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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878913

ABSTRACT

In the process of harvesting, production and processing, storage, and transportation, the traditional Chinese medicine Platycladi Semen is prone to mildew due to its own and environmental factors, which can nourish the production of toxic or pathogenic fungi, and even produce mycotoxins, which affects the safety of clinical medication. The 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia limits the highest standard of aflatoxin content in Platycladi Semen. However, there are few studies on the fungal contamination of Platycladi Semen, and it is difficult to prevent and control it in a targeted manner. Therefore, based on the Illumina NovaSeq6000 platform, this article uses ITS sequence amplicon technology to analyze the distribution and diversity of fungi in 27 batches of commercially available Platycladi Semen in the Chinese market. A total of 10 phyla, 35 classes, 93 orders, 193 families, 336 genera, and 372 species of fungi were identified in China. Among them, Aspergillus, Alternaria spp. were dominant, 20 batches of samples were detected for A. flavus, 10 batches of samples were detected for A. nidulans, and all samples were detected for potential pathogenic fungi such as A. fumigatus and A. niger. According to diversity analysis, the diversity of the fungal communities in the samples from Gansu province was high, the samples in Shandong province contain the largest number of fungal species, and the samples in Guangxi province had the lo-west diversity and the least number of species. In most samples, pathogenic fungi such as A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus, A. parasiticus were detected in varying degrees. This study systematically investigated the fungal contamination of Platycladi Semen from the markets in the last link of the its industrial chain, and clarified the distribution of Platycladi Semen fungi, especially toxin-producing fungi, and provided theoretical basis for the targeted prevention and control of fungal contamination in Platycladi Semen.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins , China , Fungi/genetics , Humans , Mycobiome , Mycotoxins/analysis , Semen/chemistry
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1637-1658, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878659

ABSTRACT

Filamentous fungi are important industrial microorganisms that play important roles in the production of bio-based products such as organic acids, proteins and secondary metabolites. The development of metabolic engineering and its enabling techniques have greatly promoted the design, construction and application of filamentous fungal cell factories. This article systematically reviews the development of filamentous fungal cell factories constructed through metabolic engineering, and discusses the challenges and future perspectives for systems metabolic engineering of filamentous fungi.


Subject(s)
Fungi/genetics , Metabolic Engineering
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 41-46, Mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087698

ABSTRACT

Background: The main objective of this study was to isolate fungi associated with Anthopleura xanthogrammica and measure their antimicrobial and enzymatic activities. A total of 93 fungal strains associated with A. xanthogrammica were isolated in this study, of which 32 isolates were identified using both morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. The antibacterial activities of 32 fungal isolates were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Edwardsiella tarda, Vibrio harveyi, Fusarium oxysporum, and Pyricularia oryzae by agar diffusion assay. Extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activities of the fungal isolates were determined by agar diffusion assays. Enzyme activities were detected from clear halo size. Results: The isolated fungi belonged to 18 genera within 7 taxonomic orders of 1 phylum. The genera Aspergillaceae were the most diverse and common. The antimicrobial activities of 32 isolates were evaluated, and 19 (59.4%) of fungi isolate displayed unique antimicrobial activities. All fungal strains displayed at least one enzyme activity. The most common enzyme activities in the fungi isolates were amylase and protease, while the least common were pectinase and xylanase. Conclusions: This is first report on the sea anemone-derived fungi with antimicrobial and enzyme activities. Results indicated that sea anemone is a hot spot of fungal diversity and a rich resource of bioactive natural products.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Sea Anemones/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Phylogeny , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Aspergillus/enzymology , Aspergillus/genetics , Bacteria/drug effects , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Biodiversity , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/genetics , Amylases/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878808

