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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 339-345, July-Sept. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042513

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gastrointestinal nematode infection is an important cause of high economic losses in livestock production. Nematode control based on a synthetic chemical approach is considered unsustainable due to the increasing incidence of anthelmintic resistance. Control alternatives such as the use of natural products are therefore becoming relevant from an environmental and economic point of view. Proteins are macromolecules with various properties that can be obtained from a wide range of organisms, including plants and fungi. Proteins belonging to different classes have shown great potential for the control of nematodes. The action of proteins can occur at specific stages of the nematode life cycle, depending on the composition of the external layers of the nematode body and the active site of the protein. Advances in biotechnology have resulted in the emergence of numerous protein and peptide therapeutics; however, few have been discussed with a focus on the control of animal nematodes. Here, we discuss the use of exogenous proteins and peptides in the control of gastrointestinal.


Resumo A infecção por nematoides gastrintestinais é uma importante causa de grandes perdas econômicas na pecuária. O controle de nematoides com compostos químicos sintéticos é considerado insustentável devido ao aumento da resistência anti-helmíntica. Alternativas de controle, como o uso de produtos naturais, estão se tornando relevantes do ponto de vista ambiental e econômico. As proteínas são macromoléculas com várias propriedades que podem ser obtidas de uma ampla gama de organismos, incluindo plantas e fungos. Proteínas pertencentes a diferentes classes têm mostrado grande potencial para o controle de nematoides. A ação das proteínas pode ocorrer em estágios específicos do ciclo de vida do nematoide, dependendo da composição das camadas externas do parasito e do sítio ativo da proteína. Avanços na biotecnologia resultaram no surgimento de numerosas terapias de proteínas e peptídeos; no entanto, pouco foi discutido com foco no controle de nematoides parasitos de animais. Na presente revisão foi discutido o uso de proteínas exógenas e peptídeos no controle de nematoides gastrintestinais, os mecanismos sugeridos de ação, e os desafios e perspectivas para o uso dessas biomoléculas como uma classe de anti-helmínticos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Peptides/isolation & purification , Plant Proteins/isolation & purification , Fungal Proteins/isolation & purification , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Antinematodal Agents/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/administration & dosage , Peptide Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Peptides/administration & dosage , Plant Proteins/administration & dosage , Biotechnology , Fungal Proteins/administration & dosage , Chitinases/administration & dosage , Chitinases/isolation & purification , Gastrointestinal Diseases/parasitology , Nematode Infections/drug therapy , Antinematodal Agents/administration & dosage
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774597

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction( BAEB) on Candida albicans biofilms based on pH signal pathway. The morphology of biofilms of the pH mutants was observed by scanning electron microscope. The biofilm thickness of the pH mutants was measured by CLSM. The biofilm activity of the pH mutants was analyzed by microplate reader.The biofilm damage of the pH mutants was detected by flow cytometry. The expression of pH mutant biofilm-related genes was detected by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the deletion of PHR1 gene resulted in the defect of biofilm,but there were more substrates for PHR1 complementation. BAEB had no significant effect on the two strains. RIM101 gene deletion or complementation did not cause significant structural damage,but after BAEB treatment,the biofilms of both strains were significantly inhibited. For the biofilm thickness,PHR1 deletion or complementation caused the thickness to decrease,after BAEB treatment,the thickness of the two strains did not change significantly. However,RIM101 gene deletion or complementation had little effect on the thickness,and the thickness of the two strains became thinner after adding BAEB. For biofilm activity,PHR1 deletion or complementation and RIM101 deletion resulted in decreased activity,RIM101 complementation did not change significantly; BAEB significantly inhibited biofilm activity of PHR1 deletion,PHR1 complemetation,RIM101 deletion and RIM101 complemetation strains. For the biofilm damage,PHR1 gene deletion or complementation,RIM101 gene deletion or complementation all showed different degrees of damage; after adding BAEB,the damage rate of PHR1 deletion or complementation was not significantly different,but the damage rate of RIM101 deletion or complementation was significantly increased. Except to the up-regulation of HSP90 gene expression,ALS3,SUN41,HWP1,UME6 and PGA10 genes of PHR1 deletion,PHR1 complementation,RIM101 deletion,and RIM101 complementation strains showed a downward expression trend. In a word,this study showed that mutations in PHR1 and RIM101 genes in the pH signaling pathway could enhance the sensitivity of the strains to the antifungal drug BAEB,thus inhibiting the biofilm formation and related genes expression in C. albicans.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Biofilms , Candida albicans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Fungal Proteins , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Signal Transduction
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771507

