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1.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 749-756, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974295

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) recalcitrant to microbial attack. Although studies related to the microbial degradation of PAHs have been carried out in the last decades, little is known about degradation of these environmental pollutants by fungi from marine origin. Therefore, this study aimed to select one PAHs degrader among three marine-derived basidiomycete fungi and to study its pyrene detoxification/degradation. Marasmiellus sp. CBMAI 1062 showed higher levels of pyrene and BaP degradation and was subjected to studies related to pyrene degradation optimization using experimental design, acute toxicity, organic carbon removal (TOC), and metabolite evaluation. The experimental design resulted in an efficient pyrene degradation, reducing the experiment time while the PAH concentration applied in the assays was increased. The selected fungus was able to degrade almost 100% of pyrene (0.08 mg mL-1) after 48 h of incubation under saline condition, without generating toxic compounds and with a TOC reduction of 17%. Intermediate metabolites of pyrene degradation were identified, suggesting that the fungus degraded the compound via the cytochrome P450 system and epoxide hydrolases. These results highlight the relevance of marine-derived fungi in the field of PAH bioremediation, adding value to the blue biotechnology.


Subject(s)
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/metabolism , Seawater/microbiology , Basidiomycota/metabolism , Phylogeny , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/chemistry , Pyrenes/metabolism , Pyrenes/chemistry , Basidiomycota/isolation & purification , Basidiomycota/classification , Basidiomycota/genetics , Benzo(a)pyrene/metabolism , Benzo(a)pyrene/chemistry , Biodegradation, Environmental , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 723-730, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974310

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The soil represents the main source of novel biocatalysts and biomolecules of industrial relevance. We searched for hydrolases in silico in four shotgun metagenomes (4,079,223 sequences) obtained in a 13-year field trial carried out in southern Brazil, under the no-tillage (NT), or conventional tillage (CT) managements, with crop succession (CS, soybean/wheat), or crop rotation (CR, soybean/maize/wheat/lupine/oat). We identified 42,631 hydrolases belonging to five classes by comparing with the KEGG database, and 44,928 sequences by comparing with the NCBI-NR database. The abundance followed the order: lipases > laccases > cellulases > proteases > amylases > pectinases. Statistically significant differences were attributed to the tillage system, with the NT showing about five times more hydrolases than the CT system. The outstanding differences can be attributed to the management of crop residues, left on the soil surface in the NT, and mechanically broken and incorporated into the soil in the CT. Differences between the CS and the CR were slighter, 10% higher for the CS, but not statistically different. Most of the sequences belonged to fungi (Verticillium, and Colletotrichum for lipases and laccases, and Aspergillus for proteases), and to the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius for amylases. Our results indicate that agricultural soils under conservative managements may represent a hotspot for bioprospection of hydrolases.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Archaea/enzymology , Archaeal Proteins/genetics , Fungi/enzymology , Hydrolases/genetics , Soil Microbiology , Soybeans/growth & development , Triticum/growth & development , Brazil , Archaea/isolation & purification , Archaea/classification , Archaea/genetics , Zea mays/growth & development , Agriculture , Metagenome , Metagenomics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 647-655, July-Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951810

ABSTRACT

Abstract An intronless endoglucanase from thermotolerant Aspergillus fumigatus DBINU-1 was cloned, characterized and expressed in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. The full-length open reading frame of the endoglucanase gene from A. fumigatus DBiNU-1, designated Cel7, was 1383 nucleotides in length and encoded a protein of 460 amino acid residues. The predicted molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the A. fumigatus Cel7 gene product were 48.19 kDa and 5.03, respectively. A catalytic domain in the N-terminal region and a fungal type cellulose-binding domain/module in the C-terminal region were detected in the predicted polypeptide sequences. Furthermore, a signal peptide with 20 amino acid residues at the N-terminus was also detected in the deduced amino acid sequences of the endoglucanase from A. fumigatus DBiNU-1. The endoglucanase from A. fumigatus DBiNU-1 was successfully expressed in K. lactis, and the purified recombinant enzyme exhibited its maximum activity at pH 5.0 and 60 °C. The enzyme was very stable in a pH range from 4.0 to 8.0 and a temperature range from 30 to 60 °C. These features make it suitable for application in the paper, biofuel, and other chemical production industries that use cellulosic materials.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/enzymology , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Gene Expression , Cellulase/genetics , Cellulase/chemistry , Cloning, Molecular , Aspergillus fumigatus/genetics , Substrate Specificity , Enzyme Stability , Kluyveromyces/genetics , Kluyveromyces/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Cellulase/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 32: 6-12, Mar. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022493

