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1.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0432018, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1118052

ABSTRACT

The spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, is considered the main insect pest of small fruit in the world. Identifying susceptible hosts is essential to develop management strategies. The aim of this study was to verify the level of D. suzukii infestation in blackberry, blueberry, strawberry, cattley guava and Surinam cherry fruits cultivated in the southern region in Brazil, and to determine the infestation index (II) per fruit. The studies were carried out during two harvests (2015/16 and 2016/17) in three areas with organic cultivation of small fruit. The highest level of D. suzukii natural infestation was observed in blackberry (40 to 65% infestation), and strawberry (approximately 30% infestation) fruits. In contrast, blueberries were less preferred (< 7% infestation). For native fruit of the region (cattley guava and Surinam cherry), it was also verified infestation of the fly, demonstrating they are hosts for multiplication in the off-season periods of the other crops. In relation to II, blackberry and Surinam cherry provided a higher average number of insects per gram of fruit (≈ 1.6 adults of D. suzukii). In contrast, blueberries and cattley guava had the lowest insect ratio per gram of fruit (≈ 0.7 adults per gram). The period between late spring to mid-autumn was considered ideal for the pest occurrence in the field. The knowledge of natural infestation levels is essential for understanding the behavior of the pest in the field, which will assist in the design of management strategies.(AU)


A drosófila-da-asa-manchada, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, é considerada o principal inseto-praga de pequenos frutos no mundo. A identificação de hospedeiros suscetíveis é essencial para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de manejo. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o nível de infestação de D. suzukii em frutos de amoreira-preta, mirtileiro, morangueiro, araçazeiro e pitangueira cultivados na região no sul do Brasil e determinar os índices de infestação (II) por fruto. Os estudos foram realizados durante duas safras (2015/16 e 2016/17) em três áreas com cultivo orgânico de pequenas frutas. O maior nível de infestação natural de D. suzukii foi observado em amora-preta (40 a 65% de infestação) e morango (aproximadamente 30% de infestação). Em contraste, o mirtilo foi menos preferido (< 7% de infestação). Para as frutas nativas da região (araçá e pitanga), também ocorreu infestação da mosca, demonstrando serem hospedeiros potenciais para a multiplicação da praga nos períodos de entressafras. Em relação ao II, amoras e pitangas proporcionaram um maior número médio de insetos por grama de fruto (≈ 1,6 adultos de D. suzukii). Por outro lado, mirtilos e araçás apresentaram a menor relação de insetos emergidos por gramas de frutos (≈ 0,7 adultos por grama). O período entre final da primavera até meados do outono foi considerado ideal para a ocorrência da praga no campo. O conhecimento dos níveis de infestação natural é fundamental para o entendimento do comportamento da praga no campo, o que auxiliará no delineamento de estratégias de manejo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Drosophila , Fruit/parasitology , Seasons , Brazil , Agricultural Pests , Vaccinium myrtillus , Morus , Fragaria , Introduced Species , Eugenia
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(4): 631-641, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-730947

ABSTRACT

Durante la última década se han reportado numerosos casos de infección por Trypanosoma cruzi por vía oral, debidos a la contaminación de alimentos con heces de triatominos silvestres o con secreciones de reservorios en áreas donde los vectores domiciliados han sido controlados o no hay antecedentes de domiciliación. Con base en criterios epidemiológicos, clínicos y socioeconómicos, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación (FAO) y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) establecieron una clasificación de los parásitos transmitidos por contaminación de alimentos en diferentes regiones del mundo, en la cual T. cruzi ocupó el décimo lugar de importancia en un grupo de 24 parásitos. Los cambios ambientales, como la deforestación y el calentamiento global, han afectado los ecotopos y el comportamiento de los vectores y de los reservorios de T. cruzi , de manera que estos se han desplazado a nuevas zonas, generando una nueva forma de transmisión por contaminación de alimentos que requiere su evaluación en el país. La presente revisión aborda la transmisión oral de la enfermedad de Chagas con énfasis en los estudios orientados a identificar los factores de riesgo, las especies de triatominos involucrados, la fisiopatología de la infección oral y los genotipos del parásito que están implicados en esta forma de transmisión en Colombia y en otras regiones de América Latina, así como la necesidad de adoptar políticas para su control y vigilancia epidemiológica.


