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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 363-370, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978046

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Sarocladium kiliense es un hongo saprófito que puede generar infecciones oportunistas asociadas a procedimientos invasores. Se informa un brote multicéntrico nosocomial de fungemias de fuente común por este agente. Luego del reporte de cinco casos en pacientes en tres hospitales al Programa de Control de Infecciones del Ministerio de Salud de Chile en julio de 2013, se estudiaron a nivel nacional todos los pacientes con hemocultivo positivo para este agente. Se trató de cuadros clínicos leves a moderados, sin muertes atribuibles. El estudio identificó 65 casos en 8 hospitales, en su mayoría pacientes pediátricos en quimioterapia. Estudios iniciales de 94 muestras de cuatro fármacos y dispositivos usados en todos los casos resultaron negativas hasta que, en un segundo análisis de lotes seleccionados por criterios epidemiológicos y su matriz farmacéutica, se identificó la contaminación intrínseca de ampollas de ondansetrón de un productor específico, que se usó en todos los casos. Se realizó un retiro nacional de las ampollas de los tres lotes contaminados del fármaco, después de lo cual se contuvo el brote. La vigilancia de infecciones en los hospitales y el programa nacional coordinado con los laboratorios de microbiología fueron claves para identificar un brote multicéntrico de fuente común por contaminación de un fármaco por un hongo inusual.


Sarocladium kiliense is a saprophyte fungus that can cause opportunistic infections associated to invasive procedures. We report a multi-hospital nosocomial outbreak of fungemias due to this agent. Patients with positive blood culture to this agent were studied after six bloodstream infections identified in three Chilean hospitals in July 2013 were reported to Ministry of Health National Infection and Prevention Control Program. In general, there were mild clinical manifestations, without deaths attributable to the infection. Epidemiological and micro-biological study identified 65 cases in 8 hospitals, mostly pediatric patients in chemotherapy. Initial studies of 94 different drugs and medical devices had negative results, until a second analysis of specific blisters and their pharmaceutical matrix selected by epidemiological criteria identified an intrinsic contamination of ondansetron blisters from a specific producer used in all the patients. A recall of contaminated ondansetron blisters was performed in all the country, after which the outbreak was contained. Surveillance and response of local and national infection prevention and control programs and laboratory support were key to control of a national multi-hospital common source outbreak due to contamination of a drug by an unusual fungus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Contamination , Disease Outbreaks , Fungemia/microbiology , Fungemia/epidemiology , Ondansetron , Hypocreales/isolation & purification , Chile/epidemiology , Equipment Contamination , Hospitals, Public
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(6): 535-538, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899755

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La infección del torrente sanguíneo es una complicación usual, que puede comprometer la vida de los pacientes que recibieron trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos. Objetivo: Analizar las características de las infecciones del torrente sanguíneo en receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio observacional, retrospectivo. Se revisaron los registros de 451 pacientes (trasplantes autólogos y alogénicos), desde enero de 2009 a octubre de 2015. Resultados: Hubo 99 hemocultivos positivos en 73 pacientes con infección del torrente sanguíneo (16%). Mortalidad atribuible a causas infecciosas: 17%. De las 99 infecciones sanguíneas, 63% fueron provocados por bacilos gramnegativos (Escherichia coli 45%, Klebsiella spp 23%, Pseudomonas spp 11%, Acinetobacter spp 6% y otros bacilos gramnegativos 15%), 33% por cocáceas grampositivas, 3% por hongos y 1% por bacilos grampositivos. Se observó resistencia a ciprofloxacina (81%), piperacilina/tazobactam (48%), Enterobacteriaceae productoras de β-lactamasa de espectro extendido (BLEE) (40%), cefepime (39%) y ausencia de resistencia a amikacina. Discusión: Existe mayor frecuencia de infección por bacilos gramnegativos, con un importante porcentaje de aislados multi-resistentes, y consecuente, alta resistencia al tratamiento antimicrobiano empírico.


