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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1058-1069, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878614

ABSTRACT

The efficient production of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems is an important support for large-scale biorefinery of plant biomass. On-site production of lignocellulolytic enzymes could increase the economic benefits of the process by lowering the cost of enzyme usage. Penicillium species are commonly found lignocellulose-degrading fungi in nature, and have been used for industrial production of cellulase preparations due to their abilities to secrete complete and well-balanced lignocellulolytic enzyme systems. Here, we introduce the reported Penicillium species for cellulase production, summarize the characteristics of their enzymes, and describe the strategies of strain engineering for improving the production and performance of lignocellulolytic enzymes. We also review the progress in fermentation process optimization regarding the on-site production of lignocellulolytic enzymes using Penicillium species, and suggest prospect of future work from the perspective of building a "sugar platform" for the biorefinery of lignocellulosic biomass.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Cellulase/metabolism , Fermentation , Fungi/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Penicillium
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190024, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132186

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pigments produced by submerged fermentation of three filamentous fungi isolated from Brazilian caves, namely Aspergillus keveii, Penicillium flavigenum, and Epicoccum nigrum, were submitted to spray drying in presence of the adjuvants maltodextrin, modified starch or gum arabic. Yellow fine powders with low moisture content and water activity, and high color retention (> 70%) were successfully generated with a high product recovery ratio (> 50%), independently of the adjuvant used. The dried products have enhanced stability and potential to might be used as a natural colorant in food and pharmaceutical applications.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pigments, Biological/biosynthesis , Starch/biosynthesis , Fungi/metabolism , Gum Arabic , Maltose/biosynthesis , Aspergillus , Brazil , Caves/microbiology , Fungi/classification , Maltose/analogs & derivatives , Models, Theoretical
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 37: 34-40, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051256

ABSTRACT

Since more than twenty years ago, some species of bacteria and fungi have been used to produce protein biomass or single-cell protein (SCP), with inexpensive feedstock and wastes being used as their sources of carbon and energy. The role of SCP as a safe food and feed is being highlighted more because of the worldwide protein scarcity. Even though SCP has been successfully commercialized in the UK for decades, study of optimal fermentation conditions, various potential substrates, and a broad range of microorganisms is still being pursued by many researchers. In this article, commonly used methods for the production of SCP and different fermentation systems are briefly reviewed, with submerged fermentation being highlighted as a more commonly used method. Emphasis is given to the effect of influencing factors on the biomass yield and productivity in an effort to provide a comprehensive review for researchers in related fields of interest.


Subject(s)
Dietary Proteins/metabolism , Fermentation , Fungi/metabolism , Aeration , Biomass , Food
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180152, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041546

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Introducing new antibiotics to the clinic is critical. METHODS: We adapted a plate method described by Kawaguchi and coworkers in 20131 for detecting inhibitory airborne microorganisms. RESULTS: We obtained 51 microbial colonies antagonist to Chromobacterium violaceum, purified and retested them, and of these, 39 (76.5%) were confirmed. They comprised 24 bacteria, 13 fungi, and 2 yeasts. Among the fungi, eight (61.5%) produced active extracts. Among the bacterial, yeast, and fungal strains, 17 (44.7%) and 12 (31.6%) were active against Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed screening method is a rapid strategy for discovering potential antibiotic producers.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Candida/drug effects , Chromobacterium/drug effects , Air Microbiology , Quorum Sensing , Fungi/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Bacteria/metabolism , Colony Count, Microbial , Fungi/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 29-37, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889196