Many cases of infection caused by the oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi have been reported during the last decade. These have been due to the contamination of food by faeces from sylvatic triatomines or by leakage from reservoirs in areas where domiciliated vectors have been controlled or where there has been no prior background of domiciliation. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have used epidemiological, clinical and socioeconomic criteria for ranking parasites transmitted by the contamination of food in different areas of the world; T. cruzi was placed tenth in importance amongst a group of 24 parasites in such ranking. Environmental changes such as deforestation and global warming have affected ecotopes and the behaviour of T. cruzi vectors and reservoirs so that these have become displaced to new areas, thereby leading to such new transmission scenario caused by the contamination of food, which requires evaluation in Colombia. The current review deals with the oral transmission of Chagas´ disease, emphasising studies aimed at identifying the pertinent risk factors, the triatomine species involved, the physiopathology of oral infection, the parasite´s genotypes implicated in this type of transmission in Colombia and other Latin American regions, as well as the need for ongoing epidemiological surveillance and control policies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Chagas Disease/transmission , Food Parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Fruit/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Meat/parasitology , Rhodnius/parasitology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Vegetables/parasitology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Armadillos/parasitology , Blood Donors , Beverages/parasitology , Blood Transfusion/adverse effects , Colombia , Chagas Disease/congenital , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Genotype , Gastric Mucosa/parasitology , Housing , Mouth Mucosa/parasitology , Parasitemia/parasitology , Parasitemia/transmission , Peptide Hydrolases/physiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/parasitology , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Protozoan Proteins/physiology , Risk Factors , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma/chemistry , Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma/physiology
4.
Hig. aliment ; 25(196/197): 69-74, maio-jun. 2011. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-616602

ABSTRACT

As parasitoses constituem um grave problema de saúde pública no Brasil e em geral, são transmitidas por contato direto fecal-oral ou contaminação em alimentos ou em água e ambientes com condições sanitárias inadequadas. A qualidade das frutas constitui fator essencial no processamento das polpas, as quais devem ser sãs, limpas, isentas de matérias terrosas, de parasitas e de detritos de animais ou vegetais. Não podem conter fragmentos das partes não comestíveis das frutas, nem substâncias estranhas, observando-se também a ausência de sujidades, parasitas e larvas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a existência de parasitas e sujidades leves em polpas de frutas industrializadas e comercializadas em Fortaleza-CE, de acordo com os padrões estabelecidos na legislação em vigor...


Subject(s)
Food Contamination , Fruit/parasitology , Industrialized Foods , Malpighiaceae/parasitology , Brazil , Commerce
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 71(2): 511-515, maio 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-592588

ABSTRACT

Chelonus (Microchelonus) murici sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae) is described in this work. It was reared from an unknown host in murici fruits, Byrsonima verbascifolia (L.) Rich. ex A. L. Juss. (Malpighiaceae), a species from the Brazilian savannah whose fruits are widely consumed by the population in northern Brazil. The adult of this new species is illustrated.


Chelonus (Microchelonus) murici sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae) é descrita neste trabalho. Os espécimes foram obtidos de hospedeiros não conhecidos em frutos de murici, Byrsonima verbascifolia (L.) Rich. ex A. L. Juss. (Malpighiaceae), uma espécie vegetal do cerrado brasileiro, cujo fruto é muito consumido pelo povo do nordeste do Brasil. O adulto desta nova espécie é ilustrado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Hymenoptera/anatomy & histology , Hymenoptera/classification , Malpighiaceae/parasitology , Brazil , Fruit/parasitology , Malpighiaceae/classification
6.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(4): 632-637, July-Aug. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-558853

