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1.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 16(1): 1-10, ene. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362080

ABSTRACT

Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar la influencia de la práctica deportiva sobre el desempeño de las funciones ejecutivas y, a su vez, indagar si la ejecución individual y/o grupal del deporte establece diferencias en el desarrollo de estas habilidades cognitivas y las posibles relaciones asociadas a los tiempos de entrenamiento. Para esto, se estableció una metodología cuantitativa, de diseño comparativo-correlacional. La muestra estuvo conformada por 100 participantes entre 18 y 25 años de edad de ambos géneros, distribuidos en tres grupos, uno de deportes de ejecución individual, otro de deportistas de actividad grupal y un grupo control con personas sin participación en actividades deportivas. Se encontraron, por ejemplo, mayores desempeños en funciones de planeación, memoria de trabajo, control inhibitorio y subtipos de atención por parte de quienes practicaban algún tipo de deporte, independiente de la modalidad de ejecución; pese a que, para algunas funciones cognitivas el participar de un deporte grupal generaba mayores puntuaciones en las tareas propuestas y, en otras, la ventaja la presentaron los integrantes de deportes individuales. Asimismo, se pudo establecer que existe una relación entre el tiempo semanal de entrenamiento y el funcionamiento de la actividad ejecutiva; esto, permitió corroborar la influencia de la actividad deportiva sobre el funcionamiento cognitivo subyacente en los lóbulos frontales.


This research aimed to determine the influence of sports practice on the performance of executive functions and, in turn, to inquire whether the individual and/or group performance of sports establishes differences in the development of these cognitive skills and the possible associated relationships to training times. To do this, a quantitative, comparative-correlational design methodology was established. The sample consisted of 100 participants between 18 and 25 years of age of both genders, divided into three groups, one for individual sports, another for athletes with group activity, and a control group with people without participation in sports activities. For example, greater performance was found in planning functions, working memory, inhibitory control and attention subtypes by those who practiced some type of sport, independent of the execution modality; Despite the fact that, for some cognitive functions, participating in a group sport generated higher scores in the proposed tasks and, in others, the advantage was presented by the members of individual sports. Likewise, it was established that there is a relationship between weekly training time and the performance of executive activity; This allowed to corroborate the influence of sports activity on underlying cognitive functioning on the frontal lobes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Sports , Exercise/physiology , Cognition/physiology , Executive Function/physiology , Frontal Lobe/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 16(1): 11-16, ene. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362017

ABSTRACT

Las cardiopatías congénitas se consideran una de las anomalías que alteran la irrigación y el intercambio de oxigenación adecuado a las principales venas y arterias. Esto puede generar consecuencias en el desarrollo neurológico que se puede traducir en retraso psicomotor, déficits de aprendizaje, dificultades académicas y problemas de integración social. Para mejorar los trastornos cognitivos, se propone la habilitación cognitiva basada en los principios de mecánica y robótica de LEGO® Education. El objetivo de este estudio fue medir el efecto de un programa de intervención, basado en el uso de ensamblado y programación robótica con LEGO® Education, sobre las funciones frontales básicas como primera aproximación a un modelo propuesto en pacientes cardiópatas congénitos que han sido sometidos a cirugía cardiovascular. Se trató de un estudio de serie de casos, en el que finalizaron el tratamiento una niña y dos niños con cardiopatías congénitas con RACHS 2 y 3. Se aplicaron sub-escalas BANFE-2 y el cuestionario neuropsicológico de daño frontal antes y después del tratamiento; así como una escala para medir el nivel de ejecución por intervención, durante las ocho sesiones. Los resultados muestran en la escala BANFE2, cambios en las medias de las funciones frontales básicas, de daño leve-moderado y normal a normal alto, principalmente en memoria de trabajo y fluidez verbal. En esta primera aproximación, el método LEGO® Education mostró ser una buena herramienta para la habilitación neuropsicológica de estos pacientes.


