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1.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 185-194, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of asiatic acid on β-cell function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).@*METHODS@#The T2DM model was established by high fat diet and streptozotocin injection in ICR mice, and the effects of asiatic acid on glucose regulation were investigated in model mice. The islets were isolated from palmitic acid-treated diabetic mice. ELISA was used to detect the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. ATP assay was applied to measure ATP production, and Western blotting was used to detect protein expression of mature β cell marker urocortin (Ucn) 3 and mitofusin (Mfn) 2. The regulatory effects of asiatic acid on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and Ucn3 expression were also investigated after siRNA interference with Mfn2 or treatment with TNF-α.@*RESULTS@#Asiatic acid with the dose of 25 mg·kg-1·d-1 had the best glycemic control in T2DM mice and improved the homeostasis model assessment β index. Asiatic acid increased the expression of Mfn2 and Ucn3 protein and improved the GSIS function of diabetic β cells in vitro and in vivo (both P<0.05). Moreover, it improved the ATP production of islets of T2DM mice in vitro (P<0.05). Interfering Mfn2 with siRNA blocked the up-regulation of Ucn3 and GSIS induced by asiatic acid. Asiatic acid inhibited islet TNF-α content and increased Mfn2 and Ucn3 protein expression inhibited by TNF-α.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Asiatic acid improves β cell insulin secretion function in T2DM mice by maintaining the β cell maturity, which may be related to the TNF-α/Mfn2 pathway.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Insulin Secretion , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Insulin/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Mice, Inbred ICR , Glucose/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , Adenosine Triphosphate , GTP Phosphohydrolases/therapeutic use
2.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 758-763, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981665

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To review the research progress of mitochondrial dynamics mediated by optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) in skeletal system diseases.@*METHODS@#The literatures about OPA1-mediated mitochondrial dynamics in recent years were reviewed, and the bioactive ingredients and drugs for the treatment of skeletal system diseases were summarized, which provided a new idea for the treatment of osteoarthritis.@*RESULTS@#OPA1 is a key factor involved in mitochondrial dynamics and energetics and in maintaining the stability of the mitochondrial genome. Accumulating evidence indicates that OPA1-mediated mitochondrial dynamics plays an important role in the regulation of skeletal system diseases such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and osteosarcoma.@*CONCLUSION@#OPA1-mediated mitochondrial dynamics provides an important theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of skeletal system diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , GTP Phosphohydrolases/genetics , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Osteoarthritis , Osteoporosis
3.
Biol. Res ; 56: 26-26, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513738

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown that peripheral nerve injury can lead to abnormal dendritic spine remodeling in spinal dorsal horn neurons. Inhibition of abnormal dendritic spine remodeling can relieve neuropathic pain. Electroacupuncture (EA) has a beneficial effect on the treatment of neuropathic pain, but the specific mechanism remains unclear. Evidence has shown that slit-robo GTPase activating protein 3 (srGAP3) and Rho GTPase (Rac1) play very important roles in dendritic spine remodeling. Here, we used srGAP3 siRNA and Rac1 activator CN04 to confirm the relationship between SrGAP3 and Rac1 and their roles in improving neuropathic pain with EA. Spinal nerve ligation (SNL) was used as the experimental model, and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL), mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT), Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and Golgi-Cox staining were used to examine changes in behavioral performance, protein expression and dendritic spines. More dendritic spines and higher expression levels of srGAP3 were found in the initial phase of neuropathic pain. During the maintenance phase, dendritic spines were more mature, which was consistent with lower expression levels of srGAP3 and higher expression levels of Rac1-GTP. EA during the maintenance phase reduced the density and maturity of dendritic spines of rats with SNL, increased the levels of srGAP3 and reduced the levels of Rac1-GTP, while srGAP3 siRNA and CN04 reversed the therapeutic effects of EA. These results suggest that dendritic spines have different manifestations in different stages of neuropathic pain and that EA may inhibit the abnormal dendritic spine remodeling by regulating the srGAP3/Rac1 signaling pathway to alleviate neuropathic pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Electroacupuncture , Neuralgia/metabolism , Neuralgia/therapy , Spinal Nerves/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , rac1 GTP-Binding Protein/metabolism , Dendritic Spines/metabolism , GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism , Guanosine Triphosphate/metabolism
4.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 351-356, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928719