ABSTRACT

Aqueous solutions of neem oil and aqueous extracts of neem seeds and leaves were sprayed on coffee fruits for laboratory evaluation of their efficiency in reducing infestation of the coffee borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), in multi-choice preference assays in laboratory. Neem oil and extracts reduced infestation of fruits in a dose-dependent manner, acting as a repellent. At 0.5 percent, 1 percent and 1.5 percent, the oil reduced fruit infestation by 30.2 percent, 42.5 percent (P > 0.05), and 58.6 percent (P < 0.05), respectively, as compared with the control. Seed extracts at 1 percent, 2 percent and 4 percent (w/v) reduced infestation by 30.9 percent, 38.3 percent (P > 0.05) and 70.2 percent (P < 0.05), respectively; seed extracts at 0.15 percent, 1.5 percent and 15 percent (w/v) reduced fruit infestation by 16.5 percent, 38.5 percent (P > 0.05) and 56.9 percent (P < 0.05), respectively. Spraying the emulsifiable oil at 1 percent on coffee fruits and adult borers was compared with spraying on fruits or adults only. Adult-only spraying caused low mortality (P > 0.05) and low reduction on the number of damaged fruits (P > 0.05). Fruit-only spraying significantly reduced insect survival rates and the number of damaged fruits (P < 0.05). However, spraying on adults and fruits caused the greatest reduction in adult survival (55.6 percent; P < 0.05) and in fruit infestation (78.7 percent; P < 0.05), probably due to insect mortality and neem oil repellence acting together.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coleoptera/physiology , Coffea/parasitology , Fruit/parasitology , Glycerides/pharmacology , Insect Repellents/pharmacology , Terpenes/pharmacology , Laboratories , Nebulizers and Vaporizers
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 57(3): 781-788, sep. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-637909

ABSTRACT

Pre-dispersal seed predation in three populations of the tree Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Fabaceae). Predation is an important selective force that has shaped different strategies related to size, quantity and production time of fruits, seeds and seed reserves. The seeds of E. contortisiliqum are predated by the bruchid Merobruchus bicoloripes. We collected 1 300 fruits from 26 trees in San Salvador de Jujuy (Jujuy province), Castañares, and San Lorenzo (Salta province) Argentina. San Lorenzo is the wettest and highest site, while Castañares is the driest and lowest site. Jujuy is in the middle. In the laboratory, the fruits from each site were weighted and divided in three groups (small, medium and big). We counted the mature and predated seeds per fruit. In San Lorenzo, seed predation was higher in medium sized fruits while in Castañares and Jujuy seed predation was higher in both medium and bigger fruits. However, only in San Lorenzo we found a significant difference in preference for medium size fruits. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3): 781-788. Epub 2009 September 30.


La depredación se ha postulado como una importante fuerza selectiva que ha moldeado distintas estrategias relacionadas con el tamaño, la cantidad y el tiempo de producción de semillas, frutos y el contenido de reservas. Las semillas de Enterolobium contortisiliqum son depredadas por el brúquido Merobruchus bicoloripes. Se estudiaron tres poblaciones de E. contortisiliquum en relación al tamaño de los frutos, a la producción de semillas por fruto, y a la depredación de semillas, comparando la variabilidad dentro y entre poblaciones. Se recolectaron 1300 frutos de 26 árboles en San Salvador de Jujuy (Jujuy), Castañares y San Lorenzo (Salta). Los frutos se pesaron y se contaron las semillas viables y depredadas. San Lorenzo es el sitio más húmedo y de mayor altitud, y Castañares el de menor altitud y más seco. En San Lorenzo encontramos una mayor preferencia de depredación en frutos medianos. En Castañares y San Salvador de Jujuy, a pesar de que los frutos medianos y grandes presentaron mayores niveles de depredación, no encontramos diferencias en la preferencia por alguna clase de tamaño. Los mayores niveles de depredación se encontraron en Castañares y S. S. de Jujuy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coleoptera/physiology , Fabaceae/growth & development , Fruit/growth & development , Seeds/growth & development , Argentina , Fabaceae/parasitology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Fruit/parasitology , Predatory Behavior/physiology , Seeds/parasitology
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 69(2): 363-370, May 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-519179

