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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879133

ABSTRACT

Nine secondary metabolites(S)-5-hydroxy-4-methylchroman-2-one(1), 4-methoxynaphthalene-1,5-diol(2), 8-methoxynaphthalene-1,7-diol(3), 1,8-dimethoxynaphthalene(4),(2R,4S)-2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-benzopyran-4,5-diol(5),(2R,4R)-3,4-dihydro-4-methoxy-2-methyl-2H-1-benzopyran-5-ol(6), 7-O-α-D-ribosyl-2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-2-methyl-chromen-4-one(7),(R)-3-methoxyl-1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)-butan-1-one(8) and helicascolide A(9) were isolated from endophytic fungus Cladosporium sp. JJM22 by using column chromatographies of silica gel and ODS, and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were analyzed on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical data, especially NMR and MS. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities by examining the inhibitory activities on nitric oxide(NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells in vitro. Compounds 2-4 showed inhibitory activities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzopyrans , Cladosporium , Fungi , Mice , Molecular Structure , Rhizophoraceae
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879085

ABSTRACT

Diaporthe sp. fungi is one of the important sources of active natural products. Polyketides, alkaloids, terpenes, anthraquinones and other types of novel metabolic products are found from this genus, and many of them have significant anti-tumor, antibacterial, anti-hyperlipidemia, inhibition of pulmonary fibrosis, antioxidant and other biological activities. This paper reviewed source, structure and biological activity of natural products from Diaporthe sp. in the past two decades, and provided a reference for in-depth study of natural product of this genus fungus and innovative drug development.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biological Products/pharmacology , Fungi , Polyketides , Terpenes
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878913

ABSTRACT

In the process of harvesting, production and processing, storage, and transportation, the traditional Chinese medicine Platycladi Semen is prone to mildew due to its own and environmental factors, which can nourish the production of toxic or pathogenic fungi, and even produce mycotoxins, which affects the safety of clinical medication. The 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia limits the highest standard of aflatoxin content in Platycladi Semen. However, there are few studies on the fungal contamination of Platycladi Semen, and it is difficult to prevent and control it in a targeted manner. Therefore, based on the Illumina NovaSeq6000 platform, this article uses ITS sequence amplicon technology to analyze the distribution and diversity of fungi in 27 batches of commercially available Platycladi Semen in the Chinese market. A total of 10 phyla, 35 classes, 93 orders, 193 families, 336 genera, and 372 species of fungi were identified in China. Among them, Aspergillus, Alternaria spp. were dominant, 20 batches of samples were detected for A. flavus, 10 batches of samples were detected for A. nidulans, and all samples were detected for potential pathogenic fungi such as A. fumigatus and A. niger. According to diversity analysis, the diversity of the fungal communities in the samples from Gansu province was high, the samples in Shandong province contain the largest number of fungal species, and the samples in Guangxi province had the lo-west diversity and the least number of species. In most samples, pathogenic fungi such as A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus, A. parasiticus were detected in varying degrees. This study systematically investigated the fungal contamination of Platycladi Semen from the markets in the last link of the its industrial chain, and clarified the distribution of Platycladi Semen fungi, especially toxin-producing fungi, and provided theoretical basis for the targeted prevention and control of fungal contamination in Platycladi Semen.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins , China , Fungi/genetics , Humans , Mycobiome , Mycotoxins/analysis , Semen/chemistry
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1637-1658, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878659

ABSTRACT

Filamentous fungi are important industrial microorganisms that play important roles in the production of bio-based products such as organic acids, proteins and secondary metabolites. The development of metabolic engineering and its enabling techniques have greatly promoted the design, construction and application of filamentous fungal cell factories. This article systematically reviews the development of filamentous fungal cell factories constructed through metabolic engineering, and discusses the challenges and future perspectives for systems metabolic engineering of filamentous fungi.


