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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1058-1066, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012396

ABSTRACT

El consumo de fructosa ha aumentado en los últimos 50 años por la incorporación a la dieta de jarabe de maíz alto en fructosa (JMAF), presente en productos industrializados, como las bebidas azucaradas. Se puede asociar la ingesta de fructosa en altas concentraciones con el aumento de la obesidad y trastornos metabólicos. La fructosa, un azúcar natural que se encuentra en muchas frutas, se consume en cantidades significativas en las dietas occidentales. En cantidades iguales, es más dulce que la glucosa o la sacarosa y, por lo tanto, se usa comúnmente como edulcorante. Debido al incremento de obesidad entre la población joven y general y a los efectos negativos que puede tener a corto y largo plazo es importante considerar de donde provienen las calorías que se ingieren diariamente. Esta revisión describirá la relación entre el consumo de fructosa en altas concentraciones y el riesgo de desarrollar obesidad, resistencia a la insulina, lipogenesis de novo e inflamación.


The consumption of fructose has increased in the last 50 years due to the incorporation into the diet of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), present in industrialized products, such as sugary drinks. The intake of fructose in high concentrations can be associated with the increase of obesity and metabolic disorders. Fructose, a natural sugar found in many fruits, is consumed in significant quantities in Western diets. In equal amounts, it is sweeter than glucose or sucrose and, therefore, is commonly used as a sweetener. Due to the increase of obesity among the young and general population and the negative effects that can have in the short and long term it is important to consider where the calories that are ingested daily come from. This review will describe the relationship between fructose consumption in high concentrations and the risk of developing obesity, insulin resistance, de novo lipogenesis, nonalcoholic fatty liver, inflammation and metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Sweetening Agents/adverse effects , Insulin Resistance , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Fructose/adverse effects , Obesity/chemically induced , Sweetening Agents/metabolism , Beverages , Body Weight/drug effects , Lipogenesis/drug effects , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/adverse effects , Inflammation
2.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 376-384, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019349

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To test the influence of oral fructose and glucose dose-response solutions in blood glucose (BG), glucagon, triglycerides, uricaemia, and malondialdehyde in postprandial states in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Subjects and methods The study had a simple-blind, randomized, two-way crossover design in which T1DM patients were selected to receive fructose and glucose solutions (75g of sugars dissolved in 200 mL of mineral-water) in two separate study days, with 2-7 weeks washout period. In each day, blood samples were drawn after 8h fasting and at 180 min postprandial to obtain glucose, glucagon, triglycerides, uric acid, lactate, and malondialdehyde levels. Results Sixteen T1DM patients (seven men) were evaluated, with a mean age of 25.19 ± 8.8 years, a mean duration of disease of 14.88 ± 4.73 years, and glycated hemoglobin of 8.13 ± 1.84%. Fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG levels than glucose (4.4 ± 5.5 mmol/L; and 12.9 ± 4.1 mmol/L, respectively; p < 0.01). Uric acid levels increased after fructose (26.1 ± 49.9 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and reduced after glucose (-13.6 ± 9.5 µmol/L; p < 0.01). The malondialdehyde increased after fructose (1.4 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and did not change after glucose solution (-0.2 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p = 0.40). Other variables did not change. Conclusions Fructose and glucose had similar sweetness, flavor and aftertaste characteristics and did not change triglycerides, lactate or glucagon levels. Although fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG than glucose, it increased uric acid and malondialdehyde levels in T1DM patients. Therefore it should be used with caution. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT01713023.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sweetening Agents/metabolism , Postprandial Period/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Cross-Over Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Tolerance
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 71-77, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053491

ABSTRACT

Background: Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) is a fructan-rich plant with prebiotic potential. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient enzymatic route to prepare fructooligosaccharides (FOS)-rich and highly antioxidative syrup using burdock root as a raw material. Results: Endo-inulinase significantly improved the yield of FOS 2.4-fold while tannase pretreatment further increased the yield of FOS 2.8-fold. Other enzymes, including endo-polygalacturonase, endo-glucanase and endo-xylanase, were able to increase the yield of total soluble sugar by 11.1% (w/w). By this process, a new enzymatic process for burdock syrup was developed and the yield of burdock syrup increased by 25% (w/w), whereas with FOS, total soluble sugars, total soluble protein and total soluble polyphenols were enhanced to 28.8%, 53.3%, 8.9% and 3.3% (w/w), respectively. Additionally, the scavenging abilities of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, and total antioxidant capacity of the syrup were increased by 23.7%, 51.8% and 35.4%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results could be applied to the development of efficient extraction of valuable products from agricultural materials using enzyme-mediated methods.


Subject(s)
Oligosaccharides/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Fructose/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Antioxidants/chemistry , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases/metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Hydroxyl Radical , Arctium , Functional Food , Polyphenols , Fructose/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(2): 137-143, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002619

