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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936320


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Bax inhibitor 1 (BI- 1) and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1) on vascular calcification (VC).@*METHODS@#Mouse models of VC were established in ApoE-deficient (ApoE-/-) diabetic mice by high-fat diet feeding for 12 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injections with Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine for 16 weeks. ApoE-/- mice (control group), ApoE-/- diabetic mice (VC group), ApoE-/- diabetic mice with BI-1 overexpression (VC + BI-1TG group), and ApoE-/- diabetic mice with BI-1 overexpression and OPA1 knockout (VC+BI-1TG+OPA1-/- group) were obtained for examination of the degree of aortic calcification using von Kossa staining. The changes in calcium content in the aorta were analyzed using ELISA. The expressions of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were detected using immunohistochemistry, and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 was determined using Western blotting. Cultured mouse aortic smooth muscle cells were treated with 10 mmol/L β-glycerophosphate for 14 days to induce calcification, and the changes in BI-1 and OPA1 protein expressions were examined using Western blotting and cell apoptosis was detected using TUNEL staining.@*RESULTS@#ApoE-/- mice with VC showed significantly decreased expressions of BI-1 and OPA1 proteins in the aorta (P=0.0044) with obviously increased calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 (P= 0.0041). Overexpression of BI-1 significantly promoted OPA1 protein expression and reduced calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 (P=0.0006). OPA1 knockdown significantly increased calcium deposition and expressions of RUNX2, BMP-2 and cleaved caspase-3 in the aorta (P=0.0007).@*CONCLUSION@#BI-1 inhibits VC possibly by promoting the expression of OPA1, reducing calcium deposition and inhibiting osteogenic differentiation and apoptosis of the vascular smooth muscle cells.

Animals , Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/pathology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/pathology , Optic Atrophy, Autosomal Dominant/pathology , Osteogenesis , Vascular Calcification/pathology , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(2): 234-240, Mar. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-533512


The Immunity Related GTPases (IRG proteins) constitute a large family of interferon-inducible proteins that mediate early resistance to Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice. At least six members of this family are required for resistance of mice to virulent T. gondii strains. Recent results have shown that the complexity of the resistance arises from complex regulatory interactions between different family members. The mode of action against T. gondii depends on the ability of IRG proteins to accumulate on the parasitophorous vacuole of invading tachyzoites and to induce local damage to the vacuole resulting in disruption of the vacuolar membrane. Virulent strains of T. gondiiovercome the IRG resistance system, probably by interfering with the loading of IRG proteins onto the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. It may be assumed that T. gondii strains highly virulent for mice will be disadvantaged in the wild due to the rapid extinction of the infected host, while it is self-evident that susceptibility to virulent strains is disadvantageous to the mouse host. We consider the possibility that this double disadvantage is compensated in wild populations by segregating alleles with different resistance and susceptibility properties in the IRG system.

Animals , Mice , GTP Phosphohydrolases/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Toxoplasma/pathogenicity , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/immunology , GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism , Host-Parasite Interactions/immunology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/enzymology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-31941


RalA GTPase, a member of Ras superfamily proteins, shows alternative forms between the active GTP-binding and the inactive GDP-binding states. Ral-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor such as RalGDS interacts with activated Ras and cooperates with Ras indicating that Ral can be activated through Ras signaling pathway. Another activation path for Ral are through Ca2+-dependent but Ras-independent manner. In this study, studies were carried out to examine possible effects of Ca2+ and calmodulin, Ca2+-binding protein, directly on the GTP/GDP-binding state to recombinant unprenylated GST-RalA proteins. The results showed that Ca2+ stimulated the binding of GTP to RalA, whereas it reduced the binding of GDP to RalA. However, it does not involve a high affinity association of Ca2+ with RalA. Ca2+/calmodulin stimulated the GTPase activity of RalA. These results indicate that Ca2+ alone activates RalA by stimulating GTP-binding to RalA and Ca2+/calmodulin inactivates RalA by increasing the activity of RalGTPase.

Animals , Brain/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Calmodulin/metabolism , GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism , Guanosine Diphosphate/metabolism , Guanosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Rats , Synaptosomes/metabolism
Biol. Res ; 31(1): 59-71, 1998. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-225980


Rhodopsin samples, isolated using four different extraction procedures, were used to investigate the photodependent activation of the GTPase activity of transducin. A complete inhibition of transducin light-dependent GTP hydrolytic activity was observed when rhodopsin purified in the presence of 1 per cent digitonin, following rod outer segment (ROS) solubilization with 1 per cent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propane-sulfonate (CHAPS), WAS used for its activation [0 pmol of inorganic phosphate (Pi) released/min/pmol of rhodopsin]. Rhodopsin, isolated in the presence of 1 per cent digitonin following ROS solubilization with 1 per cent digitonin, was capable of stimulating slightly transducin GTPase activity, with an initial rate of 1 pmol of GTP hydrolyzed/min/pmol of rhodopsin. However, rhodopsin purified in the presence of 0.2 per cent n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside (DM), following ROS solubilization with either 1 per cent CHAPS or 1 per cent DM, stimulated the enzymatic activity of transducin in a light-dependent manner, with an initial rate of 5 pmol of Pi released/min/pmol of rhodopsin. Addition of 0.075 per cent egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) to the four different solubilized rhodopsin samples significantly enhanced light-stimulated GTP hydrolysis by transducin, with initial rates increasing from 0 to 1, 1 to 2, and 5 to 30 pmol of Pi released/min/pmol of rhodopsin, respectively. Furthermore, DM-solubilized rhodopsin induced the hydrolysis of the maximun amount of GTP by transducin at 0.0075 per cent PC, while digitonin-solubilized rhodopsin only stimulated the GTPase activity of transducin to a similar value, when the amount of the photoreceptor protein was increased 4-fold and 0.15 per cent PC was added to the assay mixture. These results suggest that the effective photoactivation of transducin by rhodopsin requires phospholipids, which seem to be differentially eliminated with the detergent extraction procedure utilized during ROS membranes solubilization and photopigment isolation.

Animals , Cattle , Detergents , Lipids , Photic Stimulation , Rhodopsin , Transducin , GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism , Retina , Rhodopsin/isolation & purification , Transducin/isolation & purification , Transducin/metabolism