Subject(s)
Fungi/genetics , Metabolic Engineering
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1107-1119, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878617

ABSTRACT

Natamycin is a polyene macrolide antibiotics with strong and broad spectrum antifungal activity. It not only effectively inhibits the growth and reproduction of fungi, but also prevents the formation of some mycotoxins. Consequently, it has been approved for use as an antifungal food preservative in most countries, and is also widely used in agriculture and healthcare. Streptomyces natalensis and Streptomyces chatanoogensis are the main producers of natamycin. This review summarizes the biosynthesis and regulatory mechanism of natamycin, as well as the strategies for improving natamycin production. Moreover, the future perspectives on natamycin research are discussed.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Fungi , Natamycin , Streptomyces
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1058-1069, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878614

ABSTRACT

The efficient production of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems is an important support for large-scale biorefinery of plant biomass. On-site production of lignocellulolytic enzymes could increase the economic benefits of the process by lowering the cost of enzyme usage. Penicillium species are commonly found lignocellulose-degrading fungi in nature, and have been used for industrial production of cellulase preparations due to their abilities to secrete complete and well-balanced lignocellulolytic enzyme systems. Here, we introduce the reported Penicillium species for cellulase production, summarize the characteristics of their enzymes, and describe the strategies of strain engineering for improving the production and performance of lignocellulolytic enzymes. We also review the progress in fermentation process optimization regarding the on-site production of lignocellulolytic enzymes using Penicillium species, and suggest prospect of future work from the perspective of building a "sugar platform" for the biorefinery of lignocellulosic biomass.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Cellulase/metabolism , Fermentation , Fungi/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Penicillium
7.
San Salvador; MINSAL; oxt. 23, 2020. 18 p. ilus.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1129230

ABSTRACT

Ante el riesgo potencial de casos por este hongo en pacientes que consultan en el Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud, se elaboran los presentes lineamientos para el control y diagnóstico de infecciones por C. auris, contándose con la colaboración técnica de expertos internacionales del Centro para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades de los Estados Unidos de América (CDC), de la Secretaría Ejecutiva del Consejo de Ministros de Salud de Centroamérica y República Dominicana (SE-COMISCA) y de un panel de expertos nacionales


Given the potential risk of cases due to this fungus in patients who consult in the National Integrated Health System, these guidelines are prepared for the control and diagnosis of C. auris infections, with the technical collaboration of international experts from the Center for the Disease Control and Prevention of the United States of America (CDC), the Executive Secretariat of the Council of Ministers of Health of Central America and the Dominican Republic (SE-COMISCA) and a panel of national experts


Subject(s)
Candida , Diagnosis , Fungi
8.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 273-277, jul. - set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118861

ABSTRACT

Three species of the Ascomycetes genus Camillea were recorded in a fragment of Amazon rainforest in the region of Santarém, Pará state, Brazil. The occurrence of C. leprieurii, C. cyclops and C. bilabiata expand the range of distribution of these species in the state. Camillea leprieurii has previous records in the regions of Marabá, Oriximiná, Itaituba and Novo Progresso, while C. cyclops had been recorded in the west of the state. This is the first record of C. bilabiata for Pará. We provide a morphological description of the specimens and an identification key for Camillea species found in Pará. (AU)


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Xylariales , Fungi , Amazonian Ecosystem
9.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(5): 750-756, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138611

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El género Cyttaria pertenece a la familia Cyttariaceae, existen 11 especies descritas a nivel mundial. En Chile y Argentina podemos encontrar sólo siete de ellas, conocidas como "Digüeñes" del Mapudungun "diweñ", hongos parásitos obligados de árboles de Nothofagus. Este género, se distribuye naturalmente en el hemisferio sur y tiene gran importancia desde el punto de vista alimenticio. A pesar del extenso conocimiento sobre la taxonomía, ecología y composición químico-nutricional de algunas especies de Cyttaria, su potencial nutracéutico ha recobrado interés recientemente. En esta investigación, se determinó la composición químicaproximal y actividad citotóxica de los polisacáridos de C. berteroi y C. hariotii. Para caracterizar la composición nutricional de las especies de Cyttaria, se utilizó la metodología de AOAC y se avaluó el potencial citotóxico de sus polisacáridos mediante el ensayo MTT (bromuro de 3- (4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il) -2,5-difeniltetrazolio) frente a las líneas celulares de cáncer de colon humano (HCT-116), leucemia humana (U-937) y cáncer de mama (MCF-7). Los resultados evidenciaron que C. berteroi presentó un alto contenido de proteínas y lípidos en comparación con C. hariotii. Además, los polisacáridos de C. hariotii tienen un mayor efecto citotóxico frente a la línea celular de leucemia (IC50= 2100 µg/mL), cáncer de colon (IC50= 3700 µg/mL) y cáncer de mama (IC50=9470 µg/mL). En consecuencia, se concluye que los metabolitos de C. berteroi y la actividad citotóxica en líneas tumorales de los polisacáridos de C. hariotii podrían representar una oportunidad para la obtención de un potencial producto nutracéutico.


