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1.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200751, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278447

ABSTRACT

Abstract The unconscious use of pesticides causes various adverse effects on non-target organisms, including humans. Enzymes that control metabolism become the target of the pesticide and the organs are damaged due to toxic effects. Glutathione s-transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18), an important enzyme of the detoxification mechanism and antioxidant defense system, can be affected by such toxic substances. Therefore, the effect of fenarimol on GST enzyme activity was investigated in our study. For this, 200 mg/kg fenarimol was administered intraperitoneally to male and female rats at different periods (2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 72 hours). After application, GST enzyme activity was analysed in the liver, kidney, brain and small intestine tissues of the rats. According to our results, activation (liver, kidney, small intestine) or inhibition (brain) of the generally GST enzyme was observed in the tissues of rats exposed to fenarimol. It is thought that the increase and/or decrease in this enzyme activity may be the cause of the toxic effect of fenarimol.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pesticides/adverse effects , Glutathione S-Transferase pi , Enzyme Activation , Fungicides, Industrial/adverse effects
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879040

ABSTRACT

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provided is beneficial to Salvia miltiorrhiza for increasing yield, promoting the accumulation of active ingredients, and alleviating S. miltiorrhiza disease etc. However, the application of fungicides will affect the benefit of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and there is little research about it. This article study the effect of four different fungicides: carbendazim, polyoxin, methyl mopazine, and mancozeb on mycorrhiza benefit to S. miltiorrhiza by the infection intensity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the growth of S. miltiorrhiza, and the content of active ingredients. RESULTS:: showed that different fungicides had different effects. The application of mancozeb had the strongest inhibitory effect on the mycorrhizal benefit to S. miltiorrhiza. Mancozeb significantly reduced the mycorrhizal colonization and the beneficial effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and the accumulation of active components of S. miltiorrhiza. The application of polyoxin had no significant effect on mycorrhizal colonization. Instead, it had a synergistic effect with the mycorrhizal benefit to promoting the growth and accumulation of rosmarinic acid of S. miltiorrhiza. The inhibitory strengths of four fungicides are: mancozeb>thiophanate methyl, carbendazim>polyoxin. Therefore, we recommend applying biological fungicides polyoxin and avoid applying chemical fungicides mancozeb for disease control during mycorrhizal cultivation of S. miltiorrhiza.


Subject(s)
Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Mycorrhizae , Plant Roots , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Symbiosis
3.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: 0702018, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1096038

ABSTRACT

Currently, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity has been reduced by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (Fop), the causative agent of Fusarium wilt. Considering the integrated management of diseases, the objectives of the present work were to verify the compatibility between chemical and biological fungicides for Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. phaseoli Kendrick & Snyder (Fop) control in common bean seeds. In laboratory, the effects of the treatments were evaluated by sanity, germination, seedling total length and seedling dry matter tests. In greenhouse conditions, the emergence speed rate, the percentage of emergence and the rate of pathogen transmission through the pathogen infestation in a substrate to plants were evaluated. Common bean seeds BRS Estilo were artificially inoculated with Fop isolate (IAC 11.299-1). In the seeds' treatment, the chemical fungicides fludyoxonyl, flutriafol, methyl tiofanate, and biological products of Trichoderma sp. (isolates SF04, GF 422 and strain 1306), separately and mixed, were used. Treatments that promoted the best pathogen control in seeds were the combination of methyl tiophanate with biological products. Both flutriafol and GF 422 isolated and in mixed treatments affected the seeds' physiological quality. The protective effect of the products was noted in the transmission test, whose Fop incidence was from 5 to 40% in the hypocotyl and from 5 to 30% in common bean roots.(AU)


Atualmente, a produtividade do feijão comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) foi reduzida pelo fungo Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ­phaseoli (Fop), o agente causador da murcha de Fusarium. Considerando o manejo integrado de doenças, os objetivos do presente trabalho foram verificar a compatibilidade entre fungicidas químicos e biológicos para Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. phaseoli Kendrick & Snyder (Fop) em sementes de feijão. Em laboratório, foram avaliados os efeitos dos tratamentos pelos testes de sanidade, germinação, comprimento total de plântulas e matéria seca de plântulas. Em uma estufa, foram avaliadas a velocidade de emergência, a porcentagem de emergência e a taxa de transmissão de patógenos através da infestação de patógenos no substrato às plantas. As sementes de feijão comum BRS Estilo foram inoculadas artificialmente com isolado Fop (IAC 11.299-1). No tratamento das sementes, foram utilizados os fungicidas químicos fludioxoxil, flutriafol, tiofanato metílico e produtos biológicos de Trichoderma sp. (isolados SF04, GF 422 e cepa 1306), separadamente e misturados. Os tratamentos que promoveram o melhor controle de patógenos nas sementes foram a combinação de tiofanato de metila com produtos biológicos. Tanto o flutriafol quanto o GF 422 isolados e em tratamentos com misturas afetaram a qualidade fisiológica das sementes. O efeito protetor dos produtos foi observado no teste de transmissão, cuja incidência de Fop foi de 5 a 40% no hipocótilo e de 5 a 30% nas raízes do feijão comum.(AU)


Subject(s)
Seeds , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Fungicides, Industrial , Fusarium/pathogenicity , Fabaceae , Trichoderma , Pest Control
4.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0472019, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1145883

ABSTRACT

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, is one of the most important diseases of tomato crop in Brazil. Several alternatives to fungicides have been evaluated in search for products that control this disease and have low environmental impact and toxicity to living beings. In this context, the use of Trichoderma spp. is an alternative to agrochemicals, since they are bioregulators and antagonists of several phytopathogens. This work aimed to evaluate the antagonistic and mycoparasitory action of the Trichodermil 1306 biofungicide against F. oxysporum, and its action in the control of fusarium wilt in tomato seeds and seedlings. The biofungicide was used at concentrations of 0, 50, 100, and 150% of the dose recommended for application of 20 L with a backpack sprayer. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with five replications. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and mean compared by Tukey's test at 5% probability. The 100% Trichodermil concentration was the most efficient for treating tomato seeds. Although this concentration did not show differences in relation to the lowest dose used (50%) in the tomato seed antagonism, mycoparasitism and F. oxysporum incidence tests were recommended because that the lowest concentration resulted in 18% lower root protrusion than that observed with 100% dosage. The in vitro antagonistic and mycoparasitory action of this biological fungicide indicates its potential in the control of fusarium wilt in tomato crops.(AU)


