadores de equidad. Las cinco variables dependientes fueron: expectativa de vida al nacer total y saludable, mortalidad infantil, en menores de cinco años y materna. RESULTADOS: El acceso a AS se correlacionó con la supervivencia y mortalidad y se observaron intensos gradientes tanto en 1990 como en 2010. Un acceso a AS más alto se correspondió con más alta expectativa de vida al nacer total y saludable y con más bajos riesgos de muerte infantil, en menores de 5 años y materna. La carga de vida perdida se distribuyó inequitativamente, concentrándose de manera sostenida entre los más desaventajados ambientalmente, quienes acarrearon hasta dos veces la carga que hubieran acarreado si el acceso a AS hubiese estado equitativamente distribuido. Los promedios poblacionales en la expectativa de vida y la mortalidad específica mejoraron pero, mientras que las desigualdades absolutas se redujeron, las desigualdades relativas se mantuvieron esencialmente invariantes. CONCLUSIONES: Aún cuando la Región está en curso para alcanzar el ODM 7 sobre agua y saneamiento, los promedios regionales siguen ocultando grandes gradientes ambientales y desigualdades en salud entre países. A medida que se despliega la agenda de desarrollo post-2015, serán necesarias políticas y acciones orientadas a la equidad en salud -principalmente hacia aquellos con mayor privación social y ambiental- a fin de asegurar el derecho por el acceso universal al agua y saneamiento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Homeostasis/genetics , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/biosynthesis , Fragile X Syndrome/physiopathology , Gene Expression , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics
7.
Braz. dent. j ; 25(6): 519-523, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732263

ABSTRACT

Surface treatment of dentin before the bleaching procedure may affect its permeability and influence the bond strength of restorative materials. This study evaluated the influence of surface treatment before the bleaching on shear bond strength (SBT) of restorative materials to intracoronal dentin. Dentin slabs were subjected to surface treatment: no bleaching (control - CON), no surface treatment + bleaching (HP), 37% phosphoric acid + bleaching (PA) and Er:YAG laser + bleaching (L). After the bleaching procedure, specimens (n=10) were restored with: microhybrid composite resin (MH), flowable composite resin (F), and resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC). The shear test was carried out. ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05) showed significant difference for surface treatment and restorative materials (p<0.05). CON presented higher STB and was statistically different from HP (p<0.05). PA and L showed intermediate values and were statistically similar to CON and HP (p>0.05). STB for MH and F were higher than RMGIC (p<0.05), and did not differ from each other (p>0.05). The surface treatments with phosphoric acid and Er:YAG laser before the bleaching procedure provided shear bond strength at the same level of unbleached dentin and the composite resins presented superior bond strength to the intracoronal dentin.


O tratamento superficial da dentina previamente ao clareamento pode afetar a sua permeabilidade e influenciar a resistência de união de materiais restaurados. Este estudo avaliou a influência do tratamento superficial antes do clareamento na resistência ao cisalhamento (RC) de materiais restauradores à dentina intracoronária. Fragmentos de dentina foram submetidos ao tratamento de superfície: não clareadas (controle - CON), sem tratamento de superfície + clareamento (HP), ácido fosfórico 37% + clareamento (AF), e laser Er:YAG + clareamento (L). Após o procedimento clareador, os espécimes foram restaurados com (n=10): resina composta micro-híbrida (MH), resina composta fluida (F), e cimento de ionômero de vidro modificado por resina (CIVMR). O teste de cisalhamento foi realizado. ANOVA e teste de Tukey (α=0,05) mostraram diferença significante para tratamento superficial e material restaurador (p<0,05). O grupo controle apresentou maior resistência de união e foi estatisticamente diferente de HP (p<0,05). AF e L mostraram valores intermediários e foram similares ao CON e HP (p>0,05). A resistência de união para MH e F foi maior que CIVMR (p<0,05), e não diferiram entre si (p>0,05). O tratamento da superfície dentinária com ácido fosfórico e laser Er:YAG previamente ao clareamento promoveu resistência de união ao nível da dentina não clareada e a adesão à dentina intracoronária foi superior com as resinas compostas.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Fragile X Syndrome/diagnosis , Sex Chromosome Aberrations/diagnosis , Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosome Banding , Developmental Disabilities/etiology , Developmental Disabilities/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics
9.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2013 Jan; 19(1): 78-83
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147640

