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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879040

ABSTRACT

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provided is beneficial to Salvia miltiorrhiza for increasing yield, promoting the accumulation of active ingredients, and alleviating S. miltiorrhiza disease etc. However, the application of fungicides will affect the benefit of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and there is little research about it. This article study the effect of four different fungicides: carbendazim, polyoxin, methyl mopazine, and mancozeb on mycorrhiza benefit to S. miltiorrhiza by the infection intensity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the growth of S. miltiorrhiza, and the content of active ingredients. RESULTS:: showed that different fungicides had different effects. The application of mancozeb had the strongest inhibitory effect on the mycorrhizal benefit to S. miltiorrhiza. Mancozeb significantly reduced the mycorrhizal colonization and the beneficial effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and the accumulation of active components of S. miltiorrhiza. The application of polyoxin had no significant effect on mycorrhizal colonization. Instead, it had a synergistic effect with the mycorrhizal benefit to promoting the growth and accumulation of rosmarinic acid of S. miltiorrhiza. The inhibitory strengths of four fungicides are: mancozeb>thiophanate methyl, carbendazim>polyoxin. Therefore, we recommend applying biological fungicides polyoxin and avoid applying chemical fungicides mancozeb for disease control during mycorrhizal cultivation of S. miltiorrhiza.


Subject(s)
Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Mycorrhizae , Plant Roots , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Symbiosis
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 840-847, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974284

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Anthracnose is a crop disease usually caused by fungi in the genus Colletotrichum or Gloeosporium. These are considered one of the main pathogens, causing significant economic losses, such as in peppers and guarana. The current forms of control include the use of resistant cultivars, sanitary pruning and fungicides. However, even with the use of some methods of controlling these cultures, the crops are not free of anthracnose. Additionally, excessive application of fungicides increases the resistance of pathogens to agrochemicals and cause harm to human health and the environment. In order to find natural antifungal agents against guarana anthracnose, endophytic fungi were isolated from Amazon guarana. The compounds piliformic acid and cytochalasin D were isolated by chromatographic techniques from two Xylaria spp., guided by assays with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The isolated compounds were identified by spectrometric techniques, as NMR and mass spectrometry. This is the first report that piliformic acid and cytochalasin D have antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides with MIC 2.92 and 2.46 µmol mL-1 respectively. Captan and difenoconazole were included as positive controls (MIC 16.63 and 0.02 µmol mL-1, respectively). Thus, Xylaria species presented a biotechnological potential and production of different active compounds which might be promising against anthracnose disease.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Xylariales/chemistry , Paullinia/microbiology , Endophytes/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Mass Spectrometry , Xylariales/isolation & purification , Xylariales/genetics , Xylariales/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Colletotrichum/drug effects , Colletotrichum/physiology , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungicides, Industrial/isolation & purification , Fungicides, Industrial/chemistry
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 229-235, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974342

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Gallesia integrifolia (Phytolaccaceae) is native to Brazil and has a strong alliaceous odor. The objective of this study was to identify the chemical composition of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and evaluate fungicidal activity against the main food-borne diseases and food spoilage fungi. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and identified by GC-MS. From 35 identified compounds, 68% belonged to the organosulfur class. The major compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (15.49%), 2,8-dithianonane (52.63%) and lenthionine (14.69%). The utilized fungi were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium ochrochloron, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, and Trichoderma viride. Minimal fungicidal concentration for the essential oil varied from 0.02 to 0.18 mg/mL and bifonazole and ketoconazole controls ranged from 0.20 to 3.50 mg/mL. The lower concentration of the essential oil was able to control P. ochrochloron, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus and T. viride. This study shows a high fungicidal activity of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and can support future applications by reducing the use of synthetic fungicides.


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Penicillium/growth & development , Penicillium/drug effects , Aspergillus/growth & development , Aspergillus/drug effects , Plant Oils/chemistry , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fruit/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 701-706, July-Sept. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755833

ABSTRACT

The bacterial spot of tomato, caused by Xanthomonas spp., is a very important disease, especially in the hot and humid periods of the year. The chemical control of the disease has not been very effective for a number of reasons. This study aimed to evaluate, under greenhouse conditions, the efficacy of leaf-spraying chemicals (acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) (0.025 g.L−1), fluazinam (0.25 g.L−1), pyraclostrobin (0.08 g.L−1), pyraclostrobin + methiran (0.02 g.L−1 + 2.2 g.L−1), copper oxychloride (1.50 g.L−1), mancozeb + copper oxychloride (0.88 g.L−1 + 0.60 g.L−1), and oxytetracycline (0.40 g.L−1)) on control of bacterial spot. Tomatoes Santa Clara and Gisele cultivars were pulverized 3 days before inoculation with Xanthomonas perforans. The production of enzymes associated with resistance induction (peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, β-1,3-glucanase, and protease) was quantified from leaf samples collected 24 hours before and 24 hours after chemical spraying and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after bacterial inoculation. All products tested controlled bacterial spot, but only ASM, pyraclostrobin, and pyraclostrobin + metiram increased the production of peroxidase in the leaves of the two tomato cultivars, and increased the production of polyphenol oxidase and β-1,3-glucanase in the Santa Clara cultivar.