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify parasitoid species of frugivorous larvae and to describe the tritrophic interactions involving wild fruits, frugivorous insects and their natural enemies at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (RFAD) (Manaus, AM, Brazil). Collections were performed in four 1 km² quadrants in the corners of the RFAD. The wild fruits were collected inside the forest in access trails leading to each collection area and in trails that surrounded the quadrants, up to five metres from the trail on each side. The fruits were placed in plastic containers covered with thin fabric, with a vermiculite layer on the base to allow the emergence of flies or parasitoids. Seven Braconidae species were collected, distributed among Opiinae: Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911), Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913), and Opius sp., and Alysiinae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, 1958), Phaenocarpa pericarpa Wharton and Carrejo, 1999, Idiasta delicata Papp, 1969, and Asobara sp. Parasitism rates by braconids and figitids are presented. Doryctobracon areolatus was the most frequent, parasitizing the highest number of fly species, and showing the highest parasitism percentage in larvae feeding on Micropholis williamii fruits. The collected figitids belong to Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998 and A. pelleranoi (Brethes, 1924). All 15 tritrophic associations are new records for the Brazilian Amazon region. The RFAD is an important natural reservoir of frugivorous larvae parasitoids.


Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar as espécies de parasitóides de larvas frugívoras e descrever as interações tritróficas desses inimigos naturais com seus insetos hospedeiros e frutos silvestres da Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke (RFAD). As coletas foram realizadas em quatro quadrantes de 1 km², ocupando áreas próximas aos cantos da RFAD. Os frutos silvestres foram coletados no interior da floresta nas trilhas de acesso a cada área de coleta e nas trilhas que delimitavam os quadrantes, até cinco metros em cada lado. Os frutos foram acondicionados em recipientes plásticos, cobertos com tecido fino, contendo camada de vermiculita, para obtenção das moscas ou dos parasitóides, que eram individualizados, contados, sexados e fixados em álcool 70 por cento. As taxas de parasitismo por braconídeos e figitídeos são apresentadas. Foram coletadas sete espécies de Braconidae, distribuídas em Opiinae: Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911), Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913), Opius sp. e Alysiinae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, 1958), Phaenocarpa pericarpa Wharton e Carrejo, 1999, Idiasta delicata Papp, 1969 e Asobara sp. Doryctobracon areolatus foi a espécie mais frequente, parasitando o maior número de espécies de moscas e apresentando a maior percentagem de parasitismo em larvas em frutos de Micropholis williamii. OS figitídeos pertenciam a Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998 e A. pelleranoi (Brethes, 1924). Todas as 15 associações tritróficas obtidas representam novos registros para a região Amazônica brasileira.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodiversity , Diptera/parasitology , Fruit/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Hymenoptera/physiology , Brazil , Diptera/classification , Fruit/classification , Hymenoptera/classification , Larva/parasitology , Tephritidae/parasitology
9.
Neotrop. entomol ; 38(2): 251-253, Mar.-Apr. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-515106

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar se Parisoschoenus obesulus Casey só ataca frutos em processo de abortamento natural e, portanto, não é praga de frutos jovens do coqueiro. Para testar a hipótese, inflorescências em diversos estágios de desenvolvimento fisiológico foram oferecidas a indivíduos de P. obesulus. Os resultados mostraram que somente frutos abortivos foram colonizados por P. obesulus aceitando-se, portanto, a hipótese estabelecida.


This study aimed to evaluate if Parisoschoenus obesulus Casey only attacks naturally aborting coconuts and, consequently, is not a pest of young fruits of coconut tree. Aiming to test this hypothesis, inflorescences at diverse stages of physiological development were offered to individuals of P. obesulus. The results showed that only aborting fruits were colonized by P. obesulus corroborating the established hypothesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cocos/parasitology , Fruit/parasitology , Weevils/physiology
10.
Neotrop. entomol ; 37(4): 486-488, July-Aug. 2008. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-492712

ABSTRACT

Seeking to identify thrips species associated to peach and the injuries they cause, plants of Aurora and Tropic Beauty cultivars were weekly monitored, from May to August of 2005, in Holambra II district, in Paranapanema, SP. Flowers and fruits from six plants per hectare were sampled by the hitting technique. Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), F. schultzei (Trybom), F. gardenia (Moulton), F. condei John, F. insularis (Franklin) and Thrips tabaci Lindeman, in Thripidae, and Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin), in Phlaeothripidae were identified. F. occidentalis was dominant, comprising 55.7 percent of the total specimens sampled. Slight and severe injuries were registered in fruits.