Background: Bloodstream infection is a common complication, which can be life-threatening for hematopoietic stem cells transplant recipients. Objective: To analyze the characteristics of bloodstream infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Materials and Methods: Observational, retrospective study. We reviewed the records of 451 patients (autologous and allogeneic transplants) from January 2009 to October 2015. Results: 99 positive blood cultures in 73 patients with bloodstream infection (16%) were found. Mortality attributable to infectious causes was 17%. From the 99 bloodstream infection, 63% were caused by gram-negative bacilli (Escherichia coli 45%, Klebsiella spp 23%, Pseudomonas spp 11% Acinetobacter spp % and other bacilli 15%), 33% by gram-positive cocci, 3% by fungi and 1% by gram-positive bacilli. The gram-negative bacilli were ciprofloxacin resistant (81%), piperacillin/tazobactam resistant (48%), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae (40%), cefepime resistant (39%) and there was no resistance noted to amikacin. Discussion: There is a higher frequency of gram-negative bacilli infection, with a high percentage of multiresistant microorganisms and high resistance to empirical antibiotic treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Fungemia/microbiology , Fungemia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Argentina/epidemiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Fungemia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 35(3): 361-364, jul.-set. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-902854

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever um paciente com infecção de corrente sanguínea associada ao uso de probiótico em criança de um ano de idade e discutir as principais indicações e precauções com o emprego terapêutico desses microrganismos. Descrição do caso: Paciente masculino, um ano de idade, portador de síndrome de Down, em pós-operatório tardio de correção de cardiopatia congênita, com desnutrição grave e internado desde os dois meses de vida em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica. Durante o período de internação, apresentou inúmeras infecções relacionadas à ventilação mecânica, cateteres vasculares e outros dispositivos, com uso prolongado e recorrente de antibióticos de amplo espectro. Evoluiu com diarreia crônica e intolerância alimentar, que culminou com o uso de probiótico (Saccharomyces boulardii) por quatro dias. Dois dias após o término do probiótico, desenvolveu choque séptico, com hemoculturas central e periférica positivas para Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Após tratamento antifúngico (Anfotericina B), houve negativação das culturas. O paciente evoluiu sem complicações clínicas adicionais após o evento. Comentários: Apesar dos benefícios bem documentados do uso de probióticos em algumas situações clínicas, deve-se ter cautela quanto à indicação de uso, preparo e administração do medicamento, além do manuseio seguro dos dispositivos invasivos do paciente.


ABSTRACT Objective: To report the case of a one-year-old patient with a bloodstream infection associated with probiotics, and to discuss the indications and precautions concerning the therapeutic use of probiotics. Case description: A one-year-old male patient with Down syndrome in a late postoperative period of congenital cardiac disease correction. The patient was severely malnourished and had been hospitalized since he was two months old in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. While in the hospital, the patient presented multiple infections related to mechanical ventilation and invasive devices, and received recurrent treatment with broadspectrum antibiotics for long periods. The patient developed chronic diarrhea and feeding intolerance, which lead to the use of probiotics (Saccharomyces boulardii) for four days. Two days after the end of the treatment, the patient developed septic shock, and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated in the central and peripheral blood cultures. After antifungal treatment (Amphotericin B), the blood cultures were negative. The patient had no further clinical complications after this event. Comments: Despite the well-documented benefits of probiotics in some clinical situations, we should be cautious about the indication of their use, preparation, and administration, in addition to the safe handling of invasive devices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Fungemia/microbiology , Probiotics/adverse effects
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(4): 315-319, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787767