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Amplification of Guanine-Cytosine (GC) -rich sequences becomes important in screening and diagnosis of certain genetic diseases such as diseases arising due to expansion of GC-rich trinucleotide repeat regions. However, GC-rich sequences in the genome are refractory to standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and require a special reaction conditions and/or modified PCR cycle parameters. AIM: Optimize a cost effective PCR assay to amplify the GC-rich DNA templates. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR 1) is an ideal candidate for PCR optimization as its GC content is more than 80%. Primers designed to amplify the GC rich 5’ untranslated region of the FMR 1 gene, was selected for the optimization of amplification using DNA extracted from buccal mucosal cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A simple and rapid protocol was used to extract DNA from buccal cells. PCR optimization was carried out using three methods, (a) substituting a substrate analog 7-deaza-dGTP to dGTP (b) in the presence of a single PCR additive and (c) using a combination of PCR additives. All PCR amplifications were carried out using a low-cost thermostable polymerase. RESULTS: Optimum PCR conditions were achieved when a combination of 1M betaine and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to amplify the GC rich region of FMR 1 gene with reproducibility in the presence of betaine and DMSO as additives without the use of commercially available kits for DNA extraction and the expensive thermostable polymerases.


Subject(s)
Cheek/cytology , Cytosine/analogs & derivatives , DNA/genetics , Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
10.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2013. 89 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-711961

ABSTRACT

O retardo mental (RM) representa um problema de saúde pública mundial ainda negligenciado no Brasil e, em especial nas regiões mais pobres como o Nordeste. A síndrome do X frágil (SXF) é uma das formas mais estudadas de RM hereditário em seres humanos. Esta doença monogênica, de herança ligada ao X dominante, é decorrente de uma mutação no exon 1 do gene FMR1, localizado na região Xq27.3. A mutação no FMR1 se caracteriza pelo aumento de repetições de trinucleotídios CGG em tandem na região 5’ UTR desse gene, sendo a expansão dessas trincas o principal evento mutacional responsável pela SXF. De maneira geral, os fenótipos cognitivos de indivíduos do sexo masculino com a síndrome incluem deficiência intelectual de moderada à grave. No presente trabalho, realizamos um estudo transversal da SXF em indivíduos portadores de retardo mental de causa desconhecida, engajados em Programas de Educação Especial e em instituições psiquiátricas de São Luís-MA, rastreando amplificações de sequências trinucleotídicas no gene FMR1. A amostra foi composta por 238 indivíduos do sexo masculino, não aparentados, na faixa etária de 4 a 60 anos (média = 21 ± 9 anos). O DNA dos participantes foi obtido a partir de 5 mL de sangue coletados em tubos com anti-coagulante EDTA e a análise molecular da região gênica de interesse foi realizada através da reação em cadeia da polimerase, utilizando-se três primers. Dentre os indivíduos triados quanto à presença de mutações no gene FMR1, apenas um apresentou um resultado inconclusivo e 2 (0,84%) foram positivos para a SXF, sendo que um deles (3503) apresentou mais de 200 repetições CGG no locus FRAXA e o outro indivíduo (3660) apresentou uma deleção de ~197 pb envolvendo parte das repetições CGG e uma região proximal às repetições CGG. Ambos possuíam história familiar de RM ligado ao X. No indivíduo 3503 observamos as seguintes características clínicas: temperamento dócil, orelhas grandes, mandíbula proeminente e flacidez ligamentar ...