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the coexisting mutations and clinical significance of Homo sapiens neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS) gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients.@*METHODS@#High-throughput DNA sequencing and Sanger sequencing were used to detect 51 gene mutations. The occurrence, clinical characteristics and treatment efficacy of coexisting genes with NRAS were investigated.@*RESULTS@#A total of 57 NRAS mutations (17.5%) were detected in 326 patients with AML. Compared with the patients in NRAS non-mutation group, patients in the mutant group were younger (P=0.018) and showed lower platelet count (P=0.033), but there was no significant difference in peripheral leukocyte count, hemoglobin, and sex. For FAB classification, NRAS mutation and M2 subtype showed mutually exclusive (P=0.038). Among 57 patients carried with NRAS mutation, 51 (89.5%) patients carried with other gene mutations, 25 (43.9%) carried with double gene mutations, 10 (17.5%) carried with 3 gene mutations, and 16 (28.1%) corried with ≥ 4 gene mutations. The most common coexisting gene mutation was KRAS (24.6%, 14/57), followed by FLT3-ITD (14.0%, 8/57), RUNX1 (12.3%, 7/57), NPM1 (10.5%, 6/57), PTPN11 (10.5%, 6/57), DNMT3A (10.5%, 6/57) and so on. The age (P=0.013, P=0.005) and peripheral platelet count (P=0.007, P=0.021) of patients with NPM1 or DNMT3A mutations were higher than those of the patients with wild type, but there was no significant difference in peripheral leukocyte count and hemoglobin. Also, there was no significant difference in age, peripheral leukocyte count, hemoglobin, and peripheral platelet count between the patients in KRAS, FLT3-ITD, RUNX1 or PTPN11 mutant group and the wild group. Patients with FLT3-ITD mutations showed a lower complete remission (CR) rate (P=0.044). However, there was no significant difference in CR rate between the patients with KRAS, NPM1, RUNX1, PTPN11 or DNMT3A mutations and the wild group. The CR rate of the patents with single gene mutation, double gene mutations, 3 gene mutations, and≥ 4 gene mutations were decreased gradually, and there was no significant difference in CR rate between pairwise comparisons.@*CONCLUSION@#The mutation rate of NRAS mutation is 17.5%, 89.5% of AML patients with NRAS mutation coexist with additional gene mutations. The type of coexisting mutations has a certain impact on clinical characteristics and CR rate of patients with AML.


Subject(s)
Humans , Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit/genetics , GTP Phosphohydrolases/genetics , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Nucleophosmin , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics , fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
5.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 330-337, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936320

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Bax inhibitor 1 (BI- 1) and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1) on vascular calcification (VC).@*METHODS@#Mouse models of VC were established in ApoE-deficient (ApoE-/-) diabetic mice by high-fat diet feeding for 12 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injections with Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine for 16 weeks. ApoE-/- mice (control group), ApoE-/- diabetic mice (VC group), ApoE-/- diabetic mice with BI-1 overexpression (VC + BI-1TG group), and ApoE-/- diabetic mice with BI-1 overexpression and OPA1 knockout (VC+BI-1TG+OPA1-/- group) were obtained for examination of the degree of aortic calcification using von Kossa staining. The changes in calcium content in the aorta were analyzed using ELISA. The expressions of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were detected using immunohistochemistry, and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 was determined using Western blotting. Cultured mouse aortic smooth muscle cells were treated with 10 mmol/L β-glycerophosphate for 14 days to induce calcification, and the changes in BI-1 and OPA1 protein expressions were examined using Western blotting and cell apoptosis was detected using TUNEL staining.@*RESULTS@#ApoE-/- mice with VC showed significantly decreased expressions of BI-1 and OPA1 proteins in the aorta (P=0.0044) with obviously increased calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 (P= 0.0041). Overexpression of BI-1 significantly promoted OPA1 protein expression and reduced calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 (P=0.0006). OPA1 knockdown significantly increased calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 in the aorta (P=0.0007).@*CONCLUSION@#BI-1 inhibits VC possibly by promoting the expression of OPA1, reducing calcium deposition and inhibiting osteogenic differentiation and apoptosis of the vascular smooth muscle cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice, Knockout , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/pathology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/pathology , Optic Atrophy, Autosomal Dominant/pathology , Osteogenesis , Vascular Calcification/pathology , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
6.
Rev. invest. clín ; 72(6): 337-343, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289728