ABSTRACT

La cocción de los alimentos a altas temperaturas en calor seco, produce ciertas modificaciones organolépticas que los hace especialmente apetecibles y objetos de adicción. Esto es resultado de la reacción de Maillard, o glicación, que se produce por unión no enzimática del grupo carbonilo, de azúcares reductores como glucosa y fructosa, con el grupo amino de proteínas y ácidos nucleicos. Junto a los cambios físicos, cambia la estructura química y la función de estos aductos, denominados también glicotoxinas. Además de la glicación exógena, generada durante la cocción de los alimentos, recientemente ha sido referida la glicación in situ, en la luz intestinal, durante la digestión, cuando determinados alimentos no glicados se combinan en el momento de su ingestión. A esto se agrega la glicación endógena extracelular relacionada con la glucosa sanguínea y la intracelular, con metabolitos de la glucólisis y de la fructosa. Desde la década del 70, con el remplazo en gran medida de la sacarosa por fructosa, significativamente más reactiva que la glucosa, aumentó la presencia de productos de glicación en alimentos procesados y bebidas gaseosas. Están documentados sus efectos patogénicos como contribuyentes al estrés oxidativo y a la inflamación, especialmente en diabetes, insuficiencia renal y enfermedad cardiovascular y están siendo explorados en otras enfermedades crónicas, como procesos neurodegenerativos y envejecimiento temprano. Se describen medidas para preservar la salud, atendiendo medios de cocción y procesamiento de los alimentos y recomendaciones sobre hábitos de vida e ingesta de antioxidantes para acción inhibitoria o antagónica sobre las glicotoxinas.


Certain organoleptic modifications by way of processing and cooking foods at high temperatures in dry heat, make them especially appetizing and objects of addiction. It results from Maillard reaction, or glycation, consisting of the non-enzymatic union between carbonyl groups, mainly from reducing sugars as glucose and fructose, with the amino group of proteins and nucleic acids. In addition to physical changes, also the chemical structure and function of these compounds are changed. Besides exogenous glycation generated during the cooking of foods, recently in situ glycation has been reported in the intestinal lumen during digestion, when certain non-glycated foods are combined with fructose at the time of ingestion. In addition, endogenous glycation, which correlates in the extracellular mainly with blood glucose and in the intracellular with glycolysis metabolites and fructose, is specially significant. Since the 70s, with the frequent sucrose replacement by fructose, much more reactive than glucose, the presence of glycation products in processed foods and soft drinks increased.Pathogenic effects of these compounds, also called glycotoxins, are known to contribute to oxidative stress and inflammation. This increases progression of chronic diseases, well documented in diabetes, renal insuficiency, cardiovascular disease and aging process, and are being explore d in many other chronic diseases as neurodegenerative disorders and early aging. Based on the knowledge achieved so far, measures to preserve health are described by attending ways of cooking and processing foods, besides recommendations for life habits and antioxidants dietary intakes for inhibition or antagonism on glycotoxins.


Subject(s)
Humans , Maillard Reaction , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Food , Risk Factors , Glycation End Products, Advanced/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism
5.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(6): 609-615, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976017

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To study fructose malabsorption in children and adolescents with abdominal pain associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders. As an additional objective, the association between intestinal fructose malabsorption and food intake, including the estimated fructose consumption, weight, height, and lactulose fermentability were also studied. Methods: The study included 31 patients with abdominal pain (11 with functional dyspepsia, 10 with irritable bowel syndrome, and 10 with functional abdominal pain). The hydrogen breath test was used to investigate fructose malabsorption and lactulose fermentation in the intestinal lumen. Food consumption was assessed by food registry. Weight and height were measured. Results: Fructose malabsorption was characterized in 21 (67.7%) patients (nine with irritable bowel syndrome, seven with functional abdominal pain, and five with functional dyspepsia). Intolerance after fructose administration was observed in six (28.6%) of the 21 patients with fructose malabsorption. Fructose malabsorption was associated with higher (p < 0.05) hydrogen production after lactulose ingestion, higher (p < 0.05) energy and carbohydrate consumption, and higher (p < 0.05) body mass index z-score value for age. Median estimates of daily fructose intake by patients with and without fructose malabsorption were, respectively, 16.1 and 10.5 g/day (p = 0.087). Conclusion: Fructose malabsorption is associated with increased lactulose fermentability in the intestinal lumen. Body mass index was higher in patients with fructose malabsorption.


Resumo Objetivo: Pesquisar a má absorção de frutose em crianças e adolescentes com dor abdominal associada com distúrbios funcionais gastrintestinais. Como objetivo adicional, estudou-se a relação entre a má absorção intestinal de frutose e a ingestão alimentar, inclusive a estimativa de consumo de frutose, o peso e a estatura dos pacientes e a capacidade de fermentação de lactulose. Métodos: Foram incluídos 31 pacientes com dor abdominal (11 com dispepsia funcional, 10 com síndrome do intestino irritável e 10 com dor abdominal funcional). O teste de hidrogênio no ar expirado foi usado para pesquisar a má absorção de frutose e a fermentação de lactulose na luz intestinal. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por registro alimentar. Foram mensurados também o peso e a estatura dos pacientes. Resultados: Má absorção de frutose foi caracterizada em 21 (67,7%) pacientes (nove com síndrome do intestino irritável, sete com dor abdominal funcional e cinco com dispepsia funcional). Intolerância após administração de frutose foi observada em seis (28,6%) dos 21 pacientes com má absorção de frutose. Má absorção de frutose associou-se com maior produção de hidrogênio após ingestão de lactulose (p < 0,05), maior consumo de energia e carboidratos (p < 0,05) e maior valor de escore z de IMC para a idade (p < 0,05). As medianas da estimativa de ingestão diária de frutose pelos pacientes com e sem má absorção de frutose foram, respectivamente, 16,1 e 10,5 g/dia (p = 0,087). Conclusão: Má absorção de frutose associa-se com maior capacidade de fermentação de lactulose na luz intestinal. O índice de massa corporal foi maior nos pacientes com má absorção de frutose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Abdominal Pain/metabolism , Fermentation/physiology , Fructose/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Lactulose/metabolism , Malabsorption Syndromes/metabolism , Reference Values , Time Factors , Body Height/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Breath Tests , Fructose Intolerance/metabolism , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Eating/physiology , Hydrogen/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/physiopathology , Malabsorption Syndromes/physiopathology
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(2): 676-683, June 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-893039