A murcha-de-fusário, causada por Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, é uma das mais importantes doenças da cultura do tomate no Brasil. Várias alternativas aos fungicidas têm sido avaliadas na busca de produtos que controlem a doença e tenham baixo impacto ambiental e toxicidade aos seres vivos. Nesse contexto, o uso de Trichoderma spp. é uma alternativa a agrotóxicos, pois são biorreguladores e antagonistas de vários fitopatógenos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a ação antagonista e micoparasitória do biofungicida Trichodermil 1306 em F. oxysporum, e no controle da murcha-de-fusário em sementes e mudas de tomate. O biofungicida foi utilizado nas concentrações de 0, 50, 100 e 150% da dose recomendada para aplicação com pulverizador costal de 20 L. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. A concentração de Trichodermil 100% foi a mais eficaz para o tratamento de sementes de tomateiro. Embora essa concentração não tenha se diferenciado da menor dosagem utilizada (50%) para os testes de antagonismo, micoparasitismo e incidência de F. oxysporum em mudas de tomate, sua recomendação se justifica pelo fato da menor concentração ter propiciado protrusão radicular 18% menor do que a observada na concentração de 100%. A ação antagonista e micoparasitória in vitro do fungicida biológico testado no presente estudo indica potencialidade de uso para o controle de murcha-de-fusário em tomateiro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Trichoderma , Pest Control , Lycopersicon esculentum , Fusarium/pathogenicity , Seeds , In Vitro Techniques , Agrochemicals , Agricultural Pests , Environment , Environmental Pollution , Toxicity , Fungicides, Industrial/toxicity , Mycoses
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878294

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This research was performed to evaluate the effect of tebuconazole (TBZ) on reproductive organs of male rats and to assess the protective role of combined essential trace elements in alleviating the detrimental effect of TBZ on male reproductive function.@*Methods@#For this purpose, 48 rats were exposed to 100 mg/kg TBZ, TBZ supplemented with zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe), TBZ + (Se + Zn); TBZ + Cu; or TBZ + Fe. The experiment was conducted for 30 consecutive days.@*Results@#TBZ caused a significant perturbation in mineral levels and reduction in reproductive organs weights, plasma testosterone level, and testicular antioxidant enzyme activities. The TBZ-treated group also showed a significant increase in sperm abnormalities (count, motility, and viability percent), plasma follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone concentrations, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and severe DNA degradation in comparison with the controls. Histopathologically, TBZ caused testis impairments. Conversely, treatment with trace elements, in combination or alone, improved the reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics, TBZ-induced toxicity, and histopathological modifications in testis.@*Conclusion@#TBZ exerts significant harmful effects on male reproductive system. The concurrent administration of trace elements reduces testis dysfunction, fertility, and toxicity induced by TBZ.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed/analysis , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Diet , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Fungicides, Industrial/adverse effects , Male , Minerals/metabolism , Mutagenicity Tests , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Spermatozoa/physiology , Testis/physiology , Trace Elements/metabolism , Triazoles/adverse effects
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1878-1885, nov./dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049152

ABSTRACT

The frequent tank mixing of phytosanitary products, adjuvants, and foliar fertilizers highlights the lack of information which sustains decisions about what products can be mixed for spray application. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides in combination with some adjuvants on the Brazilian market. The experimental design was completely randomized and spray mixes of the phytosanitary products: fungicide (azoxystrobin+benzovindiflupir), herbicide (diamônio salt of N-(phosponomethyl)) or insecticide (fenpropathrin) were evaluated in combination with adjuvants (mineral oil base, foliar fertilizer or lecithin + propionic acid), and in two application rates (95 and 52 L ha-1); all with four replications. Surface tension, electrical conductivity, pH, dynamic viscosity and density of spray mixes were evaluated. The adjuvants presented characteristics capable of significantly altering the physicochemical properties of the phytosanitary spray mixes, and thus, alter the biological effectiveness and efficiency of the spray applications. However, its effects are also dependent on the phytosanitary product added to the spray mix, which makes general recommendations a difficult task. The greatest pH reduction, as well as the greatest increase in electrical conductivity, were caused by the adjuvant lecithin + propionic acid. All phytosanitary products and adjuvants studied, associated or not, resulted in a reduction in the surface tension of the spray mix in relation to water. The magnitude of change of density and dynamic viscosity promoted by adjuvants was lower than the other characteristics evaluated.


A realização frequente de misturas em tanque de produtos fitossanitários, adjuvantes e fertilizantes foliares traz à tona a carência de informações que amparem as decisões sobre quais produtos podem ser misturados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características físicas e químicas de caldas fungicidas, herbicidas e inseticidas em combinação com alguns adjuvantes do mercado. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, sendo avaliadas diferentes caldas com o fungicida azoxistrobina+benzovindiflupir, herbicida sal de diamônio de N-(phosponomethyl) e inseticida fenpropatrina, em combinação com adjuvantes a base de óleo mineral, fertilizante foliar e lecitina de soja+ácido propiônico, considerando duas taxas de aplicação (95 e 52 L ha-1), todos os tratamentos com quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: tensão superficial, condutividade elétrica, pH, viscosidade dinâmica e densidade. Os adjuvantes apresentaram características capazes de alterar significativamente as propriedades físico-químicas das caldas fitossanitárias, podendo, assim, alterar a eficácia biológica e a eficiência das aplicações. Contudo, seu efeito também é dependente do produto fitossanitário adicionado à calda, o que dificulta generalizações. A maior redução do pH, bem como o maior aumento na condutividade elétrica da calda, foram ocasionados pelo adjuvante lecitina+ácido propiônico. Todos os produtos fitossanitários e adjuvantes, de forma associada ou não, provocaram redução na tensão superficial da calda em relação à água. A magnitude das alterações de densidade e viscosidade dinâmica promovida pelos adjuvantes foi inferior às demais características avaliadas.


