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1.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e46, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252028

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Hospitals in the French Territories in the Americas (FTA) work according to international and French standards. This paper aims to describe different aspects of critical care in the FTA. For this, we reviewed official information about population size and intensive care unit (ICU) bed capacity in the FTA and literature on FTA ICU specificities. Persons living in or visiting the FTA are exposed to specific risks, mainly severe road traffic injuries, envenoming, stab or ballistic wounds, and emergent tropical infectious diseases. These diseases may require specific knowledge and critical care management. However, there are not enough ICU beds in the FTA. Indeed, there are 7.2 ICU beds/100 000 population in Guadeloupe, 7.2 in Martinique, and 4.5 in French Guiana. In addition, seriously ill patients in remote areas regularly have to be transferred, most often by helicopter, resulting in a delay in admission to intensive care. The COVID-19 crisis has shown that the health care system in the FTA is unready to face such an epidemic and that intensive care bed capacity must be increased. In conclusion, the critical care sector in the FTA requires upgrading of infrastructure, human resources, and equipment as well as enhancement of multidisciplinary care. Also needed are promotion of training, research, and regional and international medical and scientific cooperation.


RESUMEN Los hospitales en los territorios franceses de la Región de las Américas funcionan según las normas francesas e internacionales. El objetivo de este artículo es describir distintos aspectos de los cuidados intensivos en los territorios franceses. Para ello, hemos revisado los datos oficiales sobre el tamaño de la población y el número de camas de las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI), así como la bibliografía sobre algunos aspectos específicos de las UCI, en los territorios franceses. Las personas que viven en los territorios franceses, o que están de visita en ellos, están expuestas a riesgos específicos: principalmente traumatismos graves causados por el tránsito, envenenamiento por mordeduras, heridas de bala o por apuñalamiento, y enfermedades infecciosas tropicales emergentes. La atención de estos traumatismos y enfermedades puede requerir conocimientos específicos y cuidados intensivos. Sin embargo, no hay suficientes camas de UCI en los territorios franceses. De hecho, hay 7,2 camas de UCI por 100 000 habitantes en Guadalupe, 7,2 en Martinica y 4,5 en Guayana Francesa. Además, los pacientes gravemente enfermos que viven en zonas remotas a menudo tienen que ser trasladados, normalmente por helicóptero, lo que retrasa su ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. La crisis de la COVID-19 ha puesto de manifiesto que el sistema de atención de salud en los territorios franceses no está preparado para enfrentarse a una epidemia de estas dimensiones y que debe aumentarse la capacidad hospitalaria de las unidades de cuidados intensivos. En conclusión, el sector de los cuidados intensivos en los territorios franceses tiene que mejorar su infraestructura, recursos humanos y equipamiento, así como perfeccionar la atención multidisciplinaria. También es necesario promover la capacitación, la investigación y la cooperación médica y científica, tanto regional como internacional.


RESUMO Os hospitais nos territórios ultramarinos franceses nas Américas funcionam segundo os padrões franceses e internacionais. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever os diversos aspectos da atenção intensiva nesta região. Analisamos os dados oficiais relativos ao tamanho da população e ao número de leitos de unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) nestes territórios junto com uma revisão da literatura científica sobre as características particulares destes centros de terapia intensiva. Os residentes locais ou visitantes dos territórios ultramarinos franceses nas Américas são expostos a riscos específicos, sobretudo acidentes de trânsito graves, envenenamentos por animais peçonhentos, ferimentos por armas brancas ou armas de fogo e doenças infecciosas tropicais emergentes que requerem conhecimento especializado e atenção intensiva. Porém, não há leitos suficientes de UTI nos territórios ultramarinos franceses nas Américas: são 7,2 leitos de UTI por 100.000 habitantes em Guadalupe, 7,2 na Martinica e 4,5 na Guiana Francesa. Ademais, em áreas remotas, os pacientes em estado crítico frequentemente precisam ser transferidos por helicóptero, o que causa demora na internação em UTI. A crise da COVID-19 demonstra o despreparo do sistema de saúde para enfrentar a pandemia e a necessidade de aumentar o número de leitos de UTI nestes territórios. Em conclusão, é imprescindível modernizar a infraestrutura e os equipamentos, capacitar melhor os recursos humanos e melhorar a atenção multidisciplinar. Incentivar a formação profissional, pesquisa e cooperação médico-científica regional e mundial é também fundamental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units/supply & distribution , Guadeloupe , French Guiana , Martinique
2.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 398-404, jan.-dez. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1053328

