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1.
Infectio ; 25(2): 130-134, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250079

ABSTRACT

Resumen El género Malassezia comprende levaduras lipofílicas, comensales de la piel de humanos y animales, responsables de infecciones dermatológicas y sistémicas, particularmente en recién nacidos pretérmino hospitalizados en Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal (UCIN) con catéteres venosos centrales, antibióticos de amplio espectro y nutrición parenteral rica en lípidos. La información acerca de las fungemias por este microorganismo es limitada, sin embargo, la mayoría de infecciones invasivas reportadas en la literatura han sido asociadas con M. furfur y M. pachydermatis. Se reporta un caso de fungemia por M. sympodialis en un recién nacido pretérmino hospitalizado en la UCIN de un hospital colombiano con sospecha clínica de sepsis neonatal, antibioticoterapia de amplio espectro y hemocultivos de rutina negativos. El aislamiento fue susceptible a fluconazol y voriconazol, y resistente a anfotericina B. Existen pocos reportes de fungemia producida por M. sympodialis, pero todos concuerdan en que es una levadura subestimada en individuos con factores predisponentes.


Abstract The genus Malassezia comprises lipophilic yeasts, commensals of the skin of humans and animals, responsible for dermatological and systemic infections, particu larly in preterm infants hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) with central venous catheters, broad-spectrum antibiotics and parenteral nutrition rich in lipids. Information about fungemia by this microorganism is limited, however, the majority of invasive infections reported in the literature have been associated with M. furfur and M. pachydermatis. A case of M. sympodialis fungemia is reported in a preterm newborn hospitalized in the NICU of a Colombian hospital with clinical suspicion of neonatal sepsis, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and negative routine blood cultures. The isolation was susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole, and resistant to amphotericin B. There are few reports of fungemia produced by M. sympodialis, but all agree that it is an underestimated yeast in individuals with predisposing factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Fungemia , Malassezia , Skin , Yeasts , Colombia , Neonatal Sepsis , Infections
2.
Infectio ; 24(4): 266-269, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114881

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La endocarditis fúngica es una enfermedad infecciosa agresiva e infrecuente, considerada una emergencia en los servicios hospitalarios. Se ha evidenciado una incidencia de 0-12% del total de las admisiones pediátricas por endocarditis infecciosa. La mortalidad por Candida spp se encuentra alrededor del 50-80% en todos los casos. La Candida lusitaniae afecta principalmente a pacientes inmunocomprometidos, con uso de dispositivos intravasculares y el empleo de antibióticos de amplio espectro. Reporte de caso: Se presenta el caso de un lactante menor quien es diagnosticado con fungemia y endocarditis infecciosa por Candida lusitaniae en válvula nativa posterior a cirugía de corrección por transposición de grandes vasos. Discusión y Conclusiones: La endocarditis infecciosa por Candida lusitaniae es una entidad poco frecuente, con una prevalencia menor al 2% constituyéndose un escenario desafiante en la práctica clínica. Se describen las características de un lactante menor quien presentó endocarditis fúngica ya definidas en la literatura mundial. Es imprescindible la detección temprana y una intervención terapéutica vertiginosa; puesto que, la persistencia del inoculo, la resistencia antimicótica y el retraso en el diagnóstico conllevan a una condición amenazante para la vida del paciente.


Abstract Introduction: Fungal infective endocarditis is an aggressive and infrequent disease, considered an emergency in hospital services. Candida mortality is around 50-80% in all cases. The Candida lusitaniae mainly affects immunocompromised patients with chronic venous access and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Case report: A minor infant is presented who is diagnosed with fungemia and infective endocarditis due to Candida lusitaniae in a native valve secondary to surgery by transposition of large vessels. Discussion and Conclusions: Candida lusitaniae infectious endocarditis is very rare, with a prevalence of less than 2% constituting a challenging scenario in clinical practice. The characteristics of fungemia and endocarditis already defined in the world literature are described. Early detection and a vertiginous therapeutic intervention are essential, since; latent infection, antifungal resistance and delay in diagnosis lead to a threatening condition for the patient's life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Candida , Endocarditis , Fungemia , Echinocandins , Infections/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents
3.
Infectio ; 24(3): 143-148, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114857