Subject(s)
Pesticide Industry , Fungicides, Industrial , Herbicides , Insecticides
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(5): 1422-1431, sept./oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048985

ABSTRACT

At maximum vegetative growth, sprays with fungicide to control Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow and P. Sydow) should reach high canopy penetration and plant coverage. Therefore, the central objective of this study was to determine leaf area, spray deposition, and plant coverage by fungicides sprayed on soybeans as a function of sowing seasons and plant population densities with reduced doses of tebuconazole and azoxystrobin + cyproconazole. Field experiments were conducted in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 crop years, using a medium-cycle soybean cultivar MG/BR­46 (Conquista) under a natural infestation of Asian soybean rust. Leaf area (LA) and leaf area index (LAI) were measured at three developmental stages (V8, R2, and R4). Spray deposition and coverage were evaluated during the first fungicide spraying. As results, LAI decreased as plant population decreased. Despite the lower LAIs, smaller plant populations had no effect on spray deposition and plant coverage. Both fungicides presented similar depositions on all thirds when plants had lower development.


Para o controle da ferrugem asiática (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow & P. Sydow), quando as plantas atingem o máximo de desenvolvimento vegetativo, as pulverizações com fungicidas necessitam de alta capacidade de penetração e cobertura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a área foliar, o depósito e a cobertura de calda fungicida em soja em função de épocas de semeadura, populações de plantas e doses reduzidas de fungicidas. Experimentos de campo foram conduzidos nos anos agrícolas 2009/2010 e de 2010/2011, com a cultivar de ciclo médio MG/BR-46 (Conquista), sob infestação natural da ferrugem asiática. Nos estádios V8, R2 e R4 de desenvolvimento da cultura foram determinados a área foliar e o índice de área foliar (IAF) das plantas. As avaliações de depósito e cobertura foram realizadas no momento da primeira pulverização com os tratamentos fungicidas. Com a redução da população de plantas houve redução no IAF. Os depósitos e coberturas da calda aplicada não apresentaram aumento com a redução da população de plantas, apesar dos menores IAF. Os tratamentos fungicidas com tebuconazol e com azoxystrobina + ciproconazol apresentaram deposições semelhantes em todos os terços das plantas quando as plantas apresentaram menor desenvolvimento.


Subject(s)
Soybeans , Phakopsora pachyrhizi , Fungicides, Industrial
8.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(1): 42-54, jan./fev. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048559

ABSTRACT

O trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) é um cereal com grande importância econômica ecapacidade produtiva. Porém, é sujeito ao ataque de várias doenças o que demanda o uso de fungicidas durante o ciclo. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a qualidade fisiológica e presença de aflatoxina em sementes de trigo quando tratadas com concentrações de fungicidas durante o desenvolvimento da cultura. Plantas da cultivar Mirante foram cultivadas com aplicação foliar de fungicidas com princípios ativos estrobilurina e triazol, adicionando-se adjuvante foliar. Após a colheita, avaliou-se o grau de umidade das sementes, porcentagem de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, deterioração controlada, teste de frio,emergência em areia, condutividade elétrica e presença de aflatoxinas. Os resultados mostraram que a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes de trigo não foi influenciada pelo uso dos fungicidas testados. As sementes apresentaram elevado índice de germinação e emergência de plântulas, mesmo quando submetidas a condições de estresse.


Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a cereal of great economic importance and productive capacity. However, it is subject to attack by various diseases, which requires the use of fungicides during the cycle. Thus, this study aimed to verify the physiological quality and presence of aflatoxin in wheat seeds when treated with concentrations of fungicides during the development of the crop. Plants of the cultivar Mirante were grown with foliar application of fungicides with active principles strobilurin and triazole, adding leaf adjuvant. After harvesting, the moisture content of the seeds, percentage of germination, accelerated aging, controlled deterioration, cold testing, sand emergence, electrical conductivity and the presence of aflatoxins were evaluated. The results showed that the physiological and sanitary quality of wheat seeds was not influenced by the use of the tested fungicides. The seeds showed a high rate of germination and seedling emergence, even when subjected to stress conditions. importanceimˈpôrtns Traduções de importance SubstantivoFrequência aimportância importance, significance, matter, value, amount, import ovalor value, amount, worth, valuation, importance, merit oalcance reach, range, scope, extent, power, importance ainfluência influence, leverage, hold, power, weight, importance aconsideração consideration, account, regard, respect, thought, importance aconseqüência consequence, result, outcome, effect, aftermath, importance Definições de importance Substantivo 1 the state or fact of being of great significance or value. On the whole it is clear that my field trip was of huge importance for my research. Sinônimos: powerinfluenceauthorityswayweightimpactdominanceprominenceeminencepreeminenceprestigenotabilityworthstaturecloutpullsignificancemomentousnessimportconsequencenotenoteworthinesssubstanceseriousnessgravityweightinessurgency Exemplos de importance Music lost its importance and he even sold some of his guitars to pay for his habit. +28 exemplos Sinônimos de importance Substantivo powersignificancegrandness +25 sinônimos


Subject(s)
Triticum , Aflatoxins , Fungicides, Industrial , Seeds , Germination
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773135

