OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of DNA methylation level of HYAL2 gene as a molecular marker for differential diagnosis of malignant and benign thyroid tumors.@*METHODS@#DNA methylation of HYAL2 gene in tissue specimens of 190 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and 190 age- and gender-matched patients with benign thyroid tumors was examined by mass spectrometry, and the protein expression of HYAL2 was detected immunohistochemically for another 55 pairs of patients. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and evaluate the correlation of per 10% reduction in DNA methylation with PTC. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed and the area under curve (AUC) was calculated to assess the predictive value of alterations in HYAL2 methylation.@*RESULTS@#Hypomethylation of HYAL2_CpG_3 was significantly correlated with early-stage PTC (OR=1.51, P=0.001), even in stage I cancer (OR=1.42, P=0.007). Age-stratified analysis revealed a significantly stronger correlation between increased HYAL2_CpG_ 3 methylation and early-stage PTC in patients below 50 years than in those older than 50 years (OR: 1.89 vs 1.37, P < 0.05); ROC analysis also showed a larger AUC of 0.787 in younger patients. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that patients with PTC had significantly higher protein expressions of HYAL2 than patients with benign tumors.@*CONCLUSION@#The alterations of DNA methylation level of HYAL2 gene is significantly correlated with early-stage PTC, suggesting the value of DNA methylation level as a potential biomarker for differentiation of malignant from benign thyroid tumors.
Subject(s)Adenoma, Oxyphilic/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , DNA Methylation , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Hyaluronoglucosaminidase/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Middle Aged , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology
Regeneration of injured peripheral nerves is an extremely complex process. Nogo-A (neurite outgrowth inhibitor-A) inhibits axonal regeneration by interacting with Nogo receptor in the myelin sheath of the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Nogo-A and its receptor on the repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=96) were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (control), sciatic nerve transection group (model), immediate repair group (immediate repair), and delayed repair group (delayed repair). The rats were euthanized 1 week and 6 weeks after operation. The injured end tissues of the spinal cord and sciatic nerve were obtained. The protein expressions of Nogo-A and Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The protein expressions of Nogo-A, NgR, and Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) were detected by western blot. At 1 week after operation, the pathological changes in the immediate repaired group were less, and the protein expressions of Nogo-A, NgR, and RhoA in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve tissues were decreased (P<0.05) compared with the model group. After 6 weeks, the pathological changes in the immediate repair group and the delayed repair group were alleviated and the protein expressions decreased (P<0.05). The situation of the immediate repair group was better than that of the delayed repair group. Our data suggest that the expression of Nogo-A and its receptor increased after sciatic nerve injury, indicating that Nogo-A and its receptor play an inhibitory role in the repair process of sciatic nerve injury in rats.
Subject(s)Animals , Rats , Receptors, Cell Surface , Myelin Proteins , Sciatic Nerve , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , GPI-Linked Proteins , Nogo Proteins , Nerve Regeneration
ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the influence of atractylenolide (Atr) III on sepsis-induced lung damage. Methods: We constructed a mouse sepsis model through cecal ligation and puncture. These mice were allocated to the normal, sepsis, sepsis + Atr III-L (2 mg/kg), as well as Atr III-H (8 mg/kg) group. Lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis were accessed via hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's staining. We used terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and flow cytometry for detecting sepsis-induced lung cell apoptosis. The contents of the inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Atr III-H did not only reduce sepsis-induced lung injury and apoptosis level, but also curbed the secretion of inflammatory factors. Atr III-H substantially ameliorated lung function and raised Bcl-2 expression. Atr III-H eased the pulmonary fibrosis damage and Bax, caspase-3, Vanin-1 (VNN1), as well as Forkhead Box Protein O1 (FoxO1) expression. Conclusions: Atr III alleviates sepsis-mediated lung injury via inhibition of FoxO1 and VNN1 protein.