ABSTRACT

Background: Hydrophobins are small proteins secreted by filamentous fungi, which show a highly surface activity. Because of the signally self-assembling abilities and surface activities, hydrophobins were considered as candidates in many aspects, for example, stabilizing foams and emulsions in food products. Lentinus tuber-regium, known as tiger milk mushroom, is both an edible and medicinal sclerotium-producing mushroom. Up to now, the hydrophobins of L. tuber-regium have not been identified. Results: In this paper, a Class I hydrophobin gene, Ltr.hyd, was cloned from L. tuber-regium and expressed in the yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The expression vector pGEH-GH was under the control of T. fuciformis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpd) promoter. The integration of Ltr.hyd into the genome of T. fuciformis was confirmed by PCR, Southern blot, fluorescence observation and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) demonstrated that recombinant hydrophobin rLtr.HYD with an expected molecular mass of 13 kDa was extracted. The yield of rLtr.HYD was 0.66 mg/g dry weight. The emulsifying activity of rLtr.HYD was better than the typical food emulsifiers sodium caseinate and Tween 20. Conclusions: We evaluated the emulsifying property of hydrophobin Ltr.HYD, which can be potentially used as a food emulsifier.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota/metabolism , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Lentinula/genetics , Lentinula/metabolism , Transformation, Genetic , Basidiomycota/enzymology , Yeasts , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Blotting, Southern , Cloning, Molecular , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/metabolism , Sequence Analysis , Emulsifying Agents , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases/metabolism , Microscopy, Fluorescence
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 269-275, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974344

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes vascular wilt in tomato plants. In this work we analyze the influence of metal salts such as iron and copper sulphate, as well as that of bathophenanthrolinedisulfonic acid (iron chelator) and bathocuproinedisulfonic acid (copper chelator) on the activity of laccases in the intra (IF) and extracellular fractions (EF) of the wild-type and the non-pathogenic mutant strain (rho1::hyg) of F. oxysporum. The results show that laccase activity in the IF fraction of the wild and mutant strain increased with the addition of iron chelator (53.4 and 114.32%; respectively). With copper, it is observed that there is an inhibition of the activity with the addition of CuSO4 for the EF of the wild and mutant strain (reduction of 82 and 62.6%; respectively) and for the IF of the mutant strain (54.8%). With the copper chelator a less laccase activity in the IF of the mutant strain was observed (reduction of 53.9%). The results obtained suggest a different regulation of intracellular laccases in the mutant strain compared with the wild type in presence of CuSO4 and copper chelator which may be due to the mutation in the rho gene.


Subject(s)
Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Copper/metabolism , Laccase/metabolism , Fusarium/enzymology , Iron/metabolism , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiology , Laccase/genetics , Laccase/chemistry , Fusarium/genetics , Fusarium/chemistry
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 602-606, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889128

ABSTRACT

Abstract Expression of pectinolytic genes is regulated by catabolic repression limiting the production of pectin lyase (PL) if the natural inducer, pectin, is missing from the growth medium. Here, we report the isolation of Penicillium griseoroseum mutants resistant to 2-deoxy-d-glucose (DG) that show resistance to catabolite repression and overproduce PL. Three spontaneous and nine UV-induced mutants were obtained. Some mutants produced sectors (segments morphologically different) that were also studied. The mutants were analyzed for pectinases production on pectinase-agar plates and five mutants and two sectors showing larger clearing zones than the wild type were selected for quantitative assay. Although PL production higher than the wild type has been found, phenotype instability was observed for most of the mutants and, after transfers to nonselective medium, the DG resistance was no longer present. Only mutants M03 and M04 were stable maintaining the DG-resistance phenotype. When growing for 120 h in liquid medium containing glucose with or without pectin, both mutants showed higher PL production. In the presence of glucose as sole carbon source, the mutant M03 produced 7.8-fold more PL than the wild type. Due its phenotypic stability and PL overproduction, the mutant M03 presents potential for industrial applications.