ABSTRACT

Uno de los endulzantes más comúnmente utilizado es la fructosa. La fructosa es directamente metabolizada en el hígado y se puede transformar en glucosa, posteriormente es almacenada como glicógeno constituyéndose en una fuente de energía para los hepatocitos. Todo el exceso de fructosa se convierte en lípidos ejerciendo un efecto tóxico sobre el hígado, similar al producido por el exceso de alcohol, pudiendo provocar hígado graso no alcohólico (NAFLD). El objetivo de esta revisión es reunir hallazgos recientes en relación al efecto de la ingesta de fructosa en altas concentraciones y su relación con el NAFLD.


One of the most commonly used sweeteners is fructose. Fructose is directly metabolized in the liver and can be converted into glucose, later stored as glycogen constituting a source of energy for the hepatocytes. All excess fructose is converted into lipids by exerting a toxic effect on the liver, similar to that produced by excess of alcohol, and can cause nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD). The aim of this review is to gather recent findings regarding the effect of fructose intake at high concentrations and its relationship with NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/chemically induced , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Fructose/adverse effects , Hepatic Stellate Cells/drug effects , Fructose/metabolism , Fructose/pharmacology , Liver Cirrhosis/chemically induced
7.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 27: 32-36, May. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010171

ABSTRACT

Background: Dietary plant-based foods contain combinations of various bioactive compounds such as phytochemical compounds and vitamins. The combined effect of these vitamins and phytochemicals remains unknown, especially in the prevention of diabetes and its complications. The present study aimed to investigate the combined effect of ascorbic acid and gallic acid on fructose-induced protein glycation and oxidation. Results: Ascorbic acid (15 µg/mL) and gallic acid (0.1 µg/mL) reduced fructose-induced formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in bovine serum albumin (BSA; 10 mg/mL) by 15.06% and 37.83%, respectively. The combination of ascorbic acid and gallic acid demonstrated additive inhibition on the formation of AGEs after 2 weeks of incubation. In addition, synergistic inhibition on the formation of amyloid cross-ß structure and protein carbonyl content in fructose-glycated BSA was observed. At the same concentration, the combination of ascorbic acid and gallic acid produced a significant additive effect on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Conclusion: Combining natural compounds such as ascorbic acid and gallic acid seems to be a promising strategy to prevent the formation of AGEs.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/metabolism , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Gallic Acid/metabolism , Biphenyl Compounds , Glycosylation , Free Radical Scavengers , Protein Carbonylation , Oxidation , Fructose/metabolism
8.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2033-2041, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886795

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The effect on different three carbon source (i.e. glucose, fructose and sucrose) on production, chemical characterization and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Phellinus vaninii Ljup was investigated in this study. Amongst carbon sources examined, glucose and sucrose were favorable for the mycelia growth, while the maximum EPS yield was achieved when sucrose was employed. The predominant carbohydrate compositions in EPSs identified were gluconic acid, glucose, mannose and galactose acid. Then, FT-IR spectral analysis revealed prominent characteristic groups in EPSs. EPSs molecule exist as nearly globular shape form in aqueous solution. The variation also affects antioxidant activities by investigated by using hydroxyl and DPPH radical scavenging assay. Sucrose was best carbon source from the viewpoint of antioxidant activity due to the relatively high contents of galactose in the EPS with moderate molecular weight and polydispersity.


Subject(s)
Polysaccharides, Bacterial/metabolism , Carbon/metabolism , Fungal Polysaccharides , Sucrose/metabolism , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism
9.
European J Med Plants ; 2014 Dec; 4(12): 1489-1500
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-164213

ABSTRACT

Aims: Today there are concerns about possible adverse effects of dietary sugars. This study was set up to compare the metabolic dysfunction induced by dietary fructose in male rats with that of the female, investigate the modulatory effect of Loranthus micranthus on this dysfunction and compare this with that of nifedipine. Study Design: Fifty six rats assigned to four groups of 7 male and 7 females (hosted in different cages) per group were used in the study. The water of group B, C and D rats were supplemented with 10% fructose for the first two 2 weeks and was later increased to 20%, 30% and 40% fructose after every 2 other weeks respectively. Nifedipine (10mg/Kg) was administered to group C while L. micranthus (600mg/Kg) was orally administered to group D. All administrations were carried out daily as a single dose after which the rats were sacrificed and the serum analyzed for the lipid components. The serum glucose level was also measured after every 2 weeks interval. Results: Fructose administration increased serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, VLDL-C, atherogenic and coronary risk indexes but decreased serum HDL-C significantly. The increase was greater in the male rats. Serum glucose was not altered during the first 6 weeks of study but was observed to be significantly increased above the initial value after 8 weeks of study. Both L. micranthus and nifedipine prevented this metabolic dysfunction but the effect was more pronounced with L. micranthus extract. Conclusion: The study concludes that male subjects are more prone to metabolic dysfunction of fructose than the female group and that L. micranthus is efficacious in preventing this defect in both male and female subject.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cholesterol/blood , Female , Fructose/metabolism , Lipoproteins/blood , Loranthaceae/therapeutic use , Male , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Leaves/therapeutic use , Rats , Risk Factors
10.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2014. 76 f p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-751651