Subject(s)Animals , Mice , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/drug therapy , Lung Injury , Forkhead Box Protein O1/antagonists & inhibitors , Amidohydrolases/antagonists & inhibitors , Apoptosis , GPI-Linked Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Lactones
OBJECTIVES@#To study the expression of adipokines in children with primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) before and after treatment and its correlation with blood lipids, as well as the role of adipokines in PNS children with hyperlipidemia.@*METHODS@#A total of 90 children who were diagnosed with incipient PNS or recurrence of PNS after corticosteroid withdrawal for more than 6 months were enrolled as subjects. Thirty children who underwent physical examination were enrolled as the control group. Venous blood samples were collected from the children in the control group and the children with PNS before corticosteroid therapy (active stage) and after urinary protein clearance following 4 weeks of corticosteroid therapy (remission stage). ELISA was used to measure the levels of adipokines. An automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure blood lipid levels.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the children with PNS had a significantly lower level of omentin-1 in both active and remission stages, and their level of omentin-1 in the active stage was significantly lower than that in the remission stage (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Omentin-1 may be associated with disease activity, dyslipidemia, and proteinuria in children with PNS. Blood lipid ratios may be more effective than traditional blood lipid parameters in monitoring early cardiovascular risk in children with PNS.
Subject(s)Adipokines , Chemokines , Child , Cytokines/metabolism , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Hyperlipidemias , Lectins/metabolism , Lipids , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy , Proteinuria
Objective To investigate the expression of Cripto-1 in pancreatic cancer and to analyze its clinical significance. Methods Cripto-1 expression in normal pancreas,pancreatic cancer and adjacent non-tumor tissues,chronic pancreatitis tissues and other related tissues was evaluated using immunohistochemistry.The association of Cripto-1 expression with the clinicopathological characteristics and the prognostic value of Cripto-1 in patients with pancreatic cancer were analyzed. Results The expression of Cripto-1 was higher in chronic pancreatitis tissues,pancreatic cancer and its metastases than in normal pancreas(P=0.019,P=0.025,and P=0.018,respectively).Cripto-1 overexpression was correlated with poorly differentiated pancreatic cancer.The patients with Cripto-1 upregulation had shorter median survival time(8 months vs.16 months,χ
Subject(s)Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal , GPI-Linked Proteins , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Prognosis
Resumen Introducción: Después de un trasplante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas (TCPH), la reconstitución de las células natural killer (NK) es la principal barrera contra las infecciones virales. Objetivo: Determinar que el conocimiento sobre la cinética de la reconstitución de las células NK posterior al TCPH contribuye a un eficiente monitoreo del trasplante, lo que incrementa la posibilidad de éxito de este. Método: Se incluyeron 21 pacientes sometidos a TCPH, así como un grupo control de individuos clínicamente sanos. En diferentes momentos después del trasplante (intervalo de 21 a 670 días), mediante citometría de flujo se cuantificaron las células NK CD3− CD16+ CD56+ en muestras de sangre periférica. Resultados: La recuperación de las células NK ocurre entre los tres y seis meses y entre los 10 y 12 meses postrasplante; su número fue significativamente menor (en comparación con el grupo control) en el tiempo restante del monitoreo. Conclusiones: El primer periodo de recuperación de las células NK ocurre entre los tres y seis meses posteriores al trasplante. La reconstitución es transitoria y el número de células NK varía en los primeros años.
Abstract Introduction: After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), natural killer (NK) cells reconstitution is the main barrier against viral infections. Objective: To determine that the knowledge on the kinetics of NK cell reconstitution after HSCT contributes to transplant efficient monitoring, which increases the possibility of its success. Method: Twenty-one patients undergoing HSCT were included, as well as a control group of clinically healthy individuals. At different time points after transplantation (range of 21 to 670 days), CD3- CD16+ CD56+ NK cells were quantified by flow cytometry in peripheral blood samples. Results: NK cell recovery occurs at three to six months and 10 to 12 months post-transplantation; their number was significantly lower (in comparison with the control group) in the rest of the monitoring time. Conclusions: The first period of NK cell recovery occurs between three and six months after transplantation. Reconstitution is transient and the number of NK cells varies in the first years.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Receptors, IgG , CD3 Complex , CD56 Antigen , GPI-Linked Proteins , Flow Cytometry
OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of luteolin on the proliferation and expression of OPCML in breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.@*METHODS@#Cultured MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with luteolin at the concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 μmol/L for 24 or 48 h. MTT assay was used to detect cell proliferation and flow cytometry was used to detect the cell apoptosis. The expressions of OPCML mRNA and protein were detected using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting, respectively. OPCML gene methylation in the promoter region was detected using methylation-specific PCR (MSP), and the activity of methylase in the cells was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#MTT assay showed that treatment with luteolin at 5, 10 and 20 μmol/L for 24 h concentration-dependently decreased the viability of MDA-MB-231 cells ( < 0.05). Flow cytometry also showed that luteolin at different concentrations could induce apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells ( < 0.05). Luteolin dose-dependently induced the expression of OPCML mRNA and protein in MDA-MB-231 cells ( < 0.05), down-regulated the methylation status in the promoter region of OPCML gene, up-regulated the level of non-methylated OPCML, and reduced the activity of methylase in the cells ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Luteolin inhibits the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells probably by upregulating OPCML expression and its demethylation.