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Candida spp. Es la principal causa de fungemia, cuya incidencia ha aumentado en los últimos años. Existen datos locales insuficientes sobre este tipo de infecciones. Materiales y métodos: Este fue un estudio observacional retrospectivo de 44 pacientes diagnosticados con candidiasis invasiva hospitalizados en la Fundación Valle del Lili, el cual es un centro de cuarto nivel afiliado a la Universidad Icesi en el Suroccidente Colombiano, entre los años 2012 a 2017. Resultados: Se identificaron 44 pacientes con candidiasis invasiva, 27 de ellos mujeres (61%). La mediana de edad fue de 56 años (36 - 70). Más del 50% tenían una enfermedad crónica subyacente, uso de antibióticos (84%), catéter venoso central (80%), ventilación mecánica (68%) y nutrición enteral (66%) El 80% requirió manejo en unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) donde debutaron con sepsis (68%) y falla respiratoria (61%). En el 90% de los casos se aisló alguna especie de Candida spp. A partir de hemocultivo y sólo al 22% se le realizó prueba de sensibilidad. El tratamiento de elección fue con fluconazol (80%), asociado a caspofungina (70%). La tasa de mortalidad fue del 49%, con una mediana de 33 (22-49,5) días desde el ingreso hasta el fallecimiento. C. albicans fue el principal microorganismo aislado. La resistencia a azoles en especies no albicans existe en nuestro medio. Conclusión: La candidiasis se presenta como candidemia asociada a infección bacteriana concomitante, que cobra mayor importancia en el contexto del paciente inmunosuprimido asociado a elevadas tasas de mortalidad.


Abstract Introduction: Candida spp. is the main cause of fungemia, whose incidence has increased in recent years. There are insufficient local data about this pathology. Materials and methods: This was an observational, retrospective chart review of 44 patients diagnosed with invasive candida who were hospitalized at Fundación Valle del Lili, which is a fourth level center affiliated to Icesi university between 2012 and 2017. Results: We identified 44 patients with invasive candidiasis, 27 of them women (61%). The median age was 56 years (36 - 70). More than 50% had an underlying chronic disease, use of antibiotics (84%), central venous catheter (80%), mechanical ventilation (68%) and enteral nutrition (66%). 80% required management in an intensive care unit. Sepsis (68%) and respiratory failure (61%) were the most common clinical presentation. Almost 90% of the cases, had positive blood cultures, but only 22% presented susceptibility tests. The treatment was mainly fluconazole (80%), associated with caspofungin (70%). The mortality rate was 49%, median of 33 (22-49.5) days from admission to death. Candida albicans was the main isolated organism. Azole resistance in non-albicans species was observed. Conclusion: Candidiasis presents as bacterial infection associated candidemia, which becomes more important in the context of the immunosuppressed patient with high mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacterial Infections , Immunocompromised Host , Fungemia , Candidiasis, Invasive , Candida , Candida albicans , Fluconazole , Colombia , Sepsis , Caspofungin , Infections , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Bacterial Agents
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762467

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Candida , Fungemia
5.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 79 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-TESESESSP, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1146099