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: estimar a prevalência da Síndrome de Burnout entre trabalhadores de uma universidade na fronteira franco brasileira e verificar os fatores associados. Método: estudo transversal e descritivo realizado com 53 trabalhadores de uma universidade localizada na fronteira franco brasileira, através de formulários eletrônicos (google docs). Resultados: predomínio do sexo masculino (56,6%), faixa etária de 30 a 39 anos (64,2%), solteiros (47,2%), se declaram pardos (49,1%), especialistas (34%) e sem filhos (75,5%). Destes, 26,4% indivíduos tem a possibilidade de desenvolver a síndrome, 37,8% estão em fase inicial da síndrome, 22,6% a síndrome começa a se instalar e 13,2% estar em uma fase considerável da síndrome, tendo como preditor a variável sexo (p=0,01). Conclusão: nenhum dos entrevistados pontuou na categoria (nenhum indício de Burnout), o que torna preocupante as condições de trabalhos que estão submetidos, sendo imperativo medidas preventivas que retardem ou impossibilitem o adoecimento mental dentre a população investigada


Objective: to estimate the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome among university workers at the Brazilian Free Frontier and to verify the associated factors. Method: a cross - sectional and descriptive study carried out with 53 workers from a university located on the Brazilian - Brazilian border, using electronic forms (google docs). Results: male (56.6%), 30 to 39 years old (64.2%), single (47.2%), brown (49.1%), specialists (34%) and without children (75.5%). Of these, 26,4% individuals have the possibility to develop the syndrome, 37,8% are in the initial phase of the syndrome, 22,6% the syndrome begins to settle and 13,2% are in a considerable phase of the syndrome, having as predictor the gender variable (p = 0.01). Conclusion: none of the interviewees scored in the category (no evidence of Burnout), which makes the conditions of work that are submitted worrisome, being imperative preventive measures that delay or prevent mental illness among the population investigated


Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia del Síndrome de Burnout entre trabajadores de una universidad en la frontera franca brasileña y verificar los factores asociados. Método: estudio transversal y descriptivo realizado con 53 trabajadores de una universidad ubicada en la frontera franca brasileña, a través de formularios electrónicos (google docs). Resultados: predominio del sexo masculino (56,6%), grupo de edad de 30 a 39 años (64,2%), solteros (47,2%), se declaran pardos (49,1%), especialistas (34%), y sin hijos (75,5%). De estos, 26,4% individuos tienen la posibilidad de desarrollar la síndrome, 37,8% están en fase inicial del síndrome, 22,6% a síndrome comienza a instalarse y 13,2% estar en una fase considerable de la síndrome, teniendo como predictor la variable sexo (p = 0,01). Conclusión: ninguno de los entrevistados puntuó en la categoría (ningún indicio de Burnout), lo que hace preocupante las condiciones de trabajos que están sometidos, siendo imperativo medidas preventivas que retarden o imposibiliten el enfermo mental entre la población investigada