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to clarify the microbial diversity, dominant species and the change of community structures in the fermentation of Liushenqu(Massa Medicata Fermentata), and explore the material foundation of its pharmacodynamics effect. On the basis of standardizing the fermentation process, Massa Medicata Fermentata was prepared by screening and optimizing the recipes and the standard formula issued by the Ministry. The community structure and growth process of fungi and bacteria in the samples at five time points(0, 17, 41, 48, 65 h) in the fermentation process of Massa Medicata Fermentata were analyzed by using isolation and culture of eight different media and high-throughput DNA sequencing technology. The results indicated that the samples of the two recipes pre-sented high microbial diversity at the initial fermentation stage, with Aspergillus spp. as the dominant species. As the fermentation process goes forward, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Rhizopus oryzae soon became dominant species from 17 h after fermentation commencement point to the fermentation end, while the other species were inhibited at a lower level from 17 h. The species diversity of bacteria in the initial fermentation samples was also high, and Enterobacter was the dominant species. Enterobacter cloacae, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Cronobacter sakazakii became dominant bacterial species 17 h after fermentation commencement, while the species diversity was decreased. Our results will be a scientific basis for promoting the fermentation process of Massa Medicata Fermentata by using pure microbial cultures.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fermentation , Fungi/genetics , Microbiota , Saccharomycopsis
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 191-200, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989448

ABSTRACT

Abstract The hygienic and sanitary control in Food and Nutrition Units (FNU) is considered a standard procedure to produce adequate meals and reduce the risk of foodborne diseases and hospital infections. This study aimed to evaluate the isolation and identification of bacteria from equipment and food contact surfaces in a hospital FNU as well as to evaluate the sanitary condition. Likewise, it was analyzed the adhesion of the microorganisms on polyethylene cutting boards. The presence of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, yeasts, molds, coagulase-positive staphylococci, coliform and fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli were analyzed on eating tables, countertop surfaces and cutting boards used for meat or vegetable handling, and equipment such as microwaves and refrigerators. The molecular identification it was done by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The adhesion of the microorganisms (biofilm formation) on meat and vegetable cutting boards was also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed high numbers of all microorganisms, except for E. coli , which was not observed in the samples. The molecular analysis identified species of the Enterobacteriaceae family and species of the Pseudomonadaceae family. Scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed bacterial adhesion on the cutting board surfaces. The results obtained in this study indicated that the hygienic conditions of surfaces like plastic cutting boards and equipment in this hospital FNU were inadequate. The achievement and application of standard operating procedures could positively help in the standardization of sanitary control, reducing the microbial contamination and providing a safe food to hospitalized patients.


Resumo O controle higiênico e sanitário nas Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição (UAN) é considerado um procedimento padrão para produzir refeições adequadas e reduzir o risco de doenças transmitidas pelos alimentos e infecções hospitalares. Este estudo teve como objetivo isolar e identificar bactérias de equipamentos e superfícies de contato com alimentos em uma UAN hospitalar, bem como avaliar a condição sanitária. Do mesmo modo, analisou-se a adesão dos micro-organismos em tábuas de corte de polietileno. A presença de micro-organismos aeróbios mesófilos, leveduras, fungos, Sthapylococcus coagulase-positivos, coliformes, coliformes fecais e Escherichia coli foi analisadas na superfície de mesas do refeitório, superfícies de bancada e tábuas de corte usadas para manuseio de carne ou vegetais e, em equipamentos como micro-ondas e refrigeradores. A identificação molecular foi feita pelo sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. A adesão dos micro-organismos (formação de biofilmes) em tábuas de corte de carne e de vegetais também foi avaliada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados mostraram elevada contagem para todos os micro-organismos analisados, exceto para E. coli, a qual não foi observada nas amostras. A análise molecular identificou espécies da família Enterobacteriaceae e Pseudomonadaceae. A análise de microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelaram adesão bacteriana nas superfícies das placsa de corte. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo indicaram que as condições higiênicas das superfícies e de equipamentos nesta UAN hospitalar estavam inadequadas. A aplicação de procedimentos operacionais padrão poderia auxiliar positivamente na padronização do controle higiênico-sanitário, reduzindo a contaminação microbiana e fornecendo um alimento seguro para pacientes hospitalizados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Environmental Microbiology , Molecular Typing , Food Microbiology , Food Service, Hospital/trends , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Biofilms , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 723-730, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974310