Congenital heart diseases are considered to be an anomaly which alter the irrigation and the adequate exchange of oxygenation to the main veins and arteries. They can have neurodevelopmental consequences that could translate into psychomotor retardation, learning deficits, academic difficulties, and social integration problems. Cognitive empowerment based on the mechanics and robotics principles of LEGO® Education is proposed to improve cognitive disorders. In this study, the objective was to measure the effect of an intervention program, based on the use of assembly and robotic programming with LEGO® Education, upon basic frontal functions as a first approach to a proposed model in congenital heart disease patients who have undergone cardiovascular surgery. This was a case-series study, in which a girl and two boys with congenital heart disease with RACHS 2 and 3, completed the treatment. BANFE-2 subscales and the neuropsychological questionnaire of frontal damage were applied before and after the treatment; as well as a scale to measure the level of performance per intervention, through all the eight sessions. The BANFE-2 scale showed changes in the means of frontal functions, from mild-moderate damage and normal to high normal, mainly in working memory and verbal fluency. In this first approach, LEGO® Education method proved to be a useful tool for the neuropsychological empowerment of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Robotics , Cognition Disorders/rehabilitation , Heart Defects, Congenital/rehabilitation , Mechanics , Frontal Lobe/physiology , Learning
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888226

ABSTRACT

Mental fatigue is the subjective state of people after excessive consumption of information resources. Its impact on cognitive activities is mainly manifested as decreased alertness, poor memory and inattention, which is highly related to the performance after impaired working memory. In this paper, the partial directional coherence method was used to calculate the coherence coefficient of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) of each electrode. The analysis of brain network and its attribute parameters was used to explore the changes of information resource allocation of working memory under mental fatigue. Mental fatigue was quickly induced by the experimental paradigm of adaptive N-back working memory. Twenty-five healthy college students were randomly recruited as subjects, including 14 males and 11 females, aged from 20 to 27 years old, all right-handed. The behavioral data and resting scalp EEG data were collected simultaneously. The results showed that the main information transmission pathway of the brain changed under mental fatigue, mainly in the frontal lobe and parietal lobe. The significant changes in brain network parameters indicated that the information transmission path of the brain decreased and the efficiency of information transmission decreased significantly. In the causal flow of each electrode and the information flow of each brain region, the inflow of information resources in the frontal lobe decreased under mental fatigue. Although the parietal lobe region and occipital lobe region became the main functional connection areas in the fatigue state, the inflow of information resources in these two regions was still reduced as a whole. These results indicated that mental fatigue affected the information resources allocation of working memory, especially in the frontal and parietal regions which were closely related to working memory.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Brain , Female , Frontal Lobe , Humans , Male , Memory, Short-Term , Mental Fatigue , Resource Allocation , Young Adult
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888221

ABSTRACT

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive low-current brain stimulation technique, which is mainly based on the different polarity of electrode stimulation to make the activation threshold of neurons different, thereby regulating the excitability of the cerebral cortex. In this paper, healthy subjects were randomly divided into three groups: anodal stimulation group, cathodal stimulation group and sham stimulation group, with 5 subjects in each group. Then, the performance data of the three groups of subjects were recorded before and after stimulation to test their mental rotation ability, and resting state and task state electroencephalogram (EEG) data were collected. Finally, through comparative analysis of the behavioral data and EEG data of the three groups of subjects, the effect of electrical stimulation of different polarities on the three-dimensional mental rotation ability was explored. The results of the study found that the correct response time/accuracy rate and the accuracy rate performance of the anodal stimulation group were higher than those of the cathodal stimulation and sham stimulation groups, and there was a significant difference (


Subject(s)
Electric Stimulation , Electroencephalography , Frontal Lobe , Humans , Reaction Time , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
5.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(2): 116-120, abr.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115652

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El síndrome de Otelo, epónimo del personaje de Shakespeare, es un término diagnóstico transnosológico que designa un cuadro caracterizado por delirios de infidelidad respecto a la pareja que, por consiguiente, puede acarrear actitudes celotípicas y conductas violentas hacia ella. En su forma pura, corresponde al trastorno delirante de infidelidad, pero también puede ser secundario a organicidad cerebral y a consumo de drogas. Métodos: Reporte de caso y revisión no sistemática de la literatura relevante. Presentación del caso: Varón de 26 arios con antecedente de consumo de drogas y víctima de maltrato infantil, 3 años antes había sufrido crisis convulsivas tónico-clónicas e hipertensión intracraneal, por lo que se sometió a una craneotomía, en la que se halló un tuberculoma cerebral frontal derecho. Tras un lapso, comenzó con delirios de infidelidad y conductas violentas hacia su pareja. Revisión de la literatura: Los celos delirantes se asocian, como otros delirios, a lesiones del lóbulo frontal derecho. Pese a la elevada y creciente prevalencia mundial de tuberculosis, no se han publicado casos de síndrome de Otelo secundario a tuberculoma cerebral. Conclusiones: El síndrome de Otelo, aunque no es la principal causa de violencia doméstica, puede asociarse con manifestaciones particularmente violentas y ser secundario a tuberculoma cerebral. Este es el primer caso de tal índole que se publica.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Othello syndrome, an eponym of Shakespeare's character, is a transnosological diagnostic term that designates a clinical picture characterised by the presence of delusions of infidelity with respect to a partner and that, consequently, can lead to typical jealousy attitudes and violent behaviour towards the partner. In its pure form, it corresponds to delusional disorder of infidelity, but it may also be secondary to brain organicity and drug use. Methods: Case report and non-systematic review of the relevant literature. Case presentation: A 26-year-old man, with a history of drug abuse and a victim of domestic violence as a child, presented with tonic-clonic seizures and intracranial hypertension three years ago, for which he underwent a craniotomy with the finding of a right frontal cerebral tuberculoma. After a lapse, he developed a clinical picture of delusions of infidelity regarding his partner and violent behaviour towards her. Literature review: Delusional jealousy is associated, like other delusions, with lesions of the right frontal lobe. Despite the high and growing prevalence of tuberculosis worldwide, there are no reported cases of Othello syndrome secondary to cerebral tuberculoma in the literature. Conclusion: Othello syndrome, although not the main cause of domestic violence, can be associated with particularly violent manifestations and be secondary to cerebral tuberculoma. This is the first published case of its kind.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Syndrome , Substance-Related Disorders , Jealousy , Schizophrenia, Paranoid , Seizures , Attitude , Prevalence , Domestic Violence , Intracranial Hypertension , Craniotomy , Diagnosis , Eponyms , Frontal Lobe
6.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 15(2): 37-42, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361898