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to clarify the toxicity indoor and inhibition effect of biocontrol strain NJ13 and its mixture with chemical fungicides against Fusarium solani causing ginseng root rot. The method of mycelial growth rate and Sun Yunpei method were used to determine the indoor toxicity and co-toxicity coefficient of strain NJ13 and their mixture with chemical pesticides against F. solani. The dual culture assay method,mixed culture method and microscopic observation were used to determine the sporulation and germination of spores and mycelial growth and morphological change of hyphae of F. solani treated by strain NJ13. The results of toxicity indoor showed that strain NJ13 had the best inhibitory effect on pathogen,and its EC_(50) value was 0. 071 mg·L~(-1). It was all synergistic for antifungal effect that strain NJ13 was mixed with propiconazole and difenoconazole respectively with a range from 1 ∶4 to 4 ∶1( volume ratio). Both of optimal ratios were 1 ∶1,and the co-toxicity coefficients were 848. 70 and 859. 73,respectively. The strain NJ13 could inhibit the sporulation,germination and mycelial growth of F. solani. The biocontrol strain NJ13 had an inhibition effect on F. solani,and the optimal antifungal ratio of strain NJ13 mixed with propiconazole and difenoconazole was obtained.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Biological Control Agents , Fungicides, Industrial , Fusarium , Virulence , Panax , Microbiology , Plant Roots , Microbiology
10.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e0082018, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1024590

ABSTRACT

Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) and common rust are among the primary fungal diseases affecting maize production. This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of ten maize hybrids to NCLB and to common rust and to verify the efficiency of fungicides in the chemical control of Exserohilum turcicum. In the first experiment, hybrids Pioneer (30F53, P1630H, P2530), Monsanto (AG 8045, AG 9045), Dow AgroSciences (2A550, 2A106 and 2B587) and Syngenta (SYN7205 VIPTERA, SW 3949 TL) were used and in the experiment for effectiveness of fungicides in the control of NCLB. The efficiency of fungicides propiconazole, azoxystrobin, cyproconazole + azoxystrobin, prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin, benzovindiflupir + azoxystrobin, cyproconazole + azoxystrobin + mancozeb were tested in the Pioneer P1630H hybrid. In both experiments, the leaf disease severity (%), yield and the weight of one thousand seeds were evaluated. The experimental design was carried out in randomized blocks with four replicates. The hybrids SYN7205, P2530, SW 3949 TL, 2B587, AG 9045, 2A550, P1630H, 2A106 and AG 8025 showed the smallest areas under the common rust severity progress curve. Hybrids AG9045, 30F53, and 2A550 presented the smallest areas under the NCLB progress curve. Hybrids AG8025, 2B587, P1630H, AG9045, 2A106, 2A550, present the highest yields. The fungicides prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin present the highest chemical control efficiency for NCLB and the lowest area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC).(AU)


A helmintosporiose e a ferrugem comum estão entre as principais doenças fúngicas que afetam a produção do milho. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram avaliar a suscetibilidade de dez híbridos de milho a helmintosporiose e a ferrugem comum e verificar a eficiência de fungicidas no controle de Exserohilum turcicum. No primeiro experimento utilizaram-se os híbridos Pioneer (30F53, P1630H, P2530), Monsanto (AG 8045, AG 9045), Dow AgroSciences (2A550, 2A106 e 2B587) e Syngenta (SYN7205 VIPTERA, SW 3949 TL), e no experimento de eficiência de fungicidas no controle de helmintosporiose, testou-se a eficiência dos fungicidas propiconazol, azoxistrobina, ciproconazol + azoxistrobina, protioconazol + trifloxistrobina, benzovindiflupir + azoxistrobina, ciproconazol + azoxistrobina + mancozebe, no híbrido Pioneer P1630H. Em ambos os experimentos avaliaram-se a severidade foliar das doenças (%), o rendimento e o peso de mil sementes. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os híbridos SYN7205, P2530, SW 3949 TL, 2B587, AG 9045, 2A550, P1630H, 2A106 e AG 8025 apresentam as menores áreas abaixo da curva de progresso de severidade de ferrugem comum. Os híbridos AG9045, 30F53 e 2A550 apresentam as menores áreas abaixo da curva de progresso de helmintosporiose. Os híbridos AG8025, 2B587, P1630H, AG9045, 2A106 e 2A550 apresentam os maiores rendimentos. Os fungicidas protioconazol + trifloxistrobina apresentam a maior eficiência de controle químico de helmintosporiose e a menor AACPD.(AU)


Subject(s)
Zea mays , Fungicides, Industrial , Helminths , Pest Control , Mycoses
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777442

ABSTRACT

To obtain biocontrol fungus for Alternaria panax,the antifungal effects of one strain of endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of healthy ginseng were screened and evaluated by using dual-culture method,and the taxonomic assignment of the screened strain was identified based on the morphological characters and ITS sequence analysis. The results of dual-culture showed that one of the endophytes marked as FS-01 had good antifungal effects and the inhibitory rates of FS-01 strain to A. panax was( 60. 21±0. 12) %.The hyphae junction of the both strains,A. panax dissolved,broke and winded,while the hyphae of FS-01 strain remained normal. The inhibitory rates of non-sterilized FS-01 strain fermentation liqud was( 13. 94±0. 21) %. Strain FS-01 identified as Chaetomium globosum.


Subject(s)
Alternaria , Virulence , Antibiosis , Chaetomium , Classification , Endophytes , Fungicides, Industrial , Panax , Microbiology , Plant Diseases
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 840-847, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974284

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Anthracnose is a crop disease usually caused by fungi in the genus Colletotrichum or Gloeosporium. These are considered one of the main pathogens, causing significant economic losses, such as in peppers and guarana. The current forms of control include the use of resistant cultivars, sanitary pruning and fungicides. However, even with the use of some methods of controlling these cultures, the crops are not free of anthracnose. Additionally, excessive application of fungicides increases the resistance of pathogens to agrochemicals and cause harm to human health and the environment. In order to find natural antifungal agents against guarana anthracnose, endophytic fungi were isolated from Amazon guarana. The compounds piliformic acid and cytochalasin D were isolated by chromatographic techniques from two Xylaria spp., guided by assays with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The isolated compounds were identified by spectrometric techniques, as NMR and mass spectrometry. This is the first report that piliformic acid and cytochalasin D have antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides with MIC 2.92 and 2.46 µmol mL-1 respectively. Captan and difenoconazole were included as positive controls (MIC 16.63 and 0.02 µmol mL-1, respectively). Thus, Xylaria species presented a biotechnological potential and production of different active compounds which might be promising against anthracnose disease.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Xylariales/chemistry , Paullinia/microbiology , Endophytes/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Mass Spectrometry , Xylariales/isolation & purification , Xylariales/genetics , Xylariales/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Colletotrichum/drug effects , Colletotrichum/physiology , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungicides, Industrial/isolation & purification , Fungicides, Industrial/chemistry
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(5): 1274-1280, sept./oct. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-967316