Objetivando identificar as espécies de tripes associadas ao pessegueiro e as injúrias causadas, pomares das cultivares Aurora e Tropic Beauty foram monitorados semanalmente, de maio a agosto de 2005, no Distrito de Holambra II, em Paranapanema, SP. Flores e frutos de cada seis plantas por hectare foram amostrados pela técnica da batida. Foram identificadas Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), F. schultzei (Trybom), F. gardenia (Moulton), F. condei John, F. insularis (Franklin) e Thrips tabaci Lindeman em Thripidae, e, Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin) em Phlaeothripidae. F. occidentalis foi dominante compondo 55,7 por cento do total de espécimes amostrado. Injúrias leves e severas foram registradas nos frutos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fruit/parasitology , Insecta/classification , Prunus/parasitology , Crops, Agricultural/parasitology , Larva , Plant Diseases/parasitology , Species Specificity
11.
Neotrop. entomol ; 36(6): 984-986, Nov.-Dec. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-473555

ABSTRACT

Fruit flies were obtained from 13 species of naturally infested fruits in the central region of Tocantins State, from January to October 2005. A total of 1,753 female flies were collected that belong to 11 species: Anastrepha coronilli Carrejo & González, A. fraterculus (Wied.), A. mucronota Stone, A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, A. striata Schiner, A. turpiniae Stone, A. zenildae Zucchi, Anastrepha sp., Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and Neosilba sp. Also six species of parasitoids were associated to Anastrepha larvae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti), Doryctobracon sp., Opius bellus Gahan, Opius sp. and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck).


Moscas-das-frutas foram obtidas de larvas criadas em frutos de 13 espécies de frutíferas, naturalmente infestadas, de janeiro a outubro de 2005. Coletaram-se 1.753 fêmeas de 11 espécies: Anastrepha coronilli Carrejo & González, A. fraterculus (Wied.), A. mucronota Stone, A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, A. striata Schiner, A. turpiniae Stone, A. zenildae Zucchi, Anastrepha sp., Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) e Neosilba sp. Foram coletadas também seis espécies de parasitóides associados às larvas de Anastrepha: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti), Doryctobracon sp., Opius bellus Gahan, Opius sp. e Utetes anastrephae (Viereck).


Subject(s)
Animals , Fruit/parasitology , Tephritidae , Brazil , Tephritidae/parasitology , Tephritidae/physiology
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-55901

ABSTRACT

An elastase-like chymotrypsin was purified by aprotinin-agarose affinity chromatography from the midgut extract of cardamom shoot and capsule borer, Conogethes punctiferalis. The purified enzyme had a Vmax of 687.6 +/- 22.1 nmole pNA released/min/mg protein, Km of 0.168 +/- 0.012 mM with SAAPLpNA as substrate and gave a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of 72.1 kDa. Casein zymogram revealed one clear zone of proteolytic activity, which corresponded to the band obtained with SDS-PAGE indicating that this could be a single-polypeptide enzyme.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aprotinin/pharmacology , Chromatography, Agarose , Chymotrypsin/isolation & purification , Digestive System/enzymology , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Elettaria/parasitology , Fruit/parasitology , Larva , Lepidoptera/enzymology , Pancreatic Elastase/isolation & purification , Plant Shoots/parasitology , Protein Conformation , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
13.
Neotrop. entomol ; 36(3): 473-475, May-June 2007. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-458899

ABSTRACT

A presença do ácaro eriofiídeo Amrineus cocofolius Flechtmann foi constatada em associação com bandas necróticas equatoriais na epiderme dos frutos de coqueiros, em diferentes plantações nas províncias de La Habana, Granma e Guantánamo, Cuba, de fevereiro de 2003 a março de 2004.


