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1.
Caracas; s.n; dic. 2019. 125 p. ^e1 CD-ROM^c30 cmtab.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1179534

ABSTRACT

La histoplasmosis es una enfermedad granulomatosa, producida por hongos dimorfos del género Histoplasma. Se observa en casi todos los países del mundo. En América Latina, en Venezuela, Colombia, Brasil, Argentina, Ecuador, Perú, Paraguay y Uruguay, entre otros. Datos epidemiológicos recienteshanmostrado un aumento de histoplasmosis en Venezuela y otros países.Los clínicos no están conscientes de su importancia en nuestro medio. Objetivo: Dar a conocer la situación actual de esta enfermedad en el Area Metropolitana de Caracas y en otras áreas endémicas, con la intención de crear la inquietud de investigar su incidencia y otras características relevantes en el resto del país. Métodos: Se analizaron las características de todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de certeza de histoplasmosis registrados y realizados por la Sección de Micología Médica ­Dr. Dante Borelli‖ del Instituto de Medicina Tropical de la UCV, referidos de los diferentes hospitales del Distrito Capital y otros estados del país, con énfasis en los datos epidemiológicos, manifestaciones clínicas, diagnóstico, tratamiento y evolución entre 1994 y 2012. Resultados: se encontraron 553 pacientes. La mayoría estaban entre los 20 y 49 años, relacionado con un alto número de pacientes con VIH/SIDA. Hubo más casos en hombres que en mujeres en todos los grupos etarios, menos en los pacientes mayores de 60 años, posiblemente debido a la disminución de los estrógenos, que son protectores en la mujer. Casi todos los pacientes con VIH/SIDA mostraron la forma diseminada, solo uno presentó una forma pulmonar. De los pacientes VIH negativos, 54,62% presentaron infección diseminada y 44,47%, formas pulmonares. 93 de los de enfermedad diseminada tenían estados de inmunocompromiso. El examen directo fue el método más fácil y eficaz para diagnosticar la histoplasmosis. La anfotericina B (AMB) fue el tratamiento para la histoplasmosis en pacientes con o sin SIDA, que requirieron hospitalización, seguido por itraconazol (ITC). Esta droga se utilizó en pacientes que no se encontraban severamente enfermos o con afectación del sistema nervioso central. Conclusiones: histoplasmosis se encuentra en aumento en nuestro país. Se observa con más frecuencia en pacientes con SIDA, inmunosuprimidos y pacientes que han recibido un inóculo abundante. El examen directo con coloraciones especiales es el método de mayor rendimiento para el diagnóstico. Este debe ser realizado por personal con experiencia.Es conveniente utilizar diferentes técnicas para aumentar la probabilidad de obtener un diagnóstico correcto. AMB e ITC son los tratamientos de elección. Los médicos deben estar alertas de los signos y síntomas, correlacionándolos con los antecedentes epidemiológicos, para evitar el retraso del diagnóstico y mejorar la evolución de los pacientes.


Histoplasmosis is a granulomatous disease, caused by dimorphic fungi from the genus Histoplasma. It is described worldwide.In Latin America, Venezuela, Colombia, Brasil, Argentina, Ecuador, Perú, Paraguay and Uruguay among others are affected. Recent epidemiological data have shown an increase of histoplasmosis in Venezuela and other countries. Clinicians are nor aware of the importance of this mycosis. Objective: analyze the current situation of this disease in the Caracas Metropolitan Area and other endemic areas, with intention to create awareness of its incidence and other relevant characteristics in our country. Methods: characteristics of the patients with diagnosis of histoplasmosis, performed and registered at the Sección de Micología Médica ­Dr. Dante Borelli‖, Instituto de Medicina Tropical, UCV, referred from different hospitals at Distrito Capital and other states of the country, with emphasis on epidemiological data, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and outcome, between 1994 and 2012 are analized. Results: 553 patients were found. Most of them were between 20 and 49 years old, possibly due to a high number of HIV/AIDS patients. There were more male than female patients in all age groups, except in 60 years and older, possibly due to the lack of estrogenic hormones, which protect women from infection. All HIV/AIDS patients but one, presented with a disseminated form of the disease, and one, a pulmonary form. Of the HIV negative patients, 54,62% showed disseminated infection and 44,47%, pulmonary presentation. 93 of the disseminated infection patients had immunocompromising conditions. Direct examination was the easiest and most efficacious diagnostic method. Amphotericin B (AMB) was the drug of choice for the treatment of hospitalized patients, followed by Itraconazole (ITC). This was the preferred treatment for mild to moderate disease or non CNS infection. Conclusions: Histoplasmosis is rising in our country. It is more frequent in HIV/AIDS patients and immune suppression. It is also seen in patients who have inhaled a large inoculum. Direct examination with special stains is the diagnostic method with better results. It must be performed by experienced personnel in fungal diagnosis. The use of different techniques is recommended to improve early and correct diagnosis. AMB and ITC are drugs of choice for the treatment of histoplasmosis. Clinicians should be aware of suggestive symptoms and signs, correlating them with epidemiological data, to avoid diagnostic delay and improve the outcome of the patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Mycoses/therapy , Signs and Symptoms , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Probability , Risk Factors , Fungi/pathogenicity , Histoplasma/drug effects , Histoplasmosis/therapy , Histoplasmosis/epidemiology , Infections , Mycoses/drug therapy , Mycoses/epidemiology , Age Groups
2.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 33(2): 17-29, dic. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008160

ABSTRACT

Plantaciones de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) en Ecuador están siendo afectadas por una compleja enfermedad de marchitez vascular y muerte regresiva, con características epidémicas, sin que hasta el momento se conozca el o los agentes causales. Se planteó describir la sintomatología de la enfermedad e identificar los hongos fitopatógenos asociados a árboles enfermos en el Trópico Húmedo Ecuatoriano mediante morfofisiología. Se seleccionaron tres plantaciones de 2, 5 y 7 años de edad, en cada una se delimitó tres parcelas de 500 m2. Se realizó la descripción sintomatológica, evaluó la incidencia y severidad de la enfermedad empleando una escala de cinco categorías. Por parcela se diseccionaron tres árboles, cuyos tejidos se llevaron al laboratorio, donde se emplearon tres estrategias metodológicas (cámara húmeda, sandwiches de zanahoria, y medio de cultivo papa-dextrosa-agar; PDA) para estimular la expresión de los fitopatógenos. En árboles enfermos se detectó clorosis, pérdida de turgencia, ápices de crecimiento secos, emisión de brotes epicormicos en el fuste, y marchitez fulminante. Se aisló e identificó Ceratocystis fimbriata Ellis & Halst., y especies de Fusarium de forma consecutiva con las tres estrategias metodológicas empleadas. La incidencia de la enfermedad fue del 16.6%, 15.2%, y 11.6% para las plantaciones de 2, 5 y 7 años, respectivamente. Los árboles enfermos en la plantación de 2 años se encontraron en las escalas 2, 4 y 5, mientras que en plantaciones de 5 y 7 años se ubicaron en las escalas 2, 3 y 5 de progreso de la enfermedad...(AU)


