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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717999

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive collection of proteins senses local changes in intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺](i) and transduces these signals into responses to agonists. In the present study, we examined the effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) on modulation of intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells. To measure [Ca²⁺](i) levels in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells, we used a fluorescence microscopy with the Fura-2 loading method. S1P produced a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca²⁺](i) in the cells. Pretreatment with EGTA, an extracellular Ca²⁺ chelator, decreased the S1P-induced increase in [Ca²⁺](i), and an L-type Ca²⁺-channel blocker, nimodipine, decreased the effect of S1P. This indicates that Ca²⁺ influx may be required for muscle contraction by S1P. When stimulated with thapsigargin, an intracellular calcium chelator, or 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an InsP₃ receptor blocker, the S1P-evoked increase in [Ca²⁺](i) was significantly decreased. Treatment with pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of G(i)-protein, suppressed the increase in [Ca²⁺](i) evoked by S1P. These results suggest that the S1P-induced increase in [Ca²⁺](i) in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells occurs upon the activation of phospholipase C and subsequent release of Ca²⁺ from the InsP₃-sensitive Ca²⁺ pool in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. These results suggest that S1P utilized extracellular Ca²⁺ via the L type Ca²⁺ channel, which was dependent on activation of the S1P₄ receptor coupled to PTX-sensitive G(i) protein, via phospholipase C-mediated Ca²⁺ release from the InsP₃-sensitive Ca²⁺ pool in cat esophageal smooth muscle cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Cats , Egtazic Acid , Fura-2 , Methods , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Muscle Contraction , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Nimodipine , Pertussis Toxin , Phospholipases , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum , Thapsigargin , Type C Phospholipases
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728624

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have provided several lines of evidence that peripheral administration of oxytocin induces analgesia in human and rodents. However, the exact underlying mechanism of analgesia still remains elusive. In the present study, we aimed to identify which receptor could mediate the analgesic effect of intraperitoneal injection of oxytocin and its cellular mechanisms in thermal pain behavior. We found that oxytocin-induced analgesia could be reversed by d(CH₂)₅[Tyr(Me)²,Dab⁵] AVP, a vasopressin-1a (V1a) receptor antagonist, but not by desGly-NH₂-d(CH₂)₅[DTyr², Thr⁴]OVT, an oxytocin receptor antagonist. Single cell RT-PCR analysis revealed that V1a receptor, compared to oxytocin, vasopressin-1b and vasopressin-2 receptors, was more profoundly expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and the expression of V1a receptor was predominant in transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-expressing DRG neurons. Fura-2 based calcium imaging experiments showed that capsaicin-induced calcium transient was significantly inhibited by oxytocin and that such inhibition was reversed by V1a receptor antagonist. Additionally, whole cell patch clamp recording demonstrated that oxytocin significantly increased potassium conductance via V1a receptor in DRG neurons. Taken together, our findings suggest that analgesic effects produced by peripheral administration of oxytocin were attributable to the activation of V1a receptor, resulting in reduction of TRPV1 activity and enhancement of potassium conductance in DRG neurons.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Calcium , Diagnosis-Related Groups , Electrophysiology , Fura-2 , Ganglia, Spinal , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Neurons , Oxytocin , Potassium , Receptors, Oxytocin , Receptors, Vasopressin , Rodentia , Spinal Nerve Roots
3.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 229-238, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The goal of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of lipid emulsion on vasodilation caused by toxic doses of bupivacaine and mepivacaine during contraction induced by a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), in an isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. METHODS: The effects of lipid emulsion on the dose-response curves induced by bupivacaine or mepivacaine in an isolated aorta precontracted with PDBu were assessed. In addition, the effects of bupivacaine on the increased intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca²⁺]ᵢ) and contraction induced by PDBu were investigated using fura-2 loaded aortic strips. Further, the effects of bupivacaine, the PKC inhibitor GF109203X and lipid emulsion, alone or in combination, on PDBu-induced PKC and phosphorylation-dependent inhibitory protein of myosin phosphatase (CPI-17) phosphorylation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was examined by western blotting. RESULTS: Lipid emulsion attenuated the vasodilation induced by bupivacaine, whereas it had no effect on that induced by mepivacaine. Lipid emulsion had no effect on PDBu-induced contraction. The magnitude of bupivacaine-induced vasodilation was higher than that of the bupivacaine-induced decrease in [Ca²⁺]ᵢ. PDBu promoted PKC and CPI-17 phosphorylation in aortic VSMCs. Bupivacaine and GF109203X attenuated PDBu-induced PKC and CPI-17 phosphorylation, whereas lipid emulsion attenuated bupivacaine-mediated inhibition of PDBu-induced PKC and CPI-17 phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that lipid emulsion attenuates the vasodilation induced by a toxic dose of bupivacaine via inhibition of bupivacaine-induced PKC and CPI-17 dephosphorylation. This lipid emulsion-mediated inhibition of vasodilation may be partly associated with the lipid solubility of local anesthetics.