ABSTRACT

Candidemias caracterizam um grave problema de saúde pública em todo mundo pela alta mortalidade dos casos, onde as espécies apresentam variação epidemiológica e na sensibilidade aos antifúngicos. Objetivou-se demonstrar a frequência de espécies de Candida, enfatizando as espécies crípticas e caracterizar o perfil de sensibilidade antifúngica de cepas em casos de candidemia, internados em hospitais do estado de São Paulo, onde Instituto Adolfo Lutz é o laboratório de referência. As cepas, únicas de cada paciente, foram recebidas de 22 hospitais públicos gerais, filantrópico, escola e especializado em infectologia. A identificação fenotípica para determinação dos complexos deu-se por análise morfológica e bioquímica, por métodos auxanográficos. Para discriminar espécies crípticas aplicaram-se técnicas moleculares das mais simples às complexas, sendo elas: PCR, PCR-RFLP, MALDI-TOF e sequenciamento. Os antifúngicos utilizados nos testes de sensibilidade foram: fluconazol, voriconazol, caspofungina, micafungina, anidulafungina e anfotericina B. Nos anos de 2017 e 2018, foram estudadas 144 cepas de candidemia com as seguintes espécies crípticas: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (47/144; 32,6%), C. orthopsilosis (4/144; 2,7%), C. metapsilosis (2/144; 1,4%), C. albicans ssss (40/144; 27,8%), C. dubliniensis (2/144, 1,4%), C. glabrata (14/144; 9,7%), C. haemulonii (2/144; 1,4%), C. haemulonii var. vulnera (3/144; 2,1); C. duobushaemulonii (1/144; 0,7%) e C. guilliermondii (2/144; 1,4%). As demais espécies foram: C. tropicalis (21/144; 14,6%), C. krusei (4/144; 2,8%), C. pelliculosa (1/144; 0,7%) e C. kefyr (1/144; 0,7%). Para FCZ foram encontradas 3 cepas de C. parapsilosis (3/46; 6,5%; 0,12->64 µg/mL) e em uma de C. tropicalis (1/21; 4,76%; 64 µg/mL) resistentes; observou-se uma cepa non-wild type de C. guilliermondii (1/2; 50%; 64 µg/mL) e altos MICs para 2 cepas de C. haemulonii var. vulnera (2/3; 66,6%; 16-32 µg/mL) e para a única cepa de C. duobushaemulonii (64 µg/mL). Alta taxa de cepas non-wild type ao VCZ (6/14; 42,8%) foi encontrada em C. glabrata. Reafirma-se neste estudo que as espécies do complexo C. haemulonii, consideradas multirresistentes aos antifúngicos, despontam com maior frequência em nosso estado, se comparado aos dados da literatura. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a identificação por métodos moleculares representou importante estratégia para demonstrar a variedade de espécies causais de candidemias e alertar para necessidade de terapias apropriadas. A determinação de espécies crípticas propensas à resistência pode ter impacto na sobrevida de pacientes por fornecer subsídios para terapia empírica com base no perfil epidemiológico da candidemia em cada hospital, região e país. (AU)


Candidemia is a serious public health problem worldwide due to the high mortality of the cases. The species present epidemiological diversity and different profiles of sensitivity to antifungals. The aim is to show the frequency of Candida species, emphasizing the cryptic species and to characterize the antifungal sensitivity profile of strains in cases of candidemia, admitted to hospitals in the state of São Paulo, where Adolfo Lutz Institute is the reference laboratory. The strains, unique to each patient, were received from 22 general public hospitals, philanthropic, sshool, and specialized in infectious diseases. The phenotypic identification to determine the complex was done by morphological and biochemical analysis, using auxanographic methods. To discriminate cryptic species, molecular techniques from the simplest to the most complex were applied, namely: PCR, PCR-RFLP, MALDI-TOF, and Sequencing. The antifungals used in the susceptibility tests were: fluconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin and amphotericin B. In the years 2017 and 2018, 144 strains of candidemia were studied with the following cryptic species: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto ss (47/144; 32.6%), C. orthopsilosis (4/144; 2.7%), C. metapsilosis (2/144; 1.4%), C. albicans ssss (40/144; 27.8%), C. dubliniensis (2/144, 1.4%), C. glabrata (14/144; 9 , 7%), C. haemulonii (2/144; 1.4%), C. haemulonii var. vulnera (3/144; 2.1); C. duobushaemulonii (1/144; 0.7%) and C. guilliermondii (2/144; 1.4%). The other species were: C. tropicalis (21/144; 14.6%), C. krusei (4/144; 2.8%), C. pelliculosa (1/144; 0.7%) and C. kefyr (1/144; 0.7%). Resistance to FCZ was found in 3 strains of C. parapsilosis (3/46; 6.5%; 0.12-> 64 µg / mL) and 1 of C. tropicalis (1/21; 4.76%; 64 µg / mL) and non-wild type for a strain of C. guilliermondii (1/2; 50%; 64 µg / mL) and high MICs for 2 C. haemulonii var. vulnera (2/3; 66.6%; 16-32 µg / mL) and in the single strain of C. duobushaemulonii (64 µg / mL). A high rate of non-wild type to VCZ (6/14; 42.8%) was found for C. glabrata. It is reaffirmed in this study that the species of the C. haemulonii complex, considered multiresistant to antifungals, appear more frequently in our state when compared to the literature data. According to the results, the identification by molecular methods becomes an important tool for the construction of surveillance strategies in hospitals. The determination of cryptic species prone to resistance may have an impact on patient survival by providing subsidies for empirical therapy based on the epidemiological profile of candidemia in each hospital, region, and country. (AU)