ABSTRACT The Cyttaria genus belongs to the Cyttariaceae family, with 11 species described worldwide. In Chile and Argentina, seven of them are found. They are known as "Digüeñes", from the Mapudungun "diweñ", and are parasitic fungi of Nothofagus trees. They are naturally distributed in the southern hemisphere and are of great importance from a nutritional point of view. Despite extensive knowledge about the taxonomy, ecology, and chemical-nutritional composition of some Cyttaria species, their nutraceutical potential has recently gained interest. In this investigation, the chemical-proximal composition and cytotoxic activity of the C. berteroi and C. hariotii polysaccharides were determined. To identify the nutritional composition of the Cyttaria species, the AOAC methodology was used and the cytotoxic potential of their polysaccharides was evaluated by means of the MTT test (3- (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5 bromide-diphenyltetrazolium) against the cell lines of human colon cancer (HCT-116), human leukemia (U-937) and breast cancer (MCF-7). The results showed that C. berteroi had a high protein and lipid content compared to C. hariotii. Also, C. hariotii polysaccharides had a greater cytotoxic effect against the colon cancer cell line (IC50= 3700 µg/mL), leukemia (IC50= 2100 µg/mL) and breast cancer (IC50= 9470 µg/mL). Therefore, it is concluded that C. berteroi metabolites and cytotoxic activity in C. hariotii polysaccharide tumor lines could represent an opportunity to obtain a potential nutraceutical product.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polysaccharides , Fungi , Lipids , Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms , Leukemia , Colonic Neoplasms , Nutritive Value
10.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(5): 1619-1628, 01-09-2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147837

ABSTRACT

The need to develop and use biotechnology tools to improve management and nutritional techniques in strawberry cultivation are increasing. Based on this, the objective of this study was to test if the mycorrhizal inoculation changes the agronomic and qualitative performance of strawberry fruits. The strawberry daughters plants used were of the cultivar Camarosa. The study was carried out in an agricultural greenhouse, Horticulture Sector of the Faculty of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine (FAMV) of UPF, in the city of Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. The experiment was developed and maintained from June to December 2015. The treatments consisted of five inoculum: T1 = no inoculum (control); T2 = Acaulospora morrowiae; T3 = Rhizophagus clarus; T4 = mycorrhizal community; T5 = Claroideoglomus etunicatum. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Each plot consisted of a bag containing 6 plants spaced 0.15 mx 0.15 m. In the pits of the plants, it was applied, with the aid of syringe and water, about 70 infective propagules of the tested inocula. During the conduction of the experiment the temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were monitored in the culture environment. It was evaluated the agronomic and qualitative performance of the fruits and the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization of the plants roots. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the differences between means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% of probability error. The cultivar Camarosa produced more fruits in October. In September, the month before the one with the best agronomic performance, the mean temperature was 17.7 ºC. The mean PAR recorded in the growing environment was low in relation to crop requirements, throughout the growing period. Fruits produced by plants inoculated with A. morrowiae presented higher values of TSS/TTA ratio in September and October. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization varied from 26.2% for A. morrowiae to 46.2% for R. clarus. The inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi does not alter the production of strawberry fruits. However, when the plants are inoculated with A. morrowiae there is an improvement in the fruit flavor.


A necessidade de desenvolver e usar ferramentas biotecnológicas para melhorar o manejo e as técnicas nutricionais no cultivo do morangueiro está aumentando. Com base nisso, o objetivo desse estudo foi testar se a inoculação micorrízica altera o desempenho agronômico e qualitativo de frutos de morangueiro. As mudas de morangueiro usadas foram da cultivar Camarosa. O estudo foi realizado em estufa agrícola, no Setor de Horticultura da Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária (FAMV) da UPF, na cidade de Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brasil. O experimento foi desenvolvido e mantido de junho a dezembro de 2015. Os tratamentos consistiram em cinco inóculos: T1 = sem inóculo (controle); T2 = Acaulospora morrowiae; T3 = Rhizophagus clarus; T4 = comunidade micorrízica; T5 = Claroideoglomus etunicatum. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Cada parcela consistiu de um saco contendo 6 plantas espaçadas de 0.15 mx 0.15 m. Na cova de plantio das plantas, foi aplicado, com auxílio de seringa e água, cerca de 70 propágulos infectivos dos inóculos testados. Durante a condução do experimento, a temperatura e a radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (PAR) foram monitoradas no ambiente de cultivo. Foi avaliado o desempenho agronômico e qualitativo dos frutos e a porcentagem de colonização micorrízica das raízes das plantas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as diferenças entre médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de erro de probabilidade de erro. A cultivar Camarosa produziu mais frutos em outubro. Em setembro, no mês anterior ao de melhor desempenho agronômico, a temperatura média foi de 17.7ºC. A PAR média registrada no ambiente de cultivo foi baixa em relação às necessidades da cultura durante todo o período de cultivo. Frutos produzidos por plantas inoculadas com A. morrowiae apresentaram maiores valores da relação SST/ATT em setembro e outubro. A porcentagem de colonização micorrízica variou de 26.2% para A. morrowiae a 46.2% para R. clarus. A inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares não altera a produção de frutos de morangueiro. No entanto, quando as plantas são inoculadas com A. morrowiae, há uma melhora no sabor dos frutos.