ABSTRACT

Hábitos inadequados no estilo de vida, pelo consumo exacerbado de dietas ricas em gorduras e açúcares (frutose e sacarose), correlacionam-se positivamente com o desenvolvimento da obesidade, da resistência à insulina (RI) e da esteatose hepática não alcoólica (NAFLD). O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a magnitude dos efeitos da administração crônica de dietas ricas em gordura e/ou frutose, e ainda, comparar os efeitos dos açúcares isoladamente (frutose e sacarose) sob as alterações bioquímicas, o perfil inflamatório, as respostas morfofuncionais e as expressões proteicas e gênicas de fatores de transcrição envolvidos na lipogênese, na beta-oxidação, na gliconeogênese e no estresse oxidativo no fígado. Camundongos machos C57BL/6 foram divididos em dois experimentos: 1) Dieta controle/standard chow (SC), dieta high fat (HF – 42%), dieta high frutose (HFr – 34%) e dieta high fat + high frutose (HFHFr - 42% fat + 34% frutose) por 16 semanas; 2) Dieta controle/standard chow (SC), dieta high frutose (HFru – 50%) e dieta high sacarose (HSu – 50%) por 15 semanas. Ao final dos experimentos foram observados: 1) Não houve diferença na massa corporal entre os animais HFr e SC, só foi observado ganho de peso nos grupos HF e HFHFr. Houve ainda aumento do colesterol total, dos triglicerídeos plasmáticos e hepáticos e RI nos grupos HF, HFr e HFHFr. No fígado, foi observado NAFLD com aumento na expressão de SREBP-1c e PPAR-γ, e redução de PPAR-α. A gliconeogênese mediada pelo GLUT-2 e PEPCK também foi aumentada nos grupos HF, HFr e HFHFr em relação ao grupo SC. Áreas de necroinflamação também foram observadas nos animais HFr e HFHFr; 2) Não houve diferença na massa corporal entre os grupos SC, HFru e HSu. Porém, houve aumento do colesterol total, dos triglicerídeos plasmáticos e hepáticos, da RI, das adipocinas (IL-6, resistina, MCP-1 e leptina), e redução da adiponectina...


Habits unsuitable lifestyle, exacerbated by consumption of diets rich in fat and sugars (sucrose and fructose) are positively correlated with the development of obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of the effects of chronic administration of diets rich in fat and/or fructose, and also compare the effects of sugars alone (fructose and sucrose) in the biochemical changes, the inflammatory profile, and the morphological and functional responses the protein and gene expression of transcription factors involved in lipogenesis, beta-oxidation, gluconeogenesis and oxidative stress in the liver. Male C57BL / 6 mice were divided into two experiments: 1) Diet control/standard chow (SC), high fat diet (HF - 42%), high-fructose diet (HFr - 34%) and high fat + high fructose diet (HFHFr - 42% fat + 34% fructose) for 16 weeks; 2) Diet control/standard chow (SC), high-fructose diet (HFru - 50%) and high sucrose diet (HSu - 50%) for 15 weeks. At the end of the experiments were observed: 1) There was no difference in body mass between HFr and SC groups, only weight gain was observed in the HF group and HFHFr. There was also an increase in total cholesterol, plasma and hepatic triglycerides and IR in HF, HFr, HFHFr groups. In the liver, NAFLD was observed with increased expression of SREBP-1c, PPAR-γ and PPAR-α reduction. The gluconeogenesis mediated by GLUT-2 and PEPCK was also increased in HF, HFr and HFHFr groups compared to SC. Areas of necroinflammation were also observed in HFr and HFHFr; 2) There was no difference in body mass between the SC, HFru and HSu groups. However, there was an increase in total cholesterol, plasma and hepatic triglycerides, IR, adipokines (IL-6, resistin, leptin and MCP-1), and decreased of adiponectin...


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diet, High-Fat , Fatty Liver/metabolism , Eating/physiology , Body Composition , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Fructose/metabolism , Fructose , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diet therapy , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Dietary Sucrose/metabolism , Dietary Sucrose
11.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 50(3): 226-230, July-Sept/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687253

ABSTRACT

Context Fructose is a monosaccharide frequently present in natural and artificial juice fruits. When the concentration of fructose in certain food is present in excess of glucose concentration some individuals may develop fructose malabsorption. Objectives To report the frequency of fructose malabsorption utilizing the hydrogen breath test in children with gastrointestinal and/or nutritional disorders. Methods Between July 2011 and July 2012, 43 patients with gastrointestinal and/or nutritional disorders, from both sexes, were consecutively studied, utilizing the hydrogen breath test with loads of the following carbohydrates: lactose, glucose, fructose and lactulose. Fructose was offered in a 10% aqueous solution in the dose of 1 g/kg body weight. Samples were collected fasting and at every 15 minutes after the intake of the aqueous solution for a 2 hour period. Malabsorption was considered when there was an increase of >20 ppm of hydrogen over the fasting level, and intolerance was diagnosed if gastrointestinal symptoms would appear. Results The age of the patients varied from 3 months to 16 years, 24 were boys. The following diagnosis were established: irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea in 16, functional abdominal pain in 8, short stature in 10, lactose intolerance in 3, celiac disease in 1, food allergy in 1 and giardiasis in 1 patient. Fructose malabsorption was characterized in 13 (30.2%) patients, and intolerance in 1 (2.3%) patient. The most frequent fructose malabsorption was characterized in 7 (16.3%) patients with irritable bowel syndrome and in 4 (9.3%) patients with functional abdominal pain. Conclusions Patients with irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain were the main cause of fructose malabsorption. .