ABSTRACT

Summary Introduction: The prevalence of nosocomial fungemia has increased worldwide, and mortality caused by this disease is high. Objective: To assess progress in the last decade, and the prevalence and profile of fungal agents isolated in blood cultures performed in a tertiary university hospital. Method: All the results of blood cultures processed at Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HC-UFMG), in the time intervals 2001-2003 and 2011-2013 were analyzed retrospectively. For each three-year period, the number of collected blood cultures, the overall positivity rate and the percentage of fungemia were recorded. In addition, all identified fungal species were cataloged. All blood samples were incubated in the BacT/ALERT® (bioMérieux) automation system. Results: In 2001-2003, 34,822 samples were evaluated, with 5,510 (15.8%) positive results. In 2011-2013, the number of blood cultures processed increased to 55,052 samples, with 4,873 (8.9%) positive results. There was an increase in the number of positive cultures for fungi in the analyzed period (2001-2003: 4.16%; 2011-2013: 5.95%; p<0.001). Among the agents, candidemias were predominant, especially those caused by non-albicans Candida species (2001-2003: 57.64%; 2011-2013: 65.17%; p<0.05). There was also an increase in fungemia caused by other genera (2001-2003: 2.62%; 2011-2013: 4.48%; p<0.01). Conclusion: There was an increase in the prevalence of fungemia in the last decade at HC-UFMG. Although candidemias have been responsible for most of the cases, there has been an increase in fungemias caused by other species.


Resumo Introdução: a prevalência de fungemia hospitalar tem aumentado em todo o mundo e a mortalidade por essa afecção é elevada. Objetivo: avaliar a evolução, na última década, da prevalência e do perfil dos agentes fúngicos isolados em hemoculturas realizadas em um hospital universitário terciário. Método: foram analisados retrospectivamente todos os resultados de hemocultura processados no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HC-UFMG), entre os períodos de 2001-2003 e de 2011-2013. Para cada triênio foram registrados o número de hemoculturas coletadas, o percentual de positividade geral e o percentual de fungemia. Também foram catalogadas todas as espécies fúngicas identificadas. Todas as amostras sanguíneas foram incubadas no sistema de automação BacT/ALERT® (bioMérieux). Resultados: entre 2001-2003, foram avaliadas 34.822 amostras, sendo 5.510 (15,8%) positivas. Entre 2011-2013, o número de hemoculturas processadas aumentou para 55.052 amostras, sendo 4.873 (8,9%) positivas. Observou-se um aumento do número de culturas positivas para fungos no período analisado (2001-2003: 4,16%; 2011-2013: 5,95%; p<0,001). Dentre os agentes, as candidemias foram predominantes, principalmente por espécies de Candida não albicans (2001-2003: 57,64%; 2011-2013: 65,17%; p<0,05). Houve também aumento da fungemia por outros gêneros (2001-2003: 2,62%; 2011-2013: 4,48%; p<0,01). Conclusão: houve aumento da prevalência de fungemia na última década no HC-UFMG. Embora as candidemias tenham sido responsáveis pela maioria dos casos, houve aumento de fungemias causadas por outras espécies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Fungemia/epidemiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Fungemia/microbiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Hospitals, University
5.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(6): 660-663, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769617

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Infections caused by emerging Cryptococcus non-neoformans species are being reported with increasingly frequency. Here, we present a case of fungaemia byCryptococcus laurentii in a woman receiving aggressive immunosuppressive therapy for cervical neoplasia. Three venous blood samples were aseptically collected on consecutive days and C. laurentiiwas isolated and identified through phenotypic and molecular methods. After central venous catheter removal and appropriate antifungal therapy, the patient showed significant improvement and blood culture became negative. Thus, patients following immunosuppressive therapies and using invasive medical devices are at risk of C. laurentii blood infections.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/complications , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Fungemia/microbiology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/complications , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/immunology , Cryptococcus/genetics , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Fungemia/diagnosis , Fungemia/immunology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/microbiology
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(4): 426-432, Jul-Aug/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683325