ABSTRACT

According to IBGE data, in 2016, Brazil produced closer to 56 thousand hectares of rubber tree generating a total latex production of 315.62 tons in commercial areas and 1.6 thousand tons in native forests. But this growth in crop production is related to the raise of economic losses generated by foliar and bark (panel) diseases caused by Phytophthora spp, Colletotrichum sp., Lasiodiplodia spp., Colletotrichum sp., Ceratocystis fimbriata, Microcyclus ulei (leaf blight) and the leaf anomaly that we call here as "Green Spot". Also, due to the tapping method and the incisions or "injuries" made in this process, opportunistic pathogens can usually infect and end up growing in the bark. This type of infection that is also difficult to control with the adoption of chemical fungicides, can create additional damage to the rubber panels. Pathogens such as Oidium heveae, C. gloeosporioides (anthracnosis), Phomopsis sp. and Phytophthora spp. were identified in 42% of the areas of growers or farms. Treatments T3- (thiophanate-methyl (350 g.ha-1 active ingredient) and T4- (metiram (1.75 kg.ha-1 active ingredient)) were superior against rot diseases in the bark of rubber trees. It was described for the first time the anomaly of the green spot associated to the Tenuipalpus heveae mite in 65% of the samples and had its etiology confirmed by artificial inoculation in rubber tree seedlings. In the USP-ESALq, Dr. Kitajima, E., did not confirm the presence of rhabdovirus-like particles common to tenuipalpids that transmit the virus in coffee and citrus (nuclear and cytoplasmic viruses).


Segundo dados do IBGE, em 2016, o Brasil registrou uma área cultivada de 156,06 mil hectares, dos quais 146,4 mil hectares foram colhidos, promovendo uma produção total de 315,62 toneladas em lavouras comerciais. Já a exploração em áreas de vegetação natural, resultou em 1,6 mil toneladas de látex e coágulo. Microcyclus ulei também chamado de Mal-de-Folhas é conhecida mundialmente como a doença mais grave da seringueira, mas a intensificação do cultivo permitiu prejuízos econômicos promovidos por doenças foliares como Phytophthora spp, Colletotrichum sp., Alternaria spp., Oidium sp. Entre outros, além da anomalia de Pinta Verde. No tocante às doenças de sapé, são citadas as patologias fúngicas nos painéis Lasiodiplodia spp., Colletotrichum sp., Ceratocystis fimbriata, Erythricium salmonicolor e Phytophthora spp.,. Muitos patógenos permitem a entrada nas lesões de outros fungos oportunistas. Devido ao modo de exploração (corte) causar lesões no tronco que facilitam a inoculação de patógenos principalmente através de instrumentos de sangramento, causando danos nos painéis de seringueiras e são patógenos de difícil controle e poucos resultados significativos com o uso de fungicidas ou produtos químicos. Os patógenos, como Oidium heveae, C. gloeosporioides (antracnose), Phomopsis sp. e Phytophthora spp. foram identificados em 42 % das áreas de produtores ou fazendas. Os tratamentos 3 e 4 foram os melhores do controle dos fungos e esta podridão de painel nas seringueiras (T3- (tiofanato-metílico(350 g / ha ingrediente ativo), T4- (metiram (1,75 kg / ha ingrediente ativo). Foi descrita pela primeira vez a anomalia da pinta verde associada ao ácaro Tenuipalpus heveae¨em 65% das amostars e teve a sua etiologia confirmada por inoculação artificial em mudas de seringueira. Análises em microscopia eletrônica realizadas na USP-S-ESALq pelo Dr. Kitajima, E., não confirmaram a presença de partículas tipo rabdovírus comum aos tenuipalpídeos que transmitem a virose em cafeeiro e citros (vírus tipo nuclear e citoplasmático).


Subject(s)
Pest Control , Hevea , Fungicides, Industrial , Mites , Noxae
14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(4): 830-847, july/aug. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-967017

ABSTRACT

Due to the toxicity and inefficiency of chemical fungicides to control infestation of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid which causes charcoal rot in plants, a biotechnological approach using - glucosidase (EC.3.2.1) as the alternative bioactive ingredient in fungicide is hereby, proposed. The extracellular enzyme was isolated from a highly efficient fungal antagonist, Trichoderma harzianum T12. The highly similar molecular masses obtained using SDS-PAGE (96 kDa) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (98.3 kDa) affirmed that the -glucosidase was purified to homogeneity. Consequently, optimum catalytic parameters that rendered the highest enzyme activity were found to be: 45°C, pH 7, inoculum size of 10 % (w/v), supplementation with metal ions Zn2+ and Mn2+ ions, and Tween 80. Addition of wheat bran and (NH4)2SO4 as carbon and nitrogen sources also improved enzyme activity. BLASTn showed the sequence of -glucosidase T12 was highly identical to other -glucosidases viz. T. harzianum strain IOC-3844 (99%), T. gamsii and T. virens bgl1 (86 %) as well as T. reesei strain SJVTR and T. viride strain AS 3.3711 (84 %). Kinetic assessment showed that -glucosidase T12 catalyzes hydrolytic activity is characterized by a Km of 0.79 mM and Vmax of 8.45 mM min-1 mg-1 protein, with a corresponding kcat of 10.69 s-1.