ABSTRACT

El desarrollo tecnológico y científico en salud de los últimos años ha permitido mejoras en el diagnóstico y mayor eficacia en el tratamiento de pacientes con tumores cerebrales, generado un aumento no solo en la supervivencia, sino también una mayor demanda de los servicios de neuropsicología y rehabilitación, debido a las alteraciones cognitivas asociadas y dificultades en cuanto a la funcionalidad e independencia, disminuyendo significativamente la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. La presente investigación documenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 43 años, remitido al servicio de neuropsicología tras la resección de oligoastrocitoma frontal derecho, en la evaluación neuropsicológica se evidenció alteraciones en funciones ejecutivas, fluidez de lenguaje discursivo y dificultad en habilidades instrumentales. La investigación se realizó bajo el diseño cuasi experimental de caso único, donde se aplicó en repetidas ocasiones a lo largo del tratamiento el Inventario de Adaptabilidad Mayo-Portland (MPAI-4) para determinar las dificultades funcionales del paciente. El objetivo de la rehabilitación neuropsicológica se centró en implementar estrategias de autoinstrucciones y automonitoreo, que pudieran ser aplicadas en contextos cotidianos y en intereses específicos del paciente. Los resultados indican que el proceso de rehabilitación neuropsicológica demostró tener un efecto positivo en la funcionalidad del paciente y las estrategias aprendidas pueden ser trasladadas a su vida cotidiana


The technological and scientific development on health in recent years has allowed improvements in diagnosis and treatment on brain tumor patients, have increase not only their survivor rate but also their need of neuropsychology and rehabilitation services due to cognitive alterations associated and the subsequent struggling with independence and functionality that reduces significantly their life quality. The present research documents the case of a male patient, 43 years old, referred to the service after resection of right frontal oligoastrocytoma, in the neuropsychologic evaluation evidenced executive functions, discursive language fluency alterations and difficulties in instrumental skills. The research was carried out under the quasi experimental design of a single case where there will be applied repeatedly during the course of treatment the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) to identify functional difficulties on the patient. The objective of the neuropsychological rehabilitation focuses on implementing self-instruction and self-observance strategies in order to apply them on an ordinary context and the patient's specific areas of interest. The results indicate that the neuropsychological rehabilitation treatment has shown a positive effect on the patient's functionality and an improvement on his ability to apply the learned strategies to his day to day life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Oligodendroglioma/rehabilitation , Astrocytoma/rehabilitation , Brain Neoplasms/rehabilitation , Executive Function/physiology , Neurological Rehabilitation/methods , Frontal Lobe
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826380