ABSTRACT

Introduction Vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis is considered a critical determinant of bloodstream infection (BSI) and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of BSI in patients with end-stage renal disease using central venous catheters for hemodialysis. Methods A cohort study was conducted in a public teaching hospital in central-western Brazil from April 2010 to December 2011. For every patient, we noted the presence of hyperemia/exudation upon catheter insertion, as well as fever, shivering, and chills during hemodialysis. Results Fifty-nine patients were evaluated. Thirty-five (59.3%) patients started dialysis due to urgency, 37 (62.7%) had BSI, and 12 (20%) died. Hyperemia at the catheter insertion site (64.9%) was a significant clinical manifestation in patients with BSI. Statistical analysis revealed 1.7 times more cases of BSI in patients with hypoalbuminemia compared with patients with normal albumin levels. The principal infective agents identified in blood cultures and catheter-tip cultures were Staphylococcus species (24 cases), non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (7 cases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and 5 cases of Chryseobacterium indologenes), and Candida species (6). Among the Staphylococci identified, 77.7% were methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Of the bacteria isolated, the most resistant were Chryseobacterium indologenes and Acinetobacter baumannii. Conclusions Blood culture was demonstrated to be an important diagnostic test and identified over 50% of positive BSI cases. The high frequency of BSI and the isolation of multiresistant bacteria were disturbing findings. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated microorganism, although Gram-negative bacteria predominated overall. These results highlight the importance of infection prevention and control measures in dialysis units. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bacteremia/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Fungemia/microbiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Hospitals, Teaching , Kidney Failure, Chronic/microbiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Apr-June; 30(2): 245-248
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143958

ABSTRACT

We report a case of a 30-year-old immunocompetent man with disseminated cryptococcosis who was initially treated with antitubercular therapy due to clinical and radiological diagnosis of vertebro-cerebral tuberculosis. The diagnosis of Cryptococcus infection was made due to incidental isolation of this fungus from blood culture with negative cerebrospinal fluid culture results. Though disseminated cryptococcosis with central nervous system, skeletal, and skin involvement is an uncommon manifestation of Cryptococcus neoformans infection, a high clinical suspicion and early initiation of therapy is needed to recognise and treat such patients efficiently.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood/microbiology , Brain/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/pathology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Cryptococcus neoformans/immunology , Fungemia/microbiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Spinal Cord/pathology , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(6): 745-748, Nov.-Dec. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-611776

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Fungemia corresponds to the isolation of fungi in the bloodstream and occurs mostly in immunosuppressed patients. The early diagnosis and treatment of these infections are relevant given the serious threat to the affected patients and possible spread to other organs, often becoming fatal. The growing number of fungemia associated with poor prognosis resulted in this research aiming to diagnose and assess the epidemiological aspects of hematogenous infections by fungi. METHODS: The study included 58 blood samples collected within a 1-year period, from patients at the Hospital das Clinicas, Federal University of Pernambuco, by venipuncture in vacuum tubes. Blood samples were processed for direct examination and culture and identification, conducted by observing the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, as well as physiological characteristics when necessary. RESULTS: Eight (13.8 percent) episodes of fungemia were identified, accounting for the total sample, and these pathogens were Candida, Histoplasma, Trichosporon, Cryptococcus, and a dematiaceous fungus. C. albicans was the prevalent species, accounting for 37.5 percent of the cases. Most affected patients were adult males. There was no predominance for any activity, and the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was the underlying pathology most often cited. CONCLUSIONS: The isolation of fungi considered as emergent species, such as C. membranifaciens and dematiaceous species, highlights the importance of epidemiological monitoring of cases of fungemia in immunocompromised patients, as the therapy of choice depends on the knowledge of the aethiological agent.