The presence of the eriophyid mite, Amrineus cocofolius Flechtmann, was confirmed in association with equatorial necrotic bands on the coconut fruit epidermis, in different growth areas in the Provinces of La Habana, Granma y Guantánamo, Cuba, from February 2003 to March 2004.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cocos/parasitology , Fruit/parasitology , Mites , Cuba
14.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 50(1): 131-134, jan.-mar. 2006. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-431053

ABSTRACT

No Brasil as moscas frugívoras são pragas importantes de frutas e hortalicas. O conhecimento da flutuacão populacional dessas espécies em cada bioma é um importante requisito para a adocão de estratégia de controle de pragas nos agroecossistemas. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade de espécies de moscas-das-frutas infestantes de frutas silvestres e cultivadas em Aquidauana, MS. Vinte e uma espécies de frutas foram amostradas de fevereiro de 2003 a janeiro de 2004. As espécies de Tephritidae encontradas foram: Anastrepha striata Schiner, 1868, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) e Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824). Os frugívoros Lonchaeidae e Muscidae encontrados foram: Neosilba sp. e Atherigona orientalis (Schiner, 1868), respectivamente. Um total de 2.568 moscas foram coletadas, das quais 2.394 representadas pela mosca-do-Mediterrâneo C. capitata. A associacão entre moscas frugívoras e espécies de frutas é discutida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ceratitis capitata/physiology , Fruit/parasitology , Tephritidae/physiology , Brazil , Species Specificity , Host-Parasite Interactions
15.
Bol. micol ; 13(1/2): 85-91, 1998. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-255746

ABSTRACT

Debido a que botrytis cinerea causa importantes pérdidas en pre y postcosecha en chirimoyas, se realizó un seguimiento de un huerto en producción en la localidad de la Palma, Quillota, para determinar su incidencia, correlacionándola con la temperatura, humedad relativa y precipitación. Para determinar la presencia de este hongo, se realizó un muestreo de hojas, frutos y flores tardías entre abril y octubre de 1997. Estas muestras se colocaron en cámaras húmedas por 10 días, bajo condiciones de luz y temperatura favorables a la esporulación. En octubre y noviembre de 1997, se determinó su presencia en semillas y en 66 frutos (embalados y mantenidos a temperatura ambiente por 12 días) y en febrero de 1988 su presencia en flores. Todas las cepas obtenidas se sembraron en APD a 22ºC por 10 días. La incidencia de cepas de botrytis comenzó en el período de precipitaciones y fue un aumento después de los meses más lluviosos. La primera determinación en hojas, con o sin síntomas, se inicio en mayo y logró un máximo en octubre. En junio comenzó su detección en frutos lográndo su máximo en septiembre, no evidenciándose síntomas de pudrición en éstos. No se detectó botrytis en flores, flores tardías ni en semillas. La incidencia de botrytis en frutos en postcosecha alcanzó un 10,6 porciento. De 9 aislamientos de botrytis efectuados se determinó sólo la presencia de b. cinerea


Subject(s)
Trees/parasitology , Botrytis/isolation & purification , Fruit/parasitology , Mycoses/epidemiology
16.
Arch. med. res ; 27(2): 229-31, 1996. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-200319

ABSTRACT

A seasonal research was carried out in Irapuato, Guanajuato and Zamora, Michaocan, Mexico, the location of the most important producers of strawberries, in order to assess fecal contamination through the findig of protozoan cysts and helminth eggs, specifically of Taenia sp eggs. Three techniques were used: direct observation, flotation and sedimentation. Low numbers of protozoan cysts and only one Ascaris egg were found. What is most interesting is that no Taenia eggs were identified. Results indicate that although strawberries are contaminated with human feces, contamination is minimal