Subject(s)
Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Penicillium/enzymology , Polysaccharide-Lyases/metabolism , Catabolite Repression , Culture Media/chemistry , Culture Media/metabolism , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Pectins/metabolism , Penicillium/genetics , Penicillium/metabolism
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 522-529, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889152

ABSTRACT

Abstract Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus, is the alternative biocontrol agent exploited against major economic crop pests. Pieris brassicae L. is an emerging pest of the Brassicaceae family. Therefore, in the present study, fungal isolates of Beauveria bassiana, viz. MTCC 2028, MTCC 4495, MTCC 6291, and NBAII-11, were evaluated for their virulence against third instar larvae of P. brassicae. Among all these fungal isolates, maximum mortality (86.66%) was recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 4495 at higher concentration of spores (109 conidia/ml), and the minimum mortality (30.00%) was recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 6291 at a lower concentration (107 conidia/ml) after ten days of treatment. The extracellular cuticle-degrading enzyme activities of fungal isolates were measured. Variability was observed both in the pattern of enzyme secretion and the level of enzyme activities among various fungal isolates. B. bassiana MTCC 4495 recorded the maximum mean chitinase (0.51 U/ml), protease (1.12 U/ml), and lipase activities (1.36 U/ml). The minimum mean chitinase and protease activities (0.37 and 0.91 U/ml, respectively) were recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 6291. The minimum mean lipase activity (1.04 U/ml) was recorded in B. bassiana NBAII-11. Our studies revealed B. bassiana MTCC 4495 as the most pathogenic isolate against P. brassicae, which also recorded maximum extracellular enzyme activities, suggesting the possible roles of extracellular enzymes in the pathogenicity of B. bassiana against P. brassicae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Beauveria/enzymology , Beauveria/pathogenicity , Brassica/parasitology , Chitinases/metabolism , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Moths/microbiology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Plant Diseases/parasitology , Beauveria/genetics , Chitinases/genetics , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Larva/microbiology , Larva/physiology , Moths/physiology , Virulence
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 468-479, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780832

ABSTRACT

Abstract Metabolites of mycoparasitic fungal species such as Trichoderma harzianum 88 have important biological roles. In this study, two new ketoacyl synthase (KS) fragments were isolated from cultured Trichoderma harzianum 88 mycelia using degenerate primers and analysed using a phylogenetic tree. The gene fragments were determined to be present as single copies in Trichoderma harzianum 88 through southern blot analysis using digoxigenin-labelled KS gene fragments as probes. The complete sequence analysis in formation of pksT-1 (5669 bp) and pksT-2 (7901 bp) suggests that pksT-1 exhibited features of a non-reducing type I fungal PKS, whereas pksT-2 exhibited features of a highly reducing type I fungal PKS. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction indicated that the isolated genes are differentially regulated in Trichoderma harzianum 88 during challenge with three fungal plant pathogens, which suggests that they participate in the response of Trichoderma harzianum 88 to fungal plant pathogens. Furthermore, disruption of the pksT-2 encoding ketosynthase–acyltransferase domains through Agrobacterium -mediated gene transformation indicated that pksT-2 is a key factor for conidial pigmentation in Trichoderma harzianum 88.


Subject(s)
Trichoderma/enzymology , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Polyketide Synthases/metabolism , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Trichoderma/classification , Trichoderma/genetics , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Molecular Sequence Data , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Sequence Alignment , Amino Acid Sequence , Mycelium/enzymology , Mycelium/genetics , Polyketide Synthases/genetics , Polyketide Synthases/chemistry
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 287-297, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780826

ABSTRACT

Abstract Oxidative enzymes secreted by white rot fungi can be applied in several technological processes within the paper industry, biofuel production and bioremediation. The discovery of native strains from the biodiverse Misiones (Argentina) forest can provide useful enzymes for biotechnological purposes. In this work, we evaluated the laccase and manganese peroxidase secretion abilities of four newly discovered strains of Trametes sp. that are native to Misiones. In addition, the copper response and optimal pH and temperature for laccase activity in culture supernatants were determined.The selected strains produced variable amounts of laccase and MnP; when Cu2+ was added, both enzymes were significantly increased. Zymograms showed that two isoenzymes were increased in all strains in the presence of Cu2+. Strain B showed the greatest response to Cu2+ addition, whereas strain A was more stable at the optimal temperature and pH. Strain A showed interesting potential for future biotechnological approaches due to the superior thermo-stability of its secreted enzymes.