Subject(s)
Anesthetics, Local , Animals , Aorta , Blotting, Western , Bupivacaine , Calcium , Fura-2 , In Vitro Techniques , Mepivacaine , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myosin-Light-Chain Phosphatase , Phorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Solubility , Vasodilation
4.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 229-238, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The goal of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of lipid emulsion on vasodilation caused by toxic doses of bupivacaine and mepivacaine during contraction induced by a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), in an isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. METHODS: The effects of lipid emulsion on the dose-response curves induced by bupivacaine or mepivacaine in an isolated aorta precontracted with PDBu were assessed. In addition, the effects of bupivacaine on the increased intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca²⁺]ᵢ) and contraction induced by PDBu were investigated using fura-2 loaded aortic strips. Further, the effects of bupivacaine, the PKC inhibitor GF109203X and lipid emulsion, alone or in combination, on PDBu-induced PKC and phosphorylation-dependent inhibitory protein of myosin phosphatase (CPI-17) phosphorylation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was examined by western blotting. RESULTS: Lipid emulsion attenuated the vasodilation induced by bupivacaine, whereas it had no effect on that induced by mepivacaine. Lipid emulsion had no effect on PDBu-induced contraction. The magnitude of bupivacaine-induced vasodilation was higher than that of the bupivacaine-induced decrease in [Ca²⁺]ᵢ. PDBu promoted PKC and CPI-17 phosphorylation in aortic VSMCs. Bupivacaine and GF109203X attenuated PDBu-induced PKC and CPI-17 phosphorylation, whereas lipid emulsion attenuated bupivacaine-mediated inhibition of PDBu-induced PKC and CPI-17 phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that lipid emulsion attenuates the vasodilation induced by a toxic dose of bupivacaine via inhibition of bupivacaine-induced PKC and CPI-17 dephosphorylation. This lipid emulsion-mediated inhibition of vasodilation may be partly associated with the lipid solubility of local anesthetics.


Subject(s)
Anesthetics, Local , Animals , Aorta , Blotting, Western , Bupivacaine , Calcium , Fura-2 , In Vitro Techniques , Mepivacaine , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Myosin-Light-Chain Phosphatase , Phorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Solubility , Vasodilation
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-649689

ABSTRACT

Regulation of immune cell function is an important in the field of hormone-related tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this sense, hormonal regulation of immune cell function is a critical issue to be solved. It has been known that ovarian sex hormone play an important roles in immune function, however, little has been known whether estrogen affects T-lymphocyte function. Human Jurkat T cells were treated with estradiol (E₂) at concentrations of 0, 10, 100, 1000 ng/mL, and calcium response was evaluated. Intracellular calcium concentrations after Fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester treatment show an increasing trend at higher E₂ concentrations although these alterations did not reach a statistical significance. The expression of calcium channel-related gene CACNA1C did not show any significant changes according to the concentration of E₂. Taken together, estrogen has an implication as a possible hormonal regulator of intracellular calcium release in human Jurkat T cells via non-genomic pathway. Further studies are necessary to investigate the combined effects of sex hormones and cytokines in both T- and B-lymphocytes.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Calcium , Calcium Channels , Cytokines , Estradiol , Estrogens , Fura-2 , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Humans , Regenerative Medicine , T-Lymphocytes , Tissue Engineering
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727360