Devido à toxicidade e ineficiência dos fungicidas químicos para controlar a infestação de Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid que causa o apodrecimento das plantas, uma abordagem biotecnológica usando - glicosidase (EC.3.2.1) como o ingrediente bioativo alternativo do fungicida é por este meio, proposto. A enzima extracelular foi isolada de um antagonista fúngico altamente eficiente, o Trichoderma harzianum T12. As massas moleculares altamente similares obtidas usando SDS-PAGE (96 kDa) e espectrometria de massa MALDI-TOF (98,3 kDa) afirmaram que a -glicosidase foi purificada até a homogeneidade. Consequentemente, os parâmetros catalíticos ótimos que apresentaram a maior atividade enzimática foram: 45°C, pH 7, tamanho do inóculo de 10% (p / v), suplementação com íons de metais Zn2+ e Mn2+, e Tween 80. Adição de farelo de trigo e (NH4) 2SO4 como fontes de carbono e nitrogênio também melhoraram a atividade enzimática. O BLASTn mostrou que a sequência da -glicosidase T12 era altamente idêntica a outras -glicosidase viz. A estirpe T. harzianum IOC-3844 (99%), T. gamsii e T. virens bgl1 (86%) assim como a estirpe T. reesei SJVTR e a estirpe T. viride AS 3.3711 (84%). A avaliação cinética mostrou que -glicosidase T12 catalisa a actividade hidrolítica caracterizada por um Km de 0,79 mM e Vmax de 8,45 mM min-1 mg-1 de proteína, com um correspondente kcat de 10,69 s-1.


Subject(s)
Trichoderma , Kinetics , Fungi , Fungicides, Industrial , Glycoside Hydrolases , Biotechnology
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(4): 868-874, july/aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-967028

ABSTRACT

The recovery of degraded areas led to an increase of native forest seedlings production. Jatobado- cerrado (Hymenaea stignocarpa Mart.) and jatoba-da-mata (Hymenaea courbaril L.), native species of the Brazilian Cerrado, are widely used for the recovery of this biome. Although forest species present a diversity of pathogens disseminated by seeds, few studies have been published and no study was found for jatoba. Because the seed is one of the main forms of pathogen dissemination, the aim of our work was to evaluate the natural incidence of fungi in seed lots of jatoba-do-cerrado and jatoba-da-mata and the performance of different fungicides for seed treatment recommendation. The experiment was carried out at the Genetics and Biotechnology Laboratory of the University Center of Patos de Minas. Two chemical treatments were submitted in the seeds and then divided into seven replicates of 15 seeds for each species. The first treatment was with the active principle thiophanate-methyl and fluazine, commercial name Certeza®, in the dose of 145 mL of the product in 100 kg of seeds. The second treatment was with fludioxonil, commercial name Maxim® XL, in the dose of 100 mL of the product in 100 kg of seeds. There was a third treatment corresponded to the control (without seed treatment). The visual analyzes were performed after eight days on each seed with a magnifier to verify the presence of developing fungal colonies. The growth fungi fructifications were observed using a stereomicroscope. The found fungi species were: Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp., Pestalotiopsis sp., Phomopsis sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma sp. It occurred interaction between seed treatment and species for Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp., Phomopsis sp., Rhizoctonia sp. and Trichoderma sp. For Penicillium sp., Pestalotiopsis sp. and Rhizopus sp., only the isolated factors were significant. Jatoba-do-cerrado seeds had a higher incidence than jatoba-da-mata seeds in all the found fungi. Certeza® and Maxim® XL have potential in seed treatment for the species. The fungicide Certeza® was more efficient to control the pathogenic fungi in seed treatment.


A recuperação de áreas degradas levou ao aumento da produção de mudas de espécies florestais nativas. Jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stignocarpa Mart.) e jatobá-da-mata (Hymenaea courbaril L.), espécies nativas do Cerrado brasileiro, são amplamente utilizadas na recuperação deste bioma. Apesar da diversidade de fungos encontrada em sementes de espécies florestais, poucos são os estudos publicados, e não nenhum relato para o jatobá. Por a semente ser um dos principais meios de disseminação de patógenos, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a incidência natural de fungos em lotes de semente de jatobá-do-cerrado e jatobá-da-mata, e a performance de diferentes fungicidas para a recomendação do tratamento de sementes. O experimento foi realizado no Laboratório de Genética e Biotecnologia do Centro Universitário de Patos de Minas. Dois tratamentos químicos foram realizados nas sementes, que então foram divididas em sete repetições com 15 sementes cada. O primeiro tratamento foi realizado com o princípio ativo tiofanato-metílico e fluazinam, nome comercial Certeza®, na dose de 145 mL do produto para 100 kg de sementes. O segundo tratamento foi realizado com fludioxonil, nome comercial Maxim® XL, na dose de 100 mL do produto para 100 kg de sementes. O terceiro tratamento correspondeu a testemunha (sem tratamento de sementes). Após oito dias, a análise visual foi realizada com o auxílio de uma lupa para verificar a presença de colônias de fungos. As frutificações dos fungos foram observadas com o auxílio de um microscópio óptico. Após as avaliações, os seguintes fungos foram encontrados: Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp., Pestalotiopsis sp., Phomopsis sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Rhizopus sp. e Trichoderma sp. Ocorreu interação entre o tratamento de sementes e as espécies para Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp., Phomopsis sp., Rhizoctonia sp. e Trichoderma sp. Para Penicillium sp., Pestalotiopsis sp. e Rhizopus sp., apenas os fatores isolados foram significativos. Sementes de jatobá-do-cerrado possuíram maior incidência do que as sementes de jatobá-damata para todos os fungos encontrados. Certeza® e Maxim® XL possuem potencial para o tratamento de sementes de jatobá. O fungicida Certeza® foi mais eficiente para o controle de fungos patogênicos no tratamento de sementes.