Subject(s)
Fragaria , Fungi
11.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(5): 1742-1749, 01-09-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147925

ABSTRACT

We have previously reported that ß-(1→3,1→6)-ᴅ-glucans produced by endophytes Diaporthe sp. G27-60 and G65-65 (GenBank accession codes JF766998 and JF767007, respectively) are promising anti-proliferation agents against human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2-C3A) cells. However, the literature fails to describe the effects of Diaporthe exopolysaccharides (EPS) on eukaryotic healthy cells. The fungus Metarhiziumanisopliae has been employed as model-system to evaluate the toxicity of pharmaceutical and agricultural-interest substances, taking into account, among other parameters, the speed of conidia germination. Current study verified the effect of different concentrations of Diaporthe ß-glucans on the germination speed of M. anisopliae. Conidia were incubated with ß-glucans treatments (50, 200 and 400 µg/mL) at 28ºC, sampled during 24 h and analyzed by light microscopy. At the end of a 24-h incubation, the amount of germinated conidia reached ≈99% for controls and ranged between 97.7 and 98.6% for treatments. Bayesian analysis indicated that Diaporthe glucans had no toxicity on M. anisopliaeand the curve of germination occurred as expected for this fungal strain. Considering the validity of filamentous fungi as model-systems, results are important data on the toxicity of endophytic EPS on healthy cells and may be associated with our previous results obtained for these polymers against tumor cells.


Anteriormente, um estudo mostrou que ß-(1→3,1→6)-ᴅ-glucanas produzidas pelos endófitos Diaporthe sp. G27-60 e G65-65 (códigos de acesso no GenBank JF766998 e JF767007, respectivamente) são agentes promissores com ação antiproliferativa contra células HepG2-C3A (hepatoma humano) e MCF-7 (adenocarcinoma mamário humano). No entanto, os efeitos de exopolissacarídeos (EPS) produzidos por fungos do gênero Diaporthe em células eucarióticas sadias não estão descritos na literatura atual. O fungo Metarhiziumanisopliae tem sido utilizado como sistema-modelo para avaliar a toxicidade de substâncias de interesse farmacêutico e agronômico, considerando, entre outros parâmetros, a velocidade de germinação de conídios. O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de ß-glucanas produzidas por Diaporthe sp. sobre a velocidade de germinação de M. anisopliae. Os conídios foram incubados com os tratamentos de ß-glucanas (50, 200 e 400 µg/mL) a 28 ºC, com amostras coletadas ao longo de 24 h, e analisados por microscopia de luz. Ao final das 24 h de incubação, o total de conídios germinados nos controles foi de ≈99%, e variou entre 97,7 e 98,6% para os tratamentos. A análise bayesiana indicou que as glucanas de Diaporthe sp. não apresentaram toxicidade sobre M. anisopliae, e a curva de germinação atendeu ao esperado para essa linhagem fúngica. Considerando a validade dos fungos filamentosos como sistemas-modelo, esses resultados representam dados importantes sobre a toxicidade dos EPS de endófitos sobre células sadias e podem ser associados aos resultados anteriormente obtidos para esses polímeros em testes contra células tumorais.