Mental retardation (MR) is considered a global public health problem in Brazil and it is still ignored mainly in poor regions like Northeast Brazil. The fragile X syndrome (FXS) is one of the most common heritable disease in humans. it is a monogenic disease with X-linked dominant inheritance due to a mutation in exon 1 of the FMR1 gene, located at Xq27.3 region. The mutation in FMR1 is characterized by the increase in number of CGG repeats in the 5 'UTR of the gene. This expansion of CGG triplets in the first exon of the FMR1 gene is the main mutational event responsible for FXS. In general, the cognitive phenotypes of males with this syndrome include intellectual disabilities from moderate to severe. In this work, we conducted a cross-sectional study of FXS in individuals with MR of unknown cause, in Especial Education Programs and Psyquiatric Instituitions in São Luís-MA, by screening for amplifications of trinucleotide sequences within the FMR1 gene. The sample consisted of 238 unrelated males, which ages were from 4 to 60 years (mean = 21 ± 9 years). The DNA of all individuals was obtained from 5 mL of peripheral blood which was colected in EDTA-anticoagulated tubes. The molecular analysis of the genetic region of interest was performed by polimerase chain reaction using three primers. Of the individuals screened for the presence of the mutation in the FMR1 gene, only one was inconclusive and two (0.84%) were positive for FXS. One (3503) presented more than 200 CGG repeats in FRAXA locus, and the other (3660) presented with a ~ 197 bp deletion involving part of CGG repeats and a proximal region to the CGG repeats. Both of these individuals have family history of X-linked Mental Retardation. The individual 3503 has the following clinical features: docile temperament, large ears, prominent jaw and ligamentous laxity. The individual 3660 presents hyperactivity, poor contact with eyes, large ears, prominent jaw, pectus excavatum, macroorchidism and little ...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Intellectual Disability/diagnosis , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/diagnosis , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Diagnosis, Differential , Exons/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion
11.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 73 Suppl 1: 20-9, 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1165151

ABSTRACT

Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by impairment of social integration and language development and restricted interests. Autism spectrum disorders manifest during childhood and may have a varying clinical expression over the years related to different therapeutic approaches, behavior-modifying drugs, and environmental factors, among others. So far, the genetic alterations identified are not sufficient to explain the genesis of all these processes, as many of the mutations found are also present in unaffected individuals. Findings on the underlying biological and pathophysiological mechanisms of entities strongly associated with autism spectrum disorders, such as Rett, fragile X, Angelman, and fetal alcohol syndromes, point to the role of epigenetic changes in disorders of neurodevelopment. Epigenetic phenomena are normal biological processes necessary for cell and thus human life, especially related to embryonic development. Different phenomena that affect epigenetic processes (changes that change operation or expression of a gene, without modifying the DNA structure) have also been shown to be important in the genesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Alterations in the epigenetic mechanism may be reversible, which may explain the variation in the autism phenotype over time. Here we analyze the normal epigenetic mechanisms, autism spectrum disorders, their association with specific entities associated with altered epigenetic mechanisms, and possible therapeutic approaches targeting these alterations.


Subject(s)
Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Child Development Disorders, Pervasive/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mutation/genetics , /physiology , Rett Syndrome/physiopathology , Rett Syndrome/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/physiopathology , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Child Development Disorders, Pervasive/physiopathology
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(12): 1234-1239, Dec. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659630

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized as needed by NO synthase (NOS), is involved in spinogenesis and synaptogenesis. Immature spine morphology is characteristic of fragile X syndrome (FXS). The objective of this research was to investigate and compare changes of postnatal neuronal NOS (nNOS) expression in the hippocampus of male fragile X mental retardation 1 gene knockout mice (FMR1 KO mice, the animal model of FXS) and male wild-type mice (WT) at postnatal day 7 (P7), P14, P21, and P28. nNOS mRNA levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR (N = 4-7) and nNOS protein was estimated by Western blot (N = 3) and immunohistochemistry (N = 1). In the PCR assessment, primers 5’-GTGGCCATCGTGTCCTACCATAC-3’ and 5’-GTTTCGAGGCAGGTGGAAGCTA-3’ were used for the detection of nNOS and primers 5’-CCGTTTCTCCTGGCTCAGTTTA-3’ and 5’-CCCCAATACCACATCATCCAT-3’ were used for the detection of β-actin. Compared to the WT group, nNOS mRNA expression was significantly decreased in FMR1 KO mice at P21 (KO: 0.2857 ± 0.0150, WT: 0.5646 ± 0.0657; P < 0.05). Consistently, nNOS immunoreactivity also revealed reduced staining intensity at P21 in the FMR1 KO group. Western blot analysis validated the immunostaining results by demonstrating a significant reduction in nNOS protein levels in the FMR1 KO group compared to the WT group at P21 (KO: 0.3015 ± 0.0897, WT: 1.7542 ± 0.5455; P < 0.05). These results suggest that nNOS was involved in the postnatal development of the hippocampus in FXS and impaired NO production may retard spine maturation in FXS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/metabolism , Fragile X Syndrome/physiopathology , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/physiology , Hippocampus/growth & development , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/genetics , Hippocampus/metabolism , Hippocampus/physiopathology , Mice, Knockout , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
13.
Rev. Soc. Psiquiatr. Neurol. Infanc. Adolesc ; 23(2): 93-103, ago. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-677246