INTRODUÇÃO: Fungemia corresponde ao isolamento de fungos na corrente sanguínea e ocorre, sobretudo, em pacientes imunossuprimidos. O diagnóstico e tratamento precoce destas infecções são relevantes diante da grave ameaça aos pacientes acometidos e possível disseminação via hematogênica para outros órgãos, tornando-se muitas vezes fatal. O crescente número de casos de fungemia associados ao mau prognóstico resultou na realização desta pesquisa que teve por objetivo diagnosticar e avaliar aspectos epidemiológicos das infecções hematogênicas por fungos. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 58 amostras de sangue coletadas, durante um ano, de pacientes internados no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, através da punção venosa em tubos a vácuo. As amostras de sangue foram processadas para exame direto e cultura e a identificação, conduzida através da observação das características macroscópicas, microscópicas e quando necessárias fisiológicas. RESULTADOS: Oito (13,8 por cento) episódios de fungemia foram identificados, correspondendo ao total das amostras e os agentes etiológicos envolvidos foram Candida, Histoplasma, Trichosporon, Cryptococcus e um fungo demáceo. C. albicans foi a espécie prevalente com 37,5 por cento dos casos. A maior parte dos pacientes acometidos pertencia ao sexo masculino, na idade adulta. Não houve predominância para nenhuma atividade de risco e a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida foi a patologia de base mais citada. CONCLUSÕES: O isolamento de fungos considerados emergentes como C. membranifaciens e espécies demáceas ressaltam a importância do acompanhamento epidemiológico dos casos de fungemia em imunocomprometidos, uma vez que a escolha terapêutica depende do conhecimento do agente etiológico.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Fungemia/epidemiology , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/microbiology , Fungemia/diagnosis , Fungemia/microbiology , Hospitals, University , Incidence
10.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 43(3): 176-185, jun.-set. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-634688

ABSTRACT

The Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas "Dr. C. Malbrán", conducted the Second National Multicenter Survey on Fungemia due to Yeasts in Argentina. The aim was to obtain updated data of the frequency of the causative species encountered and their in vitro susceptibility to seven antifungal agents. Yeast species were identified by micromorphological and biochemical studies. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the reference microdilution method E.Def 7.1 of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). A total of 461 viable yeasts were identified. The most frequent species were: Candida albicans (38.4 %), Candida parapsilosis (26 %), Candida tropicalis (15.4 %) and Candida glabrata (4.3 %). Other uncommon species, such as Candida viswanathii (0.6 %), Candida haemulonii (0.4 %), Candida inconspicua (0.2 %) and Candida fermentati (0.2 %) were also isolated. Among the Candida spp., 5.4 % and 1.6 % were resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Itraconazole and caspofungin were the most efficient agents against all Candida spp. tested (MIC < 1 mg/l). For anidulafungin, 21.6 % of C. parapsilosis showed a MIC value of 4 mg/l. Fluconazole was less active against 53.1 % of Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC > 8 mg/l), 75 % of Trichosporon spp., and 100 % of Rhodotorula spp., Geotrichum candidum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The global percentage of mortality was 20 %. The presence of uncommon species reinforces the need for performing continuous laboratory surveillance in order to monitor possible changes, not only in the epidemiological distribution of species, but also in the resistance to antifungal drugs.


Distribución de especies y perfil de sensibilidad de levaduras aisladas de hemocultivos: resultados de un estudio multicéntrico de vigilancia de laboratorio en Argentina. El Departamento Micología del Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" condujo el segundo estudio multicéntrico nacional sobre funge- mias debidas a levaduras. El objetivo fue obtener datos actualizados sobre la distribución de especies y la sensibilidad in vitro frente a siete antifúngicos. Las levaduras fueron identificadas mediante el estudio de la micromorfología y la realización de pruebas bioquímicas. La determinación de la sensibilidad se realizó según el método de referencia E.Def 7.1 del European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Se identificaron 461 levaduras. Las especies más frecuentes fueron Candida albicans (38,4 %), Candida parapsilosis (26 %), Candida tropicalis (15,4 %) y Candida glabrata (4,3 %). Se aislaron otras especies menos comunes, como Candida viswanathii (0,6 %), Candida haemulonii (0,4 %), Candida inconspicua (0,2 %) y Candida fermentati (0,2 %). Entre las especies del género Candida, el 5,4 % y el 1,6 % fueron resistentes al fluconazol y al voriconazol, respectivamente. El itraconazol y la caspofungina fueron los antifúngicos más eficaces in vitro frente a las especies de Candida evaluadas (CIM < 1 mg/l). Para la anidulafungina, el 21,6 % de los aislamientos de C. parapsilosis mostraron una CIM de 4 mg/l. El fluconazol fue menos activo para el 53,1 % de los aislamientos de Cryptococcus neoformans (CIM > 8 mg/l), el 75 % de los aislamientos de Trichosporon spp. y el 100 % de los aislamientos de Rhodotorula spp., Geotrichum candidum y Saccharomyces cerevisiae. El porcentaje de mortalidad fue del 20 %. La presencia de especies infrecuentes refuerza la necesidad de realizar la continua vigilancia de laboratorio con el fin de monitorear posibles cambios, no solo en la epidemiología de las especies causantes de fungemia, sino también en la resistencia a los antifúngicos.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fungemia/microbiology , Population Surveillance , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Argentina/epidemiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/mortality , Databases, Factual , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal , Fungemia/drug therapy , Fungemia/mortality , Laboratories, Hospital , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Species Specificity , Yeasts/classification , Yeasts/drug effects
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 28(2): 123-129, abr. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-592095