Subject(s)
Bayes Theorem , Endophytes , Fungi
12.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(2): 75-80, maio-ago. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116352

ABSTRACT

Os fungos desempenham vários papéis que impactam a humanidade de diversas maneiras. Suas características metabólicas são importantes na biotecnologia, porém, tais microrganismos podem desencadear alguns problemas de saúde pública e até mesmo serem letais. Objetivo: detectar a presença de fungos no acervo de uma biblioteca no município de São José do Rio Preto. Metodologia: foram coletadas quarenta amostras nas superfícies inanimadas (livros, estantes, documentos, mapas, artigos e revistas) das principais salas da biblioteca com o auxílio de swabs umedecidos em solução salina estéril, posteriormente encaminhados ao laboratório de Biomedicina da Universidade Paulista ­ UNIP. As amostras foram semeadas em meio de cultura ágar Sabouraud Dextrose (SDA), tendo adicionado cloranfenicol e incubadas a 30 °C. Foi realizada a colônia gigante em todas as cepas crescidas em SDA para a realização da técnica de microcultivo para a identificação dos fungos, de acordo com o Manual de Detecção e Identificação dos Fungos de Importância Médica da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Resultados: Houve positividade em trinta e uma amostras (78%) e em quatro delas foi observado mais de um tipo de colônia (13%). Das vinte e duas superfícies de livros analisadas, foram isolados e identificados: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella sp., Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Mucor sp. e Nigrospora sp. Nas oito superfícies de estantes: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium sp. e Scopulariopsis sp. e, nos dez documentos: Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Cunninghamella sp. e Trichoderma sp. Conclusão: Os fungos encontrados estão amplamente distribuídos no ambiente como solo e ar e, por diversos fatores, instalam-se em locais como bibliotecas. Em condições favoráveis, podem infectar o homem e causar perdas patrimoniais para os acervos.


Fungi play many roles that impact humankind in different ways. Their metabolic characteristics are important in biotechnology; however, these microorganisms can trigger some public health problems or may even be lethal. Objective: detect the presence of fungi in the collection of a public library in the city of São José do Rio Preto, Brazil. Methods: a total of forty samples were collected from inanimate surfaces (books, shelves, documents, maps, articles and magazines) located in the main rooms of the library with swabs soaked in sterile saline solution and sent to the Universidade Paulista ­ UNIP laboratories. The samples were plated in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) supplemented with chloramphenicol and incubated at 30 °C. The colonies that grew in SDA were isolated in Potato Dextrose Agar for performing the slide culture technique for the identification of the fungi, performed according to the Manual of Detection and Identification of Fungi of Medical Importance from the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). Results: Thirty-one samples (78%) were positive, and in four of them more than one fungus genus was observed (13%). From the twenty-two book surfaces analyzed, the following fungi were isolated and identified: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella sp., Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Mucor sp. and Nigrospora sp. On the eight shelves: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium sp. and Scopulariopsis sp. The ten documents analyzed presented the following fungi: Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Cunninghamella sp. and Trichoderma sp.. Conclusion: These fungi are widely distributed in the environment such as in the soil and air, and due to several factors, they colonize public places, such as libraries. In favorable conditions, they may infect humans and cause diseases.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Library Materials , Fungi , Penicillium , Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus nidulans , Aspergillus niger , Trichoderma , Biotechnology , Cladosporium , Cunninghamella , Agar , Infections
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 691-701, 01-05-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146440

ABSTRACT

The application of chemical pesticides for the control of fungal diseases results in impacts on the environment and human health. The use of vegetal extracts with antifungal properties for the proper management of crops becomes a viable alternative, mainly for organic and family farming. The objective of this study was to carry out the phytochemical evaluation of Datura inoxia, evaluating its antifungal potential against the mycelial growth of Fusarium solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The extracts, aqueous and ethanolic, obtained from the leaves of the plant collected in areas of the municipality of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, were submitted to phytochemical prospecting and quantification of flavonoids and total phenols. It was evaluated its antifungal activity at concentrations of 800, 1200, 1600, 2000, and 2400 µg 100 mL-1. Each concentration was separately incorporated into BDA agar, poured into Petri dishes, and inoculated with the mycelial disc of the fungus. The diameter of the colonies were measured daily. Two solutions were prepared as control, one containing the solvent added to PDA medium (ethanol solution), and another with only PDA medium (without D. inoxia extract, control). In both extracts were found the same diversity of secondary metabolites (nine classes). The ethanolic extract, a solvent of lower polarity than water, was more efficient in the extraction of these constituents. Alkaloids and phenolic compounds were the most frequent compounds (100%). In relation to antifungal activity, the ethanolic extract provided 100% inhibition of mycelial growth ofSclerotinia sclerotitorum in all concentrations, relative to the control. On the other hand, the growth ofFusarium solani was only negatively affected at the highest concentrations of 800 and 1200 µmL-1 100 mL-1. The antifungal potential of Datura inoxia was probably related to the abundance of alkaloids and phenolic compounds in its chemical constitution that negatively effects the development of the vegetative mycelium.