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The presence of clinically relevant mutations in KRAS and NRAS genes determines the response of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The only quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based diagnostic tests approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) screen merely for mutations in codons 12 and 13 of KRAS. Objective: The objective of the study was to study the frequency of clinically relevant mutations in KRAS and NRAS genes that are not included in FDA-approved qPCR tests. Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 1113 mCRC Mexican patients from different health institutions across the country were analyzed by Sanger sequencing for KRAS mutations in exons 2, 3, and 4. Furthermore, 83 were analyzed in exons 2, 3, and 4 of NRAS. Results: From the specimens tested for KRAS, 33.69% harbored a mutation. From these, 71.77% were in codon 12 and 27.69% in codon 13 (both located in exon 2). Codons 59 (exon 3) and 146 (exon 4) accounted for the remaining 0.54%. From the 83 specimens, in which NRAS was analyzed, three mutations were found in codon 12 (3.61%). Approximately 6% of RAS mutated specimens would have been falsely reported as RAS wild type if an FDA-approved qPCR diagnostic test had been used. Conclusions: While these kits based on qPCR can be very practical and highly sensitive, their mutation coverage ignores mutations from poorly genetically characterized populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Exons/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics , GTP Phosphohydrolases/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Commerce
7.
Journal of Nutrition and Health ; : 1-12, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811256

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most important diabetic complications prompted by chronic hyperglycemia, characterized by glomerulosclerosis, tubular fibrosis, and it eventually causes kidney failure. Nobiletin is a polymethoxyflavone present in tangerine and other citrus peels, and has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the effects of nobiletin on glomerular fibrosis through inhibition of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-Src-caveolin-1 pathway.METHODS: Human renal mesangial cells (HRMC) were incubated in media containing 33 mM glucose with or without 1–20 uM nobiletin for 3 day. The cellular expression levels of fibrogenic collagen IV, fibronectin, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), TGF-β1, Src and caveolin-1 were all examined. In addition, TGF-β1, Src and caveolin-1 proteins were screened to reveal the relationship among TGF-β1-Src-caveolin-1 signaling in glomerular fibrosis.RESULTS: High glucose promoted the production of collagen IV, fibronectin and CTGF in HRMC, which was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by 1–20 uM nobiletin. The Western blot data showed that high glucose elevated the expression of TGF-β1, Src, caveolin-1 and Rho GTPase. When nobiletin was treated to the HRMC exposed to high glucose, the expression of TGF-β1-Src-caveolin-1 was dampened. Finally, TGF-β1-Src-caveolin-1 signaling pathway was activated in high glucose-exposed HRMC, and such activation was encumbered by nobiletin.CONCLUSION: These result demonstrated that nobiletin blunted high glucose-induced extracellular matrix accumulation via inhibition of the TGF-β1-Src-caveolin-1 related intracellular signaling pathway. Nobiletin may be a potent renoprotective agent to counteract diabetes-associated glomerular fibrosis that leads to kidney failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blotting, Western , Caveolin 1 , Citrus , Collagen , Connective Tissue Growth Factor , Diabetes Complications , Diabetic Nephropathies , Extracellular Matrix , Fibronectins , Fibrosis , Glucose , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Hyperglycemia , Mesangial Cells , Renal Insufficiency , Transforming Growth Factors
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 249-254, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827062