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the inhibitory effect of extract of Coptidis Rhizoma(ECR) on invasion of Candida albicans hyphae in vitro.XTT reduction method was used to evaluate the metabolic activity of C.albicans.The colony edge growth of C.albicans was observed by solid medium.The growth of C.albicans hyphae was determined on semi-solid medium.The morphology and viability changes of C.albicans hyphae were assessed by scanning electron microscope and fluorescence microscope.qRT-PCR method was used to detect the ALS3 and SSA1 expression of C.albicans invasin genes.The results showed that the metabolic viability by XTT method detected that the activity of C.albicans was gradually decreased under the intervention of 64,128 and 256 mg·L-1 of ECR respectively.128,256 mg·L-1 of ECR significantly inhibited colony folds and wrinkles on solid medium and the hyphal invasion in semi-solid medium.Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy showed that 128,256 mg·L-1 of ECR could inhibit the formation of C.albicans hyphae.qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of invasin gene ALS3 and SSA1 was down-regulated,and especially 256 mg·L-1 of ECR could down-regulate the two genes expression by 4.8,1.68 times respectively.This study showed that ECR can affect the invasiveness of C.albicans by inhibiting the growth of hyphae and the expression of invasin.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphatases , Genetics , Candida albicans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Fungal Proteins , Genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Genetics , Hyphae , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773138

ABSTRACT

In this study,the protein in different Cordyceps samples,which include fresh sample( S1),22 ℃ drying sample( S2),37 ℃ drying sample( S3) and 60 ℃ drying sample( S4),were analyzed by sodium dodecylsupinate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis( SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis( 2-DE). The total protein contents in Cordyceps samples were from 1. 655-4. 493 mg·g~(-1) and the protein contents in fresh sample was the highest. The results of SDS-PAGE showed that the mainly ranges of protein molecular weight of Cordyces samples were 10-100 kDa and the numbers of protein bands were 28 to 41,the fresh sample had the maximum number of protein bands. The 2-DE profiles were analyzed by PDQuest software. The resulted indicated that 488-876 protein spots were detected in different Cordyceps samples and the isoelectric point( pI) was distributed between 4. 5 and 6. 5,the protein molecular weight was distributed in 10-20 kDa and 25-100 kDa,the fresh sample had the maximum number of protein spots. Therefore,the drying process could decrease contents and species of protein in Cordyceps,and the different drying conditions had different effects on protein. These results provide a reference for improving the drying process of Cordyceps.


Subject(s)
Cordyceps , Chemistry , Desiccation , Methods , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Fungal Proteins , Molecular Weight
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776892

ABSTRACT

Antifungal drug resistance is a significant clinical problem, and antifungal agents that can evade resistance are urgently needed. In infective niches, resistant organisms often co-existed with sensitive ones, or a subpopulation of antibiotic-susceptible organisms may evolve into resistant ones during antibiotic treatment and eventually dominate the whole population. In this study, we established a co-culture assay in which an azole-resistant Candida albicans strain was mixed with a susceptible strain labeled with green fluorescent protein to mimic in vivo conditions and screen for antifungal drugs. Fluconazole was used as a positive control to verify the validity of this co-culture assay. Five natural molecules exhibited antifungal activity against both susceptible and resistant C. albicans. Two of these compounds, retigeric acid B (RAB) and riccardin D (RD), preferentially inhibited C. albicans strains in which the efflux pump MDR1 was activated. This selectivity was attributed to greater intracellular accumulation of the drugs in the resistant strains. Changes in sterol and lipid compositions were observed in the resistant strains compared to the susceptible strain, and might increase cell permeability to RAB and RD. In addition, RAB and RD interfered with the sterol pathway, further aggregating the decrease in ergosterol in the sterol synthesis pathway in the MDR1-activated strains. Our findings here provide an alternative for combating resistant pathogenic fungi.