Subject(s)Apoptosis , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , GPI-Linked Proteins , Humans , Luteolin
OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of chidamide on the killing activity of NK (Natural killer cell, NK) cells targeting K562 cells and its related mechanism.@*METHODS@#K562 cells were pretreated with chidamide at different concentrations and cocultured with NK cells at different effect-target ratios. The killing effect of chidamide on K562 cells by NK cells, the expression of natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) ligands and apoptosis rate of K562 cells were detected by flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#The killing sensitivity of NK cells to K562 cells could be enhanced by chidamide. The expression of ULBP2 on K562 cell surface could be up-regulate, however, the expression of ULBP1 and MICA/MICB showed no statistically difference as compared with control group. Chidamide showed no obvious cytotoxicity to K562 cells.@*CONCLUSION@#Chidamide can significantly improve killing efficiency of NK cells on K562 cells, which may be related to the up-regulation of ULBP2 expression.
Subject(s)Aminopyridines , Benzamides , GPI-Linked Proteins , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I , Humans , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , K562 Cells , Killer Cells, Natural , Allergy and Immunology , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K
OBJECTIVE@#To explore the molecular basis for an individual with postnatal deafness and provide genetic counseling for her family.@*METHODS@#Following extraction of genomic DNA from peripheral blood samples, 127 genes associated with deafness were subjected to targeted capturing and next generation sequencing. Suspected mutation was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to carry a homozygous c.1893C>A mutation in the TECTA gene, which is located in the tectorial membrane of inner ear and may cause premature termination of translation of TECTA protein. In addition, two heterozygous mutations, c.13010C>T and c.12790G>A, were found in the USH2A gene. Whilst the former is likely to be pathogenic, the latter has unknown clinical significance. Further analysis suggested that all three mutations have derived from the parents of the proband.@*CONCLUSION@#The homozygous c.1893C>A mutation of the TECTA gene probably underlies the proband's hearing loss which conformed to an autosomal recessive inheritance.
Subject(s)Deafness , Extracellular Matrix Proteins , Genetics , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins , Genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Homozygote , Humans , Mutation , Pedigree
OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the influence of oridonin on the killing activity of NK-92 MI cells targeting THP1 and the related mechanism.@*METHODS@#The killing activity of NK-92 MI to THP1 before and after oridonin treatment was detected by LDH release assay; the expression of natural killer cell ligands activating receptor D (NKG2D, including MICA, MICB, ULBP1, ULBP2 and ULBP3) was detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot respectively; the expression of cytokine TNF-α, TNF-β and IFN-γ in the co-culture supernatant of NK-92 MI cells and THP1 cells were measured by ELISA.@*RESULTS@#The killing efficiency after oridonin treatment at different effector-target ratio (1:1, 5:1, 10:1) was all significantly up-regulated in comparison with that before oridonin treatment (P＜0.05). QRT-PCR and Western blot showed that the expressions of mRNA and protein levels of MICB, ULBP1, ULBP2 increased to varying degree (P＜0.05), but the expression levels of MICA and ULBP3 were not statistically significant between experimental group and control group (P＞0.05). ELISA results indicated that IFN-γ and TNF-β release were significantly increased after oridonin treatment (P＜0.05), however, the TNF-α release was not statistically different in comparison with control group (P＞0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Oridonin can significantly improve killing efficiency of NK-92 MI on THP1, that might be related with up-regulation of MICB, ULBP1 and ULBP2 expression and promotion of IFN-γ and TNF-β release.