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Increased environmental pollution has necessitated the need for eco-friendly clean-up strategies. Filamentous fungal species from gold and gemstone mine site soils were isolated, identified and assessed for their tolerance to varied heavy metal concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and iron (Fe). The identities of the fungal strains were determined based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS 1 and ITS 2) regions. Mycelia growth of the fungal strains were subjected to a range of (0-100 Cd), (0-1000 Cu), (0-400 Pb), (0-500 As) and (0-800 Fe) concentrations (mgkg-1) incorporated into malt extract agar (MEA) in triplicates. Fungal radial growths were recorded every three days over a 13-days' incubation period. Fungal strains were identified as Fomitopsis meliae, Trichoderma ghanense and Rhizopus microsporus. All test fungal exhibited tolerance to Cu, Pb, and Fe at all test concentrations (400-1000 mgkg-1), not differing significantly (p > 0.05) from the controls and with tolerance index >1. T. ghanense and R. microsporus demonstrated exceptional capacity for Cd and As concentrations, while showing no significant (p > 0.05) difference compared to the controls and with a tolerance index >1 at 25 mgkg-1 Cd and 125 mgkg-1 As. Remarkably, these fungal strains showed tolerance to metal concentrations exceeding globally permissible limits for contaminated soils. It is envisaged that this metal tolerance trait exhibited by these fungal strains may indicate their potentials as effective agents for bioremediative clean-up of heavy metal polluted environments.


Subject(s)
Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Cadmium/analysis , Cadmium/metabolism , Copper/analysis , Copper/metabolism , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Gold/analysis , Gold/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Mining , Phylogeny , Soil Pollutants/analysis
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 59-63, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039274

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this work, four isolates of endophytic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Glomerella cingulata and Nigrospora sphaerica), deposited in the culture collection 'University Recife Mycologia' (URM) at the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, were characterized for the genes ITS 1 and 4 (region 5.8 S) and evaluated for taxol production.


Subject(s)
Paclitaxel/biosynthesis , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungi/metabolism , Microbiology/organization & administration , Preservation, Biological , Endophytes/genetics , Fungi/genetics
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1,supl.1): 943-992, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886937

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Several enzymatic reactions of heteroatom-containing compounds have been explored as unnatural substrates. Considerable advances related to the search for efficient enzymatic systems able to support a broader substrate scope with high catalytic performance are described in the literature. These reports include mainly native and mutated enzymes and whole cells biocatalysis. Herein, we describe the historical background along with the progress of biocatalyzed reactions involving the heteroatom(S, Se, B, P and Si) from hetero-organic substrates.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Biotransformation , Enzymes/metabolism , Biocatalysis , Fungi/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Biosensing Techniques , Enzymes/chemistry
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 648-655, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889169

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Producing biofuels such as ethanol from non-food plant material has the potential to meet transportation fuel requirements in many African countries without impacting directly on food security. The current shortcomings in biomass processing are inefficient fermentation of plant sugars, such as xylose, especially at high temperatures, lack of fermenting microbes that are able to resist inhibitors associated with pre-treated plant material and lack of effective lignocellulolytic enzymes for complete hydrolysis of plant polysaccharides. Due to the presence of residual partially degraded lignocellulose in the gut, the dung of herbivores can be considered as a natural source of pre-treated lignocellulose. A total of 101 fungi were isolated (36 yeast and 65 mould isolates). Six yeast isolates produced ethanol during growth on xylose while three were able to grow at 42 °C. This is a desirable growth temperature as it is closer to that which is used during the cellulose hydrolysis process. From the yeast isolates, six isolates were able to tolerate 2 g/L acetic acid and one tolerated 2 g/L furfural in the growth media. These inhibitors are normally generated during the pre-treatment step. When grown on pre-treated thatch grass, Aspergillus species were dominant in secretion of endo-glucanase, xylanase and mannanase.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ethanol/metabolism , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Manure/microbiology , Biofuels/analysis , Biofuels/microbiology , Fermentation , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Herbivory , Lignin/metabolism , Manure/analysis , Plants/metabolism , Xylose/metabolism
9.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 28: 101-112, July. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015977

ABSTRACT

Background: The hydrolysis of keratin wastes by microorganisms is considered a biotechnological alternative for recycling and valorization through keratinolytic microorganisms. Despite their resistant structure, keratin wastes can be efficiently degraded by various microorganisms through the secretion of keratinases, which are promising enzymes for several applications, including detergents, fertilizers, and leather and textile industry. In an attempt to isolate keratinolytic microorganisms that can reach commercial exploitation as keratinase producers, the current work assesses the dynamics of keratin biodegradation by several keratinolytic fungal strains isolated from soil. The activity of fungal strains to degrade keratin substrates was evaluated by SEM, FTRIR-ATR spectra and TGA analysis. Results: SEM observations offered relevant information on interactions between microorganism and structural elements of hair strands. FTIR spectra of the bands at 1035­1075 cm-1 assigned to sulfoxide bond appeared because of S­S bond breaking, which demonstrated the initiation of keratin biodegradation. According to TGA, in the second zone of thermal denaturation, where keratin degradation occurs, the highest weight loss of 71.10% was obtained for sample incubated with Fusarium sp. 1A. Conclusions: Among the tested strains, Fusarium sp. 1A was the most active organism in the degradation process with the strongest denaturation of polypeptide chains. Because keratinolytic microorganisms and their enzymes keratinases represent a subject of scientific and economic interest because of their capability to hydrolyze keratin, Fusarium sp. 1A was selected for further studies.