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Border Health , /prevention & control , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Occupational Health , French Guiana/epidemiology
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200313, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti is the sole vector of urban arboviruses in French Guiana. Overtime, the species has been responsible for the transmission of viruses during yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika outbreaks. Decades of vector control have produced resistant populations to deltamethrin, the sole molecule available to control adult mosquitoes in this French Territory. OBJECTIVES Our surveillance aimed to provide public health authorities with data on insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations and other species of interest in French Guiana. Monitoring resistance to the insecticide used for vector control and to other molecule is a key component to develop an insecticide resistance management plan. METHODS In 2009, we started to monitor resistance phenotypes to deltamethrin and target-site mechanisms in Ae. aegypti populations across the territory using the WHO impregnated paper test and allelic discrimination assay. FINDINGS Eight years surveillance revealed well-installed resistance and the dramatic increase of alleles on the sodium voltage-gated gene, known to confer resistance to pyrethroids (PY). In addition, we observed that populations were resistant to malathion (organophosphorous, OP) and alpha-cypermethrin (PY). Some resistance was also detected to molecules from the carbamate family. Finally, those populations somehow recovered susceptibility against fenitrothion (OP). In addition, other species distributed in urban areas revealed to be also resistant to pyrethroids. CONCLUSION The resistance level can jeopardize the efficiency of chemical adult control in absence of other alternatives and conducts to strongly rely on larval control measures to reduce mosquito burden. Vector control strategies need to evolve to maintain or regain efficacy during epidemics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pyrethrins/pharmacology , Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Aedes/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/genetics , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Mosquito Vectors/virology , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insect Vectors/genetics
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190120, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND In recent years, South America has suffered the burden of continuous high impact outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika. Aedes aegypti is the main mosquito vector of these arboviruses and its control is the only solution to reduce transmission. OBJECTIVES In order to improve vector control it is essential to study mosquito population genetics in order to better estimate the population structures and the geneflow among them. METHODS We have analysed microsatellites and knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations from a trans-border region in Amazonia between the state of Amapá (Brazil) and French Guiana (overseas territory of France), to provide further knowledge on these issues. These two countries have followed distinct vector control policies since last century. For population genetic analyses we evaluated variability in 13 well-established microsatellites loci in Ae. aegypti from French Guiana (Saint Georges and Cayenne) and Brazil (Oiapoque and Macapá). The occurrence and frequency of kdr mutations in these same populations were accessed by TaqMan genotype assays for the sites 1016 (Val/Ile) and 1534 (Phe/Cys). FINDINGS We have detected high levels of gene flow between the closest cross-border samples of Saint-Georges and Oiapoque. These results suggest one common origin of re-colonisation for the populations of French Guiana and Oiapoque in Brazil, and a different source for Macapá, more similar to the other northern Brazilian populations. Genotyping of the kdr mutations revealed distinct patterns for Cayenne and Macapá associated with their different insecticide use history, and an admixture zone between these two patterns in Saint Georges and Oiapoque, in accordance with population genetic results. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The present study highlights the need for regional-local vector surveillance and transnational collaboration between neighboring countries to assess the impact of implemented vector control strategies, promote timely actions and develop preparedness plans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Aedes/drug effects , Aedes/genetics , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Brazil , Insecticide Resistance/drug effects , Biodiversity , French Guiana , Genotype
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180256, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041545

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is regarded as a public health problem in the Oiapoque basin, between Brazil and French Guiana. METHODS Data on ACL occurrence/epidemiological profile and etiology were sourced from Brazilian health services and a reference laboratory. Rainfall correlation was also analyzed. RESULTS: Majority of the ACL cases were observed in adult men working as gold miners. ACL incidence peaks appeared to be linked to periods 2 months after the dry season. Migratory flow was found to be a non-negligible complicating factor in epidemiological surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Binational strategies are required to minimize exposure for high-risk populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , French Guiana/epidemiology , Middle Aged
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(12): 750-756, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829256

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the Anopheles species of the coastal areas of French Guiana, or their spatiotemporal distribution or environmental determinants. The present study aimed to (1) document the distribution of Anopheles fauna in the coastal area around Cayenne, and (2) investigate the use of remotely sensed land cover data as proxies of Anopheles presence. To characterise the Anopheles fauna, we combined the findings of two entomological surveys that were conducted during the period 2007-2009 and in 2014 at 37 sites. Satellite imagery data were processed to extract land cover variables potentially related to Anopheles ecology. Based on these data, a methodology was formed to estimate a statistical predictive model of the spatial-seasonal variations in the presence of Anopheles in the Cayenne region. Two Anopheles species, known as main malaria vectors in South America, were identified, including the more dominant An. aquasalis near town and rural sites, and An. darlingi only found in inland sites. Furthermore, a cross-validated model of An. aquasalis presence that integrated marsh and forest surface area was extrapolated to generate predictive maps. The present study supports the use of satellite imagery by health authorities for the surveillance of malaria vectors and planning of control strategies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , French Guiana , Malaria/transmission , Population Density , Satellite Imagery , Seasons , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(9): 561-569, Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794724