ABSTRACT

To investigate the association between chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive-like behavior in rats and expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and S100β in the hippocampal and prefrontal cortex. Rats were randomly assigned to three groups:saline control group,saline+CUMS group,and citalopram +CUMS group. CUMS was used for depression modeling in rats. Depressive-like behavior in rats were evaluated by open-field test,sucrose preference test,and novel object recognition test. S100β and BDNF expressions were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Rats in the saline+CUMS group had significantly lower score in sucrose preference [(52.48±13.14)%],basic motor tasks [(845.8±371.4)s],fine motor tasks [(565.6±211.9)s],and longer resting time [(282.6±11.8)s] compared to the control group [(84.30±6.15)% (=7.49,=0.000),(1239.1±281.6)s (=2.83,=0.008),(801.8±150.9)s (=3.05,=0.003),(268.2±12.8)s (=2.72,=0.001)]. Compared with the citalopram+CUMS group,rats from the saline+CUMS group also showed significantly lower results in sucrose preference [(80.55±11.31)%,=5.39,=0.000],basic motor tasks [(1156.4±314.7)s,=2.13,=0.031],and fine motor tasks [(736.1±150.0)s,=2.21,=0.008]. There were no significant differences in the expression of hippocampal and prefrontal BDNF between these two groups,but rats from the saline+CUMS group expressed significantly higher levels of S100β compared to rats from the citalopram+CUMS group [(13.22±2.23) ng/g (10.55±2.72) ng/g,=2.67,=0.014]. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the expression of S100β was positively correlated with the expression of BDNF in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (=0.35,=0.034;=0.36,=0.034).The novel object recognition index was positively correlated with the expression of BDNF in the hippocampus(=0.38,=0.021),and the duration of fine-motor activities was negatively correlated with S100β in the prefrontal cortex (=-0.36,=0.037). Different types of depressive behaviors in rats induced by CUMS are associated with the selective expression of S100β and BDNF in two different brain cortex. S100β protein and BDNF may independently participate in the pathogenesis of depression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antidepressive Agents , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Metabolism , Citalopram , Depression , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Frontal Lobe , Metabolism , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit , Metabolism , Stress, Psychological
8.
Ter. psicol ; 37(2): 141-153, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059113

ABSTRACT

Resumen El estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el funcionamiento ejecutivo y el ajuste clínico en una muestra de adolescentes colombianos policonsumidores. Se efectuó un estudio ex post facto con 204 participantes entre 12 y 17 años (M = 14,50, DT = 1,71). Se aplicó la Batería Neuropsicológica de Funciones Ejecutivas y Lóbulos Frontales BANFE-2 y para la evaluación clínica se utilizó la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg, Cuestionario de Afrontamiento COPE, Escala de Impulsividad de Dickman y Cuestionario de 90 Síntomas SCL-90-R. Se identificó un rendimiento significativamente inferior del grupo policonsumidor en las funciones ejecutivas, bajos niveles de autoestima, altos niveles de impulsividad disfuncional y de diversidad psicopatológica, así como estilo de afrontamiento a través del consumo de sustancias. Así mismo, se detectó un efecto predictor de la interacción edad x tiempo de consumo en el funcionamiento ejecutivo, observándose un menor rendimiento de los policonsumidores más jóvenes a medida que se incrementaba el tiempo de consumo.


Abstract The research aim was to analyze the executive functioning and the clinical adjustment in a sample of Colombian teen polydrug users. An ex post facto study was carried out with 204 participants, 12-17 years old (M= 14,50, SD = 1,71). The neuropsychological test BANFE-2 was applied for analyzing frontal lobes and executive functioning and the Rosenberg self esteem scale, a COPE questionnaire, the Dickman impulsivity scale and the SCL-90-R questionnaire were used for clinical adjustment respectively. A lower executive functioning throughput were observed in polydrug users. Low self-esteem, high dysfunctional impulsivity, high diverse psychopathologies and coping strategies for drug use were also observed. A predictor effect between age and consumption time on the executive functioning were also determined. A lower throughput in younger polydrug users increase through consumption time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Polypharmacy , Substance-Related Disorders/physiopathology , Executive Function/physiology , Impulsive Behavior/physiology , Self Concept , Surveys and Questionnaires , Colombia , Frontal Lobe/physiology
9.
Cambios rev. méd ; 18(1): 11-17, 28/06/2019. tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015085