Subject(s)
Fungi/enzymology , Fungi/metabolism , Keratins/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Thermogravimetry , Trichoderma/metabolism , Trichophyton/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cladosporium/metabolism , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Fusarium/metabolism , Hydrolysis , Keratins/chemistry , Microsporum/metabolism
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 442-450, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889132

ABSTRACT

Abstract Large quantities of kitchen waste are produced in modern society and its disposal poses serious environmental and social problems. The aim of this study was to isolate degradative strains from kitchen waste and to develop a novel and effective microbial agent. One hundred and four strains were isolated from kitchen waste and the 84 dominant strains were used to inoculate protein-, starch-, fat- and cellulose-containing media for detecting their degradability. Twelve dominant strains of various species with high degradability (eight bacteria, one actinomycetes and three fungi) were selected to develop a compound microbial agent "YH" and five strains of these species including H7 (Brevibacterium epidermidis), A3 (Paenibacillus polymyxa), E3 (Aspergillus japonicus), F9 (Aspergillus versicolor) and A5 (Penicillium digitatum), were new for kitchen waste degradation. YH was compared with three commercial microbial agents-"Tiangeng" (TG), "Yilezai" (YLZ) and Effective Microorganisms (EM), by their effects on reduction, maturity and deodorization. The results showed that YH exerted the greatest efficacy on mass loss which decreased about 65.87% after 14 days. The agent inhibited NH3 and H2S emissions significantly during composting process. The concentration of NH3 decreased from 7.1 to 3.2 ppm and that of H2S reduced from 0.7 to 0.2 ppm. Moreover, E4/E6 (Extinction value460nm/Extinction value665nm) of YH decreased from 2.51 to 1.31, which meant YH had an obvious maturity effect. These results highlighted the potential application of YH in composting kitchen waste.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Vegetables/microbiology , Refuse Disposal/methods , Fungi/metabolism , Vegetables/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 13-24, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839339

ABSTRACT

Abstract Specific proteases capable of degrading native triple helical or denatured collagen have been required for many years and have a large spectrum of applications. There are few complete reports that fully uncover production, characterization and purification of fungi collagenases. In this review, authors searched through four scientific on line data bases using the following keywords (collagenolytic OR collagenase) AND (fungi OR fungus OR fungal) AND (production OR synthesis OR synthesize) AND (characterization). Scientific criteria were adopted in this review to classify found articles by score (from 0 to 10). After exclusion criteria, 21 articles were selected. None obtained the maximum of 10 points defined by the methodology, which indicates a deficiency in studies dealing simultaneously with production, characterization and purification of collagenase by fungi. Among microorganisms studied the non-pathogenic fungi Penicillium aurantiogriseum and Rhizoctonia solani stood out in volumetric and specific collagenase activity. The only article found that made sequencing of a true collagenase showed 100% homology with several metalloproteinases fungi. A clear gap in literature about collagenase production by fungi was verified, which prevents further development in the area and increases the need for further studies, particularly full characterization of fungal collagenases with high specificity to collagen.