ABSTRACT

In French Guiana, malaria vector control and prevention relies on indoor residual spraying and distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets. These measures are based on solid epidemiological evidence but reveal a poor understanding of the vector. The current study investigated the behaviour of both vectors and humans in relation to the ongoing prevention strategies. In 2012 and 2013, Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled outdoors at different seasons and in various time slots. The collected mosquitoes were identified and screened for Plasmodium infection. Data on human behaviour and malaria episodes were obtained from an interview. A total of 3,135 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected, of which Anopheles darlingi was the predominant species (96.2%). For the December 2012-February 2013 period, the Plasmodium vivax infection rate for An. darlingi was 7.8%, and the entomological inoculation rate was 35.7 infective bites per person per three-month span. In spite of high bednet usage (95.7%) in 2012 and 2013, 52.2% and 37.0% of the participants, respectively, had at least one malaria episode. An. darlingi displayed heterogeneous biting behaviour that peaked between 20:30 and 22:30; however, 27.6% of the inhabitants were not yet protected by bednets by 21:30. The use of additional individual and collective protective measures is required to limit exposure to infective mosquito bites and reduce vector densities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Anopheles/physiology , Insect Bites and Stings , Insect Vectors/physiology , Anopheles/classification , Anopheles/parasitology , Forests , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Malaria, Falciparum/transmission , Malaria, Vivax/transmission , Population Density , Seasons , Species Specificity
8.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-773439

ABSTRACT

Abstract The authors report a series of events including the scientific interest for poisonous dendrobates of French Guiana, the human confrontation with the immensity of the evergreen rainforest, the fragility of the best-prepared individuals to a rough life, and the unique and very special manifestation of a solid friendship between two experts and enthusiasts of outdoor life. In the evergreen forest of South America, as in many other scientific field expeditions, everything may suddenly go wrong, and nothing can prepare researchers to accidents that may occur in a succession of uncontrollable errors once the first mistake is done. This is what happened during an expedition in search for dendrobates by an experienced forest guide and naturalist. The authors decided to report the story, considering that it deserved to be brought to the attention of those interested in venomous animals and toxins, in order to illustrate the potential danger of dealing with these organisms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Amphibian Venoms/toxicity , Friends , Anura , Environmental Exposure , Forests , French Guiana
9.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(8): 1615-1622, Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759495

ABSTRACT

The border between Brazil and French Guiana is a place of economic, cultural, social and sexual exchange. Female sex workers represent a high risk population for HIV in this area where sexual tourism is particularly developed. HIV testing seems to be an important element in the fight against the epidemic. Indeed, early HIV testing gives access to treatments and prevention. An HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and practices survey was conducted in 2011 among sex workers along the border between Brazil and French Guiana. A total of 213 female sex workers were interviewed. One third (31.5%) of the interviewed had never tested for HIV. Factors associated with non HIV-testing were the lack of knowledge of places where to do an HIV test, to be 30 or older, feeling at risk of HIV, not evaluating one's own risk towards HIV, and living in Oiapoque. These results clearly suggest that targeted interventions are needed to encourage and assist female sex workers to get tested regularly.


A fronteira entre Guiana Francesa e Brasil é um lugar de intercâmbio econômico, cultural, social e sexual. Nessa área, onde o turismo sexual é particularmente desenvolvido, as mulheres profissionais do sexo representam uma população de alto risco de contágio pelo HIV. Os testes de HIV parecem ser um elemento importante da luta contra a epidemia. De fato, os primeiros testes de HIV dão acesso à prevenção e aos tratamentos. Foi realizada em 2011 uma pesquisa de conhecimento, atitudes, comportamentos e práticas sobre HIV/AIDS com mulheres profissionais do sexo ao longo da fronteira da Guiana Francesa com o Brasil. Foram entrevistadas 213 mulheres profissionais do sexo. Um terço (31,5%) delas nunca tinha feito o teste de HIV. Fatores associados a não realização do teste de HIV foram: a falta de conhecimento dos locais onde fazer o teste, ter idade igual ou acima de 30 anos, sentir-se em risco de contágio pelo HIV, falta de avaliação do risco de contágio pelo HIV e habitante do Oiapoque. Esses resultados sugerem claramente que intervenções direcionadas às mulheres profissionais do sexo são necessárias para que os testes sejam feitos regularmente.