Contexto Frutose é um monossacarídeo frequentemente presente em sucos de frutas naturais e artificiais. Quando a concentração de frutose em determinados alimentos está presente em excesso de glicose, alguns indivíduos podem apresentar má absorção à frutose. Objetivo Descrever a freqüência de má absorção à frutose utilizando o teste do hidrogênio no ar expirado em crianças com transtornos digestivos e/ou nutricionais. Métodos Durante o período compreendido entre julho de 2011 e julho de 2012 foram investigados de forma consecutiva 43 pacientes, de ambos os sexos, com suspeita de má absorção, por meio do teste hidrogênio no ar expirado com sobrecarga dos seguintes carboidratos: lactose, glicose, frutose e lactulose. A frutose foi administrada em solução aquosa 10% à dose de 1 g/kg de peso. Foram obtidas amostras em jejum e, após a ingestão da solução, a cada 15 minutos durante 2 horas. Foi considerada má absorção quando houve incremento >20 ppm de hidrogênio no ar expirado em relação ao jejum, e intolerância caso surgissem sintomas após a sobrecarga. Resultados A idade dos pacientes variou de 3 meses a 16 anos, 24 meninos. Foram estabelecidos os seguintes diagnósticos: síndrome do intestino irritável com diarréia 16, dor abdominal funcional 8, baixa estatura 10, intolerância à lactose 3, doença celíaca 1, alergia alimentar 1 e giardíase 1. Má-absorção à frutose foi caracterizada em 13 (30,2%) pacientes; observou-se intolerância em 1 (2,3%) deles. Síndrome do intestino irritável com diarréia em 7 (16,3%) e dor abdominal funcional em 4 (9,3%) pacientes foram os transtornos com maior prevalência ...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Fructose/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Malabsorption Syndromes/diagnosis , Breath Tests , Intestinal Absorption/physiology , Malabsorption Syndromes/complications , Malabsorption Syndromes/physiopathology , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/physiopathology
12.
Braz. oral res ; 26(2): 100-105, Mar.-Apr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622905

ABSTRACT

Sucrose is the most cariogenic dietary carbohydrate because it is a substrate for insoluble extracellular polysaccharide (IEPS) production in dental biofilms, which can proportionally decrease bacterial density and, consequently, the number of biofilm calcium (Ca) binding sites. Ca bound to bacterial cell walls can be released into the biofilm fluid during a cariogenic challenge, reducing the driving force for mineral dissolution provoked by the pH drop. Thus, we investigated the effect of an IEPS-rich extracellular matrix on bacterial Ca binding after treatment with Ca solutions. Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt 1600 was cultivated in culture broths supplemented with 1.0% sucrose or 0.5% glucose + 0.5% fructose. The IEPS concentration in bacterial pellets was determined after alkaline extraction. Bacterial pellets were treated with 1 mM or 10 mM Ca++ solutions at 37ºC for 10 to 60 min. Ca binding to bacterial pellets, determined after acid extraction using the Arsenazo III reagent, was fast and concentration dependent. Although the IEPS concentration was approximately ten times higher in bacterial pellets cultivated in sucrose as compared to its monossaccharides, bound Ca concentration after Ca treatment was similar in both conditions. These results suggest that IEPS may not influence the amount of Ca bound to reservoirs of dental biofilms.


Subject(s)
Biofilms , Calcium/pharmacokinetics , Streptococcus mutans/metabolism , Sucrose/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Calcium/analysis , Cariogenic Agents/chemistry , Dental Plaque/chemistry , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Extracellular Matrix/chemistry , Fructose/metabolism , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/analysis , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/metabolism , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Time Factors
13.
Clinics ; 66(10): 1793-1796, 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-601915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Because autonomic dysfunction has been found to lead to cardiometabolic disorders and because studies have reported that simvastatin treatment has neuroprotective effects, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin treatment on cardiovascular and autonomic changes in fructose-fed female rats. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: controls (n=8), fructose (n=8), and fructose+ simvastatin (n=8). Fructose overload was induced by supplementing the drinking water with fructose (100 mg/L, 18 wks). Simvastatin treatment (5 mg/kg/day for 2 wks) was performed by gavage. The arterial pressure was recorded using a data acquisition system. Autonomic control was evaluated by pharmacological blockade. RESULTS: Fructose overload induced an increase in the fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels and insulin resistance. The constant rate of glucose disappearance during the insulin intolerance test was reduced in the fructose group (3.4+ 0.32 percent/min) relative to that in the control group (4.4+ 0.29 percent/min). Fructose+simvastatin rats exhibited increased insulin sensitivity (5.4+0.66 percent/min). The fructose and fructose+simvastatin groups demonstrated an increase in the mean arterial pressure compared with controls rats (fructose: 124+2 mmHg and fructose+simvastatin: 126 + 3 mmHg vs. controls: 112 + 2 mmHg). The sympathetic effect was enhanced in the fructose group (73 + 7 bpm) compared with that in the control (48 + 7 bpm) and fructose+simvastatin groups (31+8 bpm). The vagal effect was increased in fructose+simvastatin animals (84 + 7 bpm) compared with that in control (49 + 9 bpm) and fructose animals (46+5 bpm). CONCLUSION: Simvastatin treatment improved insulin sensitivity and cardiac autonomic control in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome in female rats. These effects were independent of the improvements in the classical plasma lipid profile and of reductions in arterial pressure. These results support the hypothesis that statins reduce the cardiometabolic risk in females with metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Fructose/metabolism , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Fasting/blood , Fructose/administration & dosage , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/metabolism , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy , Rats, Wistar , Simvastatin/metabolism , Time Factors
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 26(supl.2): 45-50, 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602643