Subject(s)
Seeds , Hymenaea , Fungi , Grassland , Fungicides, Industrial
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(3): 603-614, mai/jun. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966910

ABSTRACT

The application of fungicides in different operating conditions is a usual practice for maintaining the productive potential in sugarcane varieties considered susceptible to orange rust, however, the physiological effects provided by the different application methods are unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the photosynthetic responses (gas exchange and chlorophyll content) in the SP81-3250 sugarcane variety, in function of different operational conditions of the aerial and ground application of fungicide in the orange rust control. Two application of fungicides of the chemical groups Strobilurins and Triazoles were carried out in the experimental units in different treatments. In the aerial applications, two application rates (30 and 40 L ha-1) and three nozzle orientations (0º, 90º and 135º) and in the ground application was used 200 L ha-1 and flat fan spray nozzles with air induction (AI11004-VS). Gas exchange evaluations were performed with an IRGA and amount of chlorophyll a and b with a chlorophyll meter. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test for independent samples, at 0.05 significance. The aerial application provided better photosynthetic responses and chlorophyll a and b contents in leaf limb compared to ground application. Significant differences were detected in gas exchange and chlorophyll content between application rates and angulation of the spray nozzles in the boom. Fungicide applications provided increments of more than 19 t ha-1 compared to the control, depending on the spraying technique employed. Aerial application with 30 L ha-1 and 0° of deflection is a viable option to provide safer applications as a function of the larger droplet size.


A aplicação de fungicidas em diferentes condições operacionais é uma prática usual para manter o potencial genético em variedades de cana-de-açúcar consideradas susceptíveis à ferrugem laranja, porém os efeitos fisiológicos proporcionados pelos diferentes métodos de aplicação são desconhecidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as respostas fotossintéticas (troca gasosa e teor de clorofila) na variedade de cana-de-açúcar SP81-3250, em função de diferentes condições operacionais de aplicação aérea e terrestre de fungicida no controle da ferrugem alaranjada. Duas aplicações de fungicidas dos grupos químicos Estrobilurinas e Triazóis foram realizadas nas unidades experimentais em diferentes tratamentos. Nas aplicações aéreas, foram utilizadas duas taxas de aplicação (30 e 40 L ha-1) e três orientações do ângulo dos bicos (0º, 90º e 135º) e na aplicação terrestre 200 L ha-1 e pontas de pulverização de jato plano com indução de ar (AI11004 -VS). As avaliações de trocas gasosas foram realizadas com analisador de gás IRGA e a quantidade de clorofila a e b com um medidor de clorofila. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o teste t de Student para amostras independentes, com um valor de 0,05 de significancia. A aplicação aérea proporcionou melhores respostas fotossintéticas e os teores de clorofila a e b no membro foliar em comparação com a aplicação terrestre. Foram detectadas diferenças significativas na troca gasosa e no teor de clorofila entre as taxas de aplicação e a angulação dos bicos de pulverização na barra. As aplicações de fungicidas proporcionaram incrementos de mais de 19 t ha-1 em relação ao tratamento controle, dependendo da técnica de pulverização empregada. A aplicação aérea com 30 L ha-1 e 0° de deflexão é uma opção viável para proporcionar aplicações mais seguras em função do maior tamanho das gotas.


Subject(s)
Saccharum , Fungicides, Industrial , Triazoles , Strobilurins
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 229-235, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974342

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Gallesia integrifolia (Phytolaccaceae) is native to Brazil and has a strong alliaceous odor. The objective of this study was to identify the chemical composition of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and evaluate fungicidal activity against the main food-borne diseases and food spoilage fungi. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and identified by GC-MS. From 35 identified compounds, 68% belonged to the organosulfur class. The major compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (15.49%), 2,8-dithianonane (52.63%) and lenthionine (14.69%). The utilized fungi were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium ochrochloron, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, and Trichoderma viride. Minimal fungicidal concentration for the essential oil varied from 0.02 to 0.18 mg/mL and bifonazole and ketoconazole controls ranged from 0.20 to 3.50 mg/mL. The lower concentration of the essential oil was able to control P. ochrochloron, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus and T. viride. This study shows a high fungicidal activity of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and can support future applications by reducing the use of synthetic fungicides.


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Penicillium/growth & development , Penicillium/drug effects , Aspergillus/growth & development , Aspergillus/drug effects , Plant Oils/chemistry , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fruit/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
18.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(5): 1188-1196, sept./oct. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966286

ABSTRACT

The aim was to study the effect of early application of two fungicide mixtures on the control of Asian rust and powdery mildew, as well as on grain yield in five soybean cultivars at two sowing dates. The experiment was carried in the experimental area of FAMV/UPF. The cultivars A 4910 RG (super-early), BMX Apolo RR, A 6001 RR and Fundacep 55 RR (early) and Coodetec 214 RR (moderate), established at 13/11/2007 and 3/12/2007 were used. Trifolia of these cultivars were treated twice with the fungicides ciproconazol + azoxystrobin (Priori Xtra®, 0.3 L ha-1 plus Nimbus® adjuvant 0.6 L ha- 1) and epoxiconazol + pyraclostrobin (Opera®, 0.5 L ha-1), in three moments 1: pre-closure of the space between the lines and 21 days after; 2: pre-closure of space between rows and R5.1 stage (10% of beginning seed); and 3: R1 (beginning bloom) and R5.1 stages. The severity (% of affected leaf area) of powdery mildew and number of lesions cm2 of Asian rust were evaluated. After that plants were harvested, the thousand grain weight (g) and grain yield (kg ha-1) were quantified. The experimental design was a split-plot with four replicates, where the main plot were the five cultivars, and the subplots were the control treatment (untreated plants) and the six chemical control programs. Tukey and t-Student tests (p0.05) were used for separation of means of treatments and seasons, respectively. In general terms, foliar application of fungicides controlled both Asian rust and powdery mildew, as well as generated an increase on the thousand grain weight and grain yield. However, there seems to be an interaction among soybean genotypes and sowing date. Thus, our results allow us to infer that the chemical control of leaf diseases in the soybean crop depends of the cultivar and sowing date.