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La enfermedad de Alzheimer, supone la primera causa de demencia y produce múltiples alteraciones cognitivas como la afectación de las funciones ejecutivas. Esos pacientes presentan síntomas disejecutivos y alteración en los reflejos de liberación frontal, aunque se desconoce si están afectados en función del grado de severidad de la demencia. OBJETIVO. Determinar si existe una relación entre los Síntomas Disejecutivos y los Reflejos de Liberación Frontal en pacientes con enfermedad de Alzheimer. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo; se analizaron 23 pacientes con demencia tipo Alzheimer del Centro de Referencia Estatal de Atención a Personas con Enfermedad de Alzheimer, durante el periodo 2013-2014. Los datos fueron obtenidos mediante el cuestionario disejecutivo, y analizados mediante la prueba X2 y la U de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS. Las edades de los participantes oscilaron entre 55 y 90 años. La media de puntuaciones según el cuestionario disejecutivo, arrojó un valor de 21,69. En la planificación se observó diferencias significativas entre los pacientes con Alzheimer leve y moderado (p=0,020); así como, entre la fase leve y la moderadamente grave (p=0,014). En la conciencia social resultó similar entre la etapa leve y la moderada (p=0,036). CONCLUSIÓN. Los reflejos de liberación frontal y los síntomas disejecutivos estuvieron afectados, pero no se evidenció relación entre estos y el grado de severidad de enfermedad de Alzheimer. Se refutó la hipótesis que, a mayor grado de severidad, mayor afectación disejecutiva y de los reflejos de liberación frontal.


INTRODUCTION. Alzheimer's disease is the leading cause of dementia and produces multiple cognitive disorders such as the involvement of executive functions. These patients present with dysexecutive symptoms and impaired frontal release reflexes, although it is unknown whether they are affected depending on the severity of the dementia. OBJECTIVE. To determine if there is a relationship between the Dissecutive Symptoms and the Frontal Release Reflexes in patients with Alzheimer's disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A descriptive, retrospective study was carried out; 23 patients with Alzheimer's dementia from the State Reference Center for Care for People with Alzheimer's Disease were analyzed during the 2013-2014 period. The data were obtained through the dissertation questionnaire, and analyzed using the X2 test and the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS. The ages of the participants ranged from 55 to 90 years. The average of scores according to the executive questionnaire showed a value of 21,69. In the planning, significant differences were observed between patients with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease (p = 0.020); as well as between the mild and moderately severe phase (p = 0.014). In social consciousness it was similar between the mild and moderate stages (p = 0.036). CONCLUSION. Frontal release reflexes and dissecting symptoms were affected, but no relationship between them and the severity of Alzheimer's disease was evident. The hypothesis was refuted that, to a greater degree of severity, greater disejecutiva involvement and frontal release reflexes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Severity of Illness Index , Dementia , Executive Function , Alzheimer Disease , Observational Study , Frontal Lobe , Depression , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Neuropsychological Tests
10.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 57(3): 264-271, 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058122

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El pensamiento moral es una habilidad mental que permite a los seres humanos respetar las normativas sociales implícitas y explícitas. Un factor que puede alterar su funcionamiento es el daño cerebral adquirido, como suele suceder en sujetos que han sufrido una injuria encefálica a nivel frontal. Objetivo: Analizar la relación entre el proceso del pensamiento moral y el funcionamiento cerebral, a través de la descripción de casos que han sufrido un daño cerebral adquirido, con la finalidad de explicitar la situación que vive un individuo luego de presentar un daño cerebral y volverse incapaz de respetar las normas sociales. Desarrollo: Se expone la clínica de pacientes que han sufrido un daño cerebral a nivel frontal, como es el caso de Phineas Gage, NN y Elliot, en los cuales se observó que su estado posterior al evento traumático, se caracterizó por retroceder a estadios previos del pensamiento moral, a diferencia de pacientes como el clásico HM, quien presentó un daño cerebral en una estructura diferente a la frontal. Conclusiones: Se discute el análisis realizado en torno al papel que desempeña el lóbulo frontal en el proceso de respeto de las normas sociales, su influencia en la interacción humana y cómo puede verse afectado el pensamiento moral cuando existe un daño cerebral a este nivel.


Introduction: Moral thinking is a mental skill that allows respecting implicit and explicit social norms. One factor that can alter its functioning is acquired brain damage, as is the case of subjects who have suffered a brain injury at the frontal lobe. Aim: To analyze the relationship between the process of moral thinking and brain functioning, through the description of cases that have suffered acquired brain damage, with the purpose of explaining the situation that an individual lives after presenting brain damage and becoming unable to respect social norms. Development: The clinic of patients who have suffered brain damage at the frontal level, such as Phineas Gage, NN and Elliot, is shown, in which it was observed that its state after the traumatic event was characterized by going back to previous stages of thinking moral, unlike a subject who may present brain damage in later structures. Conclusions: We discuss the analysis performed on the role of the frontal lobe in the process of respecting social norms that allow human interaction and how it can be affected by brain damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aptitude , Brain Injuries , Social Norms , Frontal Lobe , Morale
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786490

