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Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 840-847, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974284


ABSTRACT Anthracnose is a crop disease usually caused by fungi in the genus Colletotrichum or Gloeosporium. These are considered one of the main pathogens, causing significant economic losses, such as in peppers and guarana. The current forms of control include the use of resistant cultivars, sanitary pruning and fungicides. However, even with the use of some methods of controlling these cultures, the crops are not free of anthracnose. Additionally, excessive application of fungicides increases the resistance of pathogens to agrochemicals and cause harm to human health and the environment. In order to find natural antifungal agents against guarana anthracnose, endophytic fungi were isolated from Amazon guarana. The compounds piliformic acid and cytochalasin D were isolated by chromatographic techniques from two Xylaria spp., guided by assays with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The isolated compounds were identified by spectrometric techniques, as NMR and mass spectrometry. This is the first report that piliformic acid and cytochalasin D have antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides with MIC 2.92 and 2.46 µmol mL-1 respectively. Captan and difenoconazole were included as positive controls (MIC 16.63 and 0.02 µmol mL-1, respectively). Thus, Xylaria species presented a biotechnological potential and production of different active compounds which might be promising against anthracnose disease.

Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Xylariales/chemistry , Paullinia/microbiology , Endophytes/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Mass Spectrometry , Xylariales/isolation & purification , Xylariales/genetics , Xylariales/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Colletotrichum/drug effects , Colletotrichum/physiology , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungicides, Industrial/isolation & purification , Fungicides, Industrial/chemistry
Braz. j. microbiol ; 40(2): 346-353, Apr.-June 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-520222


This study presents new and alternative fungal strains for the production of ligninolytic enzymes which have great potential to use in industrial and biotechnological processes. Thirty autochthonous fungal strains were harvested from Bornova-Izmir in Turkiye. In the fresh fruitbody extracts laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase activities, which are the principal enzymes responsible for ligninocellulose degradation by Basidiomycetes, were screened. Spores of some of the basidiomycetes species such as Cortinarius sp., Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Abortiporus biennis, Lyophyllum subglobisporium, Ramaria stricta, Ganoderma carnosum, Lactarius delicious ve Lepista nuda were isolated and investigated optimum cultivation conditions in submerged fermentation for high yields of ligninolytic enzyme production. In addition, isolated fungal strains were monitored on agar plates whether having the capability of decolorization of a textile dye Remazol Marine Blue.

Este estudo apresenta novas cepas de fungos produtores de enzimas ligninolíticas com potencial de aplicação em processos industriais e biotecnológicos. Trinta cepas de fungos autóctones foram obtidos em Bornova-Izmir, Turquia. Os extratos frescos dos corpos de frutificação foram submetidos à triagem de atividade de lacase, manganês peroxidase e lignina peroxidase, que são as principais enzimas de degradação de ligninocelulose pelos Basidiomycetes. Foram isolados esporos de Cortinarius sp, Tramnetes versicolor, Pleorotus ostreatus, Abortiporus biennis, Lyophyllum subglobisporium, Ramaria stricta, Ganoderma carnosum, Lactarius delicius ve Lepista desnuda, investigando-se as condições ótimas de cultivo em fermentação submersa para produção de enzimas ligninolíticas com elevado rendimento. Além disso, as cepas fúngicas isoladas foram monitoradas em placas de ágar quanto a capacidade de descoloramento do corante têxtil Remazole Marine Blue.

Coloring Agents/analysis , Basidiomycota/isolation & purification , Cellulose/analysis , Spores, Fungal/isolation & purification , Fermentation , Fungicides, Industrial/isolation & purification , Lignin/analysis , Oxidoreductases/analysis , Enzyme Activation , Methods , Methods , Textile Industry
Braz. j. microbiol ; 40(2): 308-313, Apr.-June 2009. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-520235