La frontera entre la Guyana Francesa y Brasil es un lugar de intercambio económico, cultural y sexual. En esta zona, donde se desarrolla sobre todo el turismo sexual, las trabajadoras del sexo son una población de alto riesgo de VIH. La prueba del VIH parece ser un elemento en la lucha de esta epidemia. Además, la prueba inmediata del VIH permite el acceso a los tratamientos y la prevención. Se realizó una Encuesta de Conocimientos, Actitudes y Prácticas sobre el VIH/SIDA en 2011 entre las trabajadoras de sexo, trabajando en la frontera entre la Guyana Francesa y Brasil. Se entrevistaron a un total de 213 trabajadoras del sexo. Un tercio (31,5%) de las entrevistadas nunca se había hecho la prueba del VIH. Los factores asociados con no haberse hecho la prueba del VIH son la ausencia de conocimientos sobre los lugares, donde se realiza la prueba del VIH, tener 30 años o más, sentirse en riesgo de VIH, no evalúan su propio riesgo frente al VIH y viviendo en el Oiapoque. Estos resultados muestran claramente que las intervenciones específicas necesitan incentivos para estimular el uso regularmente de la prueba del VIH.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , French Guiana/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(5): 525-533, 19/08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720421

ABSTRACT

In a climate of growing concern that Plasmodium falciparum may be developing a drug resistance to artemisinin derivatives in the Guiana Shield, this review details our current knowledge of malaria and control strategy in one part of the Shield, French Guiana. Local epidemiology, test-treat-track strategy, the state of parasite drug resistance and vector control measures are summarised. Current issues in terms of mobile populations and legislative limitations are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Malaria/epidemiology , Anopheles , Drug Resistance , French Guiana/epidemiology , Insect Vectors , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/transmission
11.
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(2): 753-768, Jun. 2013. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675464

ABSTRACT

The structure of dung beetle communities inhabiting tropical forests are known to be sensitive to many kinds of environmental changes such as microclimate related to vegetation structure. I examined Scarabaeinae assemblages in two sites of undisturbed high forest and two sites of low forest forming a transitional zone with the open habitat of an inselberg in French Guiana. Sampling was made with pitfall and flight interception traps during 2003 and 2004. The driest and warmest conditions characterized the low forest sites. Across two years we obtained 2 927 individuals from 61 species with pitfall traps and 1 431 individuals from 85 species with flight interception traps. Greater species richness and abundance characterized all sites sampled with pitfall traps during 2003 more than 2004. In 2003 no differences were detected among sites by rarefaction analyses. In 2004 the species richest high forest site was significantly different from one of the low forest sites. For both years Clench model asymptotes for species richness were greater in high forest than in low forest sites. For both years, mean per-trap species richness, abundance and biomass among high forest sites were similar and higher than in low forest sites, especially where the lowest humidity and the highest temperature were recorded. Within the two low forest sites, species richness and abundance recorded during the second year, decreased with distance to edge. Different dominant roller species characterized the pitfall samples in one site of low forest and in other sites. Small variations in microclimatic conditions correlated to canopy height and openness likely affected dung beetle assemblages but soil depth and the presence of large mammals providing dung resource may also play a significant role.


Es conocido que la estructura de las comunidades de escarabajos coprófagos que habitan los bosques tropicales es sensible a diferentes tipos de cambios ambientales tales como el microclima asociado a la vegetación. Hemos examinado las comunidades de Scarabaeinae en dos parcelas de bosque alto sin perturbación y en dos parcelas de bosque bajo, presentes en la transición con el hábitat abierto de un inselberg en la Guayana francesa. Las parcelas de bosque bajo tienen condiciones climáticas más cálidas y secas. A lo largo de dos años, mediante trampas de caída con atrayente, capturamos un total 2 927 individuos de 61 especies y con trampas de intercesión de vuelo, un total de 1 431 individuos pertenecientes a 85 especies. Una mayor riqueza específica y abundancia caracteriza a todos los sitios de muestreo con trampas de caída en 2003 más que en 2004. En el 2003 no se detectaron diferencias entre los sitios de análisis de rarefacción. En el 2004 la riqueza de especies fue significativamente diferente en el bosque de altura que en el bajo. Durante los dos años, las asíntotas del modelo de Clench para la riqueza específica fueron mayores en bosque alto que en bosque bajo. Durante los dos años, el promedio por trampa de riqueza específica, abundancia y biomasa fueron similares entre las parcelas de bosque alto, pero mayores que en las parcelas de bosque bajo, especialmenteen los sitios en los que se registró una mayor temperatura y menor humedad. Dentro de las dos parcelas de bosque bajo, la riqueza específica y la abundancia durante el segundo año disminuyeron con la distancia al borde. Las especies de coprófagos rodador que dominaban una de las parcelas del bosque bajo eran distintas de la del resto de parcelas. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que las pequeñas variaciones en las condiciones microclimáticas que están correlacionadas con la altura y la apertura del dosel arbóreo probablemente afectan a las comunidades de escarabajos coprófagos, aunque también son importantes la presencia de un suelo profundo y de grandes mamíferos que proporcionan recursos con sus heces.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coleoptera/classification , Ecosystem , Trees , Biodiversity , French Guiana , Population Density
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(3): 429-432, May 2012. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624028