Teak plantations (Tectona grandis L. f.) in Ecuador are being affected by a complex disease of vascular wilt and dieback, with epidemic characteristics, without knowing the causal agent(s) so far. We proposed to describe the symptomatology of the disease and identify phytopathogenic fungi associated with diseased trees in the Ecuadorian Humid Tropic by morphophysiology. Three plantations of 2, 5 and 7 years of age were selected, in each three plots of 500 m2 were delimited. The symptomatologic description was made, evaluated the incidence and severity of the disease using a scale of five categories. By plot, three trees were dissected, whose tissues were taken to the laboratory, where three methodological strategies were used (wet chamber, carrot sandwiches, and potatodextrose-agar culture medium, PDA) to stimulate the expression of phytopathogens. In diseased trees, chlorosis, turgor loss, dry growth apices, emission of epicormic shoots in the stem, and fulminating wilt were detected. It was isolated and identified Ceratocystis fimbriata Ellis & Halst., and Fusarium species. consecutively with the three methodological strategies employed. The incidence of the disease was 16.6%, 15.2%, and 11.6% for plantations of 2, 5 and 7 years, respectively. The sick trees in the plantation of 2 years were found in scales 2, 4 and 5, while in plantations of 5 and 7 years they were located in scales 2, 3 and 5 of progress of the disease. ..(AU)


Subject(s)
Fusarium/pathogenicity , Plant Necrosis and Chlorosis , Ceratocystis/isolation & purification , Trees/microbiology , Severity of Illness Index , Incidence , Tropical Ecosystem , Ecuador , Fungi/pathogenicity
3.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 33(2): 1-9, dic. 2018. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-987868

ABSTRACT

Los hongos son organismos eucariontes que tienen nutrición absortiva, con presencia en los más variados ambientes y sustratos. Han sido parte de la historia del hombre y su desarrollo, siendo útiles tanto en la alimentación como en la medicina, producción de enzimas, actividad industrial y silvicultura. Sin embargo, también tienen la capacidad de producir infecciones superficiales y profundas en humanos y animales, contaminar e infectar granos, frutas, plantas y generar verdaderos desastres ecológicos.


Fungi are eukaryotic organisms, its nutrition is absorptive and they are widespread present in environment and substrates. They have been part of the history of human being and his development: they are useful as food, in medicine, enzyme production, in the industrial activity and forestry. However they have the capacity of infect superficial and deep human and animal tissues, contaminate and infect grains, fruits, plants and even produce environmental disasters.


Subject(s)
Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Environment , Fungi/pathogenicity , Yeasts , Fungi/physiology
4.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0172018, 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-987451

ABSTRACT

Leaf-cutter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have evolved as dominant herbivores on the American continent. These social insects remove the leaves of economically important plant species to maintain their colony's food reserves, the symbiotic fungus Leucocoprinus gongylophorus, a basidiomycete. Such fungus can be used for applications of fungicide molecules from metabolites generated by symbiont bacteria (Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus) from entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema and Heterorhabditis). Through isolation and multiplication in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium of the bacteria Xenorhabdus szentirmaii isolated PAM 25, we conducted laboratorial tests using treatments with 10, 25, and 50% of the metabolites obtained in the sixth day of cultivation. The treatments were centrifuged and filtered to generate a supernatant, which was diluted in potato + dextrose + agar (PDA), to verify the consequences of exposure to the fungus L. gongylophorus in Petri dishes. To confirm metabolite efficiency, the control treatments in PDA only and mixed (PDA+TSB) media were conducted simultaneously for 14 days. We observed total inhibition of the symbiont fungus in both the 25 and 50% dilutions during the first days of the tests. Our results support that these metabolites have inhibitory effect on the development of symbiont fungus of leaf-cutter ants.(AU)


As formigas-cortadeiras (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) evoluíram estabelecendo-se no continente americano como herbívoros dominantes. Esses insetos sociais praticam a desfolha de espécies vegetais de interesse econômico, com a finalidade de manter a reserva alimentar da colônia, o fungo simbionte Leucocoprinus gongylophorus, um basidiomiceto. Tal fungo pode ser alvo de aplicações de moléculas fungicidas encontradas em metabólitos gerados por bactérias simbiontes (Xenorhabdus e Photorhabdus) de nematoides entomopatogênicos (Steinernema e Heterorhabditis). Por meio do isolamento e da multiplicação em meio caldo triptona de soja (TSB) da bactéria Xenorhabdus szentirmaii (isolado PAM 25), foram realizados testes laboratoriais com tratamentos contendo 10, 25 e 50% do metabólito obtido no sexto dia de cultivo. Para tanto, o metabólito foi centrifugado e filtrado, gerando um sobrenadante, o qual foi diluído em batata + dextrose + ágar (BDA), para verificar as consequências da exposição do fungo L. gongylophorus em placas de Petri. Os tratamentos de controle apenas com meio BDA e misto (BDA + TSB) também foram conduzidos simultaneamente por 14 dias, a fim de confirmar a eficiência dos metabólitos. Tanto na diluição de 25 e 50% houve total inibição do fungo simbionte já nos primeiros dias da condução dos testes. Diante dos resultados obtidos, pode-se afirmar que os metabólitos são a causa do efeito inibitório do desenvolvimento do fungo simbionte das formigas-cortadeiras.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pest Control, Biological , Xenorhabdus , Photorhabdus/virology , Hymenoptera , Nematoda , Fungi/pathogenicity
5.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0992017, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-995662

ABSTRACT

Corynespora cassiicola is a cosmopolitan ascomycete widely known as phytopathogen in several crops, and more recently as an emerging pathogen in humans. In this study the genetic variability of 60 isolates of Corynespora cassiicola from different hosts and cities of Amazonas was evaluated, using AFLP molecular markers. Seven genetic groups were identified according to a dendrogram obtained by the Unweighted Pair Group Method using Arithmetical Averages, indicating significant variability among the isolates. Three isolates of different hosts (28, obtained from papaya; 55, obtained from cucumber; and 58, from tomato) remained as single individuals in distinct groups, suggesting marked genetic variation in comparison to the other isolates and possible specificity by the host.(AU)