A aplicação de defensivos químicos para o controle de doenças fúngicas tem por consequência impactos sobre o ambiente e a saúde humana. Desta forma, a utilização de extratos vegetais com propriedades antifúngicas associado ao manejo adequado de culturas, torna-se uma proposta viável de controle alternativo, principalmente na agricultura orgânica e familiar. Neste sentido, objetivou-se realizar a avaliação fitoquímica das folhas de Datura inoxia, avaliando seu potencial antifúngico frente ao crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Os extratos, aquoso e etanólico, obtidos das folhas da planta coletadas em áreas do município de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, foram submetidos à prospecção fitoquímica e quantificação flavonoides e fenóis totais, avaliando-se sua atividade antifúngica em concentrações de 800, 1200, 1600, 2000 e 2400 µg 100 mL-1. Cada concentração foi incorporada, separadamente, em ágar BDA, vertida em placas de petri, seguida da colocação do disco de micélio do fungo, com diâmetro das colônias sendo medido diariamente. Utilizou-se como controle negativo, ágar sem extrato e ágar com solução etanólica. Nos dois extratos ocorreu a mesma diversidade de metabólitos secundários (nove classes); porém o extrato etanólico, um solvente de menor polaridade que a água, foi mais eficiente na extração destes constituintes, com destaque aos alcaloides e compostos fenólicos com maior frequência (100%). Em relação a atividade antifúngica, o extrato etanólico proporcionou inibição de 100% do crescimento micelial de Sclerotinia sclerotitorum, em todas as concentrações, em relação a testemunha. Por outro lado, o crescimento de Fusarium solani foi afetado negativamente apenas nas maiores concentrações, 800 e 1200 µmL-1 100 mL-1.O potencial antifúngico da planta provavelmente está relacionado a sua constituição química, com abundância de alcaloides e compostos fenólicos, afetando negativamente o desenvolvimento do micélio vegetativo.


Subject(s)
Soil , Plant Extracts , Datura metel , Fungi , Pesticides , Plant Diseases , Ascomycota , Control , Phenolic Compounds , Phytochemicals , Fusarium , Noxae
15.
Acta amaz ; 50(1): 61-67, jan. - mar. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118663

ABSTRACT

The high diversity of the genus Geastrum and the difficulty of obtaining mycelial cultures impairs the study of the ecophysiology and the exploration of the biotechnological potential of the taxon. In this study, different culture media were tested to obtain mycelial cultures for G. lloydianum and G. subiculosum collected in the Brazilian Amazon. Data on spore germination, and isolation of monokaryotic cultures and in vitro sexual reproduction are presented, as well as a brief morphological description of the cultures obtained. For both species, Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) was the most promising of the tested culture media. The highest growth in agar culture ever recorded for this genus is reported (4.9 mm per week for G. lloydianum and 7.5 mm for G. subiculosum). In the PDA culture medium, spores germinated after 35-40 days of incubation and the isolation of monokaryotic cultures of the two species, as well as in vitro sexual crosses, were successfully performed. (AU)


Subject(s)
Spores , Amazonian Ecosystem , Culture Media , Fungi
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 602-605, 01-03-2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146426

ABSTRACT

Informally known as black earth tongue, Geoglossum fallax has a large terrestrial dark brown or black ascoma. The species belongs to the Geoglossomycetes class of fungi, which includes the genera Geoglossum, Sarcoleotia, Thuemenidium and Trichoglossum. This study describes the first record of G. fallaxin Bahia, northeastern Brazil, and presents the species' main identification features. The specimens were found growing on a lawn, in Campus X, Bahia State University (UNEB), municipality of Teixeira de Freitas, southernmost region of Bahia state. After gross inspection and microscopy, all specimens were identified based on the specialized literature. Slides and exsiccata of specimens were deposited in the Fungi Collection, Fungal Biology Laboratory, Campus X, UNEB. This is the first record of G. fallax in northeastern Brazil.