Subject(s)Cell Line, Tumor , Diterpenes, Kaurane , Pharmacology , GPI-Linked Proteins , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I , Humans
OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for three patients with development delay and to correlate their clinical phenotypes with genetic findings.@*METHODS@#The karyotypes of the probands and their parents were analyzed by conventional G-banding. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) was used to detect microdeletion and microduplication.@*RESULTS@#No kartotypic abnormality was detected in the patients and their parents. CMA analysis identified a de novo 3.10 Mb deletion on chromosome 15q24.1q24.2 in case 1, a de novo 3.14 Mb deletion at 15q24.1q24.2 in case 2, and a 3.13 Mb deletion at 15q24.1q24.2 in case 3. All deletions have encompassed the CPLX3,SEMA7A and SIN3A genes.@*CONCLUSION@#The three patients were diagnosed with 15q24 microdeletion syndrome. CPLX3,SEMA7A and SIN3A may be the key genes responsible for this syndrome.
Subject(s)Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Genetics , Antigens, CD , Genetics , Child , Chromosome Deletion , Chromosome Disorders , Genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15 , Genetics , GPI-Linked Proteins , Genetics , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Genetics , Repressor Proteins , Genetics , Semaphorins , Genetics
PROPOSE: We aimed to explore the potential molecular mechanism and independent prognostic genes for colon cancer (CC). METHODS: Microarray datasets GSE17536 and GSE39582 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Meanwhile, the whole CC-related dataset were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Differentially expressed mRNA (DEMs) were identified between cancer tissue samples and para-carcinoma tissue samples in TCGA dataset, followed by the KEGG pathway and GO function analyses. Furthermore, the clinical prognostic analysis including overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were performed in all three datasets. RESULTS: A total of 633 up- and 321 down-regulated mRNAs were revealed in TCGA dataset. The up-regulated mRNAs were mainly assembled in functions including extracellular matrix and pathways including Wnt signaling. The down-regulated mRNAs were mainly assembled in functions like Digestion and pathways like Drug metabolism. Furthermore, up-regulation of UL16-binding protein 2 (ULBP2) was associated with OS in CC patients. A total of 12 DEMs including Surfactant Associated 2 (SFTA2) were potential DFS prognostic genes in CC patients. Meanwhile, the GRP and Transmembrane Protein 37 (TMEM37) were two outstanding independent DFS prognostic genes in CC. CONCLUSIONS: ULBP2 might be a potential novel OS prognostic biomarker in CC, while GRP and TMEM37 could be served as the independent DFS prognostic genes in CC. Furthermore, functions including extracellular matrix and digestion, as well as pathways including Wnt signaling and drug metabolism might play important roles in the process of CC.
Subject(s)Humans , Animals , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonic Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Genetic Markers , Down-Regulation/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Up-Regulation/genetics , Risk Factors , Colonic Neoplasms/metabolism , Disease-Free Survival , Gastrin-Releasing Peptide/genetics , Gastrin-Releasing Peptide/metabolism , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A/genetics , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A/metabolism , Microarray Analysis , Murinae , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , GPI-Linked Proteins/genetics , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism
Objective To verify the expressions of genes associated with colorectal cancer with hyperglycemia and evaluate their diagnostic values.Methods Tumor tissues,distal normal intestinal mucosa,and peripheral blood samples were harvested from 109 colorectal cancer patients and peripheral blood samples from 30 diabetes patients and 30 healthy volunteers. The mRNA expressions of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78),NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX1),carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5),heat shock protein 60 (HSP60),and histone deacetylase 1(HDAC1) were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The correlation between the gene expressions and clinicopathological parameters in colorectal cancer patients were analyzed using Pearson's correlation analysis. Diagnostic test accuracy evaluation was used to calculate the sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,predictability,Youden index,and likelihood ratio of serum gene expressions in colorectal cancer patients,and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn. The area under the ROC curve was calculated to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the combined detection of multiple genes.Results The mRNA levels of GRP78 (P=0.001),NOX1 (P=0.022),CEACAM5 (P=0.000),HSP60 (P=0.044),and HDAC1 (P=0.047) were positively correlated with the fasting blood glucose level. The mRNA expressions of NOX1 (P=0.000,P=0.008) and HDAC1 (P=0.000,P=0.037) in tissues and serum were significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients than in patients with normal blood glucose levels. The NOX1 mRNA expression was positively correlated with the diameter of colorectal cancer (P=0.013),and the HDAC1 mRNA expression was significantly correlated with the tumor site (P=0.049),depth of primary tumor invasion (P=0.025),and TNM stage (P=0.042). The areas under the ROC curves of NOX1,CEACAM5,and HDAC1 were 0.931,0.852,and 0.860 respectively (all P=0.000). The specificity,accuracy,and negative predictive value of NOX1,HDAC1 mRNA expression in colorectal cancer patients with hyperglycemia were all above 90%. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the combined detection of NOX1,CEACAM5,and HDAC1 were 98.82% and 99.93%,respectively.Conclusion Combined detection of genes associated with colorectal cancer accompanied by hyperglycemia can improve the diagnostic efficiency of early screening.