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in immuno-compromised patients. These infections are caused mainly by Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Objectives: To describe IFD diagnosed by culture in adults and children from five hospitals in Valparaíso, Chile and to determine the species involved and the in vitro sensitivity oí Candida spp. Material and Methods: Biodemographical data, results of cultures, antifungal treatment and mortality after 30 days, was collected. The fungi were identified by standard methods and the sensitivity of the yeasts was obtained according to the M44-A CLSI document. Results: Fifty one IFD were diagnosed, 13 in patients with haematological malignancies and 10 in immunocompetent patients from the adult ICU. The following fungal species were isolated: 34 yeasts, 15 filamentous fungi and 2 Histoplasma capsulatum. There were 33 proven and 1 probable IFD by yeasts. By filamentous fungi, there were 6 proven and 9 probable IFD, 13 out of 15 isolated species were Aspergillus {A. fumigatus being the most frequent). C. albicans was the most frequent isolated yeast, followed by C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. All were sensitive to fluconazol and voriconazol, excepting C. glabrata. The mortality by Candida and by filamentous fungi was 42.42 percent and 86.66 percent respectively. Con-clusions: IFD was diagnosed mainly in immunocompromised and adult ICU patients. The mortality rate in IFD by filamentous fungi was higher than Candida group. The main agents involved were Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. A high sensitivity to fluconazol and voriconazol was found in strains of Candida.


Introducción: La enfermedad fúngica invasora (EFI) es una causa frecuente de morbimortalidad en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Es provocada principalmente por Candida albicans y Aspergillus fumigatus. Objetivos: Describir las EFI diagnosticadas con cultivos en adultos y niños de cinco hospitales de la Región de Valparaíso, Chile, conocer las especies involucradas y para Candida spp determinar su sensibilidad in vitro. Material y Métodos: En cada caso se recopilaron antecedentes demográficos, cultivos, tratamiento antifúngico y mortalidad a 30 días. La identificación de hongos se realizó por métodos estandarizados y la sensibilidad de levaduras según documento M44-A del CLSI. Resultados: se diagnosticaron 51 EFI, destacando 13 en pacientes onco-hematológicos y 10 en inmunocompetentes de UCI adultos. Se aislaron 34 levaduras, 15 hongos filamentosos y en dos casos Histoplasma capsulatum. Hubo 33 EFI probabas por levaduras y una probable. En EFI por hongos filamentosos 6 fueron probadas y 9 probables; 13 de 15 especies aisladas fueron Aspergillus, siendo A fumigatus la más frecuente. Entre las levaduras predominó C. albicans, seguida de C. tropicalis y C. parapsilosis. Todas fueron sensibles a fluconazol y voriconazol, excepto C. glabrata. La mortalidad de EFI por Candida fue de 42,4 por ciento y de EFI por hongos filamentosos de 86,6 por ciento. Conclusiones: la EFI se diagnosticó principalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos y en pacientes de UCI adultos. La mortalidad de EFI por hongos filamentosos fue mayor que la causada por Candida. Los principales agentes fueron C. albicans y A. fumigatus. Existe una alta sensibilidad de las cepas de Candida spp a fluconazol y voriconazol.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Fungi/classification , Mycoses/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Chile , Fungemia/microbiology , Fungi/drug effects , Fungi/isolation & purification , Immunocompromised Host , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
12.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2011 Apr-June; 29(2): 188-191
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143809