Subject(s)
Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Laccase/metabolism , Trametes/enzymology , Argentina , Temperature , Enzyme Stability , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Laccase/genetics , Laccase/chemistry , Trametes/isolation & purification , Trametes/genetics
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can detect many more microorganisms of a microbiome than traditional methods. This study aimed to analyze the vaginal microbiomes of Korean women by using NGS that included bacteria and other microorganisms. The NGS results were compared with the results of other assays, and NGS was evaluated for its feasibility for predicting vaginitis. METHODS: In total, 89 vaginal swab specimens were collected. Microscopic examinations of Gram staining and microbiological cultures were conducted on 67 specimens. NGS was performed with GS junior system on all of the vaginal specimens for the 16S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and Tvk genes to detect bacteria, fungi, and Trichomonas vaginalis. In addition, DNA probe assays of the Candida spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, and Trichomonas vaginalis were performed. Various predictors of diversity that were obtained from the NGS data were analyzed to predict vaginitis. RESULTS: ITS sequences were obtained in most of the specimens (56.2%). The compositions of the intermediate and vaginitis Nugent score groups were similar to each other but differed from the composition of the normal score group. The fraction of the Lactobacillus spp. showed the highest area under the curve value (0.8559) in ROC curve analysis. The NGS and DNA probe assay results showed good agreement (range, 86.2-89.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Fungi as well as bacteria should be considered for the investigation of vaginal microbiome. The intermediate and vaginitis Nugent score groups were indistinguishable in NGS. NGS is a promising diagnostic tool of the vaginal microbiome and vaginitis, although some problems need to be resolved.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Candida/genetics , Female , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Gardnerella vaginalis/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Microbiota , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/chemistry , ROC Curve , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Trichomonas vaginalis/genetics , Vagina/microbiology , Vaginitis/diagnosis
11.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(supl.19): 25-30, Sept. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762052

ABSTRACT

SUMMARYTo commemorate Prof. Carlos da Silva Lacaz's centennial anniversary, the authors have written a brief account of a few, out of hundreds, biological, ecological, molecular and phylogenetic studies that led to the arrival of Paracoccidioides lutzii, hidden for more than a century within Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Lacaz's permanent interest in this fungus, and particularly his conviction on the benefits that research on paracoccidioidomycosis would bring to patients, were pivotal in the development of the field.


RESUMOPara comemorar o centenário de aniversário do Prof. Dr. Carlos da Silva Lacaz, os autores fazem um breve relato dos estudos sobre a biologia, ecologia e filogenia molecular que culminaram na revelação da espécie Paracoccidioides lutzii, que havia permanecido escondida por mais de um século ao lado de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. O professor Lacaz exerceu papel central no desenvolvimento desta área do conhecimento, pois manteve interesse permanente nas pesquisas deste fungo e da paracoccidioidomicose, visando principalmente proporcionar benefícios aos pacientes acometidos por esta micose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Paracoccidioides , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Glycoproteins/genetics , Paracoccidioides/classification , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioides/isolation & purification , Species Specificity
12.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(4): 376-383, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759281

ABSTRACT

Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic and endemic mycosis, restricted to tropical and subtropical areas of Latin America. The infection is caused by the thermal dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensisand Paracoccidioides lutzii. The diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis is usually performed by microscopic examination, culture and immunodiagnostic tests to respiratory specimens, body fluids and/or biopsies; however these methods require laboratory personnel with experience and several days to produce a result. In the present study, we have validated and evaluated a nested PCR assay targeting the gene encoding the Paracoccidioides gp43membrane protein in 191 clinical samples: 115 samples from patients with proven infections other than paracoccidioidomycosis, 51 samples as negative controls, and 25 samples from patients diagnosed with paracoccidioidomycosis. Additionally, the specificity of the nested PCR assay was also evaluated using purified DNA isolated from cultures of different microorganisms (n= 35) previously identified by culture and/or sequencing. The results showed that in our hands, this nested PCR assay for gp43 protein showed specificity and sensitivity rates of 100%. The optimized nested PCR conditions in our laboratory allowed detection down to 1 fg of P. brasiliensisDNA.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Paracoccidioidomycosis/diagnosis , Colombia , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Paracoccidioides/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223790