Subject(s)Biomarkers, Tumor , Genetics , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Genetics , Case-Control Studies , Colorectal Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Genetics , Diabetes Mellitus , Genetics , GPI-Linked Proteins , Genetics , Heat-Shock Proteins , Genetics , Histone Deacetylase 1 , Genetics , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Diagnosis , Genetics , NADPH Oxidase 1 , Genetics , ROC Curve
ABSTRACT Objective Adipokines are mediators of body composition and are involved in obesity complications. This study aimed to assess the association of circulating omentin-1, vaspin, and RBP-4 with body composition indices and metabolic health status (MHS) in different phenotypes of body size. Subjects and methods A total of 350 subjects were included in the current cross-sectional study. Body composition was measured using a body composition analyzer, and serum concentrations of omentin-1, vaspin, and RBP-4 were assessed by ELISA kits. Results Circulating omentin-1 was significantly (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.00-1.91, P = 0.01) and marginally (OR = 1.63, 95%CI: 1.00-1.75, P = 0.06) associated with MHS in the overweight and obese subjects, respectively. But no association was seen between omentin-1 and MHS in normal-weight subjects. Serum levels of vaspin and RBP-4 were not correlated with MHS. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was observed between circulating omentin-1 and body mass index (BMI) as well as fat percentage (P = 0.02) in the MHS group. Serum vaspin concentrations were not related to body composition components in both groups. In addition, in the MHS group, circulating RBP-4 was positively correlated with fat percentage and fat mass (FM) (p < 0.0001) and was negatively correlated with fat-free mass (FFM) and total body water (TBW) (p < 0.0001). In contrast, in the metabolically unhealthy group, RBP-4 was negatively correlated with fat percentage, FM, and BMI (p < 0.0001) and was positively correlated with FFM and TBW (p < 0.0001). Conclusions This study showed that circulating levels of omentin-1 are useful predictors of metabolic health status in overweight and obese people.
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Adult , Body Composition , Serpins/blood , Cytokines/blood , Body Size , Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma/analysis , Lectins/blood , Obesity/metabolism , Phenotype , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , GPI-Linked Proteins/blood , Obesity/blood
Abstract Objectives: To correlate the basal expression of complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) CD55, CD59, CD35, and CD46 in B-lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of a cohort of 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) initiating treatment with rituximab (RTX) with depletion and time repopulation of such cells. Methods: Ten patients with RA received two infusions of 1 g of RTX with an interval of 14 days. Immunophenotypic analysis for the detection of CD55, CD59, CD35, and CD46 on B-lymphocytes was carried out immediately before the first infusion. The population of B-lymphocytes was analyzed by means of basal CD19 expression and after 1, 2, and 6 months after the infusion of RTX, and then quarterly until clinical relapse. Depletion of B-lymphocytes in peripheral blood was defined as a CD19 expression <0.005 × 109/L. Results: Ten women with a median of 49 years and a baseline DAS28 = 5.6 were evaluated; 9 were seropositive for rheumatoid factor. Five patients showed a repopulation of B-lymphocytes after 2 months, and the other five after 6 months. There was a correlation between the basal expression of CD46 and the time of repopulation (correlation coefficient = −0.733, p = 0.0016). A similar trend was observed with CD35, but without statistical significance (correction coefficient = −0.522, p = 0.12). Conclusion: The increased CD46 expression was predictive of a faster repopulation of B-lymphocytes in patients treated with RTX. Studies involving a larger number of patients will be needed to confirm the utility of basal expression of CRPs as a predictor of clinical response.