Corynespora cassiicola é um ascomiceto cosmopolita amplamente conhecido como fitopatógeno em diversas culturas e, mais recentemente, como patógeno emergente em humanos. Na região Norte do Brasil é responsável por perdas significativas em cultivos tanto em casa de vegetação como em campo aberto. Neste estudo foi avaliada a variabilidade genética de 60 isolados de Corynespora cassiicola procedentes de diferentes hospedeiras e municípios do Amazonas, usando marcadores moleculares AFLP. Foram identificados sete grupos genéticos de acordo com dendrograma obtido pelo método de agrupamento UPGMA, indicando significativa variabilidade entre os isolados. Três isolados de diferentes hospedeiras (isolado 28, obtido de mamoeiro; isolado 55, obtido de pepineiro; e isolado 58, proveniente de tomateiro) permaneceram como indivíduos únicos em grupos distintos, sugerindo variação genética marcante em comparação com os demais e possível especificidade pela hospedeira de origem.(AU)


Subject(s)
Fungi/pathogenicity , Noxae , Plant Diseases , Biological Variation, Population
6.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: 1-8, 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-998434

ABSTRACT

Passion fruit is usually propagated by seeds because of the ease and lower cost in seedling production. However, the seed is the most efficient agent for the spread of pathogens. The damages from seed-borne diseases occur mainly during the germination stages or at the formation of seedlings in nurseries. Considering the need for knowledge on the pathology of sweet passion fruit seeds, the objective was to evaluate the transmission and pathogenicity of the fungi Alternaria sp., Botrytis fabae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium spp. and Lasiodiplodia theobromae, known as potentially pathogenic to this crop, and isolated from sweet passion fruit seeds. Therefore, tests on seed health, germination and seedling emergence in a sterilized commercial substrate were conducted using seeds from this species, inoculated with those fungal isolates. Leaves, stems and fruit from this plant were also inoculated with the same fungi. Alternaria sp., Fusarium spp. and L. theobromae were identified in seedlings obtained from inoculated seeds, confirming the transmission of these fungi by seeds. L. theobromae was also considered the most harmful fungus to passion fruit crop, as it causes seed rot and other disease symptoms on the leaves, stem and fruit. These findings inferred that healthy seeds of sweet passion fruit are essential for producing seedlings and to prevent the spread of the diseases caused by these fungi to exempt areas.(AU)


O maracujazeiro geralmente é propagado por meio de sementes em virtude da facilidade e do menor custo na produção de mudas. No entanto, a semente é o agente mais eficiente de disseminação de patógenos, sendo que os danos decorrentes das doenças transmitidas por elas ocorrem principalmente durante os estágios de germinação ou na formação de mudas nos viveiros. Considerando a necessidade de informações acerca da patologia de sementes de maracujá-doce nesse contexto, objetivou-se obter informações sobre a transmissão e a patogenicidade dos fungos Alternaria sp., Botrytis fabae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium spp. e Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolados de sementes de maracujá-doce e potencialmente patogênicos à cultura. Para tanto, testes de sanidade, germinação e emergência de plântulas em substrato comercial esterilizado foram conduzidos com sementes dessa espécie, inoculadas com esses isolados. Folhas, colo e frutos dessa planta também foram inoculados com os mesmos fungos. Alternaria sp., Fusarium spp. e L. theobromae foram identificados em plântulas obtidas de sementes inoculadas, confirmando a transmissão por sementes. L. theobromae foi considerado o mais agressivo à cultura do maracujá, por ter causado podridão nas sementes, além de maiores lesões nas folhas, no colo da planta e nos frutos. Dessa forma, infere-se que a obtenção de sementes de maracujá-doce sadias é imprescindível para a produção de mudas, evitando-se assim a disseminação desses patógenos em áreas isentas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Seeds , Passiflora , Fungi/pathogenicity , Cladosporium/pathogenicity , Germination , Botrytis/pathogenicity , Alternaria/pathogenicity , Fusarium/pathogenicity
7.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0972017, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-999051

ABSTRACT

Weeds compete with agricultural crops for water, light, nutrients and space, besides having an extensive seed bank. However, another aspect to be considered relates to few studies pointing out weeds as hosts of phytopathogenic fungi. Many fungi, the main cause of diseases in plants, are known to use seeds as an efficient means of survival and dispersal. The objective of this work was to evaluate the health of weed seeds and the pathogenicity of fungi associated to plants of agricultural importance. The seeds were collected manually in Cerrado areas located in the municipality of Gurupi, Tocatins, Brazil. The blotter test method was used to evaluate seed health. The incidence of fungi was evaluated through an individual analysis of seeds using a stereoscopic and an optical microscope. The pathogenicity of fungi from weed seeds was evaluated by inoculation in plants of agronomic interest and, when pathogenic, we inoculated them in the host plant of the fungus. Weed seeds have been identified in fungi of the genus Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Nigrospora, Papularia, Rhizopus and Pythium. The seeds of Acanthospermum australe, Bidens pilosa, Cenchrus echinatus, Digitaria horizontalis, Echinochloa crus-pavonis, Eleusine indica, Ipomoea sp., Pennisetum setosum, Sida rhombifolia, Spermacoce latifolia, Tridax procumbens and Vernonia polyanthes carry and disseminate fungi that, once inoculated, cause infection in plants of agricultural importance, such as Oryza sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays and Glycine max.(AU)


As plantas daninhas competem com culturas agrícolas por água, luz, nutrientes e espaço, além de possuírem um extenso banco de sementes. Entretanto, outra vertente a ser considerada é quanto aos poucos estudos relacionando plantas daninhas como hospedeiras de fungos fitopatogênicos. É sabido que muitos fungos, principais causadores de doenças em plantas, utilizam as sementes como meio eficiente de sobrevivência e de dispersão. Dessa forma, o trabalho objetivou avaliar a sanidade de sementes de plantas daninhas e a patogenicidade dos fungos associados às plantas de importância agrícola. As sementes foram coletadas manualmente em áreas de cerrado localizadas no município de Gurupi, Tocantins, utilizando o método blotter test para avaliação da sanidade. A incidência dos fungos foi avaliada com auxílio de microscópio estereoscópico e ótico. A patogenicidade dos fungos oriundos das sementes de plantas daninhas foi avaliada por meio da inoculação em plantas de interesse agronômico e, quando patogênico, a inoculação foi na própria planta daninha hospedeira do fungo. Foram identificados os fungos dos gêneros Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Nigrospora, Papularia, Rhizopus e Pythium. As sementes de Acanthospermum australe, Bidens pilosa, Cenchrus echinatus, Digitaria horizontalis, Echinochloa crus-pavonis, Eleusine indica, Ipomoea sp., Pennisetum setosum, Sida rhombifolia, Spermacoce latifolia, Tridax procumbens e Vernonia polyanthes transportam e disseminam fungos que, uma vez inoculados, causam infecção em plantas de importância agrícola, como Oryza sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays e Glycine max.(AU)