Subject(s)
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters , Genetics , Metabolism , Antifungal Agents , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Azoles , Pharmacology , Biosynthetic Pathways , Genetics , Candida albicans , Chemistry , Metabolism , Cell Membrane , Chemistry , Metabolism , Coculture Techniques , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Ergosterol , Metabolism , Fungal Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Lipids , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Permeability , Phenyl Ethers , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Sterols , Chemistry , Metabolism , Stilbenes , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Metabolism , Pharmacology
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 749-756, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974295

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) recalcitrant to microbial attack. Although studies related to the microbial degradation of PAHs have been carried out in the last decades, little is known about degradation of these environmental pollutants by fungi from marine origin. Therefore, this study aimed to select one PAHs degrader among three marine-derived basidiomycete fungi and to study its pyrene detoxification/degradation. Marasmiellus sp. CBMAI 1062 showed higher levels of pyrene and BaP degradation and was subjected to studies related to pyrene degradation optimization using experimental design, acute toxicity, organic carbon removal (TOC), and metabolite evaluation. The experimental design resulted in an efficient pyrene degradation, reducing the experiment time while the PAH concentration applied in the assays was increased. The selected fungus was able to degrade almost 100% of pyrene (0.08 mg mL-1) after 48 h of incubation under saline condition, without generating toxic compounds and with a TOC reduction of 17%. Intermediate metabolites of pyrene degradation were identified, suggesting that the fungus degraded the compound via the cytochrome P450 system and epoxide hydrolases. These results highlight the relevance of marine-derived fungi in the field of PAH bioremediation, adding value to the blue biotechnology.


Subject(s)
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/metabolism , Seawater/microbiology , Basidiomycota/metabolism , Phylogeny , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/chemistry , Pyrenes/metabolism , Pyrenes/chemistry , Basidiomycota/isolation & purification , Basidiomycota/classification , Basidiomycota/genetics , Benzo(a)pyrene/metabolism , Benzo(a)pyrene/chemistry , Biodegradation, Environmental , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 723-730, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974310

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The soil represents the main source of novel biocatalysts and biomolecules of industrial relevance. We searched for hydrolases in silico in four shotgun metagenomes (4,079,223 sequences) obtained in a 13-year field trial carried out in southern Brazil, under the no-tillage (NT), or conventional tillage (CT) managements, with crop succession (CS, soybean/wheat), or crop rotation (CR, soybean/maize/wheat/lupine/oat). We identified 42,631 hydrolases belonging to five classes by comparing with the KEGG database, and 44,928 sequences by comparing with the NCBI-NR database. The abundance followed the order: lipases > laccases > cellulases > proteases > amylases > pectinases. Statistically significant differences were attributed to the tillage system, with the NT showing about five times more hydrolases than the CT system. The outstanding differences can be attributed to the management of crop residues, left on the soil surface in the NT, and mechanically broken and incorporated into the soil in the CT. Differences between the CS and the CR were slighter, 10% higher for the CS, but not statistically different. Most of the sequences belonged to fungi (Verticillium, and Colletotrichum for lipases and laccases, and Aspergillus for proteases), and to the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius for amylases. Our results indicate that agricultural soils under conservative managements may represent a hotspot for bioprospection of hydrolases.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Archaea/enzymology , Archaeal Proteins/genetics , Fungi/enzymology , Hydrolases/genetics , Soil Microbiology , Soybeans/growth & development , Triticum/growth & development , Brazil , Archaea/isolation & purification , Archaea/classification , Archaea/genetics , Zea mays/growth & development , Agriculture , Metagenome , Metagenomics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 879-884, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039268

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The multi-enzyme complex (crude extract) of white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Trametes versicolor, Pycnosporus sanguineus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were characterized, evaluated in the hydrolysis of pretreated pulps of sorghum straw and compared efficiency with commercial enzyme. Most fungi complexes had better hydrolysis rates compared with purified commercial enzyme.