Subject(s)
Candida , Drug Resistance/genetics , Fluconazole , Fungemia , Echinocandins , Candidemia , Antifungal Agents
6.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 91(1): e639, ene.-mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985598

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Rhodotorula es considerada un microorganismo contaminante no virulento. Forma parte de la microbiota de la piel, las uñas y las mucosas. Se aísla con frecuencia del ambiente humanizado. Estas levaduras han surgido como patógenos oportunistas en pacientes con inmunodeficiencias, portadores de catéteres intravenosos de larga duración y otros. Objetivo: Informar a la comunidad pediátrica un nuevo caso de fungemia causada por Rhodotorula. Presentación del caso: lactante de 2 meses de edad, pretérmino de 32,1 semanas, con un peso al nacer de 1 800 gramos, que ingresa en la sala de cuidados intensivos del Hospital Pediátrico Provincial, Cienguegos, con el diagnóstico de una sepsis sin un foco primario definido. Después de 5 días de tratamiento con meropenem y vancomicina la fiebre cede y reaparece nuevamente pasados otros 5 días. En el momento en que la fiebre se reanuda tenía un catéter centrovenoso de ocho días de duración. En los hemocultivos realizados en esa fecha se aisló una Rhodotorula sp. Conclusiones: A pesar de que Rhodotorula es un microorganismo de baja virulencia, debe considerarse un potencial patógeno en pacientes con inmunosupresión y catéteres venosos centrales. Las especies de Rhodotorula se consideran intrínsecamente resistentes a los azoles y las equinocandinas, pero susceptibles a anfotericina B y flucitosina. En consecuencia, el tratamiento de elección preferido es con cualquier tipo de preparación de anfotericina B. El resultado alcanzado constituye un llamado de atención para la comunidad pediátrica nacional y foránea(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Rhodotorula is considered a contaminating, non-virulent microorganism. It is part of the microbiota of the skin, nails and mucous membranes. It is often isolated from the humanized environment. These yeasts have emerged as opportunistic pathogens in patients with immunodeficiencies carrying long-term intravenous catheters. Objective: To inform to the pediatricians´ community a new case of fungemia due to Rhodotorula. Case presentation: 2-month-old, preterm infant of 32.1 weeks, with a birth weight of 1800 grams, who was admitted to Intensive Care service in Provincial Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos province with a diagnosis of sepsis without a defined primary focus. After 5 days of treatment with meropenem and vancomycin, the fever subsides and reappears again after another 5 days. By the time the fever reappears he had an 8-day central venous catheter. In the blood cultures carried out on that date a Rhodotorulasp was isolated. Conclusions: Although Rhodotorula is a low virulence microorganism, it should be considered as a potential pathogen in patients with immunosuppression and central venous catheters. Rhodotorula species are considered intrinsically resistant to azoles and echinocandins, but sensitive to amphotericin B and flucytosine. Consequently, the preferred treatment of choice is with any type of amphotericin B preparations. The results achieved constitute a call of attention to the national and foreign pediatrics´ community(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Fungemia/complications , Fungemia/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/complications , Case Reports
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760485

ABSTRACT

Fungi are a major cause of human infections with diverse clinical manifestations. The incidence of fungal infections has increased over time, particularly in patients who have risk factors such as neutropenia, immune suppression, an intravascular catheter, parenteral nutrition, a prosthetic device, and prior broad spectrum antibiotic therapy. Here, we present an unusual case of co-infection by 2 distinct fungi, Candida parapsilosis and Trichosporon asahii, isolated from a patient who did not have any known risk factors initially, except active pulmonary tuberculosis. Despite the negative conversion of sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) culture test after treatment, clinical symptoms were refractory to therapy. The patient developed symptoms suggesting septic shock, and 2 distinct colonies were isolated from a blood specimen, which were identified as C. parapsilosis and T. asahii by MALDI-TOF and rRNA sequencing. Fever and hypotension were relieved after anti-fungal agent injection, and pulmonary lesions identified by imaging also improved.