ABSTRACT

Microsporidia are eukaryotic organisms that cause zoonosis and are major opportunistic pathogens in HIV-positive patients. However, there is increasing evidence that these organisms can also cause gastrointestinal and ocular infections in immunocompetent individuals. In Korea, there have been no reports on human infections with microsporidia to date. In the present study, we used real-time PCR and nucleotide sequencing to detect Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in seven of 139 human diarrheal stool specimens (5%) and Encephalitozoon hellem in three of 34 farm soil samples (8.8%). Genotype analysis of the E. hellem isolates based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 and polar tube protein genes showed that all isolates were genotype 1B. To our knowledge, this is the first report on human E. intestinalis infection in Korea and the first report revealing farm soil samples as a source of E. hellem infection. Because microsporidia are an important public health issue, further large-scale epidemiological studies are warranted.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/parasitology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Agriculture , Base Sequence , Child , Child, Preschool , DNA, Intergenic/genetics , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Encephalitozoon/genetics , Encephalitozoonosis/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology , Female , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Typing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Soil/parasitology , Young Adult
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1371-1377, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741289

ABSTRACT

Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo). C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources,in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biofilms/growth & development , Candida/genetics , Candida/physiology , Candidiasis/microbiology , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Brazil , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Hospitals, Public , Tertiary Care Centers
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Nov; 52(11): 1025-1035
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153782

ABSTRACT

After cellulose, chitin is the second most abundant organic and renewable polysaccharide in nature. This polymer is degraded by enzymes called chitinases which are a part of the glycoside hydrolase family. Chitinases have many important biophysiological functions and immense potential applications especially in control of phytopathogens, production of chito-oligosaccharides with numerous uses and in treatment and degradation of chitinous biowaste. At present many microbial sources are being explored and tapped for chitinase production which includes potential fungal cultures. With advancement in molecular biology and gene cloning techniques, research on fungal chitinases have made fast progress. The present review focuses on recent advances in fungal chitinases, containing a short introduction to types of chitinases, their fermentative production, purification and characterization and molecular cloning and expression.


Subject(s)
Chitin/metabolism , Chitinases/classification , Chitinases/genetics , Chitinases/isolation & purification , Chitinases/metabolism , Cloning, Molecular , Fermentation , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/isolation & purification , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Fungi/enzymology , Fungi/growth & development , Industrial Microbiology/methods , Mycology/methods
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1241-1250, Oct.-Dec. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705264

ABSTRACT

The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways has been implicated in the pathogenicity of various pathogenic fungi and plays important roles in regulating pathogenicity-related morphogenesis. This work describes the isolation and characterization of MAP kinase gene, Cgl-SLT2, from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. A DNA sequence, including 1,633 bp of Cgl-SLT2 open-reading frame and its promoter and terminator regions, was isolated via DNA walking and cloned. To analyze gene function, a gene disruption cassette containing hygromycin-resistant gene was constructed, and Cgl-SLT2 was inactivated via gene deletion. Analysis on Cgl-slt2 mutant revealed a defect in vegetative growth and sporulation as compared to the wild-type strain. When grown under nutrient-limiting conditions, hyperbranched hyphal morphology was observed in the mutant. Conidia induction for germination on rubber wax-coated hard surfaces revealed no differences in the percentage of conidial germination between the wild-type and Cgl-slt2 mutant. However, the percentage of appressorium formation in the mutant was greatly reduced. Bipolar germination in the mutant was higher than in the wild-type at 8-h post-induction. A pathogenicity assay revealed that the mutant was unable to infect either wounded or unwounded mangoes. These results suggest that the Cgl-SLT2 MAP kinase is required for C. gloeosporioides conidiation, polarized growth, appressorium formation and pathogenicity.