Subject(s)
Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Sorghum/chemistry , Cellulases/chemistry , Fungi/enzymology , Lignin/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Plant Stems/microbiology , Plant Stems/chemistry , Sorghum/microbiology , Cellulases/metabolism , Biocatalysis , Fungi/chemistry , Hydrolysis , Lignin/metabolism
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 647-655, July-Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951810

ABSTRACT

Abstract An intronless endoglucanase from thermotolerant Aspergillus fumigatus DBINU-1 was cloned, characterized and expressed in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. The full-length open reading frame of the endoglucanase gene from A. fumigatus DBiNU-1, designated Cel7, was 1383 nucleotides in length and encoded a protein of 460 amino acid residues. The predicted molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the A. fumigatus Cel7 gene product were 48.19 kDa and 5.03, respectively. A catalytic domain in the N-terminal region and a fungal type cellulose-binding domain/module in the C-terminal region were detected in the predicted polypeptide sequences. Furthermore, a signal peptide with 20 amino acid residues at the N-terminus was also detected in the deduced amino acid sequences of the endoglucanase from A. fumigatus DBiNU-1. The endoglucanase from A. fumigatus DBiNU-1 was successfully expressed in K. lactis, and the purified recombinant enzyme exhibited its maximum activity at pH 5.0 and 60 °C. The enzyme was very stable in a pH range from 4.0 to 8.0 and a temperature range from 30 to 60 °C. These features make it suitable for application in the paper, biofuel, and other chemical production industries that use cellulosic materials.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/enzymology , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Gene Expression , Cellulase/genetics , Cellulase/chemistry , Cloning, Molecular , Aspergillus fumigatus/genetics , Substrate Specificity , Enzyme Stability , Kluyveromyces/genetics , Kluyveromyces/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Cellulase/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 32: 6-12, Mar. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022493

ABSTRACT

Background: Hydrophobins are small proteins secreted by filamentous fungi, which show a highly surface activity. Because of the signally self-assembling abilities and surface activities, hydrophobins were considered as candidates in many aspects, for example, stabilizing foams and emulsions in food products. Lentinus tuber-regium, known as tiger milk mushroom, is both an edible and medicinal sclerotium-producing mushroom. Up to now, the hydrophobins of L. tuber-regium have not been identified. Results: In this paper, a Class I hydrophobin gene, Ltr.hyd, was cloned from L. tuber-regium and expressed in the yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The expression vector pGEH-GH was under the control of T. fuciformis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpd) promoter. The integration of Ltr.hyd into the genome of T. fuciformis was confirmed by PCR, Southern blot, fluorescence observation and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) demonstrated that recombinant hydrophobin rLtr.HYD with an expected molecular mass of 13 kDa was extracted. The yield of rLtr.HYD was 0.66 mg/g dry weight. The emulsifying activity of rLtr.HYD was better than the typical food emulsifiers sodium caseinate and Tween 20. Conclusions: We evaluated the emulsifying property of hydrophobin Ltr.HYD, which can be potentially used as a food emulsifier.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/metabolism , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Lentinula/genetics , Lentinula/metabolism , Transformation, Genetic , Basidiomycota/enzymology , Yeasts , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Blotting, Southern , Cloning, Molecular , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/metabolism , Sequence Analysis , Emulsifying Agents , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases/metabolism , Microscopy, Fluorescence
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 269-275, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974344

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes vascular wilt in tomato plants. In this work we analyze the influence of metal salts such as iron and copper sulphate, as well as that of bathophenanthrolinedisulfonic acid (iron chelator) and bathocuproinedisulfonic acid (copper chelator) on the activity of laccases in the intra (IF) and extracellular fractions (EF) of the wild-type and the non-pathogenic mutant strain (rho1::hyg) of F. oxysporum. The results show that laccase activity in the IF fraction of the wild and mutant strain increased with the addition of iron chelator (53.4 and 114.32%; respectively). With copper, it is observed that there is an inhibition of the activity with the addition of CuSO4 for the EF of the wild and mutant strain (reduction of 82 and 62.6%; respectively) and for the IF of the mutant strain (54.8%). With the copper chelator a less laccase activity in the IF of the mutant strain was observed (reduction of 53.9%). The results obtained suggest a different regulation of intracellular laccases in the mutant strain compared with the wild type in presence of CuSO4 and copper chelator which may be due to the mutation in the rho gene.