Subject(s)
Candida , Catheters , Coinfection , Fever , Fungemia , Fungi , Humans , Hypotension , Incidence , Neutropenia , Parenteral Nutrition , Risk Factors , Shock, Septic , Sputum , Trichosporon , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 363-370, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978046

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Sarocladium kiliense es un hongo saprófito que puede generar infecciones oportunistas asociadas a procedimientos invasores. Se informa un brote multicéntrico nosocomial de fungemias de fuente común por este agente. Luego del reporte de cinco casos en pacientes en tres hospitales al Programa de Control de Infecciones del Ministerio de Salud de Chile en julio de 2013, se estudiaron a nivel nacional todos los pacientes con hemocultivo positivo para este agente. Se trató de cuadros clínicos leves a moderados, sin muertes atribuibles. El estudio identificó 65 casos en 8 hospitales, en su mayoría pacientes pediátricos en quimioterapia. Estudios iniciales de 94 muestras de cuatro fármacos y dispositivos usados en todos los casos resultaron negativas hasta que, en un segundo análisis de lotes seleccionados por criterios epidemiológicos y su matriz farmacéutica, se identificó la contaminación intrínseca de ampollas de ondansetrón de un productor específico, que se usó en todos los casos. Se realizó un retiro nacional de las ampollas de los tres lotes contaminados del fármaco, después de lo cual se contuvo el brote. La vigilancia de infecciones en los hospitales y el programa nacional coordinado con los laboratorios de microbiología fueron claves para identificar un brote multicéntrico de fuente común por contaminación de un fármaco por un hongo inusual.


Sarocladium kiliense is a saprophyte fungus that can cause opportunistic infections associated to invasive procedures. We report a multi-hospital nosocomial outbreak of fungemias due to this agent. Patients with positive blood culture to this agent were studied after six bloodstream infections identified in three Chilean hospitals in July 2013 were reported to Ministry of Health National Infection and Prevention Control Program. In general, there were mild clinical manifestations, without deaths attributable to the infection. Epidemiological and micro-biological study identified 65 cases in 8 hospitals, mostly pediatric patients in chemotherapy. Initial studies of 94 different drugs and medical devices had negative results, until a second analysis of specific blisters and their pharmaceutical matrix selected by epidemiological criteria identified an intrinsic contamination of ondansetron blisters from a specific producer used in all the patients. A recall of contaminated ondansetron blisters was performed in all the country, after which the outbreak was contained. Surveillance and response of local and national infection prevention and control programs and laboratory support were key to control of a national multi-hospital common source outbreak due to contamination of a drug by an unusual fungus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Contamination , Disease Outbreaks , Fungemia/microbiology , Fungemia/epidemiology , Ondansetron , Hypocreales/isolation & purification , Chile/epidemiology , Equipment Contamination , Hospitals, Public
10.
Acta méd. colomb ; 43(2): 111-114, abr.-jun. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-949548

ABSTRACT

Resumen La paracoccidioidomicosis es una enfermedad crónica, sistémica y progresiva, sólo descrita en América Latina. Su presentación clínica crónica multifocal es la más prevalente, afectando mayormente a hombres adultos y comprometiendo principalmente a pulmones, sin embargo, puede diseminarse a cualquier órgano generando múltiples complicaciones en el paciente. Presentamos el caso de un paciente masculino, inmunocompetente, caficultor, quien debuta con compromiso de la glándula suprarrenal y en quien posteriormente se documenta compromiso pulmonar. El diagnóstico se confirmó mediante biopsia de lesiones en glándula suprarrenal, inmunodifusión en gel de agar y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, la cual mostró compromiso por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. (Acta Med Colomb 2018; 43: 111-114).


Abstract Paracoccidioidomycosis is a chronic, systemic and progressive disease which is described only in Latin America. Its chronic and multifocal clinical presentation is the most prevalent, affecting mainly adult men and compromising mainly lungs; however, it can spread to any organ generating multiple complications in the patient. The case of an immunocompetent male patient, coffee grower, who debuted with compromise of the adrenal gland and in who subsequently pulmonary involvement was documented, is presented. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy of lesions in the adrenal gland, agar gel immunodiffusion and polymerase chain reaction, which showed compromise by Paracoccidioides brasilensis. (Acta Med Colomb 2018; 43: 111-114).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paracoccidioides , Azoles , Fungemia , Adrenal Insufficiency , Lung Diseases, Fungal
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739757