.


Subject(s)
Disease Resistance/drug effects , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiology , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Xanthomonas/growth & development , Catechol Oxidase/metabolism , /metabolism , Lycopersicon esculentum/enzymology , Lycopersicon esculentum/immunology , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Peroxidase/metabolism , Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase/metabolism , Plant Diseases/immunology , Xanthomonas/drug effects
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 293-299, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748267

ABSTRACT

The effect of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M on the mycelial morphology, sporulation and fumonisin B1 production by Fusarium verticillioides 103 F was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the fungicide caused inhibition of hyphal growth and defects on hyphae morphology such as cell wall disruption, withered hyphae, and excessive septation. In addition, extracellular material around the hyphae was rarely observed in the presence of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M. While promoting the reduction of mycelial growth, the fungicide increased sporulation of F. verticillioides compared to the control, and the highest production occurred on the 14th day in the treatments and on the 10th day in the control cultures. Fumonisin B1 production in the culture media containing the fungicide (treatment) was detected from the 7th day incubation, whereas in cultures without fungicide (control) it was detected on the 10th day. The highest fumonisin B1 production occurred on the 14th day, both for the control and for the treatment. Fludioxonil + metalaxyl - M can interfere in F. verticillioides mycelial morphology and sporulation and increase fumonisin B1 levels. These data indicate the importance of understanding the effects of fungicide to minimize the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and fumonisins.


Subject(s)
Fumonisins/metabolism , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Fusarium/drug effects , Fusarium/metabolism , Hyphae/drug effects , Hyphae/ultrastructure , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Dioxoles/pharmacology , Fusarium/growth & development , Fusarium/ultrastructure , Hyphae/growth & development , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Spores, Fungal/growth & development
6.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Nov; 52(11): 1147-1151
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153805

ABSTRACT

The study was undertaken with the aim of exploring novel and beneficial agro activities of rare actinomycetes like Microbispora sp. V2. The antagonistic activity of Microbispora sp. V2 was evaluated as a biocontrol agents against Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne fungal plant pathogen. The methodology performed for evaluation of biocontrol agent was in vitro evaluation assay which comprised of three tests viz., cellophane overlay technique, seed germination test and Thiram (fungicide) tolerance of Microbispora sp. V2. The isolate was found to inhibit the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii to 91.43% in cellophane assay. In seed germination assay, Microbispora sp. V2 treated seeds resulted in 25.75% increased germination efficiency, as compared to seeds infected by Sclerotium rolfsii. The isolate Microbispora sp. V2 could tolerate 1000 µg mL-1 of Thiram (fungicide). The in vitro assay studies proved that Microbispora sp. V2 can be used as antifungal antagonist and thus posses’ great potential as biocontrol agent against southern blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Zea mays L (Baby corn) which causes large economical losses.


Subject(s)
Actinomycetales/drug effects , Actinomycetales/physiology , Basidiomycota , Biomass , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Fermentation , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Germination , In Vitro Techniques , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Phenazines/metabolism , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Seeds/microbiology , Seeds/physiology , Thiram/pharmacology , Zea mays/microbiology
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 359-364, 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709492

ABSTRACT

The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L-1 for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for β-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L-1 for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Musa/microbiology , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Ascomycota/genetics , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Drug Utilization , Mexico , Mutation, Missense , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plant Diseases/therapy , Tubulin/genetics
8.
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Jan; 28(1): 15-20
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113303

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria especially Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates were tested against charcoal rot of chickpea both in green house as well as in field conditions. Most of the isolates reduced charcoal rot disease and promoted plant growth in green house. A marked increase in shoot and root length was observed in P. fluorescens treated plants. Among all the P. fluorescens isolates Pf4-99, was found most effective in the improvement of chickpea crop in green house as well as in field. Pf4-99 effectively promoted plant growth and produced indole acetic acid in culture medium. This isolate also inhibited the mycelial growth of the M. phaseolina under in vitro conditions and reduced the disease severity Potential isolate (Pf4-99) also significantly increased the biomass of the chickpea plants, shoot length, root length and protein content of the chickpea seeds. A part from these, the total number of seeds per plant and their weight were also enhanced. The colonization of Pf4-99 reduced the incidence of seed mycoflora by which indirectly enhanced the seed germination and vigour index of seedlings. The observations revealed that isolate Pf4-99 is quite effective to reduce the charcoal rot disease both in field and greenhouse, and also increases seed yields significantly Therefore, this isolate appears to be an efficient biocontrol agent against charcoal rot disease as well as yield increasing rhizobacterium.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/drug effects , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , Carbamates/pharmacology , Cicer/growth & development , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Nitrogen/metabolism , Pest Control, Biological , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Pseudomonas fluorescens/metabolism
9.
Genet. mol. biol ; 22(1): 119-23, Mar. 1999. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-243520