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/pathogenicity , Cladosporium/pathogenicity , Alternaria/pathogenicity , Plant Weeds , Fungi/pathogenicity , Plant Diseases , Oryza , Soybeans , Zea mays , Phaseolus , Vigna , Fusarium/pathogenicity
8.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 32(1): 1-8, jun. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868818

ABSTRACT

La apertura de nuevos mercados para los productos hidrobiológicos chilenos ha impuesto el análisis del estatus sanitario de cámaras frigoríficas donde estos productos son almacenados. Para medir el estatus sanitario, la Unión Econó- mica Euroasiática (UEE) exige un recuento total de mohos e identificación de los géneros Cladosporium y Thamnidium en paredes y ambiente de las cámaras frigoríficas. Poco se sabe sobre los niveles de contaminación de mohos en cámaras frigoríficas de productos de exportación en Chile. Aquí, los resultados de 88 análisis de mohos en paredes y aire, realizados a 24 empresas diferentes que poseen cámaras frigoríficas conteniendo productos hidrobiológicos, son mostrados. El recuento total de mohos y el número de colonias de Cladosporium spp. y Thamnidium spp. fueron determinados. Además, los niveles de contaminación por mohos fueron comparados entre plantas procesadoras de alimentos y empresas frigoríficas. Thamnidium spp. no fue encontrado en ninguno de los análisis realizados. Los resultados indican que los niveles de contaminación por mohos son aceptables para la UEE. Este es el primer reporte de niveles de contaminación de mohos en cámaras frigoríficas de productos hidrobiológicos en el sur de Chile.


The opening of new markets for Chilean hydrobiological products had imposed the analysis of the sanitary status of frigorific chambers where those products are kept. To measure the sanitary status, the Euroasiatic Economical Union (EEU) requires a total mould count and identification of Cladosporium and Thamnidium in walls and air of the frigorific chambers. Little is known about contamination levels of moulds in frigorific chambers of export products in Chile. Here, the results of 88 mould analyses in walls and air, performed to 24 different enterprises that possess frigorific chambers containing hydrobiological products, are shown. Total mould count and Cladosporium spp. and Thamnidium spp. colony number were determined. Additionally the levels of moulds contamination were compared between food-processing plants and frigorific enterprises. Thamnidium spp. was not found in any of the analyses performed. The results indicate that levels of moulds contamination are acceptable to the EEU. This is the first report of mould contamination levels in frigorific chambers of hydrobiological products from south of Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Seafood/microbiology , Cladosporium/isolation & purification , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Frozen Foods , Fungi/pathogenicity , Chile , Extraction and Processing Industry , Food Quality
9.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 31(2): 1-8, dic. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868811

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: la fitoterapia es una de las más antiguas prácticas utilizadas por la humanidad. Hasta mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se introdujeron los medicamentos, la formulación de estos generalmente era basada en plantas medicinales. Objetivos: Determinar la micobiota y los niveles de aflatoxinas originadas de Aspergillus sección Flavi aislados de las 50 muestras de medicamentos fitoterápicos comercializados actualmente en la ciudad de São Paulo, Brasil. Métodos: Cincuenta (50) muestras de medicamentos fitoterápicos en la forma de hojas (té-25) y cápsulas (25) fueron colectadas de agosto de 2000 a julio de 2001. Los hongos filamentosos aislados fueron identificados al nivel de género de acuerdo con las características morfológicas y criterios taxonómicos. El análisis de aflatoxinas fue realizada por cromatografía de capa fina (TLC). Resultados: El análisis microbiológico mostró que 41 (82 por ciento) de los medicamentos fitoterápicos presentaron un crecimiento fúngico sobre las 100 UFC/g. Un total de 106 especies de seis diferentes géneros fueron aislados (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor, Rhizopus y Alternaria). El género Aspergillus fue el predominante (60.5 por ciento) seguido por Penicillium (20,0 por ciento). Aspergillus niger (30 por ciento) A. flavus (22 por ciento), A. fumigatus (6,5 por ciento) y A. parasiticus fueron las especies de Aspergillus identificadas. Se observó que 13 (56,5 por ciento), de los 23 A. flavus aislados y dos aislados de A. parasiticus produjeron aflatoxinas. Conclusiones: La contaminación observada en la mayoría de los productos y el alto nivel de cepas productoras de aflatoxinas justifica un análisis más cuidadoso de los medicamentos fitoterápicos comercializados y la aplicación de leyes más rigurosas son necesarias para garantizar la calidad de los productos.


Background: phytotherapy is one of the most ancient practices used by humanity. In Antiquity until the middle of the XIX century, when chemotherapeutic drugs were introduced, formulation of medicines was usually based on medicinal plants. Objective: To determine mycobiota and levels of Aspergillus section Flavi aflatoxins isolated from 50 samples of phytotherapeutic remedies currently commercialized in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Fifty (50) samples of phytotherapeutic remedies in the form of leaves (teas-25) and powders (capsules-25) were collected from August 2000 to July 2001. Filamentous fungi isolates were identified at the genera level in accordance with morphological characteristics and taxonomic criteria. Aflatoxins were performed by Thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Results: The microbiological analysis showed that 41 (82 percent) of phytotherapeutic remedies presented a fungal growth over 100 CFU/g. A total of 106 species of six different genera were isolated (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor, Rhizopus and Alternaria). The genus Aspergillus was the predominant (60.5 percent) followed by Penicillium genus (20.0 percent). Aspergillus niger (30 percent) A. flavus (22 percent), A. fumigatus (6.5 percent) and A. parasiticus were the species of Aspergillus identified. It was observed that 13 (56.5 percent) of 23 A. flavus isolates and two A. parasiticus isolates produced aflatoxins. Conclusions: The contamination observed in most products and the high level of aflatoxigenic strains justify the concern regarding the execution of more careful analyzes of the commercialized phytotherapeutic remedies and the application of more rigorous laws that may warrant the quality of these products.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins , Aspergillus flavus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus flavus/growth & development , Aspergillus flavus/pathogenicity , Mycotoxins , Plants, Medicinal/microbiology , Brazil , Chromatography, Thin Layer/methods , Fungi/classification , Fungi/pathogenicity , Mycobiome , Phytotherapeutic Drugs , Quality Control
10.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 31(2): 51-58, dic. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868816