Subject(s)
Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Copper/metabolism , Laccase/metabolism , Fusarium/enzymology , Iron/metabolism , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiology , Laccase/genetics , Laccase/chemistry , Fusarium/genetics , Fusarium/chemistry
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 160-165, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974323

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sclareol is an important intermediate for ambroxide synthesis industries. Hyphozyma roseonigra ATCC 20624 was the only reported strain capable of degrading sclareol to the main product of sclareol glycol, which is the precursor of ambroxide. To date, knowledge is lacking about the effects of sclareol on cells and the proteins involved in sclareol metabolism. Comparative proteomic analyses were conducted on the strain H. roseonigra ATCC 20624 by using sclareol or glucose as the sole carbon source. A total of 79 up-regulated protein spots with a >2.0-fold difference in abundance on 2-D gels under sclareol stress conditions were collected for further identification. Seventy spots were successfully identified and finally integrated into 30 proteins. The up-regulated proteins under sclareol stress are involved in carbon metabolism; and nitrogen metabolism; and replication, transcription, and translation processes. Eighteen up-regulated spots were identified as aldehyde dehydrogenases, which indicating that aldehyde dehydrogenases might play an important role in sclareol metabolism. Overall, this study may lay the fundamentals for further cell engineering to improve sclareol glycol production.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/metabolism , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Diterpenes/metabolism , Ascomycota/genetics , Ascomycota/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Carbon/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Proteomics , Glucose/metabolism
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772242

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the efficacy of cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF) in the treatment and prevention of vaginal candidiasis in vivo.@*METHODS@#The activities of different concentrations of BDSF against the virulence factors of Candida albicans (C. albicans) were determined in vitro. An experimental mouse model of Candida vaginitis was treated with 250 μmol/L BDSF. Treatment efficiency was evaluated in accordance with vaginal fungal burden and inflammation symptoms.@*RESULTS@#In vitro experiments indicated that BDSF attenuated the adhesion and damage of C. albicans to epithelial cells by decreasing phospholipase secretion and blocking filament formation. Treatment with 30 μmol/L BDSF reduced the adhesion and damage of C. albicans to epithelial cells by 36.9% and 42.3%, respectively. Treatment with 200 μmol/L BDSF completely inhibited phospholipase activity. In vivo mouse experiments demonstrated that BDSF could effectively eliminate vaginal infection and relieve inflammatory symptoms. Four days of treatment with 250 μmol/L BDSF reduced vaginal fungal loads by 6-fold and depressed inflammation. Moreover, BDSF treatment decreased the expression levels of the inflammatory chemokine-associated genes MCP-1 and IGFBP3 by 2.5- and 2-fold, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#BDSF is a novel alternative drug that can efficiently control vaginal candidiasis by inhibiting the virulence factors of C. albicans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Candida albicans , Metabolism , Virulence , Physiology , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Microbiology , Chemokine CCL2 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated , Female , Fungal Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Mice , Virulence , Virulence Factors , Genetics , Metabolism
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 602-606, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889128

ABSTRACT

Abstract Expression of pectinolytic genes is regulated by catabolic repression limiting the production of pectin lyase (PL) if the natural inducer, pectin, is missing from the growth medium. Here, we report the isolation of Penicillium griseoroseum mutants resistant to 2-deoxy-d-glucose (DG) that show resistance to catabolite repression and overproduce PL. Three spontaneous and nine UV-induced mutants were obtained. Some mutants produced sectors (segments morphologically different) that were also studied. The mutants were analyzed for pectinases production on pectinase-agar plates and five mutants and two sectors showing larger clearing zones than the wild type were selected for quantitative assay. Although PL production higher than the wild type has been found, phenotype instability was observed for most of the mutants and, after transfers to nonselective medium, the DG resistance was no longer present. Only mutants M03 and M04 were stable maintaining the DG-resistance phenotype. When growing for 120 h in liquid medium containing glucose with or without pectin, both mutants showed higher PL production. In the presence of glucose as sole carbon source, the mutant M03 produced 7.8-fold more PL than the wild type. Due its phenotypic stability and PL overproduction, the mutant M03 presents potential for industrial applications.