O objetivo foi estudar o efeito da aplicação antecipada de duas misturas de fungicidas no controle da ferrugem asiática e do oídio, bem como no rendimento de grãos em cinco cultivares de soja em duas épocas de semeadura. O experimento foi conduzido no campo experimental da FAMV/UPF. Utilizaram-se as cultivares A 4910 RG (super precoce), BMX Apolo RR, A 6001 RR e Fundacep 55 RR (precoces) e Coodetec 214 RR (moderado), estabelecidas em 13/11/2007 e 3/12/2007. Os fungicidas piraclostrobina + epoxiconazole e azoxistrobina + ciproconzole foram pulverizados duas vezes em 1: pré-fechamento do espaço entre as linhas e 21 dias após, 2: pré-fechamento do espaço entre as linhas e R5.1 (10% de granação), e 3: R1 (início da floração) e R5.1. Avaliaram-se a severidade (% da área foliar afetada) do oídio e o número de lesões cm2 da ferrugem asiática. Logo após as plantas foram colhidas, o peso de mil grãos (g) e rendimento de grãos (kg ha-1) foram quantificados. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de parcelas divididas com quatro repetições, onde a parcela principal foram as cinco cultivares, e as subparcelas foram o tratamento controle (plantas não tratadas) e os seis programas de controle químico. Para a separação das médias dos tratamentos e épocas, foram utilizados os testes de Tukey e t-Student (p0.05), respectivamente. De modo geral, a aplicação foliar de fungicidas controlou tanto a ferrugem asiática como o oídio, assim como também gerou um aumento do peso de mil grãos e rendimento de grãos. No entanto, parece existir uma interação entre os genótipos e data de semeadura. Assim, nossos resultados nos permitem inferir que o controle químico das doenças foliares na cultura da soja depende do cultivar e da data de semeadura.


Subject(s)
Soybeans , Triazoles , Phakopsora pachyrhizi , Strobilurins , Fungicides, Industrial
19.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(4): 933-943, july/aug. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966255

ABSTRACT

Asian soybean rust (ASR), caused by the phytopathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow & Sydow, is a worldwide distributed fungal disease responsible for causing damages in soybean crops [Glycine max (L.) Merril] of up to 90% of its productive potential. So far, due to limited availability of resistant varieties, fungicide application is the most widely used strategy for ASR control, although some populations of the pathogen have shown reduced sensitivity to certain active ingredients. Several methods have been described to measure the sensitivity of a fungus to a given fungicide, or even the fungitoxicity of a chemical. The most used tests are spore germination in wateragar medium and evaluation of disease severity in detached soybean leaves. Experiments were carried out with Brazilian populations of the pathogen: one from Uberlândia - MG and the other from Chapadão do Sul - MS, following the mentioned methodologies. The results showed the reduction of benzovindiflupyr efficiency in relation to spore germination and disease severity for the MS population, as also did fluxapyroxad, cyproconazole, and tebuconazole. Multisite fungicides (chlorothalonil, copper oxychloride, and mancozeb) may be used in the management of ASR resistance in the fields of Brazil associated with strobilurins, triazoles, and carboxamides. The efficiency of the main active ingredient tested depends on the formulation and others molecules used in the commercial product.


A ferrugem asiática da soja (FAS), causada pelo fitopatógeno Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow & Sydow, é uma doença fúngica distribuída mundialmente e responsável por causar danos na cultura da soja [Glycine max (L.) Merril], em até 90% do potencial produtivo. Até agora, devido à limitada disponibilidade de variedades resistentes, a aplicação de fungicida é a estratégia mais utilizada para controlar a FAS, embora algumas populações do patógeno tenham demonstrado menor sensibilidade a determinados ingredientes ativos. Vários métodos foram descritos para medir a sensibilidade de um fungo a um dado fungicida, ou para monitorar sua redução ou perda de eficácia, ou mesmo a fungitoxicidade de um produto químico. Os testes mais utilizados são a germinação de esporos in vitro e a severidade da doença (%) em folhas de soja destacadas. Baseando-se nessas metodologias, foram realizados ensaios com populações do patógeno oriundas de Uberlândia - MG e do Chapadão do Sul - MS. Os resultados mostraram a redução da eficiência de benzovindiflupyr em relação à germinação e à severidade de doença para a população de Chapadão do Sul - MS. O mesmo comportamento foi obtido para os ingredientes ativos fluxapyroxad, cyproconazole e tebuconazole. Os fungicidas multissítios (clorotalonil, oxicloreto de cobre e mancozeb) podem ser utilizados no manejo da resistência à FAS nas lavouras do Brasil associados às estrobilurinas, triazóis e carboxamidas. A eficiência do principal ingrediente ativo estudado depende dos outros ingredientes ativos ou fungicidas associados na formulação comercial.


Subject(s)
Soybeans , Biological Assay , Phakopsora pachyrhizi , Fungicides, Industrial
20.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 1251-1258, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886681

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tricyclazole is currently one of the fungicides recommended for the treatment of diseases in irrigated rice. However, there is relatively little information on its cytotoxic and genotoxic potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of rice crop water after apllication of the tricyclazole fungicide through the Allium cepa L. test. The rice crop water samplings were collected before and 1, 15 and 30 days after application of the fungicide in rice plant shoots. The Allium cepa roots were placed in contact with the rice crop water to check for possible chromosomal abnormalities and mitotic index of the bioindicators meristematic cells. The data obtained by the Allium cepa test indicates that the application of the tricyclazole fungicide leads to an increase in the genotoxic activity in the rice crop water, through the appearance of chromosomal abnormalities, without, however, causing significant effects on the mitotic index. The major chromosomal alterations observed were anaphasic and telophasic bridges and laggard chromosomes.


Subject(s)
Oryza/drug effects , Onions/drug effects , Fungicides, Industrial , Oryza/genetics , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , DNA Damage , Chromosome Aberrations/chemically induced , Crops, Agricultural , Crops, Agricultural/genetics , Agricultural Irrigation , Mitosis/drug effects , Mitotic Index , Mutagenicity Tests/methods
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