Subject(s)
Collagen/metabolism , Collagenases/metabolism , Fungi/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Collagen/chemistry , Collagenases/isolation & purification , Collagenases/biosynthesis , Collagenases/chemistry , Culture Media , Enzyme Activation , Proteolysis , Fungi/classification
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 101-108, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839340

ABSTRACT

Abstract Production of a bioherbicide for biological control of weeds requires a series of steps, from selection of a suitable microbial strain to final formulation. Thus, this study aimed to select fungi for production of secondary metabolites with herbicidal activity using biological resources of the Brazilian Pampa biome. Phytopathogenic fungi were isolated from infected tissues of weeds in the Pampa biome. A liquid synthetic culture medium was used for production of metabolites. The phytotoxicity of fungal metabolites was assessed via biological tests using the plant Cucumis sativus L., and the most promising strain was identified by molecular analysis. Thirty-nine fungi were isolated, and 28 presented some phytotoxic symptoms against the target plant. Fungus VP51 belonging to the genus Diaporthe showed the most pronounced herbicidal activity. The Brazilian Pampa biome is a potential resource for the development of new and sustainable chemical compounds for modern agriculture.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/metabolism , Fungi/metabolism , Herbicides/metabolism , Phylogeny , Brazil , RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S/genetics , DNA, Intergenic , Plant Weeds/microbiology , Fermentation , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 828-834, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828198

ABSTRACT

Abstract The biodegradation of synthetic dyes by fungi is emerging as an effective and promising approach. In the present study, freshwater fungal strains isolated from submerged woods were screened for the decolorization of 7 synthetic dyes. Subsequently, 13 isolates with high decolorization capability were assessed in a liquid system; they belonged to 9 different fungal species. Several strains exhibited a highly effective decolorization of multiple types of dyes. New absorbance peaks appeared after the treatment with 3 fungal strains, which suggests that a biotransformation process occurred through fungal biodegradation. These results showed the unexploited and valuable capability of freshwater fungi for the treatment of dye-containing effluents. The ability of certain fungi to decolorize dyes is reported here for the first time.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Coloring Agents/metabolism , Fresh Water/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Coloring Agents/chemistry , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 917-924, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828189

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of terpinen-4-ol, tyrosol, and β-lapachone against strains of Coccidioides posadasii in filamentous phase (n = 22) and Histoplasma capsulatum in both filamentous (n = 40) and yeast phases (n = 13), using the broth dilution methods as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of these compounds. The mechanisms of action of these compounds were also investigated by analyzing their effect on cell membrane permeability and ergosterol synthesis. The MIC and MFCf these compounds against C. posadasii, mycelial H. capsulatum, and yeast-like H. capsulatum, were in the following ranges: 350-5720 µg/mL, 20-2860 µg/mL, and 40-1420 µg/mL, respectively for terpinen-4-ol; 250-4000 µg/mL, 30-2000 µg/mL, and 10-1000 µg/mL, respectively, for tyrosol; and 0.48-7.8 µg/mL, 0.25-16 µg/mL, and 0.125-4 µg/mL, respectively for β-lapachone. These compounds showed a decrease in MIC when the samples were subjected to osmotic stress, suggesting that the compounds acted on the fungal membrane. All the compounds were able to reduce the ergosterol content of the fungal strains. Finally, tyrosol was able to cause a leakage of intracellular molecules.


Subject(s)
Phenylethyl Alcohol/analogs & derivatives , Terpenes/pharmacology , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Fungi/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Osmotic Pressure , Phenylethyl Alcohol/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Membrane Permeability/drug effects , Ergosterol/metabolism , Fungi/classification , Fungi/metabolism
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1171-1176, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769660

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pollen is used in the human diet as a food supplement because of its high nutritional value; however, this product is prone to fungal contamination that could potentially generate toxins that are harmful to human health. This study aimed to verify the floral diversity of commercial brands of bee pollen and their mycotoxicological safety for human consumption. A total of 27 bee pollen samples were analyzed; these samples represented commercial brands, either showing an inspection seal or not, marketed in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The analyzed parameters included floral diversity through palynological analysis, water activity, fungal counts, identification and toxigenic profiles. The palynological analysis identified nine plant families, of which the Asteraceae was predominant. Analysis of hygienic quality based on fungal load showed that 92% of samples were reproved according to the commercial, sanitary, and food safety quality indicators. Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium were the most common genera. Toxigenic evaluation showed that 25% of the A. flavus strains produced aflatoxins. The high rate of contamination of products bearing an inspection seal emphasizes the need to monitor the entire procedure of bee pollen production, as well as to revise the current legislation to ensure safe commercialization of this product.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Genotype , Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points , Mycotoxins/metabolism , Pollen/classification , Pollen/microbiology , Brazil , Colony Count, Microbial , Food Contamination , Food Microbiology , Fungi/classification
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1045-1052, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769662