ABSTRACT

Fura-2 analogs are ratiometric fluoroprobes that are widely used for the quantitative measurement of [Ca2+]. However, the dye usage is intrinsically limited, as the dyes require ultraviolet (UV) excitation, which can also generate great interference, mainly from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) autofluorescence. Specifically, this limitation causes serious problems for the quantitative measurement of mitochondrial [Ca2+], as no available ratiometric dyes are excited in the visible range. Thus, NADH interference cannot be avoided during quantitative measurement of [Ca2+] because the majority of NADH is located in the mitochondria. The emission intensity ratio of two different excitation wavelengths must be constant when the fluorescent dye concentration is the same. In accordance with this principle, we developed a novel online method that corrected NADH and Fura-2-FF interference. We simultaneously measured multiple parameters, including NADH, [Ca2+], and pH/mitochondrial membrane potential; Fura-2-FF for mitochondrial [Ca2+] and TMRE for Psi(m) or carboxy-SNARF-1 for pH were used. With this novel method, we found that the resting mitochondrial [Ca2+] concentration was 1.03 microM. This 1 microM cytosolic Ca2+ could theoretically increase to more than 100 mM in mitochondria. However, the mitochondrial [Ca2+] increase was limited to ~30 microM in the presence of 1 microM cytosolic Ca2+. Our method solved the problem of NADH signal contamination during the use of Fura-2 analogs, and therefore the method may be useful when NADH interference is expected.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Coloring Agents , Cytosol , Fura-2 , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Membrane Potentials , Mitochondria , Muscle Cells , NAD , Rats
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mepivacaine induces contraction or decreased blood flow both in vivo and in vitro. Vasoconstriction is associated with an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). However, the mechanism responsible for the mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increase remains to be determined. Therefore, the objective of this in vitro study was to examine the mechanism responsible for the mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increment in isolated rat aorta. METHODS: Isometric tension was measured in isolated rat aorta without endothelium. In addition, fura-2 loaded aortic muscle strips were illuminated alternately (48 Hz) at two excitation wavelengths (340 and 380 nm). The ratio of F340 to F380 (F340/F380) was regarded as an amount of [Ca2+]i. We investigated the effects of nifedipine, 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB), gadolinium chloride hexahydrate (Gd3+), low calcium level and Krebs solution without calcium on the mepivacaine-evoked contraction in isolated rat aorta and on the mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increment in fura-2 loaded aortic strips. We assessed the effect of verapamil on the mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increment. RESULTS: Mepivacaine produced vasoconstriction and increased [Ca2+]i. Nifedipine, 2-APB and low calcium attenuated vasoconstriction and the [Ca2+]i increase evoked by mepivacaine. Verapamil attenuated the mepivacaine-induced [Ca2+]i increment. Calcium-free solution almost abolished mepivacaine-induced contraction and strongly attenuated the mepivacaineinduced [Ca2+]i increase. Gd3+ had no effect on either vasoconstriction or the [Ca2+]i increment evoked by mepivacaine. CONCLUSIONS: The mepivacaine-evoked [Ca2+]i increment, which contributes to mepivacaine-evoked contraction, appears to be mediated mainly by calcium influx and partially by calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta , Calcium , Endothelium , Fura-2 , Gadolinium , Mepivacaine , Nifedipine , Rats , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum , Vasoconstriction , Verapamil
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42149