ABSTRACT

Se reporta un caso clínico de una paciente femenina de 41 años, con antecedentes de leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) en remisión. Estudiada por hematología, se confirmó recaída de LMA M4. Se inició quimioterapia. La paciente evolucionó con pancitopenia severa. Presentó dos episodios de neutropenia febril, el primero fue asociado a un absceso glúteo que se trató con antibacterianos, y el segundo a compromiso rinosinusal y úlcera necrótica de punta nasal, columela, tabique, cornete inferior izquierdo y paladar duro. Debido a la clínica e imá- genes radiológicas, se sospechó mucormicosis, por lo que se realizó cirugía con debridación extensa y se inició tratamiento antimicótico con anfotericina B desoxicolato. El cultivo de tejido informó abundante desarrollo de Mucor hiemalis. Se mantuvo pancitopénica durante aproximadamente un mes, siendo diariamente evaluada por un equipo multidisciplinario. Se hicieron varios aseos quirúrgicos, en el último se encontró tejido vital. La paciente completó diez días con anfotericina B desoxicolato y posteriormente se hizo traslape a posaconazol oral. Se realizó mielograma de control que evidenció remisión completa de recaída de LMA. Se dio de alta a su domicilio al día 40 de hospitalización, con hemograma adecuado y tratamiento oral con posaconazol para completar 6 semanas en total.


We report a case of a 41-years-old female patient with a history of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in remission. Hematology studies confirmed relapse of AML M4. Chemotherapy was started. The patient developed severe pancytopenia. She presented two episodes of febrile neutropenia, the first one was associated with a gluteal abscess that was treated with antibacterials, and the second to rhinosinusal involvement and necrotic ulcer of nasal tip, columella, septum, left inferior turbinate and hard palate. Due to clinical and radiological imaging, mucormycosis was suspected, so surgery was performed with extensive debridement and antifungal treatment with amphotericin B deoxicholate was initiated. Tissue culture reported abundant development of Mucor hiemalis. She remained pancytopenic for approximately one month, being evaluated daily by a multidisciplinary team. Several surgical were made, finding vital tissue in the last perform. The patient completed ten days with amphotericin B deoxicholate and later was overlapped to oral posaconazole. A control myelogram was performed, showing complete remission of AML. She was discharged to her home at day 40 of hospitalization, with adequate blood count and oral treatment with posaconazole to complete 6 weeks in total.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Female , Amphotericin B , Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Mucor/pathogenicity , Mucormycosis/surgery , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Paranasal Sinuses/surgery , Paranasal Sinuses/microbiology , Antifungal Agents , Debridement/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Hematologic Diseases , Fungi/pathogenicity , Risk Factors , Tomography, Spiral Computed/methods
11.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(4): 347-357, dic. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041772

ABSTRACT

El hongo Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid., agente causal de la enfermedad denominada «pudrición carbonosa¼, provoca pérdidas significativas en la producción de cultivos como maíz, sorgo, soya y frijol en México. Este hongo, parásito facultativo, muestra amplia capacidad de adaptación a ambientes estresantes, donde existen altas temperaturas y deficiencia hídrica, condiciones frecuentes en gran parte de la agricultura de dicho país. En este trabajo se describen algunos aspectos básicos de la etiología y la epidemiología de M. phaseolina. Asimismo, se revisa la importancia que guardan las respuestas de este hongo a ambientes estresantes, particularmente la deficiencia hídrica, de acuerdo con caracteres morfológicos y del crecimiento, así como fisiológicos, bioquímicos y de patogenicidad. Finalmente, se presentan algunas perspectivas de estudio del género, que enfatizan la necesidad de mejorar su conocimiento, con base en la aplicación de herramientas tradicionales y de biotecnología, y de dilucidar mecanismos de tolerancia al estrés ambiental, extrapolables a otros microorganismos útiles al hombre.


Fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is the causative agent of charcoal rot disease which causes significant yield losses in major crops such as maize, sorghum, soybean and common beans in Mexico. This fungus is a facultative parasite which shows broad ability to adapt itself to stressed environments where water deficits and/or high temperature stresses commonly occur. These environmental conditions are common for most cultivable lands throughout Mexico. Here we describe some basic facts related to the etiology and epidemiology of the fungus as well as to the importance of responses to stressed environments, particularly to water deficits, based on morphology and growth traits, as well as on physiology, biochemistry and pathogenicity of fungus M. phaseolina. To conclude, we show some perspectives related to future research into the genus, which emphasize the increasing need to improve the knowledge based on the application of both traditional and biotechnological tools in order to elucidate the mechanisms of resistance to environmental stress which can be extrapolated to other useful organisms to man.


Subject(s)
Adaptation , Environment , Crop Production/economics , Fungi/growth & development , Fungi/physiology , Fungi/pathogenicity , Stress, Physiological/physiology
12.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 30(1): 34-37, jun. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868799

ABSTRACT

Las demoliciones, construcciones y/o remodelaciones pueden provocar infecciones intrahospitalarias en pacientes con factores de riesgos, especialmente aspergilosis pulmonar. En la presente guia se describen algunas medidas que pueden ayudar a mitigar estas infecciones en los distintos recintos hospitalarios.