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OF EVENT: Bacterial, mycotic peritonitis and Candida fungemia developed in a patient with moderate ascites who had undergone endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD). Antibiotics and antifungal agent were administered and ascites drainage was performed. Although the infection improved, the patient's general condition gradually deteriorated due to aggravation of the primary cancer and he died. TEACHING POINT: This is the first report to describe infectious peritonitis after EUS-BD. Ascites carries the potential risk of severe complications. As such, in patients with ascites, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is typically preferred over EUS-BD or percutaneous drainage to prevent bile leakage. However, ERCP may not be possible in some patients with tumor invasion of the duodenum or with surgically altered anatomy. Thus, in patients with ascites who require EUS-BD, we recommend inserting the drainage tube percutaneously and draining the ascites before and after the intervention in order to prevent severe infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Ascites , Bile , Candida , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Drainage , Duodenum , Endosonography , Fungemia , Humans , Peritonitis
12.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 362-366, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721803

ABSTRACT

Millerozyma farinosa (formerly Pichia farinosa) is halotolerant yeast mainly found in food and ubiquitous in the environment. It was a rare yeast pathogen, but it has recently emerged as a cause of fungemia in immunocompromised patients. Optimal therapy for invasive fungal infection by this pathogen remains unclear. We report a case of catheter related blood stream infection caused by M. farinosa in a 71-year-old patient who recovered successfully after removal of the central venous catheter and treatment with micafungin.


Subject(s)
Aged , Catheter-Related Infections , Catheters , Central Venous Catheters , Fungemia , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Pichia , Rivers , Yeasts
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fast identification of Candida glabrata is important, because empirical antifungal therapy for fungemia with C. glabrata and non-C. glabrata varies. We proposed an algorithm for rapid presumptive diagnosis to identify fungemia with C. glabrata using earlier or only growth from anaerobic bottles and longer time to positivity (TTP) in blood cultures. METHODS: Positivity and TTP using the BacT/Alert 3D system (bioMerieux Inc, USA) with resin bottles (FA Plus and FN Plus) were analyzed in 215 candidemia patients from June 2014 to June 2016 in a university-affiliated hospital in Korea. RESULTS: A higher proportion of earlier or only growth from anaerobic bottles was observed in C. glabrata (38.8%, 7/18) than in C. albicans (7.6%, 8/105), C. parapsilosis (10.5%, 4/138), and C. tropicalis (9.2%, 5/54) (P=0.006). The mean (±standard deviation) TTP for C. glabrata was 41.7 h (±16.3 h) compared with 26.7 h (±15.9 h) for C. albicans, 33.4 h (±8.4 h) for C. parapsilosis, and 23.1 h (±17.3 h) for C. tropicalis (P 31.4 h. CONCLUSION: This two-step algorithm in the BacT/Alert 3D system could be the basis for an initial empirical antifungal therapy for fungemia with C. glabrata prior to final identification.


Subject(s)
Candida glabrata , Candida , Candidemia , Diagnosis , Fungemia , Humans , Korea , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 138-143, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721491

ABSTRACT

Because primary antifungal prophylaxis is widely used for immunocompromised hosts, the incidences of unusual fungal infections have increased. Trichosporon asahii has emerged as an important life-threatening opportunistic systemic pathogen because of the increased use of cytotoxic or immunosuppressant agents, along with high mortality rates. Here, we describe a case of catheter-related T. asahii bloodstream infection with multiple septic skin nodules in both the arms and legs of the patient who was in the neutropenic period after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome treated with prophylactic ciprofloxacin and itraconazole. We successfully treated her with intravenous voriconazole for more than a month without any complications. Clinicians should consider breakthrough Trichosporon infections when clinical progress in an immunocompromised patient with unexplained infection signs and symptoms does not improve despite proper treatment with antibiotics or various antifungal agents. In addition, voriconazole can be a good treatment choice for achieving better treatment results and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antifungal Agents , Arm , Catheter-Related Infections , Ciprofloxacin , Fungemia , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Incidence , Itraconazole , Leg , Mortality , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Prognosis , Skin , Stem Cell Transplantation , Trichosporon , Voriconazole
15.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 362-366, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-722308

ABSTRACT

Millerozyma farinosa (formerly Pichia farinosa) is halotolerant yeast mainly found in food and ubiquitous in the environment. It was a rare yeast pathogen, but it has recently emerged as a cause of fungemia in immunocompromised patients. Optimal therapy for invasive fungal infection by this pathogen remains unclear. We report a case of catheter related blood stream infection caused by M. farinosa in a 71-year-old patient who recovered successfully after removal of the central venous catheter and treatment with micafungin.