ABSTRACT

Abstract High copper (Cu) levels in uprooted old vineyard soils may cause toxicity in transplanted young vines, although such toxicity may be reduced by inoculating plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AMF on the plant growth, chlorophyll contents, mycorrhizal colonization, and Cu and phosphorus (P) absorption in young vines cultivated in a vineyard soil contaminated by Cu. Commercial vineyard soil with high Cu levels was placed in plastic tubes and transplanted with young vines, which were inoculated with six AMF species (Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora gigantea, Acaulospora morrowiae, A. colombiana, Rhizophagus clarus, R. irregularis) and a control treatment on randomized blocks with 12 replicates. After 130 days, the mycorrhizal colonization, root and shoot dry matter (DM), height increment, P and Cu absorption, and chlorophyll contents were evaluated. The height increment, shoot DM and chlorophyll contents were not promoted by AMF, although the root DM was increased by R. clarus and R. irregularis, which had the greatest mycorrhizal colonization and P uptake. AMF increased Cu absorption but decreased its transport to shoots. Thus, AMF species, particularly R. clarus and R. irregularis, contribute to the establishment of young vines exposed to high Cu levels.


Subject(s)
Copper/growth & development , Copper/metabolism , Copper/microbiology , Fungi/growth & development , Fungi/metabolism , Fungi/microbiology , Mycorrhizae/growth & development , Mycorrhizae/metabolism , Mycorrhizae/microbiology , Phosphorus/growth & development , Phosphorus/metabolism , Phosphorus/microbiology , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Plant Shoots/microbiology , Soil Pollutants/growth & development , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Soil Pollutants/microbiology , Vitis/growth & development , Vitis/metabolism , Vitis/microbiology
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 359-366, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749714

ABSTRACT

Endophytes are being considered for use in biological control, and the enzymes they secrete might facilitate their initial colonization of internal plant tissues and direct interactions with microbial pathogens. Microbial proteases are also biotechnologically important products employed in bioremediation processes, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical, photographic and food industries. In the present study, we evaluated antagonism and competitive interactions between 98 fungal endophytes and Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum sp., Phyllosticta citricarpa and Moniliophthora perniciosa. We also examined the proteolytic activities of endophytes grown in liquid medium and conducted cup plate assays. The results showed that certain strains in the assemblage of P. hispidum endophytes are important sources of antifungal properties, primarily Lasiodiplodia theobromae JF766989, which reduced phytopathogen growth by approximately 54 to 65%. We detected 28 endophytes producing enzymatic halos of up to 16.40 mm in diameter. The results obtained in the present study highlight the proteolytic activity of the endophytes Phoma herbarum JF766995 and Schizophyllum commune JF766994, which presented the highest enzymatic halo diameters under at least one culture condition tested. The increased activities of certain isolates in the presence of rice or soy flour as a substrate (with halos up to 17.67 mm in diameter) suggests that these endophytes have the potential to produce enzymes using agricultural wastes.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/metabolism , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Piper/microbiology , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Microbiological Techniques , Molecular Sequence Data , Sequence Analysis, DNA
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 49-57, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748247

ABSTRACT

Bauhinia forficata is native to South America and used with relative success in the folk medicine in Brazil. The diversity, antibacterial activity, and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes of endophytic fungi associated with this plant were studied. Plant samples, which included leaves, sepals, stems, and seeds, were used. Ninety-five endophytic fungal were isolated (18 from leaves, 22 from sepals, 46 from stems, and nine from seeds), comprising 28 species. The most frequently isolated species were Acremonium curvulum (9.5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (7.37%), Gibberella fujikuroi (10.53%), Myrothecium verrucaria (10.53%) and Trichoderma piluliferum (7.37%). Diversity and species richness were higher in stem tissues, and Sorensen’s index of similarity between the tissues was low. Eleven fungi showed antibacterial activity. Aspergillus ochraceus, Gibberella baccata, Penicillium commune, and P. glabrum were those with the greatest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and/or Streptococcus pyogenes. Thirteen species showed proteolytic activity, particularly Phoma putaminum. Fourteen species were cellulase positive, particularly the Penicillium species and Myrmecridium schulzeri. All isolates tested were xylanase positive and 10 showed lipolytic activity, especially Penicillium glabrum. It is clear that the endophytic fungi from B. forficata have potential for the production of bioactive compounds and may be a source of new therapeutic agents for the effective treatment of diseases in humans, other animals, and plants. To our knowledge, this is the first study of endophytic fungi from different tissues of B. forficata and their biotechnological potential.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Biodiversity , Bauhinia/microbiology , Endophytes/classification , Fungi/metabolism , Hydrolases/metabolism , Plants, Medicinal/microbiology , Brazil , Bacteria/drug effects , Biological Products/metabolism , Biotechnology/methods , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungi/classification , Fungi/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , South America , Technology, Pharmaceutical/methods
19.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 46(4): 348-357, dic. 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-734589