Demolitions, constructions and renovations can produce nosocomial infections in patients with risk factors, specially lung aspergillosis. The following guide describes some actions that could help in the mitigation of these infections in the different hospitals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aspergillus/pathogenicity , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host , Infection Control Services, Hospital , Cross Infection/etiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Construction Wastes , Fungi/pathogenicity , Opportunistic Infections , Sanitary Specifications
13.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 29(2): 35-45, dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868789

ABSTRACT

Los líquenes son los hongos que establecen una relación simbiótica con un alga o cianobacteria. En esta simbiosis se producen por parte del hongo, una serie de metabolitos secundarios conocidos como sustancias liquénicas; las cuales presentan una marcada actividad antibiótica. En Cuba no se tienen antecedentes sobre estudios de metabolitos liquénicos por lo que se propone; evaluar el efecto fungicida de extractos liquénicos producidos por especies cubanas así como identificar sus metabolitos. Se emplearon líquenes de diferentes zonas del país (Parmotrema dilatatum, P. tinctorum, P. praesorediosum P. cristiferum, Ramalina americana, Cladonia ceratophylla y Cladonia portentosa spp. pacífica), a los cuales se les extrajo con acetona, las sustancias liquénicas almacenadas en el talo. Los extractos fueron probados contra los hongos fitopatógenos Rhizoctonia solani y Phythophtora nicotianae; por el método de envenenamiento del medio de cultivo agar papa dextrosa a concentraciones de: 0,01 por ciento; 0,03 por ciento y 0,07 por ciento. Se utilizó un control negativo de dimetilsufóxido al 0,07 por ciento y se determinaron los porcentajes de inhibición, cuyos resultados fueron analizados estadísticamente. Los metabolitos secundarios presentes en los extractos se identificaron por cromatografía de capa fina (TLC). Exceptuando el extracto liquénico de P. cristiferum, todos los demás mostraron más de un 50 por ciento de inhibición del crecimiento de ambos hongos a la concentración de 0,07 por ciento, mientras que a las restantes concentraciones los valores fueron variados con diferencias significativas con respecto al control. Se lograron identificar tres metabolitos liquénicos: metil 2‘-O- metilmicrofilinato, 4-O-Demetilmicrofilinico y el ácido ramaniloico.


Lichens are fungi that establish a symbiotic relationship with an alga or cyanobacterium. This symbiosis produced by the fungus, a series of secondary metabolites known as lichen substances; which show a strong antibiotic activity. In Cuba there is no background on the studies above lichen metabolites so it is proposed; evaluate the fungicidal activity of lichen extracts produced by Cuban species and to identify metabolites. Lichens from different areas of the country (Parmotrema dilatatum, P. tinctorum, P.praesorediosum, P. cristiferum, Ramalina americana, Cladonia ceratophylla and Cladonia portentosa spp. pacífica), to which it extracted with acetone, the lichen substances stored in tallus. The extracts were tested against the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Phythophtora nicotianae; poisoning by the method of culture medium potato dextrose agar at concentrations of 0.01 percent; 0.03 percent and 0.07 percent. A negative control to 0.07 percent dimethylsulfoxide was used and the percentage of inhibition, the results were analyzed statistically determined. Secondary metabolites present in the extracts were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Except P. cristiferum lichen extract, all others showed more than 50 percent growth inhibition of both fungi at concentration of 0.07 percent, while the remaining concentrations were varied values with significant differences from the control. Was made to identify three lichen metabolites metilmicrofilinato 2‘ methyl-O, 4-ODemetilmicrofilinico and ramaniloico acid.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Fungal/isolation & purification , Antigens, Fungal/analysis , Lichens/metabolism , Lichens/chemistry , Acetone , Agar , Antifungal Agents , Cuba , Culture Media , Chromatography, Agarose/methods , Fungi/pathogenicity , Poisoning
14.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 29(1): 2-17, jul. 2014. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-716830

ABSTRACT

Actualmente el estudio de la concentración fúngica en ambientes interiores es de interés para los especialistas, pues los hongos pueden causar el biodeterioro de colecciones valiosas y resultan peligrosos para la salud humana ya que provocan alergias y otras enfermedades al hombre que está en contacto con ellos. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar microbiológicamente el ambiente de la Mapoteca del Archivo Nacional de la República de Cuba y el polvo depositado sobre el mobiliario que conserva los mapas y planos en ese local. El estudio se ejecutó en un mes lluvioso y el muestreo microbiológico del aire se realizó empleando un método de sedimentación mientras que el polvo se colectó por aspiración. Los hongos se aislaron en medios de cultivo adecuados y los análisis se realizaron por triplicado. La concentración fúngica detectada en el aire fue inferior a las 750 UFC.m-3, por lo que el local se consideró POCO CONTAMINADO mientras en el polvo fue del orden de 105 UFC.g-1. Se detectaron los géneros Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Humicola, Epicoccum, Penicillium, Pestalotia y Trichoderma. Algunas de las especies fúngicas detectadas en el aire del local poseen importancia para el biodeterioro y la salud humana. Se reportan nuevos registros para el Archivo Nacional de la República de Cuba consistente en tres géneros (Epicoccum Link, Humicola Traaen y Pestalotia Not.), cuatro especies de Aspergillus Nees ex Fr. (A. alliaceus Thom y Church., A. auricomus (Gueren) Saito., A. ostianus Wehmer y A. chevalieri (Mangin) Thom y Church.), una especie de Cladosporium Link ex Fr. (C. caryigenum Ellis y Lang.), dos especies de Penicillium Link (P. canescens Sopp., P. janczewskii K.M. Zalessky) y una de Curvularia Boedijn (C. australiensis Manamgoda, Cai y Hyde).


Currently the study of indoor fungal concentration is of interest for specialists, because the fungi cause the biodeterioration of the valuable collections and they are dangerous to human health as they cause allergies and other diseases to man who is in touch with them. The objectives were to evaluate the microbiological environment of Map Library of National Archive of the Republic of Cuba and the dust deposited on the furniture that keeps the maps and plans in this local. The study was carried out in a rainy month, microbial air sampling was performed using a sedimentation method and the powder was collected by manual vacuum aspiration. The fungi were isolated in suitable culture media and analyzes were performed by triplicate. The fungal concentration was detected in the air below the 750 CFU.m-3, so that the place was considered slightly contaminated while the dust was around 105 CFU.g-1. The fungal genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Humicola, Epicoccum, Penicillium, Pestalotia and Trichoderma were detected. Some fungal species detected in the repository air have importance for human health and biodeterioration. New records to the National Archives of the Republic of Cuba are reported consists of three genera (Epicoccum Link, Humicola Traaen, Pestalotia Not.), four species of Aspergillus Nees ex Fr. (A. alliaceus Thom & Church., A. auricomus (Gueren) Saito., A. ostianus Wehmer. and A. chevalieri (Mangin) Thom y Church), one species of Cladosporium Link ex Fr. (C. caryigenum Ellis & Lang.), two species of Penicillium Link (P. canescens Sopp., P. janczewskii K.M. Zalessky) and one of Curvularia Boedijn (C. australiensis Manamgoda, Cai & Hyde .