Subject(s)
Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Penicillium/enzymology , Polysaccharide-Lyases/metabolism , Catabolite Repression , Culture Media/chemistry , Culture Media/metabolism , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Pectins/metabolism , Penicillium/genetics , Penicillium/metabolism
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 522-529, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889152

ABSTRACT

Abstract Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus, is the alternative biocontrol agent exploited against major economic crop pests. Pieris brassicae L. is an emerging pest of the Brassicaceae family. Therefore, in the present study, fungal isolates of Beauveria bassiana, viz. MTCC 2028, MTCC 4495, MTCC 6291, and NBAII-11, were evaluated for their virulence against third instar larvae of P. brassicae. Among all these fungal isolates, maximum mortality (86.66%) was recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 4495 at higher concentration of spores (109 conidia/ml), and the minimum mortality (30.00%) was recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 6291 at a lower concentration (107 conidia/ml) after ten days of treatment. The extracellular cuticle-degrading enzyme activities of fungal isolates were measured. Variability was observed both in the pattern of enzyme secretion and the level of enzyme activities among various fungal isolates. B. bassiana MTCC 4495 recorded the maximum mean chitinase (0.51 U/ml), protease (1.12 U/ml), and lipase activities (1.36 U/ml). The minimum mean chitinase and protease activities (0.37 and 0.91 U/ml, respectively) were recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 6291. The minimum mean lipase activity (1.04 U/ml) was recorded in B. bassiana NBAII-11. Our studies revealed B. bassiana MTCC 4495 as the most pathogenic isolate against P. brassicae, which also recorded maximum extracellular enzyme activities, suggesting the possible roles of extracellular enzymes in the pathogenicity of B. bassiana against P. brassicae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Beauveria/enzymology , Beauveria/pathogenicity , Brassica/parasitology , Chitinases/metabolism , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Moths/microbiology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Plant Diseases/parasitology , Beauveria/genetics , Chitinases/genetics , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Larva/microbiology , Larva/physiology , Moths/physiology , Virulence
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(4): e5928, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839283

ABSTRACT

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii are fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most prevalent systemic mycosis in South America. For serological diagnosis, although 43-kDa glycoprotein (gp43) is regarded as highly specific for PCM, the occurrence of false negative reactions in sera from patients infected with P. lutzii suggests that preparation with only one antigen is not recommended. Heat shock proteins are feasible alternatives as a second antigen because they are often highly immunogenic. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of recombinant 60-kDa heat shock protein from P. brasiliensis (rPbHsp60) for the serological diagnosis of PCM. Using western blotting assay, we observed that 77.3% of the sera from PCM patients were positive to rPbHsp60, with 90.9% positivity to recombinant gp43 (rgp43). More importantly, sera from healthy subjects had 27% positivity to rPbHsp60 and none to rgp43. When rPbHsp60 was used in ELISA, we did not observe significant differences between the reactions with sera from PCM patients and healthy subjects, while the difference was clearly evident when the antigen was rgp43. Furthermore, rPbHsp60 was recognized by sera from patients with histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, sporotrichosis or tuberculosis in an ELISA test. These results show that rPbHsp60 is not a good antigen for PCM diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, Fungal/blood , Chaperonin 60/blood , Fungal Proteins/blood , Paracoccidioides/immunology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/methods , Blotting, Western , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Paracoccidioidomycosis/blood , Recombinant Proteins/blood , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 853-862, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828206

ABSTRACT

Abstract Spore counts, species composition and richness of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and soil glomalin contents were evaluated in a soil contaminated with Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb after rehabilitation by partial replacement of the contaminated soil with non-contaminated soil, and by Eucalyptus camaldulensis planting with and without Brachiaria decumbens sowing. These rehabilitation procedures were compared with soils from contaminated non-rehabilitated area and non-contaminated adjacent soils. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi communities attributes were assessed by direct field sampling, trap culture technique, and by glomalin contents estimate. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was markedly favored by rehabilitation, and a total of 15 arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi morphotypes were detected in the studied area. Species from the Glomus and Acaulospora genera were the most common mycorrhizal fungi. Number of spores was increased by as much as 300-fold, and species richness almost doubled in areas rehabilitated by planting Eucalyptus in rows and sowing B. decumbens in inter-rows. Contents of heavy metals in the soil were negatively correlated with both species richness and glomalin contents. Introduction of B. decumbens together with Eucalyptus causes enrichment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species and a more balanced community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores in contaminated soil.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Brazil , Mycorrhizae/classification , Environmental Pollution , Soil Pollutants/chemistry , Spores, Fungal , Fungal Proteins , Colony Count, Microbial , Metals, Heavy/chemistry
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 697-702, July-Sept. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788971