Conhecido como "língua-da-terra", o fungo Geoglossum fallax pertence à classe Geoglossomycetes e é tipicamente caracterizado por ascocarpo terrestre grande, escuro, variando de cor entre marrom-escuro a preto. Atualmente encontram-se incluídos na classe Geoglossomycetes os gêneros Geoglossum, Sarcoleotia, Thuemenidium e Trichoglossum. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram apresentar o primeiro registro da espécie G. fallax no extremo sul da Bahia, nordeste brasileiro, e descrever as principais características que permitiram sua identificação. Os espécimes foram encontrados em um gramado no CampusX da Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), município de Teixeira de Freitas. Todo o material foi analisado macro e microscopicamente e identificado com base na literatura especializada. Lâminas e exsicatas dos espécimes foram depositadas na Micoteca do Laboratório de Biologia dos Fungos, Campus X da UNEB. A identificação de G. fallax confirma o primeiro registro desta espécie no extremo sul da Bahia e no nordeste do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Brazil , Fungi
17.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 41-46, Mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087698

ABSTRACT

Background: The main objective of this study was to isolate fungi associated with Anthopleura xanthogrammica and measure their antimicrobial and enzymatic activities. A total of 93 fungal strains associated with A. xanthogrammica were isolated in this study, of which 32 isolates were identified using both morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. The antibacterial activities of 32 fungal isolates were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Edwardsiella tarda, Vibrio harveyi, Fusarium oxysporum, and Pyricularia oryzae by agar diffusion assay. Extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activities of the fungal isolates were determined by agar diffusion assays. Enzyme activities were detected from clear halo size. Results: The isolated fungi belonged to 18 genera within 7 taxonomic orders of 1 phylum. The genera Aspergillaceae were the most diverse and common. The antimicrobial activities of 32 isolates were evaluated, and 19 (59.4%) of fungi isolate displayed unique antimicrobial activities. All fungal strains displayed at least one enzyme activity. The most common enzyme activities in the fungi isolates were amylase and protease, while the least common were pectinase and xylanase. Conclusions: This is first report on the sea anemone-derived fungi with antimicrobial and enzyme activities. Results indicated that sea anemone is a hot spot of fungal diversity and a rich resource of bioactive natural products.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Sea Anemones/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Phylogeny , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Aspergillus/enzymology , Aspergillus/genetics , Bacteria/drug effects , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Biodiversity , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/genetics , Amylases/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
18.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 212-222, jan./feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049243

ABSTRACT

The conversion of biomass from agro-industrial residues into bioproducts is of great interest, especially to Brazil, where bioenergy has a huge potential for development. Enzymes involved in biodegradation of lignocellulosic biomass are those of the cellulase system, of which ß-glucosidase is a constituent. The production and characterization of ß-glucosidase by the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica by solid-state cultivation on different agro-industrial residues (sugarcane bagasse, sugarcane straw, wheat bran and a mixture of these three materials (1:1:1 w/w) was evaluated. Solid-state cultivation were conducted in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks, with 5 g of each substrate. Different culture parameters, such as supplementary nutrient solution to the substrate, supplementary nutrient solution pH, initial substrate moisture and fungus incubation temperature, were evaluated to establish conditions of higher enzyme production by the fungus The greatest production of enzymes occurred in a mixture of wheat bran, sugarcane bagasse and straw bagasse (1:1:1). The activity of ß-glucosidase was greater under the following conditions: nutrient solution composed of NH4NO3, MgSO4.7H2O and (NH4)2SO4 (0.1%), at pH 4.5 or 6.0, fungus incubation at 40°C or 45°C, initial moisture of substrate at 80%. Enzyme presented optimum pH at pH 5.0 and good pH stability. Best temperature was 65°C and enzyme showed 100% stability for 1h, up to 60°C. The use of agro-industrial residues provided good production of ß-glucosidase by fungus, with enzyme having the characteristics desirable from the industrial application.