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The increase in fructose consumption is paralleled by a higher incidence of obesity worldwide. This monosaccharide is linked to metabolic syndrome, being associated with hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. It is metabolized principally in the liver, where it can be converted into fatty acids, which are stored in the form of triglycerides leading to NAFLD. Several models of NAFLD use diets high in simple carbohydrates. Thus, this study aimed to describe the major metabolic changes caused by excessive consumption of fructose in humans and animals and to present liver abnormalities resulting from high intakes of fructose in different periods of consumption and experimental designs in Wistar rats. METHODS: Two groups of rats were fasted for 48 hours and reefed for 24 or 48 hours with a diet containing 63 percent fructose. Another group of rats was fed an diet with 63 percent fructose for 90 days. RESULTS: Refeeding for 24 hours caused accumulation of large amounts of fat, compromising 100 percent of the hepatocytes. The amount of liver fat in animals refed for 48 hours decreased, remaining mostly in zone 2 (medium-zonal). In liver plates of Wistar rats fed 63 percent fructose for 45, 60 and 90 days it's possible to see that there is an increase in hepatocytes with fat accumulation according to the increased time; hepatic steatosis, however, is mild, compromising about 20 percent of the hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Fructose is highly lipogenic, however the induction of chronic models in NAFLD requires long periods of treatment. The acute supply for 24 or 48 hours, fasted rats can cause big changes, liver steatosis with macrovesicular in all lobular zones.


OBJETIVO: O aumento do consumo de frutose é concomitante a maior incidência mundial de obesidade. Este monossacarídeo está relacionado à Síndrome Metabólica, sendo vinculado à hipertrigliceridemia, hipertensão arterial, resistência à insulina e diabetes mellitus. É metabolizada principalmente no fígado, onde pode ser convertida em ácidos graxos, os quais serão estocados na forma de trigligérides ocasionando a esteatose hepática não alcoólica (NAFLD). Vários modelos de NAFLD utilizam dietas ricas em carboidratos simples. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivos descrever as principais alterações metabólicas causadas pelo consumo excessivo de frutose em humanos e em animais e apresentar as alterações hepáticas decorrentes da alta ingestão de frutose em diferentes períodos de consumo e desenhos experimentais em ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Dois grupos de ratos Wistar foram mantidos em jejum durante 48 horas e realimentados por 24 ou 48 horas com dieta contendo 63 por cento de frutose. Outro grupo de ratos Wistar foi alimentado com 63 por cento de frutose durante 90 dias. RESULTADOS: A realimentação por 24 horas provocou acúmulo de grande quantidade de gordura. A quantidade de gordura hepática nos animais realimentados por 48 horas diminuiu, mantendo-se principalmente nas zona 2 (medio-zonal). Em fígados de ratos Wistar alimentados com 63 por cento de frutose até 90 dias foi possível observar que há aumento de hepatócitos com acúmulo de gordura consequente ao aumento do tempo, no entanto a esteatose hepática é leve (20 por cento). CONCLUSÕES: A frutose é altamente lipogênica, no entanto a indução de NAFLD em modelos crônicos necessita de longos períodos de tratamento. A oferta aguda, por 24 ou 48 horas, a ratos mantidos em jejum é capaz de ocasionar grandes mudanças hepáticas, com presença de esteatose macrovesicular em todas as zonas lobulares.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Disease Models, Animal , Fatty Liver/metabolism , Fructose/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Sweetening Agents/metabolism , Fatty Liver/etiology , Fructose/adverse effects , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Sweetening Agents/adverse effects , Time Factors
15.
IJEM-Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2011; 13 (4): 406-411
in English, Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-137484

ABSTRACT

Metabolic dyslipidemia and elevated oxidative stress are very common in patients with diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin, on the plasma lipid profile and levels of MDA in tissues of fructose fed rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: 1. controls that received normal chow and tap water. 2. fructose group that received chow +10% fructose solution in drinking water. 3. The melatonin group that received chow +10% fructose solution+ daily injection of 10 mg/kg [BW] melatonin [ip]. After 8 weeks, plasma concentrations of triglycerides [TG], Total cholesterol [TC], low density lipoprotein [LDL], high density lipoprotein [HDL], and MDA in the tissues were measured and the Atherogenic index [AI] was calculated. The fructose fed rats showed significantly higher levels of TG, [p=0.01] compared to control rats, not in the melatonin group. HDL concentrations showed significant decrease in fructose rats, but not in the melatonin group. TC and LDL did not change significantly.Ai increase in fructose rats [p=0.00] and decrease in melatonin treated rats [p=0.01]. The fructose fed rats had higher MDA values compared with controls and melatonin administration decreased MDA values in heart, kidney and liver tissue. Melatonin intake can regulate metabolic dyslipidemia and decrease MDA levels in fructose fed rats


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Male , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/chemically induced , Fructose/metabolism , Metabolic Diseases/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Malondialdehyde/blood , Rats, Wistar
16.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 16(3): 176-181, maio-jun. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-551075