ABSTRACT

The effect of atrazine concentrations on mycelial growth and ligninolytic enzyme activities of eight native ligninolytic macrofungi isolated in Veracruz, México, were evaluated in a semi-solid culture medium. Inhibition of mycelial growth and growth rates were significantly affected (p = 0.05) by atrazine concentrations (468, 937, 1875, and 3750 mg/l). In accordance with the median effective concentration (EC50), Pleurotus sp. strain 1 proved to be the most tolerant isolate to atrazine (EC50 = 2281.0 mg/l), although its enzyme activity was not the highest. Pycnoporus sanguineus strain 2, Daedalea elegans and Trametes maxima showed high laccase activity (62.7, 31.9, 29.3 U mg/protein, respectively) without atrazine (control); however, this activity significantly increased (p < 0.05) (to 191.1, 83.5 and 120.6 U mg/protein, respectively) owing to the effect of atrazine (937 mg/l) in the culture medium. Pleurotus sp. strain 2 and Cymatoderma elegans significantly increased (p < 0.05) their manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities under atrazine stress at 468 mg/l. The isolates with high EC50 (Pleurotus sp. strain 1) and high enzymatic activity (P. sanguineus strain 2 and T. maxima) could be considered for future studies on atrazine mycodegradation. Furthermore, this study confirms that atrazine can increase laccase and MnP activities in ligninolytic macrofungi.


Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes concentraciones de atrazina sobre el crecimiento micelial y la actividad enzimática de ocho macrohongos ligninolíticos aislados en Veracruz, México. La inhibición del crecimiento micelial y la tasa de crecimiento diaria fueron significativamente (p < 0,05) afectadas por todas las dosis de atrazina (468, 937, 1875 y 3750 mg/l) adicionadas al medio de cultivo. De acuerdo con la concentración efectiva media (CE50), Pleurotus sp. cepa 1 fue el aislamiento más tolerante a la atrazina (CE50 = 2281 mg/l), aunque sus actividades enzimáticas no fueron altas. Pycnoporus sanguineus cepa 2, Daedalea elegans y Trametes maxima mostraron actividades altas de lacasa (62,7, 31,9 y 29,3 U mg/proteína, respectivamente) en ausencia de atrazina (control); estas actividades se incrementaron (p < 0,05) significativamente (191,1, 83,5 y 120,6 U mg/proteína, respectivamente) en presencia de atrazina (937 mg/l) en el medio de cultivo. Pleurotus sp. cepa 2 y Cymatoderma elegans incrementaron significativamente (p < 0,05) sus actividades de manganeso peroxidasa (MnP) bajo la concentración de 468 mg/l de atrazina. Los aislamientos con alta CE50 (Pleurotus sp. cepa 1) y alta actividad enzimática (P. sanguineus cepa 2 y T. maxima) podrían ser considerados para futuros estudios en la micodegradación de atrazina. Además, el presente estudio confirma que la atrazina puede incrementar las actividades lacasa y MnP en macrohongos ligninolíticos.


Subject(s)
Atrazine/pharmacology , Fungi/drug effects , Herbicides/pharmacology , Biological Assay , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fungi/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1211-1220, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741270

ABSTRACT

A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/metabolism , Cellulose/metabolism , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Colombia , Cellulase/analysis , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Helminth/chemistry , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Hydrolysis , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
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