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: One of the antidiabetic drugs, metformin, have shown that it prevented oxidative stress-induced death in several cell types through a mechanism involving the opening of the permeability transition pore and cytochrome c release. Thus, it is possible that the antioxidative effect of metformin can also serve as protection against gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to examine the protective effect of metformin on gentamicin-induced vestibulotoxicity in primary cell culture derived from rat utricle. METHODS: For vestibular primary cell culture, rat utricles were dissected and incubated. Gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity was measured in both the auditory and vestibular cells. To examine the effects of metformin on gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity in the primary cell culture, the cells were pretreated with metformin at a concentration of 1 mM for 24 hours, and then exposed to 2.5 mM gentamicin for 48 hours. The intracellular ROS level was measured using a fluorescent dye, and also measured using a FACScan flow cytometer. Intracellular calcium levels in the vestibular cells were measured with calcium imaging using Fura-2 AM. RESULTS: Vestibular cells were more sensitive to gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity than auditory hair cells. Metformin protects against gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity in vestibular cells. Metformin significantly reduced a gentamicin-induced increase in ROS, and also reduced an increase in intracellular calcium concentrations in gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity. CONCLUSION: Metformin significantly reduced a gentamicin-induced increase in ROS, stabilized the intracellular calcium concentration, and inhibited gentamicin-induced apoptosis. Thus, Metformin showed protective effect on gentamicin-induced cytotoxicity in vestibular primary cell culture.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Calcium , Cytochromes c , Fura-2 , Gentamicins , Hair Cells, Auditory , Hypoglycemic Agents , Metformin , Permeability , Primary Cell Culture , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Saccule and Utricle , Vestibule, Labyrinth
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-102158

ABSTRACT

Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as modulators of neuronal activity, and are critically involved in persistent pain primarily through spinal mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the effects of NaOCl, a ROS donor, on neuronal excitability and the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons. In current clamp conditions, the application of NaOCl caused a membrane depolarization, which was inhibited by pretreatment with phenyl-N-tert-buthylnitrone (PBN), a ROS scavenger. The NaOCl-induced depolarization was not blocked however by pretreatment with dithiothreitol, a sulfhydryl-reducing agent. Confocal scanning laser microscopy was used to confirm whether NaOCl increases the intracellular ROS level. ROS-induced fluorescence intensity was found to be increased during perfusion of NaOCl after the loading of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H2DCF-DA). NaOCl-induced depolarization was not blocked by pretreatment with external Ca2+ free solution or by the addition of nifedifine. However, when slices were pretreated with the Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, NaOCl failed to induce membrane depolarization. In a calcium imaging technique using the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescence dye fura-2, the [Ca2+]i was found to be increased by NaOCl. These results indicate that NaOCl activates the excitability of SG neurons via the modulation of the intracellular calcium concentration, and suggest that ROS induces nociception through a central sensitization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Central Nervous System Sensitization , Dithiothreitol , Fluoresceins , Fluorescence , Fura-2 , Humans , Membranes , Microscopy, Confocal , Neurons , Nociception , Perfusion , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Substantia Gelatinosa , Thapsigargin , Tissue Donors
10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 536-542, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glucosamine is widely taken as a functional food, and some studies reported its anti-inflammatory effects. K+ channels and intracellular signal play important roles in the activation of immune cells such as T lymphocytes. Therefore we aimed to examine the effects of glucosamine on the cell physiological parameters. METHODS: In Jurkat-T lymphocytes, intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) was measured using fura-2 fluorimetry, and voltage-gated K+ current (I(Kv)) was measured using whole-cell clamp technique. Ca2+-activated K+ current (I(Kca)) was measured in HEK293 cells over expressing SK4 using inside-out patch clamp technique. RESULTS: An acute application of glucosamine (0.5 mM) affected neither the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by CD3 stimulation (anti-CD3 Ab, 5 microgram/mL) nor the I(Kv) in Jurkat-T cells. A chronic stimulation of with anti-CD3 Ab (5 microgram/mL, 24~36 hr) largely increased the amplitude of IKv. However, the combined treatment with glucosamine (0.1 mM) did not block the increase of I(Kv). The I(KCa) in SK4-overexpressing cells was slightly decreased by glucosamine (0.5 mM). CONCLUSIONS: While glucosamine had a minor inhibitory effect on SK4 K+ channels, the anti-inflammatory effects of glucosamine could not be explained by the effects on the Ca2+ signaling in T lymphocytes.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Fluorometry , Functional Food , Fura-2 , Glucosamine , HEK293 Cells , Ion Channels , Lymphocytes , T-Lymphocytes
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728659