Resumo Objetivos: Correlacionar a expressão basal das proteínas reguladoras do complemento (PRC) CD55, CD59, CD35 e CD46 nos linfócitos B do sangue periférico de uma coorte de 10 pacientes com artrite reumatoide (AR) iniciando tratamento com rituximabe (RTX) com a depleção e tempo de repopulação dessas células. Métodos: Dez pacientes com AR receberam duas infusões de 1 g de RTX com intervalo de 14 dias. Análises imunofenotípicas para detecção de CD55, CD59, CD35 e CD46 nos linfócitos B foram feitas imediatamente antes da primeira infusão. A população de linfócitos B foi analisada por meio da expressão de CD19 basal e após um, dois e seis meses após a infusão de RTX e então trimestralmente até a recaída clínica. Depleção de linfócitos B no sangue periférico foi definida como expressão de CD19 < 0,005 × 109/l. Resultados: Dez mulheres com mediana de 49 anos e DAS 28 basal de 5,6 foram avaliadas; nove eram soropositivas para o fator reumatoide. Cinco pacientes apresentaram repopulação de linfócitos B após dois meses e as outras cinco aos seis meses. Houve correlação entre a expressão basal de CD46 e o tempo de repopulação (coeficiente de correlação -0,733, p = 0,0016). Tendência semelhante foi observada com CD35, porém sem significância estatística (coeficiente de correção 0,522, p = 0,12). Conclusão: Expressão aumentada de CD46 foi preditora de repopulação mais rápida de linfócitos B em pacientes tratados com RTX. Estudos com um número maior de pacientes serão necessários para confirmar a utilidade da expressão basal das PRC como preditora de resposta clínica.
Subject(s)Humans , Female , Adult , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , GPI-Linked Proteins/blood , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/blood , Infusions, Intravenous , Drug Administration Schedule , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Biomarkers/blood , Treatment Outcome , Antirheumatic Agents/pharmacology , Rituximab/pharmacology , Middle Aged
Background and Objective: Coronary artery disease [CAD] is a most important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide as well as in Pakistan. Recent studies have shown that the combination of obesity, insulin resistance and fluctuation in circulating adipocytokines levels is associated with the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. Omentin-1 is recently found adipocytokine that is highly expressed in visceral adipose tissue. It has anti- inflammatory properties and is negatively correlated with ischemic heart disease. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between omentin-1 Val109Asp polymorphism and CAD in Pakistani population
Methods: A total of 350 subjects were included in the study. Two hundred fifty were diagnosed witd coronary artery disease while 100 served as healthy controls. PCR-RFLP was performed at Dr. AQ. Khan Institute of Biotechnology [KIBGE] to analyze Val109Asp polymorphism. In this, case control study SPSS software version 16 [Chicago, IL, USA] was used for data analysis. Continuous variables and categorical variables were presented as mean+/-SD or in percentage. Independent sample test and chi-square test was performed to compare the differences in means between cases and controls. Genotype distribution was analyzed by chi-square test and results were presented as percentage and frequency. MultivariWe regression analysis indicated that Val109Asp SNP might be an independent risk factor for CAD susceptibility after adjustment for some well- known CAD risk factors including age, gender, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and lipid abnormalities. There was estimation of odd ratios [OR] and 951 confidence intervals [CIs] to determine the correlation between genotypes and the risk of CAD. [p> 0.05], Genotype frequencies were compared by Chi-square test
Results: There was prevalence of Omentin-1 Val109Asp polymorphism in both case and control groups, However, Val/Asp [heterozygous mutant] genotype was detected more frequently in patients with CAD, OR[95%]=1.921; Cl=1.173-3.1469 in comparison of Asp/Asp and Val/Val genotypes
Conclusion: Individuals having Val/Asp heterozygous gemotype of omentin-1 gene polymorphism are at more risk of developing CAD in Pakistani population, further studies are required in different populations and ethnicities to confirm our findings
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Morbidity , Adipokines , Cytokines , Lectins , GPI-Linked Proteins
La omentina es una nueva adipocina a la que se le ha atribuido la capacidad de regular actividades metabólicas (sensibilidad a la insulina) y antiinflamatorias, ofreciendo protección cardiovascular en la obesidad y diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Por lo anterior, es importante conocer los mecanismos a través de los cuales confiere protección cardiovascular, con el objetivo de considerar la omentina como blanco o agente terapéutico en este escenario.
The omentin is an adipokine, which role is due to the capacity of regulate metabolic (insulin sensitivity) and anti-inflammatory activities, thus conferring vascular protection during obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. By this, it is important to know the mechanisms by which omentin confers cardiovascular protection, with the purpose of establish omentin a possible therapeutic target or molecule on this scenario.