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton. They have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue to produce a cutaneous infection known as dermatophytoses. This investigation was performed to study the effect of gaseous ozone and ozonized oil on three specific properties of six different dermatophytes. These properties included sporulation, mycelia leakage of sugar and nutrients and the activity of their hydrolytic enzymes. Generally, ozonized oil was found to be more efficacious than gaseous ozone. Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis were the most susceptible, while Trichophyton interdigitale and T. mentagrophytes were relatively resistant. The study revealed a steady decline in spore production of M. gypseum and M. canis on application of ozonated oil. An increase in leakage of electrolytes and sugar was noticed after treatment with ozonized oil in the case of M. gypseum, M. canis, T. interdigitale, T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum. The results also revealed loss in urease, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase and keratinase enzyme producing capacity of the investigated fungi.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ozone/pharmacology , Arthrodermataceae/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Permeability , Spores, Fungal/drug effects , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Mycelium , Arthrodermataceae/physiology , Electrolytes/metabolism , Enzyme Activation , Carbohydrate Metabolism/drug effects
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 287-297, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780826

ABSTRACT

Abstract Oxidative enzymes secreted by white rot fungi can be applied in several technological processes within the paper industry, biofuel production and bioremediation. The discovery of native strains from the biodiverse Misiones (Argentina) forest can provide useful enzymes for biotechnological purposes. In this work, we evaluated the laccase and manganese peroxidase secretion abilities of four newly discovered strains of Trametes sp. that are native to Misiones. In addition, the copper response and optimal pH and temperature for laccase activity in culture supernatants were determined.The selected strains produced variable amounts of laccase and MnP; when Cu2+ was added, both enzymes were significantly increased. Zymograms showed that two isoenzymes were increased in all strains in the presence of Cu2+. Strain B showed the greatest response to Cu2+ addition, whereas strain A was more stable at the optimal temperature and pH. Strain A showed interesting potential for future biotechnological approaches due to the superior thermo-stability of its secreted enzymes.


Subject(s)
Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Laccase/metabolism , Trametes/enzymology , Argentina , Temperature , Enzyme Stability , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Laccase/genetics , Laccase/chemistry , Trametes/isolation & purification , Trametes/genetics
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 468-479, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780832

ABSTRACT

Abstract Metabolites of mycoparasitic fungal species such as Trichoderma harzianum 88 have important biological roles. In this study, two new ketoacyl synthase (KS) fragments were isolated from cultured Trichoderma harzianum 88 mycelia using degenerate primers and analysed using a phylogenetic tree. The gene fragments were determined to be present as single copies in Trichoderma harzianum 88 through southern blot analysis using digoxigenin-labelled KS gene fragments as probes. The complete sequence analysis in formation of pksT-1 (5669 bp) and pksT-2 (7901 bp) suggests that pksT-1 exhibited features of a non-reducing type I fungal PKS, whereas pksT-2 exhibited features of a highly reducing type I fungal PKS. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction indicated that the isolated genes are differentially regulated in Trichoderma harzianum 88 during challenge with three fungal plant pathogens, which suggests that they participate in the response of Trichoderma harzianum 88 to fungal plant pathogens. Furthermore, disruption of the pksT-2 encoding ketosynthase–acyltransferase domains through Agrobacterium -mediated gene transformation indicated that pksT-2 is a key factor for conidial pigmentation in Trichoderma harzianum 88.


Subject(s)
Trichoderma/enzymology , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Polyketide Synthases/metabolism , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Trichoderma/classification , Trichoderma/genetics , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Molecular Sequence Data , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Sequence Alignment , Amino Acid Sequence , Mycelium/enzymology , Mycelium/genetics , Polyketide Synthases/genetics , Polyketide Synthases/chemistry
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