ABSTRACT

The effects of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and its major lipid constituent lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) on Ca2+ entry were investigated in cultured human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) using fura-2 fluorescence and patch-clamp methods. OxLDL or LPC increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), and the increase of [Ca2+]i by OxLDL or by LPC was inhibited by La3+ or heparin. LPC failed to increase [Ca2+]i in the presence of an antioxidant tempol. In addition, store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOC), which was evoked by intracellular Ca2+ store depletion in Ca2+-free solution using the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump blocker, 2, 5-di-t-butyl-1, 4-benzohydroquinone (BHQ), was further enhanced by OxLDL or by LPC. Increased SOC by OxLDL or by LPC was inhibited by U73122. In voltage-clamped cells, OxLDL or LPC increased [Ca2+]i and simultaneously activated non-selective cation (NSC) currents. LPC-induced NSC currents were inhibited by 2-APB, La3+ or U73122, and NSC currents were not activated by LPC in the presence of tempol. Furthermore, in voltage-clamped HUVECs, OxLDL enhanced SOC and evoked outward currents simultaneously. Clamping intracellular Ca2+ to 1 micrometer activated large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) current spontaneously, and this activated BKCa current was further enhanced by OxLDL or by LPC. From these results, we concluded that OxLDL or its main component LPC activates Ca2+-permeable Ca2+-activated NSC current and BKCa current simultaneously, thereby increasing SOC.


Subject(s)
Constriction , Cyclic N-Oxides , Endothelial Cells , Estrenes , Fluorescence , Fura-2 , Heparin , Humans , Lipoproteins , Lipoproteins, LDL , Lysophosphatidylcholines , Pyrrolidinones , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum , Spin Labels
12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 259-266, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-277865

ABSTRACT

Effect of strophanthidin (Str) on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was investigated on isolated ventricular myocytes of guinea pig. Single ventricular myocytes were obtained by enzymatic dissociation technique. Fluorescent signal of [Ca2+]i was detected with confocal microscopy after incubation of cardiomycytes in Tyrode' s solution with Fluo3-AM. The result showed that Str increased [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner. The ventricular myocytes began to round-up into a contracture state once the peak level of [Ca2+]i was achieved in the presence of Str (10 micromol L(- 1)), but remained no change in the presence of Str (1 and 100 nmol L(-1)). Tetrodotoxin (TTX), nisodipine, and high concentration of extracellular Ca2+ changed the response of cardiomycytes to Str (1 and 100 nmol L(-1)) , but had no obvious effects on the action of Str (10 micromol L(-1)). The elevation of [Ca2+]i caused by Str at all of the detected concentrations was partially antagonized by rynodine (10 micromol L(-1)) or the removal of Ca2+ from Tyrode's solution. In Na+, K+ -free Tyrode' s solution, the response of cardiomycytes in [Ca2+]i elevation to Str (10 micromol L(-1)) was attenuated, while remained no change to Str (1 and 100 nmol L(-1)). TTX, nisodipine, and high concentration of extracellular Ca2+ changed the response of cardiomycytes to Str at all of the detected concentrations in Na+, K+ -free Tyrode's solution. The study suggests that the elevation of [Ca2+]i by Str at the low (nomomolar) concentrations is partially mediated by the extracellular calcium influx through Ca2+ channel or a "slip mode conductance" of TTX sensitive Na+ channel. While the effect of Str at high (micromolar) concentrations was mainly due to the inhibition of Na+, K+ -ATPase. Directly triggering the release of intracellular Ca2+ from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) by Str may be also involved in the mechanism of [Ca2+]i elevation.