ABSTRACT

Anopheles darlingi Root is the major vector of human malaria in the Neotropics and has been considered to be the sole malaria vector in French Guiana. The presence of other potential vectors suggests that malaria may be transmitted by other species under certain conditions. From 2006-2011, all anopheline specimens collected from 11 localities were assayed to determine if the Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein was present. In addition to An. darlingi, we found Anopheles oswaldoi, Anopheles intermedius and Anopheles nuneztovari specimens that were infected with Plasmodium sp. Further investigations on the behaviour and ecology of An. oswaldoi, An. intermedius and An. nuneztovari are necessary to determine their role in malaria transmission in French Guiana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Anopheles/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum/chemistry , Plasmodium malariae/chemistry , Plasmodium vivax/chemistry , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Anopheles/classification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/classification , Malaria/transmission , Population Density , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Seasons
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(3): 346-352, May 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-589045

ABSTRACT

In French Guiana, pyrethroids and organophosphates have been used for many years against Aedes aegypti. We aimed to establish both the resistance level of Ae. aegypti and the ultra low volume spray efficacy to provide mosquito control services with practical information to implement vector control and resistance management. Resistance to deltamethrin and fenitrothion was observed. In addition, the profound loss of efficacy of AquaK'othrine® and the moderate loss of efficacy of Paluthion® 500 were recorded. Fenitrothion remained the most effective candidate for spatial application in French Guiana until its removal in December 2010. Further investigation of the mechanism of resistance to deltamethrin demonstrated the involvement of mixed-function oxidases and, to a lesser extent, of carboxylesterases. However, these observations alone cannot explain the level of insecticide resistance we observed during tube and cage tests.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Aedes , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides , Mosquito Control , Organophosphates , Pyrethrins , Aedes/enzymology , Dengue , French Guiana
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(8): 1111-1116, Dec. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-538170

ABSTRACT

An annotated list of the triatomine species present in French Guiana is given. It is based on field collections carried out between 1993-2008, museum collections and a literature review. Fourteen species, representing four tribes and six genera, are now known in this country and are illustrated (habitus). Three species are recorded from French Guiana for the first time: Cavernicola pilosa, Microtriatoma trinidadensis and Rhodnius paraensis. The two most common and widely distributed species are Panstrongylus geniculatus and Rhodnius pictipes. The presence of two species (Panstrongylus megistus and Triatoma maculata) could be fortuitous and requires confirmation. Also, the presence of Rhodnius prolixus is doubtful; while it was previously recorded in French Guiana, it was probably mistaken for R. robustus. A key for French Guiana's triatomine species is provided.


Subject(s)
Animals , Insect Vectors/classification , Triatominae/classification , French Guiana
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(1): 112-117, Feb. 2009. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-507215

ABSTRACT

Parasites are increasingly used to complement the evolutionary and ecological adaptation history of their hosts. Pneumocystis pathogenic fungi, which are transmitted from host-to-host via an airborne route, have been shown to constitute genuine host markers of evolution. These parasites can also provide valuable information about their host ecology. Here, we suggest that parasites can be used as phylogeographic markers to understand the geographical distribution of intra-specific host genetic variants. To test our hypothesis, we characterised Pneumocystis isolates from wild bats living in different areas. Bats comprise a wide variety of species; some of them are able to migrate. Thus, bat chorology and migration behaviour can be approached using Pneumocystis as phylogeographic markers. In the present work, we find that the genetic polymorphisms of bat-derived Pneumocystis are structured by host chorology. Therefore, Pneumocystis intra-specific genetic diversity may constitute a useful and relevant phylogeographic tool.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chiroptera/microbiology , Genetic Variation , Geography , Pneumocystis/genetics , Argentina , Chiroptera/classification , France , French Guiana , Mexico , Phylogeny , Pneumocystis/classification , Pneumocystis/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Species Specificity
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(7): 702-710, Nov. 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-498389