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of edaravone (Eda) on the balance of mitochondrial fusion and fission in Parkinson's disease (PD) cell model. A cell model of PD was established by treating PC12 cells with 500 μmol/L 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP). Thiazole blue colorimetry (MTT) was used to detect the effect of different concentrations of Eda on the survival rate of PC12 cells exposed to MPP. The mitochondrial morphology was determined by laser confocal microscope. Western blot was used to measure the protein expression levels of mitochondrial fusion- and fission-related proteins, including OPA1, MFN2, DRP1 and Fis1. The results showed that pretreatment with different concentrations of Eda antagonized MPP-induced PC12 cell damage in a dose-dependent manner. The PC12 cells treated with MPP showed mitochondrial fragmentation, up-regulated DRP1 and Fis1 protein expression levels, and down-regulated MFN2 and OPA1 protein expression levels. Eda could reverse the above changes in the MPP-treated PC12 cells, but did not affect Fis1 protein expression. These results suggest that Eda has a protective effect on the mitochondrial fusion disruption induced by MPP in PC12 cells. The mechanism may be related to the up-regulation of OPA1/MFN2 and down-regulation of DRP1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium , Dynamins , Edaravone , Pharmacology , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Mitochondrial Proteins , PC12 Cells , Parkinson Disease , Up-Regulation
9.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 221-226, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941991

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the subcellular localization of GTPase of immunity-associated protein 2 (GIMAP2) for the further functional study.@*METHODS@#In the study, we first obtained the protein sequences of GTPase of immunity-associated protein 2 (GIMAP2) from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, and then performed a prediction analysis of its transmembrane structure, nuclear localization signal (NLS), nuclear export signal (NES) and subcellular localization through bioinformatics online tools. GIMAP2 gene amplified by PCR was inserted into the expression vector pQCXIP-mCherry-N1 and positive clones were selected by ampicillin resistance. After using methods to extract and purify, the sequenced recombinant plasmid pQCXIP-GIMAP2-mCherry, together with the retroviral packaging plasmids VSVG and Gag/pol, was transferred into HEK293FT cells by liposomes for virus packaging. The virus supernatant was collected 48 h after transfection and directly infected the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-436. Immunofluorescence staining was constructed to detect the localization of endogenous and exogenous GIMAP2 in MDA-MB-436 cells. Meanwhile, green fluorescent chemical dyes were used to label mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and lipid droplets in living MDA-MB-436 cells stably expressing the GIMAP2-mCherry fusion protein. Images for the three dye-labeled organelles and GIMAP2-mCherry fusion protein were captured by super-resolution microscope N-SIM.@*RESULTS@#Bioinformatics analysis data showed that GIMAP2 protein composed of 337 amino acids might contain two transmembrane helix (TM) structures at the carboxyl terminus, of which TMs were estimated to contain 40-41 expected amino acids, followed by the residual protein structures toward the cytoplasmic side. NES was located at the 279-281 amino acids of the carboxyl terminus whereas NLS was not found. GIMAP2 might locate in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Sequencing results indicated that the expression vector pQCXIP-GIMAP2-mCherry was successfully constructed. Fluorescent staining confirmed that GIMAP2-mCherry fusion protein, co-localized well with endogenous GIMAP2, expressed successfully in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the surface of lipid droplets in MDA-MB-436 cells.@*CONCLUSION@#GIMAP2 localizes in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the surface of LDs, suggesting potential involvement of GIMAP2 in lipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amino Acid Sequence , Cytoplasm , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Membrane Proteins , Nuclear Export Signals , Nuclear Localization Signals , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Transfection
10.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 699-712, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010478