Subject(s)
3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester , Pharmacology , Aequorin , Pharmacology , Animals , Calcium , Metabolism , Calcium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Calcium Channels , Metabolism , Fura-2 , Pharmacology , Guinea Pigs , Myocardium , Pathology , Nifedipine , Pharmacology , Ryanodine , Pharmacology , Sarcolemma , Metabolism , Pathology , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum , Metabolism , Sodium-Calcium Exchanger , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Strophanthidin , Pharmacology , Tetrodotoxin , Pharmacology , Thapsigargin , Pharmacology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728378

ABSTRACT

[Ca2+]i transients by reverse mode of cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) were recorded in fura-2 loaded BHK cells with stable expression of NCX1. Repeated stimulation of reverse NCX1 produced a long-lasting decrease of Ca2+ transients ('rundown'). Rundown of NCX1 was independent of membrane PIP2 depletion. Although the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) was observed during the Ca2+ transients, neither a selective PKC inhibitor (calphostin C) nor a PKC activator (PMA) changed the degrees of rundown. By comparison, a non-specific PKC inhibitor, staurosporine (STS), reversed rundown in a dose-dependent and reversible manner. The action of STS was unaffected by pretreatment of the cells with calphostin C, PMA, or forskolin. Taken together, the results suggest that the stimulation of reverse NCX1 by STS is independent of PKC and/or PKA inhibition.


Subject(s)
Colforsin , Fura-2 , Membranes , Naphthalenes , Protein Kinase C , Staurosporine
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-254560

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To study whether store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOC) is present in rat colonic smooth muscle cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) changes induced by thapsigargin- or caffeine-activated SOC channel were measured in enzymatically dissociated rat colonic smooth muscle cells with the fluorescent indicator Fura-2/AM.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the absence of external Ca2+ , the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitor thapsigargin (1 micromol/L) and ryanodine receptor (RyR) activator caffeine both transiently elevated [Ca2+]i from (68.32 +/- 3.43) nmol/L to (240.85 +/- 12.65 ) nmol/L, (481.25 +/- 34.77) nmol/L. A subsequent reintroduction of Ca2+ into the extracellular solution resulted in [Ca2+]i further elevated to (457.55 +/- 19.80) nmol/L, (1005.93 +/- 54.62) nmol/L; (643.88 +/- 34.65) nmol/L, (920.16 +/- 43.25) nmol/L, respectively. And the elevated response was blocked by lanthanum (1 mmol/L), but was insensitive to L-type voltage calcium channels blocker verapamil and membrane depolarization.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SOC activated by store depletion are present in rat colonic smooth muscle cells. And we further prove the existence of such Ca2+ channels in excitable cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Caffeine , Pharmacology , Calcium , Metabolism , Calcium Channels , Physiology , Colon , Cell Biology , Fura-2 , Metabolism , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Thapsigargin , Pharmacology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728710

ABSTRACT

The mechanism underlying oxidant-induced intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) increase was studied in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) using fura-2 AM. In the presence of 2 mM extracellular Ca2+, the application of DTBNP (20microM), a membrane-permeable oxidant, caused an increase in [Ca2+]i, and DTT (2 mM) as a reductant completely reversed the effect of DTBNP. The [Ca2+]i increase induced by DTBNP was also observed in an extracellular Ca2+-free/2 mM EGTA solution, indicating the release of Ca2+ from intracellular store (s). After endoplasmic reticulum was depleted by an IP3-generating agonist, ATP (30microM) or an ER Ca2+ pump inhibitor, thapsigargin (1microM), DTBNP-stressed BAECs showed an increase of [Ca2+]i in Ca2+-free/2 mM EGTA solution. Ratio-differences before and after the application of DTBNP after pretreatment with ATP or thapsigargin were 0.42+/-0.15 and 0.49+/-0.07, respectively (n=7), which are significantly reduced, compared to the control value of 0.72+/-0.07 in a Ca2+-free/2 mM EGTA solution. After the protonophore CCCP (10microM) challenge to release mitochondrial Ca2+, the similar result was obtained. Ratio-difference before and after the application of DTBNP after pretreatment with CCCP was 0.46+/-0.09 (n=7). Simultaneous application of thapsigargin and CCCP completely abolished the DTBNP-induced [Ca2+]i increase. The above results together indicate that the increase of [Ca2+]i by DTBNP resulted from the release of Ca2+ from both endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone , Egtazic Acid , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Endothelial Cells , Fura-2 , Mitochondria , Thapsigargin
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727772