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The soil represents the main source of novel biocatalysts and biomolecules of industrial relevance. We searched for hydrolases in silico in four shotgun metagenomes (4,079,223 sequences) obtained in a 13-year field trial carried out in southern Brazil, under the no-tillage (NT), or conventional tillage (CT) managements, with crop succession (CS, soybean/wheat), or crop rotation (CR, soybean/maize/wheat/lupine/oat). We identified 42,631 hydrolases belonging to five classes by comparing with the KEGG database, and 44,928 sequences by comparing with the NCBI-NR database. The abundance followed the order: lipases > laccases > cellulases > proteases > amylases > pectinases. Statistically significant differences were attributed to the tillage system, with the NT showing about five times more hydrolases than the CT system. The outstanding differences can be attributed to the management of crop residues, left on the soil surface in the NT, and mechanically broken and incorporated into the soil in the CT. Differences between the CS and the CR were slighter, 10% higher for the CS, but not statistically different. Most of the sequences belonged to fungi (Verticillium, and Colletotrichum for lipases and laccases, and Aspergillus for proteases), and to the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius for amylases. Our results indicate that agricultural soils under conservative managements may represent a hotspot for bioprospection of hydrolases.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Archaea/enzymology , Archaeal Proteins/genetics , Fungi/enzymology , Hydrolases/genetics , Soil Microbiology , Soybeans/growth & development , Triticum/growth & development , Brazil , Archaea/isolation & purification , Archaea/classification , Archaea/genetics , Zea mays/growth & development , Agriculture , Metagenome , Metagenomics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 463-470, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951805

ABSTRACT

Abstract Employing Illumina Hiseq whole genome metagenome sequencing approach, we studied the impact of Trichoderma harzianum on altering the microbial community and its functional dynamics in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). The metagenomic datasets from the rhizosphere with (treatment) and without (control) T. harzianum inoculation were annotated using dual approach, i.e., stand alone and MG-RAST. The probiotic application of T. harzianum in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper impacted the population dynamics of rhizosphere bacteria, archae, eukaryote as reflected through the selective recruitment of bacteria [Acidobacteriaceae bacterium (p = 1.24e-12), Candidatus koribacter versatilis (p = 2.66e-10)] and fungi [(Fusarium oxysporum (p = 0.013), Talaromyces stipitatus (p = 0.219) and Pestalotiopsis fici (p = 0.443)] in terms of abundance in population and bacterial chemotaxis (p = 0.012), iron metabolism (p = 2.97e-5) with the reduction in abundance for pathogenicity islands (p = 7.30e-3), phages and prophages (p = 7.30e-3) with regard to functional abundance. Interestingly, it was found that the enriched functional metagenomic signatures on phytoremediation such as benzoate transport and degradation (p = 2.34e-4), and degradation of heterocyclic aromatic compounds (p = 3.59e-13) in the treatment influenced the rhizosphere micro ecosystem favoring growth and health of pepper plant. The population dynamics and functional richness of rhizosphere ecosystem in black pepper influenced by the treatment with T. harzianum provides the ecological importance of T. harzianum in the cultivation of black pepper.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/growth & development , Trichoderma/growth & development , Viruses/growth & development , Piper nigrum/microbiology , Biodiversity , Fungi/growth & development , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Trichoderma/isolation & purification , Trichoderma/genetics , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Ecosystem , Piper nigrum/growth & development , Rhizosphere , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 67-78, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889191