ABSTRACT

Disseminated cases of histoplasmosis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are rarely reported from India. Most of these cases report isolation of this fungus from the bone marrow, lymph node aspirate, spleenic aspirate, and biopsies. We report isolation of Histoplasma capsulatum from the blood of an AIDS patient. A 30-year-old male from Utter Pradesh was admitted with fever, loss of appetite, and nausea since two months. Few intracellular and extracellular budding cells were observed on bone marrow examination on the fifth day of admission. Diagnosis was confirmed by blood cultures taken on the 11th day of admission. Amphotericin B was started, but the patient's condition deteriorated and he died.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Adult , Blood/microbiology , Bone Marrow/pathology , Fungemia/diagnosis , Fungemia/microbiology , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmosis/complications , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/microbiology , Humans , India , Male , Mycology/methods
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(8): 712-716, Aug. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-554953

ABSTRACT

Prompt and specific identification of fungemia agents is important in order to define clinical treatment. However, in most cases conventional culture identification can be considered to be time-consuming and not without errors. The aim of the present study was to identify the following fungemia agents: Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii, and Histoplasma capsulatum using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR/RFLP). More specifically: a) to evaluate 3 different amplification regions, b) to investigate 3 different restriction enzymes, and c) to use the best PCR/RFLP procedure to indentify 60 fungemia agents from a culture collection. All 3 pairs of primers (ITS1/ITS4, NL4/ITS5 and Primer1/Primer2) were able to amplify DNA from the reference strains. However, the size of these PCR products did not permit the identification of all the species studied. Three restriction enzymes were used to digest the PCR products: HaeIII, Ddel and Bfal. Among the combinations of pairs of primers and restriction enzymes, only one (primer pair NL4/ITS5 and restriction enzyme Ddel) produced a specific RFLP pattern for each microorganism studied. Sixty cultures of fungemia agents (selected from the culture collection of Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas - FMTAM) were correctly identified by PCR/RFLP using the prime pair NL4/ITS5 and Ddel. We conclude that the method proved to be both simple and reproducible, and may offer potential advantages over phenotyping methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/classification , Cryptococcus/classification , Fungemia/microbiology , Histoplasma/classification , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Candida/genetics , Cryptococcus/genetics , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Histoplasma/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
14.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2010 June; 77(6): 695-696
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142612

ABSTRACT

Galactosemia is one of the rare inborn errors of metabolism, which if detected early can be treated effectively. Galactosemic infants have a significant increased risk of developing sepsis. E. coli sepsis is a known entity, and also an important cause of early mortality in these children. But fungal sepsis in these patients is rarely reported. Here is a case of 45 day-old child who presented with fungal sepsis, which on investigation turned out to be galactosemia.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida/isolation & purification , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Fungemia/complications , Fungemia/genetics , Fungemia/microbiology , Fungemia/therapy , Galactosemias/complications , Galactosemias/diagnosis , Galactosemias/genetics , Galactosemias/therapy , Genetic Heterogeneity , Humans , Infant , Male , Mutation , Soy Milk , Treatment Outcome
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(6): 858-861, Sept. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-529554

ABSTRACT

Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen known to cause endovascular infections, such as vascular catheter sepsis, infections of vascular prostheses and infective endocarditis. A C. albicans isolate was used to determine the apoptotic potential of the fungus in a rat endocarditis model. This study confirms the ability of C. albicans to induce apoptosis in myocardial tissue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Apoptosis/physiology , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Candidiasis/microbiology , Endocarditis/microbiology , Fungemia/microbiology , Disease Models, Animal , Time Factors
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 13(4): 317-318, Aug. 2009.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539772