ABSTRACT

The entomopathogenic fungi Paecilomyces fumosoroseus and P. lilacinus have been transformed to resistance to the fungicide benomyl by a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated procedure using a mutant b-tubulin gene from Neurospora crassa carried on plasmid pBT6. Benomyl-resistant transformants of P. lilacinus were obtained that could tolerate greater than 30 µg/ml benomyl and P. fumosoroseus transformants were obtained that could tolerate 20 µg/ml benomyl. Following 5 serial passages of transformants on benomyl-containing media and 5 serial passages on non-selective media, 100 per cent of P. lilacinus transformants were found to be mitotically stable by a conidial germination test. In contrast, only 4 out of 9 transformants of P. fumosoroseus were mitotically stable. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from both species suggested that the mechanism of transformation in all transformants was by gene replacement of the b-tubulin allele. Non-homologous vector sequences were not detectable in the genomes of transformants.


Subject(s)
Benomyl/pharmacology , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Paecilomyces/drug effects , Paecilomyces/genetics , Transformation, Genetic , Blotting, Southern , DNA , Nucleic Acid Hybridization , Plasmids , Drug Resistance, Microbial
10.
Bulletin of the National Nutrition Institute of the Arab Republic of Egypt. 1996; 16 (1): 148-59
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-40530
11.
Bulletin of the National Nutrition Institute of the Arab Republic of Egypt. 1996; 16 (1): 160-79
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-40531
12.
Pesticidas ; 3(3): 21-34, jan.-dez. 1993.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-186353

ABSTRACT

As bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio atmosférico, via processo simbiótico, repassam N2 às leguminosas sob forma de amônia, proporcionando aumento na produçäo de alimentos protéicos, reciclagem biológica de nitrogênio do ar, evitando o alto custo da adubaçäo nitrogenada e o efeito potencialmente poluidor do nitrato lixiviado. Testou-se quatro estirpes de Rhizobium phaseoli frente a quatro fungicidas indicados para o tratamento de sementes de Phaseolus vulgaris L. (feijoeiro), no Estado do Rio Grande o sul (Brasil). Considerando-se as dosagens recomendadas dos fungicidas, houve crescimento bacteriano das quatro estirpes frente a Benomil e inibiçäo total frente a Captan; porém, para PCNB e Thiram, a resistência dependeu do tipo de estirpe. Observou-se que näo há influência de fungicidas sobre o desenvolvimento do Rhizobium phaseoli quando seleciona-se a estirpe adequada ao fungicida corretamente dosado.


Subject(s)
Fabaceae/microbiology , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Rhizobium leguminosarum/growth & development , Benomyl/administration & dosage , Benomyl/pharmacology , Captan/administration & dosage , Captan/pharmacology , Fungicides, Industrial/administration & dosage , Nitrogen Fixation , Rhizobium leguminosarum/drug effects
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1992 May; 30(5): 435-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-57564

ABSTRACT

Five commercial preparations of natural pesticides were tested for in vitro compatibility with muscardine fungi, Beauveria brongniartii and Metarhizium anisopliae. Neemark (azadirachtin) was found compatible with both the fungi. Phytoallexin, the natural fungicide, significantly inhibited the growth of both the fungi, while other natural pesticides showed moderate to severe inhibition.


Subject(s)
Fungi/drug effects , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Insecticides/pharmacology , Pest Control, Biological , Plants
14.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1991 Oct; 29(10): 943-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-55853

ABSTRACT

Mancozeb, a commonly used fungicide, has been shown to induce tumours in mouse skin and maneb, unit constituent of mancozeb, is reported to induce tumours in rats. The mechanism by which mancozeb induced tumorigenicity is not known. Since the levels of inositol phospholipids and phosphatidic acid have roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, the effects of mancozeb on the levels of these lipids were studied in rats. Daily oral administration of commercial grade mancozeb at a concentration of 50 mg/kg body wt for 30 days (5 days a week) caused no significant change in the levels of inositol phospholipids and phosphatidic acid (PA) in both cerebrum and liver, while at high concentration (250 mg/kg body wt) under the same treatment schedule mancozeb increased the levels of these lipids. In cerebrum, the levels of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and PA were increased by 36 and 43% respectively without affecting the levels of polyphosphoinositides, whereas in liver the levels of not only PI (50%) and PA (49%) but also those of polyphosphoinositides were increased. These results show that mancozeb influences the levels of PA and inositol phospholipids, involved in phospholipase C-pathway of signalling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/anatomy & histology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Liver/anatomy & histology , Maneb/pharmacology , Organ Size , Phosphatidic Acids/biosynthesis , Pregnancy , Rats , Zineb/pharmacology
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