Subject(s)
Colletotrichum/growth & development , Colletotrichum/pathogenicity , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Spores, Fungal/growth & development , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Gene Deletion , Hyphae/growth & development , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Mangifera/microbiology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Open Reading Frames , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Virulence
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103945

ABSTRACT

Neospora caninum is the etiologic agent of bovine neosporosis, which affects the reproductive performance of cattle worldwide. The transmembrane protein, NcSRS2, and dense-granule protein, NcGRA7, were identified as protective antigens based on their ability to induce significant protective immune responses in murine neosporosis models. In the current study, NcSRS2 and NcGRA7 genes were spliced by overlap-extension PCR in a recombinant adenovirus termed Ad5-NcSRS2-NcGRA 7, expressing the NcSRS2-NcGRA7 gene, and the efficacy was evaluated in mice. The results showed that the titer of the recombinant adenovirus was 10(9)TCID50/ml. Three weeks post-boost immunization (w.p.b.i.), the IgG antibody titer in sera was as high as 1:4,096. IFN-gamma and IL-4 levels were significantly different from the control group (P<0.01). This research established a solid foundation for the development of a recombinant adenovirus vaccine against bovine N. caninum.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Fungal/blood , Antigens, Fungal/genetics , Drug Carriers , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neospora/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
18.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 44(2): 113-121, jun. 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-657621

ABSTRACT

A phenol-degrading fungus was isolated from crop soils. Molecular characterization (using internal transcribed spacer, translation elongation factor and beta-tubulin gene sequences) and biochemical characterization allowed to identify the fungal strain as Penicillium chrysogenum Thorn ERK1. Phenol degradation was tested at 25 °C under resting mycelium conditions at 6, 30, 60, 200, 350 and 400 mg/l of phenol as the only source of carbon and energy. The time required for complete phenol degradation increased at different initial phenol concentrations. Maximum specific degradation rate (0.89978 mg of phenol/day/mg of dry weight) was obtained at 200 mg/l. Biomass yield decreased at initial phenol concentrations above 60 mg/l. Catechol was identified as an intermediate metabolite by HPLC analysis and catechol dioxygenase activity was detected in plate assays, suggesting that phenol metabolism could occur via ortho fission of catechol. Wheat seeds were used as phototoxicity indicators of phenol degradation products. It was found that these products were not phytotoxic for wheat but highly phytotoxic for phenol. The high specific degradation rates obtained under resting mycelium conditions are considered relevant for practical applications of this fungus in soil decontamination processes.


Un aislamiento fúngico capaz de degradar fenol como única fuente de carbono y energía fue aislado de suelos agrícolas. La caracterización molecular (basada en el empleo de secuencias de espaciadores de transcriptos internos, de factores de la elongación de la traducción y del gen de la beta-tubulina) y la caracterización bioquímica permitieron identificar a esta cepa como Penicillium chrysogenum Thom ERK1. Se estudió la degradación de fenol a 25 °C en cultivos estáticos con 6, 30, 60, 200, 350 y 400 mg/l de fenol inicial. El tiempo requerido para completar la degradación de fenol aumentó al elevarse las concentraciones iniciales de dicho compuesto. La máxima tasa de degradación específica (0,89978 mg de fenol/día/mg de peso seco) se obtuvo con 200 mg/l. El rendimiento en biomasa disminuyó con concentraciones Iniciales de fenol mayores de 60 mg/l. Se identificó al catecol como intermediarlo metabolico por HPLC y se observó actividad de catecol dioxigenasa en placa, lo que sugiere que el metabolismo de degradación del fenol ocurre vía orto fisión del catecol. Se utilizaron semillas de trigo como indicadores de fitotoxicidad de los productos de degradación. Estos productos no fueron fitotóxicos para trigo, mientras que el fenol mostró una alta fitotoxicidad. La alta tasa de degradación específica obtenida en condiciones estáticas resulta de gran interés para la aplicación de este hongo en procesos de descontaminación de suelos.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Mycelium/metabolism , Penicillium chrysogenum/metabolism , Phenol/metabolism , Biomass , Catalysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Carbon/metabolism , Catechols/metabolism , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Osmolar Concentration , Phylogeny , Penicillium chrysogenum/classification , Penicillium chrysogenum/genetics , Penicillium chrysogenum/isolation & purification , Phenol/toxicity , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Soil Microbiology , Seeds/drug effects , Time Factors , Triticum/drug effects , Tubulin/genetics
19.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 43(3): 218-225, jun.-set. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-634695