ABSTRACT

Resumen. El Síndrome X Frágil (SXF) constituye la causa más frecuente de retraso mental hereditario y autismo. Los individuos con mutación completa (MC) presentan alteraciones clínicas que incluyen: déficit cognitivo y atencional, hiperactividad, autismo y problemas emocionales. Los portadores de premutación (PM) pueden afectarse del síndrome de temblor y ataxia asociado a X frágil (FXTAS); el 30 por ciento de las mujeres con PM presentan insuficiencia ovárica prematura(FXPOI). Cuando un individuo presenta una MC es frecuente encontrar otros familiares afectados. El fenotipo al nacer no es evidente, se sugiere que debe hacerse el diagnóstico entre los35-37 meses, sin embargo, la edad de diagnóstico en Chile es en promedio de 8 +/- 5.8 años. El centro de diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento de pacientes con síndrome X frágil (CDTSXF)es un centro multidisciplinario, que incluye diagnósticos moleculares, genetistas médicos, asesoramiento genético, neurólogos, terapeutas ocupacionales, fonoaudiólogo, evaluaciones nutricionales y psicológicas para las familias afectadas. Desde el año 2010 hemos asistido a 28familias y detectado un número significativo de afectados debido a la detección en cascada. Se ha diagnosticado a 63 probandos, 57 MC y ocho mosaicos de MC/PM. Entre las madres portadoras 37 son PM y dos presentaron una MC. En 9/28 familias había un adulto mayor con FXTAS, diez familias presentaron mujeres con FXPOI. 41/63 probandos han participado denle el protocolo multidisciplinario del CDTSXF. Los resultados de este enfoque multidisciplinario nos motiva a seguir trabajando en mejorar el comportamiento y desarrollo cognitivo de los pacientes y atender las principales necesidades de las familias afectadas.


Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of mental retardation and a leading known cause of autism. Individuals with a full mutation (FM) present disabilities including: cognitive and attention deficit, hyperactivity, autism, and other emotional problems. Carriers of a premutation (PM) may be affected by fragile X associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) in 30 percent of PM women. Therefore, multigenerational family involvement is commonly found when a proband is diagnosed with a FXS mutation. FXS has no obvious phenotype at birth, it is suggested that the diagnosis should be made at 35-37 months; the age of diagnosis in Chile is on average 8+/-5.8 yo. The center for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of patients with fragile X syndrome (CDTTRABAJOMFXS), is a multidisciplinary center that includes molecular testing, medical geneticists, genetic counseling, neurologists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, and nutritional and psychological interventions to families with an FM proband. Since 2010, we have assisted 28 families with a total of 63 diagnosed probands using specific PCR and Southern blot tests. Among them, 57 had a FM and eight had a mosaic FM/PM. Among the mothers 37 are PM carriers and two presented a FM. An older adult with FXTAS was present in 9/28 families; ten families presented women with FXPOI. A significant number of affected family members have been detected through cascade screening. Among the probands 41 of 63 have received some of the multidisciplinary diagnostic and interventions. The results of this multidisciplinary work allow us to put forward more effort towards improving behavior and cognitive development of patients as well as trying to solve families’ main needs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Patient Care Team , Fragile X Syndrome/diagnosis , Fragile X Syndrome/therapy , Clinical Protocols , Cognition Disorders , Early Intervention, Educational , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein , Language Disorders , Mutation , Nutritional Status , Occupational Therapy , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics
14.
Rev. Assoc. Paul. Cir. Dent ; 66(2): 128-134, abr.-jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-667463