Subject(s)
Aged , Catheter-Related Infections , Catheters , Central Venous Catheters , Fungemia , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Pichia , Rivers , Yeasts
16.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 138-143, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721996

ABSTRACT

Because primary antifungal prophylaxis is widely used for immunocompromised hosts, the incidences of unusual fungal infections have increased. Trichosporon asahii has emerged as an important life-threatening opportunistic systemic pathogen because of the increased use of cytotoxic or immunosuppressant agents, along with high mortality rates. Here, we describe a case of catheter-related T. asahii bloodstream infection with multiple septic skin nodules in both the arms and legs of the patient who was in the neutropenic period after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome treated with prophylactic ciprofloxacin and itraconazole. We successfully treated her with intravenous voriconazole for more than a month without any complications. Clinicians should consider breakthrough Trichosporon infections when clinical progress in an immunocompromised patient with unexplained infection signs and symptoms does not improve despite proper treatment with antibiotics or various antifungal agents. In addition, voriconazole can be a good treatment choice for achieving better treatment results and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antifungal Agents , Arm , Catheter-Related Infections , Ciprofloxacin , Fungemia , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Incidence , Itraconazole , Leg , Mortality , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Prognosis , Skin , Stem Cell Transplantation , Trichosporon , Voriconazole
17.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(6): 535-538, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899755

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La infección del torrente sanguíneo es una complicación usual, que puede comprometer la vida de los pacientes que recibieron trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos. Objetivo: Analizar las características de las infecciones del torrente sanguíneo en receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo. Se revisaron los registros de 451 pacientes (trasplantes autólogos y alogénicos), desde enero de 2009 a octubre de 2015. Resultados: Hubo 99 hemocultivos positivos en 73 pacientes con infección del torrente sanguíneo (16%). Mortalidad atribuible a causas infecciosas: 17%. De las 99 infecciones sanguíneas, 63% fueron provocados por bacilos gramnegativos (Escherichia coli 45%, Klebsiella spp 23%, Pseudomonas spp 11%, Acinetobacter spp 6% y otros bacilos gramnegativos 15%), 33% por cocáceas grampositivas, 3% por hongos y 1% por bacilos grampositivos. Se observó resistencia a ciprofloxacina (81%), piperacilina/tazobactam (48%), Enterobacteriaceae productoras de β-lactamasa de espectro extendido (BLEE) (40%), cefepime (39%) y ausencia de resistencia a amikacina. Discusión: Existe mayor frecuencia de infección por bacilos gramnegativos, con un importante porcentaje de aislados multi-resistentes, y consecuente, alta resistencia al tratamiento antimicrobiano empírico.


Background: Bloodstream infection is a common complication, which can be life-threatening for hematopoietic stem cells transplant recipients. Objective: To analyze the characteristics of bloodstream infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Materials and Methods: Observational, retrospective study. We reviewed the records of 451 patients (autologous and allogeneic transplants) from January 2009 to October 2015. Results: 99 positive blood cultures in 73 patients with bloodstream infection (16%) were found. Mortality attributable to infectious causes was 17%. From the 99 bloodstream infection, 63% were caused by gram-negative bacilli (Escherichia coli 45%, Klebsiella spp 23%, Pseudomonas spp 11% Acinetobacter spp % and other bacilli 15%), 33% by gram-positive cocci, 3% by fungi and 1% by gram-positive bacilli. The gram-negative bacilli were ciprofloxacin resistant (81%), piperacillin/tazobactam resistant (48%), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae (40%), cefepime resistant (39%) and there was no resistance noted to amikacin. Discussion: There is a higher frequency of gram-negative bacilli infection, with a high percentage of multiresistant microorganisms and high resistance to empirical antibiotic treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Fungemia/microbiology , Fungemia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Argentina/epidemiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Fungemia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 35(3): 361-364, jul.-set. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-902854