ABSTRACT

The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) controls cell growth and metabolism in response to various environmental inputs, especially amino acids. In fact, the activity of mTORC1 is highly sensitive to changes in amino acid levels. Over past decades, a variety of proteins have been identified as participating in the mTORC1 pathway regulated by amino acids. Classically, the Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), which reside on the lysosome, transmit amino acid availability to the mTORC1 pathway and recruit mTORC1 to the lysosome upon amino acid sufficiency. Recently, several sensors of leucine, arginine, and S-adenosylmethionine for the amino acid-stimulated mTORC1 pathway have been coming to light. Characterization of these sensors is requisite for understanding how cells adjust amino acid sensing pathways to their different needs. In this review, we summarize recent advances in amino acid sensing mechanisms that regulate mTORC1 activity and highlight these identified sensors that accurately transmit specific amino acid signals to the mTORC1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Amino Acids/chemistry , Arginine/chemistry , Cell Membrane/metabolism , GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Golgi Apparatus/metabolism , Leucine/chemistry , Lysosomes/metabolism , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/metabolism , Methionine/chemistry , S-Adenosylmethionine/chemistry , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
11.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 553-561, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763046

ABSTRACT

Rab25, a member of the Rab11 small GTPase family, is central to achieving cellular polarity in epithelial tissues. Rab25 is highly expressed in epithelial cells of various tissues including breast, vagina, cervix, the gastrointestinal tract, and skin. Rab25 plays key roles in tumorigenesis, mainly by regulating epithelial differentiation and proliferation. However, its role in skin physiology is relatively unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that Rab25 knock-out (KO) mice show a skin barrier dysfunction with high trans-epidermal water loss and low cutaneous hydration. To examine this observation, we investigated the histology and epidermal differentiation markers of the skin in Rab25 KO mice. Rab25 KO increased cell proliferation at the basal layer of epidermis, whereas the supra-basal layer remained unaffected. Ceramide, which is a critical lipid component for skin barrier function, was not altered by Rab25 KO in its distribution or amount, as determined by immunohistochemistry. Notably, levels of epidermal differentiation markers, including loricrin, involucrin, and keratins (5, 14, 1, and 10) increased prominently in Rab25 KO mice. In line with this, depletion of Rab25 with single hairpin RNA increased the expression of differentiation markers in a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. Transcriptomic analysis of the skin revealed increased expression of genes associated with skin development, epidermal development, and keratinocyte differentiation in Rab25 KO mice. Collectively, these results suggested that Rab25 is involved in the regulation of epidermal differentiation and proliferation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Antigens, Differentiation , Breast , Carcinogenesis , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Cervix Uteri , Epidermis , Epithelial Cells , Gastrointestinal Tract , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Immunohistochemistry , Keratinocytes , RNA , Skin Physiological Phenomena , Skin , Vagina , Water
12.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; : 69-80, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764233

ABSTRACT

The dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton plays a pivotal role in the process of cell division, the transportation of organelles, vesicle trafficking and cell movement. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) hijacks the actin dynamics network during the viral entry and migration of the pre-integration complex (PIC) into the nucleus. Actin dynamics linked to HIV-1 has emerged as a potent therapeutic target against HIV infection. Although some inhibitors have been intensely analyzed with regard to HIV-1 infection, their effects are sometimes disputed and the exact mechanisms for actin dynamics in HIV infection have not been well elucidated. In this study, the small molecules regulating HIV-1 infection from diverse inhibitors of the actin dynamic network were screened. Two compounds, including Chaetoglobosin A and CK-548, were observed to specifically bar the viral infection, while the cytochalasin family, 187-1, N-WASP inhibitor, Rho GTPase family inhibitors (EHop-016, CID44216842, and ML-141) and LIMK inhibitor (LIM domain kinase inhibitor) increased the viral infection without cytotoxicity within a range of ~ µM. However, previously known inhibitory compounds of HIV-1 infection, such as Latrunculin A, Jasplakinolide, Wiskostatin and Swinholide A, exhibited either an inhibitory effect on HIV-1 infection combined with severe cytotoxicity or showed no effects. Our data indicate that Chaetoglobosin A and CK-548 have considerable potential for development as new therapeutic drugs for the treatment of HIV infection. In addition, the newly identified roles of Cytochalasins and some inhibitors of Rho GTPase and LIMK may provide fundamental knowledge for understanding the complicated actin dynamic pathway when infected by HIV-1. Remarkably, the newly defined action modes of the inhibitors may be helpful in developing potent anti-HIV drugs that target the actin network, which are required for HIV infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Actin Cytoskeleton , Actins , Anti-HIV Agents , Cell Division , Cell Movement , Cytochalasins , GTP Phosphohydrolases , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Organelles , Phosphotransferases , Transportation
13.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 229-237, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771312