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Dust , Humidity , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/growth & development , Fungi/pathogenicity , Maps as Topic , Particulate Matter/analysis , Temperature , Cuba , Environmental Microbiology
15.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 81(2): 126-133, abr.-jun. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1004989

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a patogenicidade, em condições de laboratório, de 49 isolados dos fungos entomopatogênicos das espécies Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae, contra lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda. Lagartas de 3o ínstar foram imersas em suspensões de 1 × 109 conídios/mL de cada um dos isolados por 10 segundos. Posteriormente, foram individualizadas em placas de Petri com dieta artificial, sendo incubadas a 26 ± 1°C e 12 horas de fotofase, e avaliadas, diariamente, durante dez dias. Os isolados de B. bassian amostraram-se mais eficientes, com destaque para o Unioeste 26, que provocou 44,5% de mortalidade e gerou a maior quantidade de conídios nos testes de produção do fungo. Apesar da porcentagem de mortalidade baixa, tais estudos evidenciam potencial dos fungos entomopatogênicos como promissores agentes de controle de S. frugiperda.(AU)


This study aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity, under laboratory conditions, of 49 isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Insects (3rd instar caterpillars) were immersed in 1 × 109 conidia/mL suspensions of each of the isolates for 10 seconds. After that, caterpillars were individually placed in Petri dishes with artificial diet and incubated at 26 ± 1°C and 12 hours of photophase, and they were evaluated daily for ten days. The B. bassiana isolates were more efficient, mainly Unioeste 26 strain, which reached 44.5% mortality and generated the greatest number of conidia in production testing of the fungus. Despite the low mortality percentage, these studies showed the potential of entomopathogenic fungi as promising agents for the control of S. frugiperda.(AU)


Subject(s)
Spodoptera , Beauveria/pathogenicity , Fungi/pathogenicity , Pest Control , Metarhizium/pathogenicity
16.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 28(2): 48-52, dic. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708086

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La queratitits micótica puede ser provocada por una amplia variedad de especies, tanto por hongos filamentosos como levaduras. Objetivo: Conocer las especies involucradas en queratitits micótica durante el decenio 2003-2013 en la ciudad de Valparaíso. Materiales y método: Se revisaron los casos de queratitis micótica diagnosticados durante el periodo 2003-2013 en la cátedra de Micología de la Universidad de Valparaíso. Las muestras fueron tomadas con tórulas estériles, las cuales fueron sembradas en agar sabouraud y una vez obtenido el desarrollo de las especies se traspasaron a medios de cultivo especiales. La identificación se realizó por morfofisiología y en el caso de Candida además por pruebas bioquímicas. Resultados: Se diagnosticaron 10 pacientes con queratitis micótica, de ellos 6 fueron hombres. 8 pacientes tenían el antecedente de lesión traumática corneal. Las especies más frecuentes fueron Aspergillus fumigatus y Fusarium oxysporum. También se aislaron especies como Fusarium dimerumy Exophiala jeanselmei. Conclusión: De los 10 casos de queratitis micótica diagnosticados, la mayoría tenía el antecedente de lesión traumática corneal. Los géneros más aislados fueron Aspergillus y Fusarium.


Introduction: Fungal keratitis can be caused by a wide variety of species, either filamentous as yeast fungi. Objective: To determine the species involved in fungal keratitis during the decade 2003-2013 in the city of Valparaiso. Materials and Methods: The cases of fungal keratitis diagnosed in the depar tment of Mycology, University of Valparaiso, were reviewed for the period 2003-2013. Samples were taken with sterile swabs, which were seeded in Sabouraud agar and after obtaining the development of species, were transferred to special culture media. Identification was performed by morphophysiology and in the case of Candida further biochemical tests. Results: 10 patients were diagnosed with fungal keratitis, of which 6 were men. 8 patients had a history of traumatic corneal injury. The most frequent species were Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum. Species Fusarium dimerum and Exophiala jeanselmei were also isolated. Conclusion: Of the 10 cases of fungal keratitis diagnosed, most had a history of traumatic corneal injury. The most isolated genus were Aspergillus and Fusarium.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Agar , Aspergillus fumigatus/pathogenicity , Candida , Candida/pathogenicity , Cornea/microbiology , Cornea/pathology , Fusarium/pathogenicity , Keratitis/diagnosis , Keratitis/microbiology , Chile , Environment , Fungi/pathogenicity
17.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 28(2): 58-70, dic. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708088

ABSTRACT

En estas notas micológicas, se comentan los aspectos taxonómicos, ecológicos fisiológicos y moleculares de 2 especies fúngicas filamentosas oportunistas en humanos tales como: Tritirachium oryzae y Paecilomyces formosus, poco conocidas en su distribución en Chile. Almismo tiempo se aportan datos recientes de la literatura referentes a la distribución y patología de los nuevos integrantes de de la sección Fumigati de Aspergillus, con énfasis en el complejo A. viridinutans, un grupo de especiemorfológicamente similares y generalmente oportunista en humanos y animales, las cuales no han sido biendefinidas en la últimas décadas.


In these notes, taxonomic, ecological, physiological and molecular aspects are discussed of two opportunisticfilamentous fungal species in humans, such as Tritirachium oryzae and Paecilomyces formosus, little known in its distribution in Chile. While recent literature data concerning the distribution and pathology of the newmembers of the Aspergillus section Fumigati contribute, emphasizing the complex A. viridinutans, a group ofmorphologically similar species and generally opportunistic in humans and animals did, which have not been welldefined in recent decades.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aspergillus fumigatus , Fungi/classification , Fungi/physiology , Fungi/pathogenicity , Mycoses , Chile
18.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 27(1): 8-17, jul. 2012. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-679648

ABSTRACT

Se condujo una investigación en el Trópico Húmedo Ecuatoriano (THE), dirigida a encontrar un método eficiente para evaluar la resistencia genética en árboles de Schizolobium parahybum (pachaco) frente al complejo Ceratocystis: C. paradoxa, C. moniliformis, y C. fimbriata. Se estudiaron dos métodos basados en el empleo de dos tipos de tejidos vegetales: a) tejidos de ramas laterales, y 2) tejidos de corteza fustal. Se emplearon cinco rodales de pachaco, tres de los cuales son considerados de introducción original de la especie forestal al THE desde la amazonía, y dos que son descendientes de los primeros. Los resultados permitieron definir que el método basado en tejidos de corteza fustal, fue el más eficiente y logísticamente viable. La metodología final aplicada, consistió en extraer corteza desde árboles adultos, reducirla a secciones pequeñas de 1,5 cm x 4 cm (6 cm2) y mantenerlas en una cámara húmeda durante 96 horas. Una vez distribuidas las secciones de corteza, se inocularon con 0,45mL-1 de una suspensión calibrada a razón de 30.000 unidades de infección (ascosporas, conidias y micelio). Para la evaluación, se empleó una escala arbitraria de 0 a 4 que permitió estimar el crecimiento de micelio y número de peritecios para cada uno de los hongos. Esta metodología permitió discriminar entre árboles: resistentes (0,0 a 1,0), moderadamente resistentes (1,1 a 2,0), susceptibles (2,1 a 3,0), y muy susceptibles (3,1 a 4,0), lo cual la hace viable para futuros trabajos de selección de individuos y mejoramiento genético de la especie.