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever um paciente com infecção de corrente sanguínea associada ao uso de probiótico em criança de um ano de idade e discutir as principais indicações e precauções com o emprego terapêutico desses microrganismos. Descrição do caso: Paciente masculino, um ano de idade, portador de síndrome de Down, em pós-operatório tardio de correção de cardiopatia congênita, com desnutrição grave e internado desde os dois meses de vida em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica. Durante o período de internação, apresentou inúmeras infecções relacionadas à ventilação mecânica, cateteres vasculares e outros dispositivos, com uso prolongado e recorrente de antibióticos de amplo espectro. Evoluiu com diarreia crônica e intolerância alimentar, que culminou com o uso de probiótico (Saccharomyces boulardii) por quatro dias. Dois dias após o término do probiótico, desenvolveu choque séptico, com hemoculturas central e periférica positivas para Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Após tratamento antifúngico (Anfotericina B), houve negativação das culturas. O paciente evoluiu sem complicações clínicas adicionais após o evento. Comentários: Apesar dos benefícios bem documentados do uso de probióticos em algumas situações clínicas, deve-se ter cautela quanto à indicação de uso, preparo e administração do medicamento, além do manuseio seguro dos dispositivos invasivos do paciente.


ABSTRACT Objective: To report the case of a one-year-old patient with a bloodstream infection associated with probiotics, and to discuss the indications and precautions concerning the therapeutic use of probiotics. Case description: A one-year-old male patient with Down syndrome in a late postoperative period of congenital cardiac disease correction. The patient was severely malnourished and had been hospitalized since he was two months old in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. While in the hospital, the patient presented multiple infections related to mechanical ventilation and invasive devices, and received recurrent treatment with broadspectrum antibiotics for long periods. The patient developed chronic diarrhea and feeding intolerance, which lead to the use of probiotics (Saccharomyces boulardii) for four days. Two days after the end of the treatment, the patient developed septic shock, and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated in the central and peripheral blood cultures. After antifungal treatment (Amphotericin B), the blood cultures were negative. The patient had no further clinical complications after this event. Comments: Despite the well-documented benefits of probiotics in some clinical situations, we should be cautious about the indication of their use, preparation, and administration, in addition to the safe handling of invasive devices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Fungemia/microbiology , Probiotics/adverse effects
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(8): 1067-1071, ago. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902586

ABSTRACT

Saprochaete capitata (S. capitata) fungal sepsis is a severe condition with a clinical presentation that is similar to other yeast originated fungal sepsis. It is observed in patients with hematological malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia and neutropenia. We report a 23 year old male presenting with cough, fever and malaise. A bone marrow biopsy led to the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia. During the first cycle of chemotherapy the patient presented fever: blood cultures were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Despite antimicrobial treatment, fever persisted; a computed tomography showed a focal splenic lesion; a left exudative pleural effusion appeared. A Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry identified the presence of S. capitata. After multiple antifungal treatments and pleural cavity cleansing by means of videothoracoscopy and laparoscopic splenectomy, the infection resolved and the patient completed his chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/microbiology , Fungemia/surgery , Dipodascus/isolation & purification , Pleurisy/microbiology , Pleurisy/pathology , Splenectomy/methods , Splenic Diseases/surgery , Splenic Diseases/microbiology , Splenic Diseases/pathology , Drainage/methods , Treatment Outcome , Fungemia/pathology , Fungemia/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351332

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the clinical features of invasive candidiasis in children and the risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective study was performed on 134 children with invasive candidiasis and hospitalized in 5 tertiary hospitals in Urumqi, China, between January 2010 and December 2015. The Candida species distribution was investigated. The clinical data were compared between the patients with and without Candida bloodstream infection. The risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection were investigated using multivariate logistic regression analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 134 Candida strains were isolated from 134 children with invasive candidiasis, and non-albicans Candida (NAC) accounted for 53.0%. The incidence of invasive candidiasis in the PICU and other pediatric wards were 41.8% and 48.5% respectively. Sixty-eight patients (50.7%) had Candida bloodstream infection, and 45 patients (33.6%) had Candida urinary tract infection. There were significant differences in age, rate of use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, and incidence rates of chronic renal insufficiency, heart failure, urinary catheterization, and NAC infection between the patients with and without Candida bloodstream infection (P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that younger age (1-24 months) (OR=6.027) and NAC infection (OR=1.020) were the independent risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The incidence of invasive candidiasis is similar between the PICU and other pediatric wards. NAC is the most common species of invasive candidiasis. Candida bloodstream infection is the most common invasive infection. Younger age (1-24 months) and NAC infection are the risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Age Factors , Candidiasis , Drug Therapy , Microbiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Fungemia , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
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