Subject(s)Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cytokines/physiology , Inflammation/etiology , Lectins/physiology , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Energy Metabolism , GPI-Linked Proteins/physiology , Obesity/etiology
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a negative regulator of T cell activation, which competes with CD28 for B7.1/B7.2 binding, and which has a greater affinity. Fusion of specific antigens to extracellular domain of CTLA4 represents a promising approach to increase the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. In this study, we evaluated this interesting approach for CTLA4 enhancement on prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA)-specific immune responses and its anti-tumor effects in a prostate cancer mouse model. Consequently, we constructed a DNA vaccine containing the PSCA and the CTLA-4 gene. Vaccination with the CTLA4-fused DNA not only induced a much higher level of anti-PSCA antibody, but also increased PSCA-specific T cell response in mice. To evaluate the anti-tumor efficacy of the plasmids, murine models with PSCA-expressing tumors were generated. After injection of the tumor-bearing mouse model, the plasmid carrying the CTLA4 and PSCA fusion gene showed stronger inhibition of tumor growth than the plasmid expressing PSCA alone. These observations emphasize the potential of the CTLA4-fused DNA vaccine, which could represent a promising approach for tumor immunotherapy.
Subject(s)Animals , Male , Mice , Antigens, Neoplasm/therapeutic use , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , CTLA-4 Antigen/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Proteins/therapeutic use , Plasmids/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Antigens, Neoplasm/metabolism , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , CTLA-4 Antigen/genetics , CTLA-4 Antigen/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , GPI-Linked Proteins/immunology , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , GPI-Linked Proteins/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Proteins/immunology , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Plasmids/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/immunology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/therapeutic use , Vaccines, DNA/genetics
Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) is a kind of host restriction factor. Since it was discovered to be responsible for the defect in virion release of HIV-1 mutants lacking the accessory gene vpu in 2008, it was thought to mainly restrict the viruses by directly tethering viral particles at the plasma membrane. Recent reports suggest that BST-2 also can inhibit the the release of HBV particles, which are budding in the intracellular vesicles, expanding the antiviral spectrum of BST-2. Futhermore, the machanism that BST-2 used to restrict HBV release in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) is similar to that used to restrict HIV at the plasma membrane. However, HBV have evolved strategies to antagonize the antiviral action of BST-2. There are two different opinions about the antagonist. One is HBV inactivated BST-2 by HBx requiring a hepatocyte-specific environment. Another thought envelope protein HBs counteract the antiviral action of BST-2. In this review, we focus on the current advances in the anti-HBV activity of BST-2.
Subject(s)Animals , Antigens, CD , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , GPI-Linked Proteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Hepatitis B virus , Genetics , Physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Virus Release
<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the gene polymorphism distribution characteristics of human platelet HPA-1-5 and 15 blood group antigens and construct a certain scale of platelet HPA database in the north area of Henan Province so as to provide platelet apheresis for clinical departments.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP), the genotyping of HPA-1-5 and 15 system was carried out; the periperal blood of 500 healthy Han donors in north area of Henan Province was collected randomly, the gene and genotype frequencies were detected by direct counting method, and the population distribution frequncy of HPA genes was analyzed by Hardy-Weinberg balance test, and compared with other regions and ethnics by using χ(2) test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There was statistically significant (P < 0.05) of increase HPA-3b and HPA-5a in North area of Henan Province, compared with Chinese Han population; the HPA-3b and 5a increase and HPA-2a decrease were statistically significant (P < 0.05), compared with Ethnic minority of China. There was partly increase of HPA-1a, 2a, 3a and 5a, compared with different regions and ethnic in abroad. HPA allele genes of 500 Han donors in the North area of Henan Province were as follows: 0.985 and 0.015 for 1a and 1b; 0.924 and 0.076 for 2a and 2b; 0.469 and 0.531 for 3a and 3b; 1.000 and 1.000 for 4a and 5a; 0.532 and 0.468 for 15a and 15b, respectively. HPA allele gene frequencies were 1aa0.970, 1ab0.030; 2aa0.848, 2ab0.152; 3aa0.222, 3ab0.494, 3bb0.284; 4aa1.000; 5aa1.000; 15aa0.282, 15ab0.500, 15bb0.218. Compared with other regions and ethnic, HPA gene frequencies partly had statistical significance.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Distribution of HPA allele frequencies in the North area of Henan province is in accordence with the Hardy-Weinberg law. There are race and regional differences in HPA allele gene frequencies, compared with other regions and countries. And the HPA systems HPA-3 and 15 display the genetic polymorphisms, which provides a theoretical basis for the relevant research of the same type platelet infusion and alloimmune thrombocytopenia.</p>