ABSTRACT

This retrospective analysis aimed to investigate the mutation profile of 16 common mutated genes in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. A total of 259 patients who were diagnosed of de novo AML were enrolled in this study. Mutation profiling of 16 candidate genes were performed in bone marrow samples by using Sanger sequencing.We identified at least 1 mutation in 199 of the 259 samples (76.8%), and 2 or more mutations in 31.7% of samples. FLT3-ITD was the most common mutated gene (16.2%, 42/259), followed by CEBPA (15.1%, 39/259), NRAS (14.7%, 38/259), and NPM1 (13.5%, 35/259). Concurrence was observed in 97.1% of the NPM1 mutated cases and in 29.6% of the double mutated CEBPA cases. Distinct patterns of co-occurrence were observed for different hotspot mutations within the IDH2 gene: R140 mutations were associated with NPM1 and/or FLT3-ITD mutations, whereas R172 mutations co-occurred with DNMT3A mutations only. Concurrence was also observed in 86.6% of epigenetic regulation genes, most of which co-occurred with NPM1 mutations. The results showed certain rules in the mutation profiling and concurrence of AML patients, which was related to the function classification of genes. Defining the mutation spectrum and mutation pattern of AML will contribute to the comprehensive assessment of patients and identification of new therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins , Genetics , China , DNA Mutational Analysis , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Genetics , Membrane Proteins , Genetics , Mutation , Nuclear Proteins , Genetics , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 , Genetics
14.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 260-266, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759014

ABSTRACT

The exocyst is a highly conserved eight-subunit protein complex (EXOC1–8) involved in the targeting and docking of exocytic vesicles translocating from the trans-Golgi network to various sites in renal cells. EXOC5 is a central exocyst component because it connects EXOC6, bound to the vesicles exiting the trans-Golgi network via the small GTPase RAB8, to the rest of the exocyst complex at the plasma membrane. In the kidney, the exocyst complex is involved in primary ciliognesis, cystogenesis, and tubulogenesis. The exocyst, and its regulators, have also been found in urinary extracellular vesicles, and may be centrally involved in urocrine signaling and repair following acute kidney injury. The exocyst is centrally involved in the development of other organs, including the eye, ear, and heart. The exocyst is regulated by many different small GTPases of the RHO, RAL, RAB, and ARF families. The small GTPases, and their guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins, likely give the exocyst specificity of function. The recent development of a floxed Exoc5 mouse line will aid researchers in studying the role of the exocyst in multiple cells and organ types by allowing for tissue-specific knockout, in conjunction with Cre-driver mouse lines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Acute Kidney Injury , Cell Membrane , Ear , Exocytosis , Extracellular Vesicles , GTP Phosphohydrolases , GTPase-Activating Proteins , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors , Heart , Kidney , Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins , Sensitivity and Specificity , trans-Golgi Network
15.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 172-182, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739545

ABSTRACT

Rheb (Ras homolog enriched in the brain) is a small GTPase protein that plays an important role in cell signaling for development of the neocortex through modulation of mTORC1 (mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1) activity. mTORC1 is known to control various biological processes including axonal growth in forming complexes at the lysosomal membrane compartment. As such, anchoring of Rheb on the lysosomal membrane via the farnesylation of Rheb at its cysteine residue (C180) is required for its promotion of mTOR activity. To test the significance of Rheb farnesylation, we overexpressed a farnesylation mutant form of Rheb, Rheb C180S, in primary rat hippocampal neurons and also in mouse embryonic neurons using in utero electroporation. Interestingly, we found that Rheb C180S maintained promotional effect of axonal elongation similar to the wild-type Rheb in both test systems. On the other hand, Rheb C180S failed to exhibit the multiple axon-promoting effect which is found in wild-type Rheb. The levels of phospho-4EBP1, a downstream target of mTORC1, were surprisingly increased in Rheb C180S transfected neurons, despite the levels of phosphorylated mTOR being significantly decreased compared to control vector transfectants. A specific mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin, also could not completely abolish axon elongation characteristics of Rheb C180S in transfected cells. Our data suggests that Rheb in a non-membrane compartment can promote the axonal elongation via phosphorylation of 4EBP1 and through an mTORC1-independent pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Axons , Biological Phenomena , Cysteine , Electroporation , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Hand , Membranes , Neocortex , Neurons , Phosphorylation , Prenylation , Protein Prenylation , Sirolimus , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
16.
Immune Network ; : e33-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764027