ABSTRACT

To prove the buffering contribution of mitochondria to the increase of intracellular Ca2+ level ([Ca2+]i) via background nonselective cation channel (background NSCC), we examined whether inhibition of mitochondria by protonophore carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) affects endothelial Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ buffering in freshly isolated rabbit aortic endothelial cells (RAECs). The ratio of fluorescence by fura-2 AM (R340/380) was measured in RAECs. Biological state was checked by application of acetylcholine (ACh) and ACh (10microM) increased R340/380 by 1.1+/-0.15 (mean+/-S.E., n=6). When the external Na+ was totally replaced by NMDG+, R340/380 was increased by 1.19+/-0.17 in a reversible manner (n=27). NMDG+-induced [Ca2+]i increase was followed by oscillatory decay after [Ca2+]i reached the peak level. The increase of [Ca2+]i by NMDG+ was completely suppressed by replacement with Cs+. When 1microM CCCP was applied to bath solution, the ratio of [Ca2+]i was increased by 0.4+/-0.06 (n=31). When 1microM CCCP was used for pretreatment before application of NMDG+, oscillatory decay of [Ca2+]i by NMDG+ was significantly inhibited compared to the control (p < 0.05). In addition, NMDG+-induced increase of [Ca2+]i was highly enhanced by pretreatment with 2microM CCCP by 320+/-93.7%, compared to the control (mean+/-S.E., n=12). From these results, it is concluded that mitochondria might have buffering contribution to the [Ca2+]i increase through regulation of the background NSCC in RAECs.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Baths , Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone , Endothelial Cells , Fluorescence , Fura-2 , Mitochondria
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-16242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The biochemical mechanisms underlying the development of sensitization-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in asthma are poorly defined. Alterations in the regulation of intracellular calcium may play an important role in its pathogenesis. We carried out this study to see the effect of sensitization with ovalbumin on membrane ion fluxes and intracellular calcium in a guinea pig model. METHODS: Airway reactivity to inhaled histamine was measured initially and after sensitization with ovalbumin in 28 guineapigs. Intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)]i was measured in tracheal smooth muscle cells and peripheral leukocytes using fluorescent dye FURA 2AM. Calcium and sodium ion influx across the cell membrane was measured in leukocytes. Ouabain-sensitive Rubidium ((86)Rb) influx was measured in tracheal smooth muscles cells. The activities of Na(+), K(+) ATPase and Ca(2+) ATPase were measured in tracheal smooth muscle cells. Lipid peroxides were measured in plasma. RESULTS: Airway responsiveness was significantly (P<0.001) increased after sensitization along with an increase in [Ca2+]i levels in leukocytes and tracheal smooth muscle cells, higher rates of (45)Ca and (22)Na influx in leukocytes and higher (86)Rb influx rates in tracheal smooth muscle cells, and increased levels of lipid peroxides in plasma. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: In guineapig model of asthma sensitization to allergen increased the membrane permeability to calcium and sodium, and intracellular calcium levels. These alterations may play a role in the pathogenesis of airway hyper-responsiveness following sensitization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bronchial Hyperreactivity/metabolism , Calcium/chemistry , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Fluorescent Dyes/metabolism , Fura-2/analogs & derivatives , Guinea Pigs , Histamine/metabolism , Ions/metabolism , Leukocytes/cytology , Lipid Peroxidation , Male , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/cytology , Ovalbumin/metabolism , Rubidium Radioisotopes/metabolism , Sodium Radioisotopes/metabolism , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism , Trachea/cytology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236506