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate regional cerebral amyloid beta retention in cognitively normal Korean adults using F-18 florbetaben (FBB).METHODS: We prospectively analyzed F-18 FBB positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans of 30 cognitively healthy adults (age range, 50??0 years) using automated quantification. The standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) of F-18 FBB were calculated for predefined regions by normalizing the regional count with cerebellar cortex.RESULTS: The distribution of amyloid beta for each brain region revealed no age-related trends (p > 0.05). From all subjects, mean SUVR of amyloid deposit was 1.30 ± 0.18. The right parietal lobe showed the highest SUVR value (1.46 ± 0.23), whereas the right frontal lobe and left precuneus showed the lowest SUVR (1.23 ± 0.25).CONCLUSIONS: We provide reference values of normative data obtained from healthy elderly Koreans and suggest its use for accurate diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer's disease.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Brain , Cerebellar Cortex , Diagnosis , Frontal Lobe , Humans , Parietal Lobe , Plaque, Amyloid , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prospective Studies , Reference Values
12.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 474-484, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763780

ABSTRACT

Absence seizures (AS) are generalized non-convulsive seizures characterized by a brief loss of consciousness and spike-and-wave discharges (SWD) in an electroencephalogram (EEG). A number of animal models have been developed to explain the mechanisms of AS, and thalamo-cortical networks are considered to be involved. However, the cortical foci have not been well described in mouse models of AS. This study aims to use a high density EEG in pathophysiologically different AS models to compare the spatiotemporal patterns of SWDs. We used two AS models: a pharmacologically induced model (gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, GHB model) and a transgenic model (phospholipase beta4 knock-out, PLCβ4 model). The occurrences of SWDs were confirmed by thalamic recordings. The topographical analysis of SWDs showed that the onset and propagation patterns were markedly distinguishable between the two models. In the PLCβ4 model, the foci were located within the somatosensory cortex followed by propagation to the frontal cortex, whereas in the GHB model, a majority of SWDs was initiated in the prefrontal cortex followed by propagation to the posterior cortex. In addition, in the GHB model, foci were also observed in other cortical areas. This observation indicates that different cortical networks are involved in the generation of SWDs across the two models.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy, Absence , Frontal Lobe , Mice , Models, Animal , Prefrontal Cortex , Seizures , Somatosensory Cortex , Unconsciousness
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763532

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Dopamine plays a significant role in working memory by acting as a key neuromodulator between brain networks. Additionally, treatment of patients with schizophrenia using amisulpride, a pure dopamine class 2/3 receptor antagonist, improves their clinical symptoms with fewer side effects. We hypothesized that patients with schizophrenia treated with amisulpride and aripiprazole show increased working memory and glucose metabolism compared with those treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and aripiprazole instead. METHODS: Sixteen patients with schizophrenia (eight in the amisulpride group [aripiprazole+amisulpride] and eight in the CBT group [aripiprazole+CBT]) and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were recruited for a 12-week-long prospective trial. An [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computerized tomography scanner was used to acquire the images. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of treatment, the amisulpride group showed greater improvement in the Letter-Number Span scores than the CBT group. Additionally, although brain metabolism in the left middle frontal gyrus, left occipital lingual gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobe was increased in all patients with schizophrenia, the amisulpride group exhibited a greater increase in metabolism in both the right superior frontal gyrus and right frontal precentral gyrus than the CBT group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a small dose of amisulpride improves the general psychopathology, working memory performance, and brain glucose metabolism of patients with schizophrenia treated with aripiprazole.


Subject(s)
Aripiprazole , Brain , Cognition , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Dopamine , Electrons , Frontal Lobe , Glucose , Humans , Memory, Short-Term , Metabolism , Neurotransmitter Agents , Occipital Lobe , Parietal Lobe , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prefrontal Cortex , Prospective Studies , Psychopathology , Schizophrenia , Sulpiride
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763097

ABSTRACT

Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) is rare, and the diagnosis is difficult to make because of its variable radiologic expressions. Early corticosteroid therapy often is effective. Herein we report the case of a 56-year-old man who had a well-enhanced cystic mass with severe edema in the right frontal lobe, which was initially felt to be a malignancy. Histologic examination of tissue removed at craniotomy revealed that it was a PCNSV. Despite early administration of corticosteroids, a new lesion developed within 3 days. The lesions responded to treatment with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroid.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Craniotomy , Cyclophosphamide , Diagnosis , Edema , Frontal Lobe , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Middle Aged , Vasculitis , Vasculitis, Central Nervous System
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758485