ABSTRACT

A frutose, por seu metabolismo independente da insulina, realiza significativas alterações no metabolismo hepático, promovendo um entorno metabólico favorável ao metabolismo tanto da glicose como dos lipídios, durante o exercício. Essa condição tem sido bastante estudada em exercício de endurance; no entanto, nenhum estudo sobre a suplementação com frutose no exercício de força (EF) foi encontrado. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos agudos da adição de frutose a um suplemento de glicose sobre o metabolismo de lipídios em EF. Vinte homens treinados ingeriram suplemento de glicose (G) ou glicose mais frutose (G+F), 15 minutos antes de realizar exercício de força (10 séries de 10 repetições). Os sujeitos foram testados em ordem randômica em um desenho cruzado e com uma semana de intervalo em duas condições experimentais: EF+(G) e EF+(G+F). A análise dos resultados mostrou que os valores de triglicérides durante o exercício foram maiores (p < 0,05) quando os sujeitos foram suplementados com G+F do que quando suplementados apenas com G. Ao final do exercício, os valores de ácidos graxos livres foram maiores quando os sujeitos foram suplementados G+F (p < 0,05). A glicemia foi menor durante o exercício e maior na recuperação (p < 0,05) para essa condição. O comportamento da insulina não diferiu entre os experimentos durante o exercício de força (p > 0,05), mas foi maior em G+F que em G (p < 0,05) durante a recuperação. A percepção subjetiva de esforço (PSE) foi menor (p < 0,05) para a suplementação com G+F do que com G. Em conclusão, a suplementação com G+F afeta positivamente o metabolismo de lipídios durante o exercício de força e favorece seu metabolismo imediatamente após o esforço, proporcionando condição metabólica que reflete em uma condição que afeta favoravelmente a PSE.


Due to its insulin-independent metabolism, fructose promotes significant changes in liver metabolism, promoting a metabolic surrounding favorable to the glucose as well as lipids metabolism during the exercise. This condition has been widely studied in endurance exercises; however, none study about fructose supplementation in strength exercise (SE) was found. This study aimed to assess the acute effects of the fructose addition to a glucose supplement on lipid metabolism in strength exercise. Twenty trained male subjects ingested a glucose (G) or glucose plus fuctose (G+F) supplement, 15 minutes before practicing a strength exercise (10 sets of 10 repetitions). The subjects were tested randomly in a crossover design and with a week of pause in two experimental conditions: SE+(G) and SE+(G+F). The analysis of the results showed that values of triglycerides during the exercise were higher (p < 0.05) when the subjects were supplemented with G+F than when they were supplemented only with G. By the end of the exercise the values of free fatty acid were higher when in G+F (p < 0.05). Glycemia was lower during the exercise and higher in the recovery (p < 0.05) in this condition. Insulin values did not differ among the experiments during strength exercises (p > 0.05), but they were higher in G+F than in G (p < 0.05) during recovery. Perceived exertion (PE) was lower (p < 0.05) in G+F than in G. It can be concluded that the G+F supplementation positively affects the lipid metabolism during the strength exercise and favors its metabolism immediately after the effort, promoting a metabolic condition that reflects on a condition that favorably affects the PE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Carbohydrate Metabolism , Fructose/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Resistance Training
17.
Clinics ; 65(7): 729-738, 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-555506

ABSTRACT

The present review updates the current knowledge on the question of whether high fructose consumption is harmful or not and details new findings which further pushes this old debate. Due to large differences in its metabolic handling when compared to glucose, fructose was indeed suggested to be beneficial for the diet of diabetic patients. However its growing industrial use as a sweetener, especially in soft drinks, has focused attention on its potential harmfulness, possibly leading to dyslipidemia, obesity, insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome and even diabetes. Many new data have been generated over the last years, confirming the lipogenic effect of fructose as well as risks of vascular dysfunction and hypertension. Fructose exerts various direct effects in the liver, affecting both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells and resulting in non-alcoholic steatotic hepatitis, a well known precursor of the metabolic syndrome. Hepatic metabolic abnormalities underlie indirect peripheral metabolic and vascular disturbances, for which uric acid is possibly the culprit. Nevertheless major caveats exist (species, gender, source of fructose, study protocols) which are detailed in this review and presently prevent any firm conclusion. New studies taking into account these confounding factors should be undertaken in order to ascertain whether or not high fructose diet is harmful.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diet , Fructose/adverse effects , Metabolic Syndrome/chemically induced , Sweetening Agents/adverse effects , Vascular Diseases/chemically induced , Fructose/metabolism , Hypertriglyceridemia/chemically induced , Liver/metabolism , Risk Factors , Sweetening Agents/metabolism , Uric Acid/metabolism
18.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 14(5): 422-426, set.-out. 2008. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-496451

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Evidências apontam que a ingestão exacerbada de frutose pode desencadear distúrbios característicos da síndrome metabólica. OBJETIVOS: Analisar os efeitos da ingestão de dieta rica em frutose sobre aspectos metabólicos de ratos da linhagem Wistar. Adicionalmente, verificar a capacidade aeróbia através da identificação da máxima fase estável de lactato (MFEL). MÉTODOS: Dezesseis ratos foram separados em dois grupos de oito animais: a) controle, alimentados com dieta balanceada, e b) frutose, alimentados com dieta rica em frutose. Foram analisadas a tolerância à glicose (área sob a curva de glicose durante teste de tolerância à glicose), sensibilidade à insulina (taxa de remoção da glicose sérica após sobrecarga exógena de insulina), perfil lipídico sérico e concentração de lactato sanguíneo [lac]s durante exercício na intensidade da MFEL. RESULTADOS: Teste t não pareado (p < 0,05) revelou diferença para a tolerância à glicose e triglicérides, porém não houve diferença na sensibilidade à insulina e na [lac]s. Anova one way com post hoc de Newman-Keuls (p < 0,05) revelou diferença para a cinética da glicose durante o teste de tolerância, mas não para a cinética do lactato durante exercício na MSSL. CONCLUSÃO: As Alterações fisiológicas provocadas pela dieta rica em frutose e inerentes à síndrome metabólica não prejudicam a capacidade aeróbia de ratos.