ABSTRACT

Viperin is an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG)-encoded protein that was identified in human primary macrophages treated with IFN-γ and in human primary fibroblasts infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV). This protein plays multiple roles in various cell types. It inhibits viral replication, mediates signaling pathways, and regulates cellular metabolism. Recent studies have shown that viperin inhibits IFN expression in macrophages, while it enhances TLR7 and TLR9-mediated IFN production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, suggesting that viperin can play different roles in activation of the same pathway in different cell types. Viperin also controls induction of ISGs in macrophages. However, the effect of viperin on induction of ISGs in cell types other than macrophages is unknown. Here, we show that viperin differentially induces ISGs in 2 distinct cell types, macrophages and fibroblasts isolated from wild type and viperin knockout mice. Unlike in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), viperin downregulates the expression levels of ISGs such as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-2, Isg15, Isg54, myxovirus resistance dynamin like GTPase 2, and guanylate binding protein 2 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) treated with type I or II IFN. However, viperin upregulates expression of these ISGs in both BMDMs and MEFs stimulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid or CpG DNA and infected with murine CMV. The efficiency of viral entry is inversely proportional to the expression levels of ISGs in both cell types. The data indicate that viperin differentially regulates induction of ISGs in a cell type-dependent manner, which might provide different innate immune responses in distinct cell types against infections.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Carrier Proteins , Cytomegalovirus , Dendritic Cells , DNA , Dynamins , Fibroblasts , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Immunity, Innate , Interferons , Macrophages , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Metabolism , Mice, Knockout , Orthomyxoviridae , Poly I-C
17.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 403-412, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that sphingolipids may be involved in type 2 diabetes. However, the exact signaling defect through which disordered sphingolipid metabolism induces β-cell dysfunction remains unknown. The current study demonstrated that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), the product of sphingosine kinase (SphK), is an essential factor for maintaining β-cell function and survival via regulation of mitochondrial action, as mediated by prohibitin (PHB). METHODS: We examined β-cell function and viability, as measured by mitochondrial function, in mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells in response to manipulation of cellular S1P and PHB levels. RESULTS: Lack of S1P induced by sphingosine kinase inhibitor (SphKi) treatment caused β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis, with repression of mitochondrial function shown by decreases in cellular adenosine triphosphate content, the oxygen consumption rate, the expression of oxidative phosphorylation complexes, the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the expression of key regulators of mitochondrial dynamics (mitochondrial dynamin-like GTPase [OPA1] and mitofusin 1 [MFN1]). Supplementation of S1P led to the recovery of mitochondrial function and greatly improved β-cell function and viability. Knockdown of SphK2 using small interfering RNA induced mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), and reduced the expression of PHB, an essential regulator of mitochondrial metabolism. PHB deficiency significantly reduced GSIS and induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and co-treatment with S1P did not reverse these trends. CONCLUSION: Altogether, these data suggest that S1P is an essential factor in the maintenance of β-cell function and survival through its regulation of mitochondrial action and PHB expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adenosine Triphosphate , Apoptosis , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Insulin , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Insulinoma , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Metabolism , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Oxygen Consumption , Phosphotransferases , Repression, Psychology , RNA, Small Interfering , Sphingolipids , Sphingosine
18.
Mycobiology ; : 114-121, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729789