ABSTRACT

The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica accumulates oils and is able to produce extracellular lipases when growing in different carbon sources including glycerol, the principal by-product of the biodiesel industry. In this study, biomass production of a novel mutant strain of Y. lipolytica was statistically optimized by Response Surface Methodology in media containing biodiesel-derived glycerol as main carbon source. This strain exhibited distinctive morphological and fatty acid profile characteristics, and showed an increased extracellular lipase activity. An organic source of nitrogen and the addition of 1.0 g/l olive oil were necessary for significant lipase production. Plackett-Burman and Central Composite Statistical Designs were employed for screening and optimization of fermentation in shaken flasks cultures, and the maximum values obtained were 16.1 g/l for biomass and 12.2 Units/ml for lipase, respectively. Optimized batch bioprocess was thereafter scaled in aerated bioreactors and the values reached for lipase specific activity after 95 % of the glycerol had been consumed, were three-fold higher than those obtained in shaken flasks cultures. A sustainable bioprocess to obtain biomass and extracellular lipase activity was attained by maximizing the use of the by-products of biodiesel industry.


Optimización de la producción de biomasa usando glicerol crudo, de una cepa mutante de Yarrowia lipolytica con actividad incrementada de lipasa. La levadura Yarrowia lipolytica acumula aceites y produce una lipasa extracelular al crecer en diferentes fuentes de carbono, entre ellas el glicerol, principal subproducto de la creciente industria del biodiésel. En el presente trabajo, se optimizó mediante la metodología de superficies de respuesta la producción de biomasa de una nueva cepa mutante de Y. lipolytica, empleando medios con glicerol derivado de la industria del biodiésel como principal fuente de carbono. Esta cepa presentó características morfológicas y perfil de ácidos grasos distintivos, y una mayor actividad de lipasa extracelular. Para obtener una producción significativa de lipasa extracelular, fue necesario el agregado de una fuente orgánica de nitrógeno y de 1 g/l de aceite de oliva. Se utilizaron los diseños estadísticos de Plackett-Burman y central compuesto para la selección y la optimización de las fermentaciones en frascos agitados; los máximos valores de biomasa y de lipasa obtenidos fueron de 16,1 g/l y 12,2 unidades/ml, respectivamente. Luego, el bioproceso en lote optimizado se escaló a biorreactores aireados, y los valores de actividad específica de lipasa alcanzados después de haberse consumido el 95 % del glicerol fueron tres veces más altos que los obtenidos en los cultivos en frascos agitados. En suma, se desarrolló un bioproceso sostenible para la obtención de biomasa y de una actividad de lipasa extracelular, que a la vez maximiza el uso de subproductos de la industria del biodiésel.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Culture Media/pharmacology , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Glycerol/pharmacology , Industrial Microbiology/methods , Lipase/genetics , Mycology/methods , Yarrowia/growth & development , Bioreactors , Biofuels/analysis , Culture Media, Conditioned/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Intergenic/genetics , Fermentation , Fungal Proteins/biosynthesis , Genes, Fungal , Glycerol/isolation & purification , Hyphae/ultrastructure , Lipase/biosynthesis , Yarrowia/enzymology , Yarrowia/genetics , Yarrowia/ultrastructure
20.
Journal of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. 2011; 19 (74): 25-36
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-106553

ABSTRACT

Trichophyton rubrum is considered as the most common causes of dermatophytosis in human skin and nail tissues. Microsporeum canis is a zoophile dermatophyte which can be transmited to human. HSP70 is a 70 KD heat shock protein in fungi. In this study, the effects of variable CO[2] concentrations were examined on HSP70 expression in T. rubrum and M. canis. Strains used in this study were obtained from skin scales and nails of the patients who were suffering from onychomycosis. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth [SDB] and incubated at 25°C for 2, 4 and 7 days under 3%, 5%, and 10% of CO[2] concentrations. Control cultures maintained for 7 days without CO[2] concentrations. Then, RNA was isolated from the harvested mycelia mass, and HSP70 gene expression was studied in T. rubrum and M. canis by RT-PCR. The obtained results were compared to the Beta actin as a house keeping gene. The results of this study revealed the maximum variations under 3%,5%, and 10% of CO[2] concentrations in maximum 7 days incubation period, and the expression of HSP70 gene showed different variations under different CO[2] concentrations. Our results showed a negative effect of CO[2] concentrations in the expression of HSP70 in T. Rubrum and a positive effect in M. canis comparing to the controls


Subject(s)
Trichophyton/genetics , Gene Expression , Microsporum/genetics , Carbon Dioxide , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Dermatomycoses , Heat-Shock Proteins , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
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