INTRODUCTION: Evidence points that exacerbated ingestion of fructose may trigger disturbs characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effects of a fructose rich diet on metabolic aspects of Wistar lineage rats. Additionally, to verify the aerobic capacity, through the identification of the maximal lactate steady state (MSSL). PROCEDURES: Sixteen rats were separated in two groups of eight animals: a) Control, fed a balanced diet, and b) fructose, fed a fructose-rich diet. The glucose tolerance, (area under serum glucose during a glucose tolerance test), insulin sensibility (glucose disappearance rate after exogenous insulin administration), serum lipid profile and blood lactate concentration [lac]b during exercise at MSSL intensity, have been analyzed. RESULTS: Non-paired t test (p<0.05) revealed difference between groups in the area under the curve of glucose and serum triglycerides, no difference in insulin sensibility or in [lac]b was detected, though. One-way ANOVA with Newman Keuls post hoc revealed difference in the glucose kinetics during tolerance test, but not in the lactate kinetics during the MSSL. CONCLUSION: The physiological alterations promoted by fructose-rich diet and intrinsic to the metabolic syndrome do not harm the aerobic capacity of rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Anaerobic Threshold , Case-Control Studies , Exercise Test , Fructose/adverse effects , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose Tolerance Test , Insulin/blood , Rats, Wistar , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Triglycerides/analysis , Exercise , Insulin Resistance , Swimming
19.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 2006 Jul-Sep; 50(3): 215-24
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-108081

ABSTRACT

The effects of supplementation of selenium at a dose of 10 microg/ kg body weight were investigated on ethanol induced testicular toxicity in rats. In the present study, four groups of male albino rats were maintained for 60 days, as follows: (1) Control group (normal diet) (2) Ethanol group (4g/kg body weight) (3) Selenium (10 microg/kg body weight) (4) Ethanol + Selenium (4g/kg body weight + 10 microg/kg body weight). Results revealed that ethanol intake caused drastic changes in the sperm count, sperm motility and sperm morphology. It also reduced the levels of testosterone and fructose. The activities of 3betaHSD, 17betaHSD in the testis and SDH in the seminal plasma were also reduced. Lipid peroxidation was also enhanced as the lipid peroxidation products were increased and the activities of the scavenging enzymes were reduced. But on coadministration of selenium along with alcohol all the biochemical parameters were altered to near normal levels indicating a protective effect of selenium. These results were reinforced by the histopathological studies.


Subject(s)
17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases/metabolism , 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases/metabolism , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Central Nervous System Depressants/toxicity , Ethanol/toxicity , Fructose/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Selenium/pharmacology , Semen/enzymology , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Spermatozoa/enzymology , Testis/enzymology , Testosterone/metabolism
20.
Botucatu; s.n; 2006. 97 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-468594

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a frutose é um açúcar derivado da glicose pela via do sorbitol presente em placentas de animais ungulados. Em humanos existem poucos relatos sobre a produção de frutose e de polióis pela unidade feto-placentária. Objetivo: determinar a relação entre os níveis sanguíneos de frutose, sorbitol e glicose em mães, em veia de cordão umbilical e em recém-nascidos de termo em aleitamento materno exclusivo. Métodos: foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 26 mães, imediatamente após o parto, da veia umbilical a 2 cm da placenta e do recém-nascido de termo com peso adequado, 30 minutos após o início da mamada. Frutose, sorbitol e glicose foram determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta resolução (HPLC). A análise estatística foi efetuada por análise de variância de Friedman e por coeficiente de correlação de Spearmann. Resultados: As concentrações de frutose no recém-nascido (105,1 mais ou menos 43,8 micro moI/L) foram superiores às do cordão (77,24 mais ou menos 35,3 micro moI/L) e ambas superiores às maternas (56,04 mais ou menos 21 ,8 micro moI/L) p igual 0,01. Quanto às concentrações de sorbitol, estas foram significantemente mais elevadas no cordão (71,1 masi ou menos 29,6 micro moI/L) em relação à mãe (43,19 mais ou menos 17,8 micro moI/L) e ao recém-nascido (42,67 mais ou menos 22,2 micro moI/L), p igual 0,01 sendo que ambas não diferiram entre si. Quanto às concentrações de glicose, os níveis maternos (4,82 mais ou menos 0,81 mmol/L) foram significantemente maiores que as dos cordões (3,57 mais ou menos 0,72 mmol/L) e dos recém-nascidos (3,04 mais ou menos 0,56 mmol/L) e os níveis dos recém­ nascidos foram inferiores aos dos cordões (p igual 0,01). Observou-se correlação significante entre mãe e cordão para a glicose (r igual 0,62; p menor que 0,0001), não sendo observadas correlações significantes para a frutose e o sorbitol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Fructose/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Milk, Human/metabolism , Infant, Newborn/metabolism , Sorbitol/metabolism
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