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The use of dark septate fungi (DSE) to promote plant growth can be beneficial to agriculture, and these organisms are important allies in the search for sustainable agriculture practices. This study investigates the contribution of dark septate fungi to the absorption of nutrients by rice plants and their ensuing growth. Four dark septate fungi isolates that were identified by Internal transcribed spacer phylogeny were inoculated in rice seeds (Cv. Piauí). The resulting root colonization was estimated and the kinetic parameters Vmax and Km were calculated from the nitrate contents of the nutrient solution. The macronutrient levels in the shoots, and the NO3--N, NH4+-N, free amino-N and soluble sugars in the roots, sheathes and leaves were measured. The rice roots were significantly colonized by all of the fungi, but in particular, isolate A103 increased the fresh and dry biomass of the shoots and the number of tillers per plant, amino-N, and soluble sugars as well as the N, P, K, Mg and S contents in comparison with the control treatment. When inoculated with isolates A103 and A101, the plants presented lower Km values, indicating affinity increases for NO3--N absorption. Therefore, the A103 Pleosporales fungus presented the highest potential for the promotion of rice plant growth, increasing the tillering and nutrients uptake, especially N (due to an enhanced affinity for N uptake) and P.


Subject(s)
Fungi/physiology , Oryza/growth & development , Oryza/microbiology , Ascomycota/classification , Ascomycota/genetics , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Ascomycota/physiology , Biomass , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Nitrogen/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism , Phosphates/metabolism , Phylogeny , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Potassium/metabolism
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 29-37, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889196

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Increased environmental pollution has necessitated the need for eco-friendly clean-up strategies. Filamentous fungal species from gold and gemstone mine site soils were isolated, identified and assessed for their tolerance to varied heavy metal concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and iron (Fe). The identities of the fungal strains were determined based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS 1 and ITS 2) regions. Mycelia growth of the fungal strains were subjected to a range of (0-100 Cd), (0-1000 Cu), (0-400 Pb), (0-500 As) and (0-800 Fe) concentrations (mgkg-1) incorporated into malt extract agar (MEA) in triplicates. Fungal radial growths were recorded every three days over a 13-days' incubation period. Fungal strains were identified as Fomitopsis meliae, Trichoderma ghanense and Rhizopus microsporus. All test fungal exhibited tolerance to Cu, Pb, and Fe at all test concentrations (400-1000 mgkg-1), not differing significantly (p > 0.05) from the controls and with tolerance index >1. T. ghanense and R. microsporus demonstrated exceptional capacity for Cd and As concentrations, while showing no significant (p > 0.05) difference compared to the controls and with a tolerance index >1 at 25 mgkg-1 Cd and 125 mgkg-1 As. Remarkably, these fungal strains showed tolerance to metal concentrations exceeding globally permissible limits for contaminated soils. It is envisaged that this metal tolerance trait exhibited by these fungal strains may indicate their potentials as effective agents for bioremediative clean-up of heavy metal polluted environments.


Subject(s)
Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Cadmium/analysis , Cadmium/metabolism , Copper/analysis , Copper/metabolism , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Gold/analysis , Gold/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Mining , Phylogeny , Soil Pollutants/analysis
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 59-63, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039274

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this work, four isolates of endophytic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Glomerella cingulata and Nigrospora sphaerica), deposited in the culture collection 'University Recife Mycologia' (URM) at the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, were characterized for the genes ITS 1 and 4 (region 5.8 S) and evaluated for taxol production.


Subject(s)
Paclitaxel/biosynthesis , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungi/metabolism , Microbiology/organization & administration , Preservation, Biological , Endophytes/genetics , Fungi/genetics
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 205-212, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974346

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study compares patients with and without non-viral microbial keratitis in relation to sociodemographic variables, clinical aspects, and involved causative agent. Clinical aspects, etiology and therapeutic procedures were assessed in patients with and without keratitis that were diagnosed in an Eye Care Center in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. Patients were divided into two groups: (a) cases: 64 patients with non-viral microbial keratitis diagnosed at biomicroscopy; and (b) controls: 47 patients with other eye disorders that were not keratitis. Labor activity related to agriculture, cattle raising, and contact lens use were all linked to keratitis occurrence (p < 0.005). In patients with keratitis, the most common symptoms were pain and photophobia, and the most frequently used medicines were fourth-generation fluoroquinolones (34.4%), amphotericin B (31.3%), and natamycin (28.1%). Microbial keratitis evolved to corneal perforation in 15.6% of cases; transplant was indicated in 10.9% of cases. Regarding the etiology of this condition, 23 (42.2%) keratitis cases were caused by bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 12.5%), 17 (39.1%) by fungi (Fusarium spp., 14.1% and Aspergillus spp., 4.7%), and 4 (6.3%) by Acanthamoeba. Patients with keratitis present with a poorer prognosis. Rapid identification of the etiologic agent is indispensable and depends on appropriate ophthalmological collection and microbiological techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Keratitis/microbiology , Mycoses/microbiology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Brazil , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Fungi/genetics , Keratitis/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 47-58, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974328