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the efficacy of the white matter (WM) to gray matter (GM) signal intensity ratio (SIR) in predicting the clinical prognosis of cardiac arrest patients. METHODS: Thirty-one patients who were resuscitated from cardiac arrest and underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were investigated retrospectively. Thirty one subjects with normal brain MRI findings served as the controls. The signal intensities (SI) were measured on T2-weighted image (T2WI). The circular regions of measurement (2–10 mm²) were placed over the regions of interest, and the average signals in GM and WM were recorded in the caudate nucleus (CN), putamen, anterior limb of the internal capsule, corpus callosum (CC), and in the cortex and WM of the frontal lobe. Cerebral performance category (CPC) 1–2 were classified as a good prognosis, and CPC 3–5 were classified as a poor prognosis. RESULTS: Most combinations of the SIR of WM to GM and most SIs of GM, except the frontal cortex, were significantly different between the two groups. On the other hand, the SI of WM was insignificant between both groups. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the SIR of the CC to CN had an area under the ROC curve (AUROC) of 1.00 for a cut-off value of 1.59 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 100%), the SIR of the CC to putamen had also an AUROC of 1.00 for a cut-off value of 1.43 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 100%). CONCLUSION: The SIR of WM to GM measured on a T2WI is related to the neurological outcome after a cardiac arrest.


Subject(s)
Brain , Caudate Nucleus , Coma , Corpus Callosum , Extremities , Frontal Lobe , Gray Matter , Hand , Heart Arrest , Humans , Internal Capsule , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prognosis , Putamen , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , White Matter
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766405

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Dysphagia is a common consequence of stroke with a negative effect on the clinical outcome. Given these potential outcomes, it is important to identify the precursors to dysphagia after stroke. The aims of this study were to identify lesions associated with dysphagia after an ischemic supratentorial stroke using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) and compare the difference in the lesion pattern between the oral and pharyngeal phase dysphagia. METHODS: Stroke patients who met the following inclusion criteria were screened retrospectively between January 2012 and November 2014: a first-ever stroke, supratentorial lesion and who underwent brain MRI and functional dysphagia scale (FDS) from videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). Finally, the MRI data of 83 patients were analyzed. Statistical maps of the lesion contribution related to dysphagia were generated using VLSM. RESULTS: VLSM showed that FDS was associated with damage to the putamen, caudate, insula, frontal precentral gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus. The lesions were distributed more widely in the left than right hemisphere. Lesions correlated with the FDS oral score were distributed mainly in the frontal lobe and insula. Otherwise, the associated lesion with the FDS pharyngeal score was mainly the basal ganglia. CONCLUSION: In these results, lesions that correlated with dysphagia were distributed more widely in the left hemisphere, reflecting the possibility of lateralization of the swallowing function. Oral phase dysphagia was associated with left frontal lobe and insula; the lesion correlated with the cognitive function or apraxia. On the other hand, VLSM revealed the lesions associated with pharyngeal dysphagia to be the basal ganglia, which is a structure that plays a role in the automatic motor control network.


Subject(s)
Apraxias , Basal Ganglia , Brain , Brain Mapping , Cognition , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders , Frontal Lobe , Hand , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroanatomy , Prefrontal Cortex , Putamen , Retrospective Studies , Stroke
17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 662-670, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760982

ABSTRACT

The neuroimaging has been applied in the study of pathophysiology in major depressive disorder (MDD). In this review article, several kinds of methodologies of neuroimaging would be discussed to summarize the promising biomarkers in MDD. For the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetoencephalography field, the literature review showed the potentially promising roles of frontal lobes, such as anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, the limbic regions, such as hippocampus and amygdala, might be the potentially promising biomarkers for MDD. The structures and functions of ACC, DLPFC, OFC, amygdala and hippocampus might be confirmed as the biomarkers for the prediction of antidepressant treatment responses and for the pathophysiology of MDD. The functions of cognitive control and emotion regulation of these regions might be crucial for the establishment of biomarkers. The near-infrared spectroscopy studies demonstrated that blood flow in the frontal lobe, such as the DLPFC and OFC, might be the biomarkers for the field of near-infrared spectroscopy. The electroencephalography also supported the promising role of frontal regions, such as the ACC, DLPFC and OFC in the biomarker exploration, especially for the sleep electroencephalogram to detect biomarkers in MDD. The positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in MDD demonstrated the promising biomarkers for the frontal and limbic regions, such as ACC, DLPFC and amygdala. However, additional findings in brainstem and midbrain were also found in PET and SPECT. The promising neuroimaging biomarkers of MDD seemed focused in the fronto-limbic regions.