ABSTRACT

By using Fura-2/AM, the effects of magnesium (Mg2+) on the glutamate-induced increase of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) in the cultured hippocampal neurons and the features were investigated by integrated photoelectric detecting system. The experiments were designed to three groups (The drug was spit to the cells for 20 s): Group A receiving 1 x 10(-5) mol/L glutamate; Group B receiving 1 x 10(-5) mol/L glutamate and 1 x 10(-5) mol/L Mg2+ simultaneously; Group C receiving 1 x 10(-5) mol/L glutamate again after [Ca2+]i in group B back to the baseline. The results showed that in group A, [Ca2+]i was obviously increased. In group B, the changes in [Ca+] i and the peak value were significantly decreased. Moreover, the elevation of Phase 1 was slowed down and Phase 2 was shortened to some extent, and the plateau phase between them was relatively prolonged. In group C, calcium oscillation similar to that in group A occurred, but both the Phase 1 and Phase 2 were shortened and the delta[Ca2+]i was slightly decreased. It was suggested that Mg2+ could quickly inhibit the rise of [Ca2+]i induced by glutamate in the cultured hippocampal neurons in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Biological Transport, Active , Calcium , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Fura-2 , Pharmacology , Glutamates , Pharmacology , Hippocampus , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Magnesium , Pharmacology , Neurons , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727783

ABSTRACT

The present study were designed to characterize the action mechanisms of acetylcholine (ACh) -induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in arteries precontracted with high K (70 mM). For this, we simultaneously measured both muscle tension and cytosolic free Ca2 concentration ([Ca2 ]i), using fura-2, in endothelium-intact, rabbit carotid arterial strips. In the artery with endothelium, high K increased both [Ca2 ]i and muscle tension whereas ACh (10microM) significantly relaxed the muscle and increased [Ca2 ]i. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME, 0.1 mM), ACh increased [Ca2 ]i without relaxing the muscle. In the artery without endothelium, high K increased both [Ca2 ]i and muscle tension although ACh was ineffective. 4-DAMP (10 nM) or atropine (0.1microM) abolished ACh-induced increase in [Ca2 ]i and relaxation. The increase of [Ca2 ]i and vasorelaxation by ACh was siginificantly reduced by either 3microM gadolinium, 10microM lanthanum, or by 10microM SKF 96365. These results suggest that in rabbit carotid artery, ACh-evoked relaxation of 70 mM K -induced contractions appears to be mediated by the release of NO. ACh-evoked vasorelaxation is mediated via the M3 subtype, and activation of the M3 subtype is suggested to stimulate nonselective cation channels, leading to increase of [Ca2 ]i in endothelial cells.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Arteries , Atropine , Carotid Arteries , Cytosol , Endothelial Cells , Endothelium , Fura-2 , Gadolinium , Lanthanum , Muscle Tonus , Nitric Oxide , Nitroarginine , Relaxation , Vasodilation
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) is an important process in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. VSMCs proliferation is closedly related to the cytosolic calcium flux via L-type voltage dependent calcium channel. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of cytosolic Ca2+ in the proliferation of VSMCs. METHODS: The proliferation of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, acquired by enzymatic method. Cell counting, and calcium agonists(Bay K 8644 10(-6)M) or calcium antagonists(verapamil 10(-6)M). Cytosolic calcium ion was measured with Fura 2 method. Calcium channel gene expression was detected with RT-PCR method. RESULTS: VSMCs of diabetic rats were more proliferated than those of nondiabetic ones. Bay K 8644 enhanced VSMCs proliferation of both groups. Verapamil blocked the incremental effects induced by Bay K 8644. Expression of calcium channel gene was enhanced by Bay K 8644 and was reversed by vera- pamil. CONCLUSION: The enhanced proliferation of VSMCs is associated with the increment in cytosolic calcium, which is accompli shed through the expression of L-type voltage dependent calcium channel.


Subject(s)
3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester , Animals , Aorta , Atherosclerosis , Calcium , Calcium Channels , Cell Count , Cytosol , Fura-2 , Gene Expression , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Rats , Streptozocin , Verapamil
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