A research was conducted in the Humid Tropics of Ecuador (THE), aimed at finding an efficient method to evaluate genetic resistance in Schizolobium parahybum (Pachaco) trees against Ceratocystis complex: C. paradoxa, C. moniliformis and C. fimbriata. We studied two methods based on the use of two types of plant tissues: a) tissue of lateral branches, and 2) stem bark tissues. Five forest of pachaco were used, three of which are considered original introduction of forestry specie to THE from the Amazon, and two who are descendants of the former. The results allowed to define the method based on stem bark tissue was the most efficient and logistically feasible. The final methodology applied, consisted in to remove bark from mature trees, reducing it to small sections of 1.5 cm x 4 cm (6cm2) and maintained in a moist chamber for 96 hours. Once distributed the sections of bark, were inoculated with 0.45mL-1 of a suspension calibrated at a rate of 30.000 units of infection (ascospores, conidia and mycelium). For evaluation, we used an arbitrary scale from 0 to 4, which allowed to estimate the growth of mycelium and perithecia number for each of the fungi. This methodology allows us to discriminate between trees: resistant (0.0 to 1.0), moderately resistant (1.1 to 2.0), susceptible (2.1 to 3.0), and very susceptible (3.1 to 4 , 0), which makes it viable for future selection of individuals and breeding of the forest species.


Subject(s)
Actinomycetales Infections , Trees/growth & development , Trees/genetics , Trees/microbiology , Fabaceae/growth & development , Fabaceae/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/pathogenicity , Mycelium , Spores, Fungal , Ecuador
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(2): 449-455, Apr.-June 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-644458

ABSTRACT

Cordyceps is a fastidious pathogenic fungus infecting insects, and recent years have witnessed rapid progress in its medical properties. In this study, a wild isolate, C. cicadae MP12, was characterized through in vitro cultivation and its nuclear small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) data. In vitro culture of C. cicadae MP12 was established by growing its fruiting bodies in a solid matrix. C. cicadae MP12 was inoculated into Cryptotympana atrata cicada pupae for in vivo culture, where the fungi developed its fruiting body as well. The contents of adenosine and cordycepin in dried fruiting bodies after culture were 1421.45µg/g and 1398.12 µg/g, respectively. Therefore, the established cultures from this study could be used for the production of various medically important metabolic substances.


Subject(s)
Animals , Adenosine/analysis , Adenosine/isolation & purification , Cordyceps/genetics , Cordyceps/isolation & purification , DNA, Ribosomal/analysis , DNA, Ribosomal/isolation & purification , Fungi/pathogenicity , In Vitro Techniques , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Enzyme Activation , Methods , Virulence
20.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 49(2): 146-152, 2012. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-687587

ABSTRACT

Os morcegos são hospedeiros de uma rica diversidade de microrganismos. Muitos trabalhos apontam uma estreitaligação entre quirópteros e fungos com potencial patogênico, principalmente por habitarem ambientes como cavernas, grutas e ocos de árvores, favoráveis à manutenção e propagação dos fungos. O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a microbiota fúngica gastrintestinal de morcegos. Das 98 amostras pertencentes a 11 espécies de morcegos procedentes de 15 cidades estudadas, 20% são da espécie Carollia perspicillata, 19% Artibeus lituratus, 17% Molossus rufus, 13% Glossophaga soricina, 9% Nyctinomops macrotis, 8% Molossus molossus, 7% Desmodus rotundus, 2% Lasiurus ega, e 1%Eptesicus furinalis, Myotis nigricans e Tadarida brasiliensis. O gênero Aspergillus sp. foi isolado de 29% das amostras, seguidos por 6% Microsporum sp. e Penicillium sp., 4% Tricophyton sp. e zigomicetos e 2% Fusarium sp. Das espécies deleveduras, 14% foram de Rhodotorula sp., 10% Candida sp. e 2% Cryptococcus sp., 22% dos isolados permaneceram sem identificação. Todos os 82 cultivos de vísceras foram negativos para Histoplasma capsulatum. Houve associação estatísticasignificativa entre os resultados do cultivo microbiológico e as espécies de morcegos (p < 0,05). Concluímos que osmorcegos podem atuar como agentes veiculadores de fungos com potencial patogênico, entretanto outros trabalhosdevem ser realizados a fim de estabelecer estratégias que permitam identificar os principais fatores correlacionados com o crescimento e a disseminação dos microrganismos na natureza e qual a implicação dos quirópteros no cicloepidemiológico.


Bats are hosts of a rich diversity of microorganisms. Many studies indicate a close link between bats and fungi with pathogenic potential, especially for living in environments such as caves, caverns and hollow trees, favorable to the maintenance and spread of fungi. The objective was to study the gastrointestinal mycoflora of bats. Of the 98 samples belonging to 11 species of bats coming from 15 studied cities, 20% of the species were Carollia perspicillata, 19% Artibeus lituratus, 17% Molossus rufus, 13% Glossophaga soricina, 9% Nyctinomops macrotis, 8% Molossus molossus, 7% Desmodus rotundus, 2% Lasiurus ega and 1% Eptesicus furinalis, Myotis nigricans and Tadarida brasiliensis. The genus Aspergillus sp. was isolated from 29% of the samples, followed by 6% Microsporum sp. and Penicillium sp. 4% Trichophyton sp. and zygomycetes and 2% Fusarium sp. Of yeast species, 14% were from Rhodotorula sp., 10% Candida sp. and 2% Cryptococcus sp., 22% of isolates remained unidentified. All 82 cultures of organs were negative for Histoplasma capsulatum. There was a statistically significant association between the results of microbiological culture and bat species (p < 0.05). We conclude that the bats can act as disperser agents of fungi with pathogenic potential, although other studies should be performed to establish strategies to identify the main factors correlated with the growth and spread of microorganisms in nature and implication of bats in the epidemiological cycle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fungi/pathogenicity , Chiroptera/classification , Gastrointestinal Tract/anatomy & histology , Zoonoses/parasitology , Ecosystem/analysis , Yeasts
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