A conversão da biomassa vegetal proveniente de resíduos agroindustriais em bioprodutos é de grande interesse, principalmente para o Brasil, onde a agroenergia possui grande potencial de desenvolvimento. Enzimas envolvidas na biodegradação da biomassa lignocelulósica fazem parte do grupo das celulases, no qual a 훽-glucosidase é um constituinte. O presente estudo avaliou a produção e caracterização de uma ß-glicosidase pelo fungo termofílico Myceliophthora heterothallica por cultivo em estado sólido de diferentes resíduos agroindustriais (bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, palha de cana-de-açúcar, farelo de trigo e em uma mistura dos três materiais (1:1: 1 p/p). O cultivo em estado sólido foi realizado em frascos Erlenmeyer de 250 mL, contendo 5 g de cada substrato. Diferentes parâmetros de cultivo, como solução nutriente suplementar ao substrato, pH da solução nutriente suplementar, umidade inicial do substrato e temperatura de incubação do fungo foram avaliados, visando estabelecer condições para maior produção da enzima pelo fungo. A maior produção da enzima ocorreu na mistura de farelo de trigo, e bagaço e palha de cana-de-açúcar (1:1:1). A atividade da ß-glicosidase foi maior nas seguintes condições: solução nutriente composta por NH4NO3, MgSO4.7H2O e (NH4)2SO4 (0,1%) com pH 4,5 e 6,0, temperatura de incubação do fungo a 40°C e 45°C, com umidade inicial do substrato em 80%. A enzima apresentou pH ótimo de 5,0, e boa estabilidade ao pH. A temperatura ótima foi de 65°C, e a enzima apresentou 100% de estabilidade por 1h, até 60°C. A utilização de resíduos agroindustriais proporcionou boa produção de ß-glicosidase pelo fungo, com a enzima apresentando características desejáveis para aplicação industrial.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Fungi , Glucosidases
19.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 41(1): 3-12, jan./jun.2020. Tab, Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224198

ABSTRACT

The tendency to replace synthetic antimicrobials for natural ones in food industry and an increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics resulted in a necessity to find new alternatives, and essential oils are emerging as promising substitutes for synthetic chemicals in food preservation. The objective of this work was to test the antimicrobial activity of oregano (OEO) and clove (CEO) essential oils over a range of bacteria, molds and yeast of importance as pathogens or food spoilage. The antimicrobial activity of oregano and clove essential oils were analyzed by disk diffusion method and broth microdilution test (MIC) of OEO and CEO were determined for each tested microorganism. OEO and CEO were evaluated in natura (IN) and after thermal processing (TP) at 120 o C for 5 min. Both OEO and CEO presented the same inhibition zones for IN and TP samples, for all tested microorganisms, indicating that these oils can be thermally processed maintaining their antimicrobial activity. For OEO and CEO, the more sensitive microorganisms were the fungi (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum and Candida albicans), followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Methicillin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); the lowest antimicrobial activities were observed against Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis. In general, OEO resulted in higher inhibition zones and lower MIC values for all tested microorganisms, suggesting that it was more effective as an antimicrobial agent than CEO (AU)


A preferência mundial para alimentos mais saudáveis e livres de aditivos químicos pelos consumidores, associada ao aumento da resistência bacteriana, resultaram na necessidade de medidas alternativas no setor de alimentos. Os óleos correspondem a antimicrobianos naturais e constituem uma classe emergente como substitutos dos produtos químicos sintéticos na conservação de alimentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de orégano (OEO) e cravo (CEO ) frente a bactérias, fungos e leveduras de importância no setor de alimentos. OEO e CEO foram avaliados in natura (IN) e após processamento térmico (TP) a 120 o C por 5 minutos. Para avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana frente a cada microrganismo empregou-se o método de discodifusão e o teste de microdiluição em caldo (MIC). Tanto o OEO quanto o CEO apresentaram zonas de inibição semelhantes para amostras IN e TP, indicando que a atividade antimicrobiana desses óleos são resistentes a altas temperaturas. Os microrganismos mais sensíveis para ambos os óleos essenciais foram os fungos (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum e Candida albicans), seguidos por Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus e Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA). Já as cepas Streptococcus mutans e Enterococcus faecalis apresentaram uma maior resistência frente à atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais. Em geral, os maiores halos de inibição e menores valores de MIC foram obtidos quando empregado o OEO, sugerindo uma maior atividade microbiana do mesmo quando comparado ao CEO. (AU)


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Food , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Yeasts , Diffusion , Food Preservation , Fungi
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881042

ABSTRACT

Two new 2-carboxymethyl-3-hexyl-maleic anhydride derivatives, arthrianhydride A (1) and B (2), along with three known compounds 3-5, were isolated from the fermentation broth of a grasshopper-associated fungus Arthrinium sp. NF2410. The structures of new compounds 1 and 2 were determined based on the analysis of the HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopic data. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated on inhibitory activity against the enzyme SHP2 and both of them showed moderate inhibitory activity against SHP2.


Subject(s)
Anhydrides/pharmacology , Animals , Biological Products/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Fungi/chemistry , Grasshoppers/microbiology , Molecular Structure , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11/antagonists & inhibitors , Secondary Metabolism
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