ABSTRACT

A Síndrome do X-Frágil é um distúrbio genético, identificado microscopicamente por uma cons- trição denominada sítio frágil no braço longo do cromossomo X; é considerada como principal causa hereditária de deficiência mental associada a diversas alterações neurológicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar características físicas e bucais, presença de alterações sistêmicas e características comportamentais presentes em pacientes portadores da Síndrome do X-Frágil, além de divulgar esta síndrome aos Cirurgiões-Dentistas. Foram analisados 31 voluntários portadores da Síndrome do X- -Frágil por meio da aplicação de questionário estruturado, exame físico geral, bucodental e análise de prontuário multidisciplinar. Os dados obtidos foram tabulados e submetidos ao teste Qui-Quadrado (p

The fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder, identified microscopically by a constriction called fragile site on the long arm of chromosome X, considered the main inherited cause of mental disability associated with severa I neurological disorders. The aim of this study were analyzed physical and oral characteristics, medical problems and behavioral characteristics in patients with fragile X syndrome, and diffuse this syndrome among dentists. Volunteers (n=31) with fragile X syndrome were submitted a structured form, physical and oral exam and the multidisciplinary form was analyzed. The data were submitted to statistical analyses (Chi-square; P<.05). Regular use of medicine was reported by 68% (P<.05), the most commonly used was the anticonvulsants (61%). The presence of biofilm (93%) and gingivitis (81%) was statistically significant when the amount of positive and negative cases were compared. Malocclusion and atresic palate were present in 93% ofthe volunteers (P<.05). Ali subjects reported the presence of family history of mental retardation. Among the facial features elongated face, ears and forehead prominent and behavioral aspects of hyperactivity and anxiety were statically significant differences. Thus, we conclude that there are large variability among the characteristics expressed by individuais with the Fragile X syndrome, frequently these individuais have elongated face, prominent ears and mental retardation associated with oral problems such as malocclusion, atresic palate and enamel hypoplasia. In addition poor oral hygiene and regular medicine is common in this patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Behavior , Face/abnormalities , Human Characteristics , Oral Health , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics
16.
Clinics ; 66(supl.1): 55-63, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-593149

ABSTRACT

Intellectual disability is a prevalent form of cognitive impairment, affecting 2-3 percent of the general population. It is a daunting societal problem characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills. Intellectual disability is a clinically important disorder for which the etiology and pathogenesis are still poorly understood. Moreover, although tremendous progress has been made, pharmacological intervention is still currently non-existent and therapeutic strategies remain limited. Studies in humans have a very limited capacity to explain basic mechanisms of this condition. In this sense, animal models have been invaluable in intellectual disability investigation. Certainly, a great deal of the knowledge that has improved our understanding of several pathologies has derived from appropriate animal models. Moreover, to improve human health, scientific discoveries must be translated into practical applications. Translational research specifically aims at taking basic scientific discoveries and best practices to benefit the lives of people in our communities. In this context, the challenge that basic science research needs to meet is to make use of a comparative approach to benefit the most from what each animal model can tell us. Intellectual disability results from many different genetic and environmental insults. Taken together, the present review will describe several animal models of potential intellectual disability risk factors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Down Syndrome/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/complications , Rett Syndrome/genetics
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 68(5): 791-798, Oct. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-562811

ABSTRACT

FXTAS (Fragile X-associated tremor and ataxia syndrome) is a late- onset neurodegenerative disorder affecting mainly men, over 50 years of age, who are carriers of the FMR1 gene premutation. The full mutation of this gene causes the fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited mental retardation. Individuals affected by FXTAS generally present intention tremor and gait ataxia that might be associated to specific radiological and/or neuropathological signs. Other features commonly observed are parkinsonism, cognitive decline, peripheral neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction. Nearly a decade after its clinical characterization, FXTAS is poorly recognized in Brazil. Here we present a review of the current knowledge on the clinical, genetic and diagnostic aspects of the disease.