ABSTRACT

French Guiana is one of the areas in South America most affected by malaria and where the disease has become a serious public health problem. In spite of this situation, little recent entomological data are available from the main localities where the disease occurs, even though they are crucial for development of an effective vector control strategy. A longitudinal entomological survey was carried out from March 2000-February 2002 in three Amerindian villages, namely Twenké, Taluène and Cayodé, located in the Amazonian forest of the Upper-Maroni area, to assess anopheline mosquitoes and malaria transmission dynamics. Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) was the most abundant mosquito species caught during the study. This efficient American malaria vector was active the entire year, but showed an evident peak of abundance during the main rainfall season, from April-June, with an average human biting rate of 255.5 bites per person per night. Parity rates were homogeneous all year, indicating no significant seasonal variability in female survival rates. Estimated vectorial capacity indices were higher during the rainy season, even though the risk of transmission was present throughout the year (VCI > 1). A total of 14 An. darlingi were found infected with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium malariae. The annual circumsporozoite indices were 0.15, 0.14 and 0.05, and the entomological inoculation rates were 22.8, 27.4 and 14.4 infected bites per person per year in Twenké, Taluène and Cayodé, respectively. An. darlingiwas endo-exophagic and rather exophilic in these localities. The species was collected throughout the night but was more aggressive between 21:30-03:30 h and after 05:30 h. Parity rates were homogeneous during the entire night. Impregnated hammock and/or bed nets, coupled with the use of mosquito repellents, as well as the early treatment of malarial cases, appear to be the most suitable tools for fighting...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Anopheles/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Malaria/transmission , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Anopheles/classification , Anopheles/physiology , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/physiology , Longitudinal Studies , Population Density , Population Dynamics , Seasons , Trees
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 102(6): 733-736, Sept. 2007. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-463480

ABSTRACT

Panstrongylus mitarakaensis n. sp. is described from French Guiana. Morphological characters are provided. This small species, less robust than other Panstrongylus species, shows a pronotum shape similar to species of the "P. lignarius complex". However, others characters such as the postocular part of head, the obsolete tubercle on the anterior lobe of pronotum, and the lateral process on the antenniferous tubercle distinguish it from the species in that complex. The taxonomic key of the genus Panstrongylus is actualized.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Panstrongylus/classification , French Guiana , Panstrongylus/anatomy & histology
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 102(1): 35-40, Feb. 2007. mapas, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-440628

ABSTRACT

Between March 2000 and December 2001 a survey of the sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) of French Guiana was carried out during 14 nights of captures with CDC light-traps and Malaise traps, and resulted in the collection of 2245 individuals of 38 species. The most abundant species were Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) ininii Floch & Abonnenc, Lu.(Psychodopygus) squamiventris maripaensis Floch & Abonnenc, and Lu .(Nyssomyia) flaviscutellata Mangabeira. Half of the collected sand flies females were dissected under field conditions and five species were found harboring Leishmania-like parasites. The Leishmania (Kinetoplastidae: Trypanosomatidae) species were identified by molecular typing, and for the first time Lu. (Nys.) flaviscutellata was found harboring Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and Lu. (Tri) ininii harboring unknown Leishmania. The first record for French Guiana of Lu. (Psy.) squamiventris maripaensis harboring L. (V.) naiffi, was also reported. The patterns of diversification of the human cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in French Guiana are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Insect Vectors/classification , Psychodidae/classification , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Population Density , Psychodidae/parasitology , Seasons
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 99(8): 805-808, dez. 2004. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-393760

ABSTRACT

A survey was carried out on 1487 individuals to assess the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in French Guiana. The overall prevalence of T. cruzi specific IgG was 0.5 percent. In multivariate analysis, residence in areas where housing is favorable for the presence of triatomine bugs was the only factor associated with the presence of T. cruzi antibodies. These results have implications for public health since blood donors are not routinely screened for T. cruzi infection in French Guiana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Protozoan , Chagas Disease , Immunoglobulin G , Trypanosoma cruzi , Cross-Sectional Studies , French Guiana , Multivariate Analysis , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies
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