ABSTRACT

This is the first case reported of central venous catheter-related fungemia due to C. neoformans. A patient with chronic renal failure developed a fungemia during the treatment of a dialysis-associated bacteremia. Cryptococcus neoformans grew in the catheter tip and blood culture. We addressed questions about this catheter-related fungemia.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Fungemia/microbiology , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnosis , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Fatal Outcome , Fungemia/diagnosis , Fungemia/drug therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(4): 431-435, July-Aug. 2009. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-527186

ABSTRACT

Os objetivos desse estudo foram investigar a participação de Candida albicans e não-albicans como agente de colonização e sepse, bem como os fatores de risco associados aos neonatos internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Foi realizada vigilância epidemiológica pelo sistema National Healthcare Safety Network no período entre agosto de 2007 e abril de 2008. A taxa de incidência de sepse com critério microbiológico foi de 6,7/1.000 paciente/dia, constatando-se apenas um caso de candidemia. Aproximadamente, 19 por cento dos neonatos estavam colonizados por Candida, identificadas como Candida albicans (50 por cento) e Candida não-albicans (50 por cento). Os fatores de risco significantes para colonização por Candida spp foram a idade gestacional entre 26 e 30 semanas, o uso prévio de antibiótico e o cateter vascular central umbilical. A mortalidade total foi de 11,8 por cento nos neonatos internados durante o período de estudo com sepse, porém o recém-nascido com candidemia não evoluiu para óbito.


The objectives of this study were to investigate the participation of Candida albicans and non-albicans as colonization and sepsis agents, along with the risk factors associated with the neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit of the clinical hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia. Epidemiological surveillance was implemented through the National Healthcare Safety Network between August 2007 and April 2008. The incidence rate for sepsis with microbiological criteria was 6.7/1,000 patients/day, which was shown as only one case of candidemia. Approximately 19 percent of the neonates were colonized by Candida, which was identified as Candida albicans (50 percent) and Candida not-albicans (50 percent). The significant risk factors for Candida spp colonization were gestational age of between 26 and 30 weeks, previous antibiotic use and umbilical central vascular catheter. The overall mortality among the neonates hospitalized with sepsis over the study period was 11.8 percent. However, the neonate with candidemia did not die.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Brazil , Candida/classification , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Candidiasis/mortality , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Fungemia/epidemiology , Fungemia/microbiology , Hospitals, Teaching , Incidence , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Risk Factors , Sentinel Surveillance , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/microbiology
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 12(5): 390-394, Oct. 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-505352

ABSTRACT

Several cases of Candida bloodstream infections were documented from June to October 2004 at a tertiary care center in Bogotá, Colombia. Since no cases of candidemia had occurred during the preceding four months, an outbreak was declared. As a result, a microbiological study, a revision of infection control practices and a case-control study were performed. In all, 18 cases of candidemia were ascertained. Parenteral nutrition (p=0.04), presence of a central line (p=0.03), and severity of illness (p=0.03) were associated with candidemia in bivariate analysis. Diverse Candida species were observed. Candida parapsilosis contamination was found in plastic containers used for transient intravenous (IV) medication storage at the bedside, plastic bags reused for the transportation of IV medicines and cotton used for disinfection of IV ports. Poor infection control practices were widely observed. The outbreak was controlled after elimination of plastic bags used for transportation, instauration of daily disinfection of IV medication containers, acquisition of sterile alcohol swabs for port disinfection and staff education. It was concluded that candidemia was associated with previously-described risk factors and that poor infection-control practices were likely responsible for the outbreak.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Fungemia/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Candidiasis/microbiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Fungemia/microbiology , Infection Control/standards , Risk Factors , Young Adult
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