Citrus black spot (CBS) is a plant disease of worldwide occurrence, affecting crops in Africa, Oceania, and South America. In Brazil, climate provides favorable conditions and CBS has spread to the Southeast and South regions. CBS is caused by the fungus Guignardia citricarpa (anamorph: Phyllosticta citricarpa) and its control is based on the use of fungicides, such as benzimidazoles. In South Africa, the disease was kept under control for 10 years with benomyl, until cases of resistance to high concentrations of this fungicide were reported from all citrus-producing areas. Azoxystrobin (a strobilurin) has been found effective in controlling phytopathogens, including CBS, in a wide range of economically important crops. The present study investigated in vitro the effects of the fungicides benomyl and azoxystrobin on 10 strains of G. citricarpa isolated from lesions in citrus plants from Brazil and South Africa. Benomyl at 0.5 µg/mL inhibited mycelial growth in all strains except PC3C, of African origin, which exhibited resistance to concentrations of up to 100.0 µg/mL. The spontaneous mutation frequency for resistance to benomyl was 1.25 ï 10-7. Azoxystrobin, even at high concentrations, did not inhibit mycelial growth in any of the strains, but significantly reduced sporulation rates, by as much as 100%, at a concentration of 5.0 µg/mL. Variations in sensitivity across strains, particularly to the strobilurin azoxystrobin, are possibly related to genetic variability in G. citricarpa isolates.

A Mancha Preta dos Citros (MPC) tem ocorrência mundial afetando a produção de citros na África, Oceania e América do Sul. No Brasil, onde o clima é favorável ao seu desenvolvimento, a doença está espalhada nas regiões Sul e Sudeste. O controle da MPC, causada pelo fungo Guignardia citricarpa (anamorfo: Phyllosticta citricarpa) é baseado na aplicação de fungicidas, como os benzimidazóis. Na África do Sul, após 10 anos de controle da doença com o fungicida benomil, os casos de resistência a altas concentrações deste fungicida atingiram todas as áreas produtoras. O fungicida estrolilurina chamado azoxistrobina tem se mostrado eficiente no controle dos fitopatógenos de uma grande variedade de culturas economicamente importantes, incluindo a MPC. Neste trabalho foram investigados os efeitos in vitro dos fungicidas benomil e azoxistrobina em 10 linhagens de G. citricarpa isoladas de lesões em plantas cítricas no Brasil e na África do Sul. Houve inibição do crescimento micelial a 0,5 µg/mL do fungicida benomil entre as linhagens testadas, com exceção de PC3C de origem sul-africana, que apresentou resistência até a concentração de 100,0 µg/mL de benomil. A freqüência de mutação espontânea para resistência ao benomil foi de 1,25 ï 10-7. A estrobilurina azoxistrobina, mesmo em altas concentrações, não inibiu o crescimento micelial dos isolados, entretanto reduziu significativamente a produção de esporos, chegando a 100% de inibição em concentrações de 5,0 µg/mL de azoxistrobina. A variação na sensibilidade das linhagens, principalmente com a estrobilurina azoxistrobina, possivelmente está relacionada com a variabilidade genética dos isolados de G. citricarpa.

Benomyl/analysis , Citrus , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Plant Diseases/genetics , Fungicides, Industrial/analysis , Fungicides, Industrial/isolation & purification , In Vitro Techniques , Micelles , Genetic Variation , Methods , Plants , Methods , Virulence
Braz. j. microbiol ; 39(2): 286-295, Apr.-June 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-487726


In this review article, we show that occurrence of fungicide resistance is one of the most important issues in modern agriculture. Fungicide resistance may be due to mutations of genes encoding fungicide targets (qualitative fungicide resistance) or to different mechanisms that are induced by sub-lethal fungicide stress. These mechanisms result in different and varying levels of resistance (quantitative fungicide resistance). We discuss whether or not extensive use of fungicides in agricultural environments is related to the occurrence of fungicide resistance in clinical environments. Furthermore, we provide recommendations of how development of fungicide resistant pathogen populations may be prevented or delayed.

A ocorrência de resistência a fungicidas é uma das mais importantes conseqüências da agricultura moderna. Este fato pode ser resultado de mutações em genes codificadores de resistência a fungicidas (resistência quantitativa) ou a diferentes mecanismos que são induzidos por stresse devido a doses subletais dos produtos utilizados. Estes mecanismos produzem diferentes e variados níveis de resistência (resistência quantitativa). Também é discutido se o uso extensivo de fungicidas em ambientes agricultáveis é relacionado ou não com a ocorrência de resistência em ambientes clínicos. Além disso, também são fornecidas recomendações de como prevenir ou mesmo retardar o desenvolvimento de resistência a fungicidas em patógenos.

Humans , Fungi , Fungicides, Industrial/analysis , Fungicides, Industrial/isolation & purification , In Vitro Techniques , Insecticide Resistance , Mutation , Triticum , Agriculture , Methods