ABSTRACT

Abstract To know more about the potential roles of endophytic fungi in the formation mechanism of Daodi medicinal material, diversity and communities of culturable endophytic fungi in three types of tree peonies were investigated. Endophytic fungi of three types of tree peonies were isolated and identified. The diversity was analyzed. Bayesian trees constructed by MrBayes 3.2.6 after phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequences. The endophytic fungi potential for synthesis of natural products was assessed by means of detecting NRPS and PKS gene sequences. In total, 364 endophytic fungi isolates representing 26 genera were recovered from Paeonia ostii 'Feng Dan', Paeonia ostii 'Luoyang Feng Dan', and Paeonia suffruticosa 'Luoyang Hong'. More culturable endophytic fungi appeared in P. suffruticosa 'Luoyang Hong' (206) compared with P. ostii 'Feng Dan' (60) and P. ostii 'Luoyang Feng Dan' (98). The fungal community of P. ostii 'Feng Dan' had the highest richness and diversity. PKSs and NRPS detection rates of endophytic fungi from P. ostii 'Feng Dan' are both the highest among the three types of tree peonies. Results indicate that endophytic fungus is an important factor of Daodi Cortex Moutan forming, and endophytic fungi in peony are related to genuineness of Cortex Moutan.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/metabolism , Paeonia/microbiology , Biodiversity , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Fungi/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/metabolism , Paeonia/classification , Paeonia/growth & development , Paeonia/metabolism , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/growth & development , Endophytes/genetics , Fungi/classification , Fungi/growth & development , Fungi/genetics
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 648-655, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889169

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Producing biofuels such as ethanol from non-food plant material has the potential to meet transportation fuel requirements in many African countries without impacting directly on food security. The current shortcomings in biomass processing are inefficient fermentation of plant sugars, such as xylose, especially at high temperatures, lack of fermenting microbes that are able to resist inhibitors associated with pre-treated plant material and lack of effective lignocellulolytic enzymes for complete hydrolysis of plant polysaccharides. Due to the presence of residual partially degraded lignocellulose in the gut, the dung of herbivores can be considered as a natural source of pre-treated lignocellulose. A total of 101 fungi were isolated (36 yeast and 65 mould isolates). Six yeast isolates produced ethanol during growth on xylose while three were able to grow at 42 °C. This is a desirable growth temperature as it is closer to that which is used during the cellulose hydrolysis process. From the yeast isolates, six isolates were able to tolerate 2 g/L acetic acid and one tolerated 2 g/L furfural in the growth media. These inhibitors are normally generated during the pre-treatment step. When grown on pre-treated thatch grass, Aspergillus species were dominant in secretion of endo-glucanase, xylanase and mannanase.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ethanol/metabolism , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Manure/microbiology , Biofuels/analysis , Biofuels/microbiology , Fermentation , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Herbivory , Lignin/metabolism , Manure/analysis , Plants/metabolism , Xylose/metabolism
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 680-688, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889171