A FXTAS (síndrome de tremor e ataxia associada ao X frágil) é uma doença neurodegenerativa de início tardio que afeta principalmente homens acima dos 50 anos de idade, portadores de pré-mutação do gene FMR1. A mutação completa desse gene é responsável pela síndrome do cromossomo X frágil (SXF), a causa mais comum de deficiência mental herdada. Indivíduos afetados pela FXTAS geralmente apresentam tremor de intenção e ataxia de marcha que podem estar associados a sinais radiológicos ou neuropatológicos específicos. Outras características comumente observadas são parkinsonismo, declínio cognitivo, neuropatia periférica e disfunções autonômicas. Quase uma década após sua caracterização clínica, a FXTAS é mal conhecida por médicos no Brasil. Esta revisão apresenta o conhecimento atual sobre os aspectos clínicos, genéticos e diagnósticos da síndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ataxia , Fragile X Syndrome , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/genetics , Tremor , Ataxia/diagnosis , Ataxia/drug therapy , Ataxia/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/diagnosis , Fragile X Syndrome/drug therapy , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tremor/diagnosis , Tremor/drug therapy , Tremor/genetics
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135948

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Screening for Fragile X syndrome (FRAXA), the most common genetic cause for mental retardation (MR), has mostly been carried out among MR patients. The present study was conducted to find out prevalence of FRAXA amongst children residing in the rural areas of West Bengal. Methods: Demographic details including age, sex, nutritional status as well as birth, medical, and developmental histories, were collected amongst rural children (n=38,803) of West Bengal, India, over three years (2004-2007). Based on the records of scholastic backwardness, 179 children were short-listed and examined by a team of experts comprising of child psychiatrist, clinical psychologist, paediatrician and special educator. Blood samples were collected and molecular and cytogenetic studies were performed for identification of CGG repeats and determination of FMR1 gene promoter methylation. Results: Of the selected 179 children, six were diagnosed as Down syndrome, one as cerebral palsy and 140 as non-syndromic MR. These 140 children with MR were grouped as mild (56), moderate (60), and severely (4) retarded based on IQ; children <5 yr were grouped as developmental delay (20). FRAXA was not detected in any of these children (frequency being 0% with 0-.02% confidence interval). Prevalence of MR was found to be low (about 4/1000 children). Down syndrome also had a lower frequency (0.15/1000 children). Interpretation & conclusion: The data obtained in the present study indicated that familial disorders like FRAXA were less frequent in the studied population.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , DNA Methylation , Female , Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/epidemiology , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Humans , India/epidemiology , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Male , Mass Screening , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Rural Population , Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion
19.
Asunciòn; IPS/UCA; 00002009. 46 p. (Prevalencia del Sìndrome de fragilidad en adultos mayores del consultorio externo del hospital Buongermini en noviembre 2009).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1018675

ABSTRACT

El estado de fragilidad es un sìndrome clìnico,biològico y psicosocial;y se puede dar definiciòn poniendo ènfasis en cualquiera de los antes mencionados puntos o en todos y se encuentran mas o menos estandarizados.


Subject(s)
Fragile X Syndrome/complications , Fragile X Syndrome/diagnosis , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/prevention & control , Paraguay
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 136(12): 1542-1551, dic. 2008. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-508907

ABSTRACT

Background: Mental retardation or intellectual disability affects 2 percent ofthe general population, but in 60 percent to 70 percent of cases the real cause ofthis retardation is not known. An early etiologic diagnosis of intellectual disability can lead to opportunities for improved educational interventions, reinforcing weak aáreas and providing a genetic counseling to the family Aim: To search genetic diseases underíying intellectual disabilities of children attending a special education school. Material and methods: A clinical geneticist performed the history and physical examination in one hundred and three students aged between 5 and 24 years (51 males). A blood sample was obtained in 92 of them for a genetic screening that included a standard karyotype, fragile X molecular genetic testing and search for inborn errors of metabolism by tándem mass spectrometry. Results: This approach yielded an etiological diagnosis in as much as 29 patients. Three percent of them had a fragile X syndrome. Inborn errors of metabolism were not detected. Conclusions: This type of screening should be done always in children with intellectual disability to establish an etiological diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Genetic Testing/methods , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Education, Special , Fragile X Syndrome/diagnosis , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Karyotyping , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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