Subject(s)
Amygdala , Biomarkers , Brain Stem , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Electroencephalography , Frontal Lobe , Gyrus Cinguli , Hippocampus , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetoencephalography , Mesencephalon , Neuroimaging , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prefrontal Cortex , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Tomography, Emission-Computed , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
18.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 370-378, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760936

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Biomarkers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are crucial for early diagnosis and intervention, in which the identification of biomarkers in other areas of the body that represent the immature brain of children with ADHD is necessary. The present study aimed to find biomarkers of ADHD in the retina and assessed the relationship between macular thickness of the retina and cortical thickness of the brain in children with ADHD. METHODS: Twelve children with ADHD and 13 control children were recruited for the study. To find ocular markers of ADHD, we investigated the correlation between clinical symptoms of ADHD assessed with the Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS), cortical thickness of the brain, and macular thickness measured with the mean thickness from the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS). RESULTS: Children with ADHD showed increased macular thicknesses quantified as an ETDRS ring in both eyes, compared to control subjects. Moreover, the right inner ETDRS ring had a positive correlation with K-ARS scores. The ADHD group had an increased ratio of thickness of the right frontal lobe to that of the parietal cortex, compared with the control group. There were positive correlations between the means of the inner ETDRS ring (right) and the left paracentral/right isthmus cingulate thicknesses in the control group. However, there were negative correlations between the means of the inner ETDRS ring (right) and the left frontal pole/right pars triangularis thicknesses in the ADHD group. The results of both groups were at the uncorrected level. CONCLUSION: The different patterns of macular thickness might represent the immature cortical thickness of the brain in children with ADHD.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Biomarkers , Brain , Broca Area , Child , Diabetic Retinopathy , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Frontal Lobe , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Parietal Lobe , Pilot Projects , Retina
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739666

ABSTRACT

Supratentorial extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma (SEAE) in adults is a relatively rare intracranial tumor. Because of the very low prevalence, only a few cases have been reported. According to a recent study, SEAE is associated with a poor prognosis and there is no definite consensus on optimal treatment. We report a case of an adult SEAE patient who had no recurrence until seven years after a gross total resection (GTR) followed by conventional radiotherapy. A 42-year-old male had a persistent mild headache, left facial palsy, dysarthria, and left hemiparesis. Preoperative neuroimaging revealed an anaplastic astrocytoma or supratentorial ependymoma in the right frontal lobe. A GTR was performed, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. Histologic and immunohistochemical results revealed anaplastic ependymoma. After seven years of initial therapy, a regular follow-up MRI showed a 3-cm-sized partially cystic mass in the same area as the initial tumor. The patient underwent a craniotomy, and a GTR was performed. Histopathologic examination revealed recurrence of the SEAE. External radiotherapy was performed. The patient has been stable without any disease progression or complications for 12 months since the surgery for recurrent SEAE.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Consensus , Craniotomy , Disease Progression , Dysarthria , Ependymoma , Facial Paralysis , Follow-Up Studies , Frontal Lobe , Headache , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Neuroimaging , Paresis , Prevalence , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Supratentorial Neoplasms
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741922

ABSTRACT

The core concept for pathophysiology in panic disorder (PD) is the fear network model (FNM). The alterations in FNM might be linked with disturbances in the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which is a common phenomenon in PD. The traditional FNM included the frontal and limbic regions, which were dysregulated in the feedback mechanism for cognitive control of frontal lobe over the primitive response of limbic system. The exaggerated responses of limbic system are also associated with dysregulation in the neurotransmitter system. The neuroimaging studies also corresponded to FNM concept. However, more extended areas of FNM have been discovered in recent imaging studies, such as sensory regions of occipital, parietal cortex and temporal cortex and insula. The insula might integrate the filtered sensory information via thalamus from the visuospatial and other sensory modalities related to occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. In this review article, the traditional and advanced FNM would be discussed. I would also focus on the current evidences of insula, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes in the pathophysiology. In addition, the white matter and functional connectome studies would be reviewed to support the concept of advanced FNM. An emerging dysregulation model of fronto-limbic-insula and temporooccipito-parietal areas might be revealed according to the combined results of recent neuroimaging studies. The future delineation of advanced FNM model can be beneficial from more extensive and advanced studies focusing on the additional sensory regions of occipital, parietal and temporal cortex to confirm the role of advanced FNM in the pathophysiology of PD.


Subject(s)
Autonomic Nervous System , Connectome , Frontal Lobe , Limbic System , Neuroimaging , Neurotransmitter Agents , Occipital Lobe , Panic Disorder , Panic , Parietal Lobe , Rabeprazole , Temporal Lobe , Thalamus , White Matter
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