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Sophora tomentosa is a pantropical legume species with potential for recovery of areas degraded by salinization, and for stabilization of sand dunes. However, few studies on this species have been carried out, and none regarding its symbiotic relationship with beneficial soil microorganisms. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from nodules of Sophora tomentosa, and to analyze the occurrence of colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the roots of this legume in seafront soil. Thus, seeds, root nodules, and soil from the rhizosphere of Sophora tomentosa were collected. From the soil samples, trap cultures with this species were established to extract spores and to evaluate arbuscular mycorhizal fungi colonization in legume roots, as well as to capture rhizobia. Rhizobia strains were isolated from nodules collected in the field or from the trap cultures. Representative isolates of the groups obtained in the similarity dendrogram, based on phenotypic characteristics, had their 16S rRNA genes sequenced. The legume species showed nodules with indeterminate growth, and reddish color, distributed throughout the root. Fifty-one strains of these nodules were isolated, of which 21 were classified in the genus Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and especially Sinorhizobium. Strains closely related to Sinorhizobium adhaerens were the predominant bacteria in nodules. The other genera found, with the exception of Rhizobium, are probably endophytic bacteria in the nodules. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was observed colonizing the roots, but arbuscular mycorhizal fungi spores were not found in the trap cultures. Therefore Sophora tomentosa is associated with both arbuscular mycorhizal fungi and nodulating nitrogen-fixing bacteria.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Fungi/isolation & purification , Mycorrhizae/isolation & purification , Sophora/microbiology , Symbiosis , Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/physiology , Mycorrhizae/classification , Mycorrhizae/genetics , Mycorrhizae/physiology , Phylogeny , Plant Roots/microbiology , Soil Microbiology , Sophora/physiology
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(2): 246-250, April.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839375

ABSTRACT

Abstract Shenqu is a fermented product that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat indigestion; however, the microbial strains in the fermentation process are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate microbial diversity in Shenqu using different fermentation time periods. DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) profiles indicated that a strain of Pediococcus acidilactici (band 9) is the predominant bacteria during fermentation and that the predominant fungi were uncultured Rhizopus, Aspergillus oryzae, and Rhizopus oryzae. In addition, pathogenic bacteria, such as Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Erwinia billingiae, and Pantoea vagan were detected in Shenqu. DGGE analysis showed that bacterial and fungal diversity declined over the course of fermentation. This determination of the predominant bacterial and fungal strains responsible for fermentation may contribute to further Shenqu research, such as optimization of the fermentation process.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/classification , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis , Biota , Fungi/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Fermentation , Fungi/genetics
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 101-108, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839340

ABSTRACT

Abstract Production of a bioherbicide for biological control of weeds requires a series of steps, from selection of a suitable microbial strain to final formulation. Thus, this study aimed to select fungi for production of secondary metabolites with herbicidal activity using biological resources of the Brazilian Pampa biome. Phytopathogenic fungi were isolated from infected tissues of weeds in the Pampa biome. A liquid synthetic culture medium was used for production of metabolites. The phytotoxicity of fungal metabolites was assessed via biological tests using the plant Cucumis sativus L., and the most promising strain was identified by molecular analysis. Thirty-nine fungi were isolated, and 28 presented some phytotoxic symptoms against the target plant. Fungus VP51 belonging to the genus Diaporthe showed the most pronounced herbicidal activity. The Brazilian Pampa biome is a potential resource for the development of new and sustainable chemical compounds for modern agriculture.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/metabolism , Fungi/metabolism , Herbicides/metabolism , Phylogeny , Brazil , RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S/genetics , DNA, Intergenic , Plant Weeds/microbiology , Fermentation , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 828-834, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828198

ABSTRACT

Abstract The biodegradation of synthetic dyes by fungi is emerging as an effective and promising approach. In the present study, freshwater fungal strains isolated from submerged woods were screened for the decolorization of 7 synthetic dyes. Subsequently, 13 isolates with high decolorization capability were assessed in a liquid system; they belonged to 9 different fungal species. Several strains exhibited a highly effective decolorization of multiple types of dyes. New absorbance peaks appeared after the treatment with 3 fungal strains, which suggests that a biotransformation process occurred through fungal biodegradation. These results showed the unexploited and valuable capability of freshwater fungi for the treatment of dye-containing effluents. The ability of certain fungi to decolorize dyes is reported here for the first time.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Coloring Agents/metabolism , Fresh Water/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Coloring Agents/chemistry , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 817-827, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828187