Subject(s)
Agricultural Irrigation , Water Pollution/adverse effects , Drainage, Sanitary , Fruit/parasitology , Parasitic Diseases/etiology , Parasitology , Waste Water/adverse effects , Water Pollutants/adverse effects
17.
Bol. micol ; 7(1/2): 47-54, jul.-dic. 1992. tab, mapas, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-153170

ABSTRACT

Se investigó durante el periodo 1989-90 en la región de Oltrepó Pavese (Italia), la micota de los mostos provenientes de uvas negras y blancas. De un total de 28 especies levaduriformes aisladas, incluidas en 10 géneros, Saccharomyces, fué el género dominante con las especies S.italicus y S.cerevisiae. Tambien se detectaron frecuentemente levaduras anascosporógenas, tales como Candida valida, Torulopsis (C) holmii y Kloeckera apiculata. Se efectuaron estudios de sensibiliadad in vitro frente a compuestos de CuSO4, ya sea en cepas de S. cerevisiae aisladas de los mostos, como de Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium y Sporobolomyces, aisladas del filoplano de la uva. Las concentraciones de CuSO4 a 0.007M y a 0,062M, fueron fúngicidas para S.cerevisiae y Sporobolomyces roseus respectivamente


Subject(s)
Fruit/parasitology , In Vitro Techniques , Krypton , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Candida/drug effects , Candida/isolation & purification , Copper/pharmacokinetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Saccharomyces/drug effects , Saccharomyces/isolation & purification , Zinc/pharmacokinetics
18.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 1991 Dec; 22 Suppl(): 144-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32619

ABSTRACT

The current FDA method to recover parasites from fruits and vegetables is derived from procedures used to isolate parasitic protozoa from water. A 1kg portion of fruit or vegetable is divided into 200 g subportions. The subportions are sequentially processed in a sonic cleaning bath with 1.5 liters of detergent solution (1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.1% Tween 80) and sonicated for 10 minutes. As each subsample is removed, it is thoroughly drained. After this sonic treatment, the wash water is collected in a polypropylene beaker, transferred to 50 ml polypropylene centrifuge tubes and centrifuged for 15 min at 1500 x g. The sediment is consolidated into one tube along with two rinsings of each tube. The final sediment is fixed in 4% formaldehyde for 10 minutes before examination for parasites. Indirect fluorescent antibody is applied to stain the parasites (Giardia spp. and/or Cryptosporidium spp.) by using commercial kits when available. If a large quantity of extraneous matter is contained in the sediment it may be reduced by layering on Sheather's fluid and centrifuging at 1500 x g for 15 minutes. The supernatant is collected and washed twice in distilled water. This procedure is adequate for protozoa and nonoperculate helminth eggs; operculate helminth eggs may be cleaned by extraction with ethyl acetate. When cabbage and lettuce were seeded at 1 organism/g, the rate of recovery for Cryptosporidium parvum with the FDA method was 1%. When cabbage was seeded at 1 egg/g and 10 eggs/g, the average rate of recovery of decorticated eggs of Ascaris sp. or untreated Trichuris sp. was 10%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)


Subject(s)
Animals , Ascaris/isolation & purification , Brassica/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Food Parasitology , Fruit/parasitology , Giardia/isolation & purification , Parasites/isolation & purification , Sonication , Trichuris/isolation & purification , Vegetables/parasitology
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 85(4): 413-7, Oct.-Dec. 1990. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-127778

ABSTRACT

Fruits of cultivated and indigenous Solanaceae from Southeastern Brazil have been examined for the presence of trypanosomatid flagellates. The 14 species found infected were: Capsicum annum, C. praetermissum, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicandra physaloides, Physalis angulata, Solanum sp., S. americanum, S. concinnum, S. diflorum, S. erianthum, S. gilo, S. robustum, S. variable and S. viarum. The pentatomid hemipteran Arvelius albopunctatus experimentally transmitted flagellates to fruits of some species. Cultures of flagellates were obtained form fruits of eight species of Salonaceae and from A. albopunctatus


Subject(s)
Animals , Fruit/parasitology , Trypanosomatina/isolation & purification , Brazil
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