ABSTRACT

Mon1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor subunit that activates the Ypt7 Rab GTPase and is essential for vacuole trafficking and autophagy in eukaryotic organisms. Here, we identified and characterized the function of Mon1, an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mon1, in a human fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans. Mutation in mon1 resulted in hypersensitivity to thermal stress. The mon1 deletion mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to cell wall and endoplasmic reticulum stress. However, the mon1 deletion mutant showed more resistance to the antifungal agent fluconazole. In vivo studies demonstrated that compared to the wild-type strain, the mon1 deletion mutant attenuated virulence in the Galleria mellonella insect model. Moreover, the mon1 deletion mutant was avirulent in the murine inhalation model. These results demonstrate that Mon1 plays a crucial role in stress survival and pathogenicity in C. neoformans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autophagy , Cell Wall , Cryptococcus neoformans , Cryptococcus , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Fluconazole , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors , Hypersensitivity , Inhalation , Insecta , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Vacuoles , Virulence
19.
Journal of Stroke ; : 110-121, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression has been examined in multiple conditions, including various cancers, neurological diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases, particularly stroke. Existing evidence indicates that miRNA biosynthesis and function play crucial roles in ischemic stroke physiology and pathology. In this study, we selected six known polymorphisms in miRNA-biogenesis genes; DICER rs13078A>T, rs3742330A>G; DROSHA rs10719T>C, rs6877842G>C; Ran GTPase (RAN) rs14035C>T; exportin 5 (XPO5) rs11077A>C. METHODS: We analyzed the associations between these polymorphisms and disease status and clinical factors in 585 ischemic stroke patients and 403 controls. Genotyping was performed with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. RESULTS: The DICER rs3742330A>G (AA vs. AG+GG: adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.360; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.024 to 1.807; P=0.034) and DROSHA rs10719T>C polymorphisms (TT vs. CC: AOR, 2.038; 95% CI, 1.113 to 3.730; P=0.021) were associated with ischemic stroke prevalence. During a mean follow-up of 4.80±2.11 years, 99 (5.91%) of the stroke patients died. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, a significant association was found between RAN rs14035 and survival of large artery disease patients with ischemic stroke (CC vs. TT: adjusted hazard ratio, 5.978; P=0.015). CONCLUSIONS: An association was identified between the DICER and DROSHA polymorphisms and ischemic stroke. Specifically, polymorphisms (rs3742330 and rs10719) were more common in stroke patients, suggesting that they may be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arteries , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Follow-Up Studies , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Methods , MicroRNAs , Mortality , Odds Ratio , Pathology , Physiology , Polymorphism, Genetic , Prevalence , Stroke
20.
Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases. 2018; 10 (1): 18-23
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-192420

ABSTRACT

Background: Incidence of colorectal cancer is increasing in countries such as Iran. Molecular biomarkers play very important role in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this cancer. Mutation in the RAS family [including KRAS and NRAS] is one of these important molecular biomarkers, which should be tested before starting treatment with anti-EGRF [Epidermal growth factor] drugs


Objectives: There has been very few reports about the frequency of NRAS mutation from Iran and no study from south of the country. In this article we will describe our experience about the frequency of NRAS mutation in colorectal cancers from the largest referral center in the south of Iran


Methods: During 5 years [2011-2015], we had 52 cases of colorectal cancers with wild type KRAS and BRAF in the hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences with enough tissue for molecular studies. NRAS mutation analysis was performed on paraffin embedded formalin fixed tissue of these cases by polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-sequencing method


Results: Among these 52 cases of colorectal cancer with wild type KRAS and BRAF, there has been 3 [5.7%] cases with mutant NRAS. One of the mutations has been in codon 12 and two in codon 61. No mutation in codon 13 was found. All the three cases were women with stage IV and well differentiated histomorphology


Conclusion: Our results showed that frequency of NRAS mutation in colorectal cancer is rare, which is very close to other studies from different geographic areas of the world


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Biomarkers , Biomarkers, Tumor , Membrane Proteins , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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