ABSTRACT

Abstract Humic substances in soil DNA samples can influence the assessment of microbial diversity and community composition. Using multiple steps during or after cell lysis adds expenses, is time-consuming, and causes DNA loss. A pretreatment of soil samples and a single step DNA extraction may improve experimental results. In order to optimize a protocol for obtaining high purity DNA from soil microbiota, five prewashing agents were compared in terms of their efficiency and effectiveness in removing soil contaminants. Residual contaminants were precipitated by adding 0.6 mL of 0.5 M CaCl2. Four cell lysis methods were applied to test their compatibility with the pretreatment (prewashing + Ca2+ flocculation) and to ultimately identify the optimal cell lysis method for analyzing fungal communities in forest soils. The results showed that pretreatment with TNP + Triton X-100 + skim milk (100 mM Tris, 100 mM Na4P2O7, 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone, 100 mM NaCl, 0.05% Triton X-100, 4% skim milk, pH 10.0) removed most soil humic contaminants. When the pretreatment was combined with Ca2+ flocculation, the purity of all soil DNA samples was further improved. DNA samples obtained by the fast glass bead-beating method (MethodFGB) had the highest purity. The resulting DNA was successfully used, without further purification steps, as a template for polymerase chain reaction targeting fungal internal transcribed spacer regions. The results obtained by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis indicated that the MethodFGB revealed greater fungal diversity and more distinctive community structure compared with the other methods tested. Our study provides a protocol for fungal cell lysis in soil, which is fast, convenient, and effective for analyzing fungal communities in forest soils.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Forests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Microbiota , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Soil/chemistry , Calcium Chloride , DNA, Bacterial , DNA, Fungal , Fungi/isolation & purification
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 403-409, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780836

ABSTRACT

Abstract Considering the absence of standards for culture collections and more specifically for biological resource centers in the world, in addition to the absence of certified biological material in Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate a Fungal Collection from Fiocruz, as a producer of certified reference material and as Biological Resource Center (BRC). For this evaluation, a checklist based on the requirements of ABNT ISO GUIA34:2012 correlated with the ABNT NBR ISO/IEC17025:2005, was designed and applied. Complementing the implementation of the checklist, an internal audit was performed. An evaluation of this Collection as a BRC was also conducted following the requirements of the NIT-DICLA-061, the Brazilian internal standard from Inmetro, based on ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ABNT ISO GUIA 34:2012 and OECD Best Practice Guidelines for BRCs. This was the first time that the NIT DICLA-061 was applied in a culture collection during an internal audit. The assessments enabled the proposal for the adequacy of this Collection to assure the implementation of the management system for their future accreditation by Inmetro as a certified reference material producer as well as its future accreditation as a Biological Resource Center according to the NIT-DICLA-061.


Subject(s)
Preservation, Biological/standards , Fungi/classification , Mycology/organization & administration , Quality Control , Brazil , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/genetics , Mycology/standards
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 322-326, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780819

ABSTRACT

Abstract The sugarcane in Brazil is passing through a management transition that is leading to the abolition of pre-harvest burning. Without burning, large amounts of sugarcane trash is generated, and there is a discussion regarding the utilization of this biomass in the industry versus keeping it in the field to improve soil quality. To study the effects of the trash removal on soil quality, we established an experimental sugarcane plantation with different levels of trash over the soil (0%, 50% and 100% of the original trash deposition) and analyzed the structure of the bacterial and fungal community as the bioindicators of impacts. The soil DNA was extracted, and the microbial community was screened by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in two different seasons. Our results suggest that there are no effects from the different levels of trash on the soil chemistry and soil bacterial community. However, the fungal community was significantly impacted, and after twelve months, the community presented different structures among the treatments.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Saccharum/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Seasons , Soil/chemistry , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Brazil , Saccharum/growth & development , Biodiversity , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
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