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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878904

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is a clinical syndrome characterized by elevated systemic arterial blood pressure, which may be accompanied by functional or organic damage of heart, brain, kidney and other organs. The pathogenesis and development of hypertension are affected by genetic, environmental, epigenetic, intestinal microbiota and other factors. They are the result of multiple factors that promote the change of blood pressure level and vascular resistance. G protein coupled receptors(GPCRs) are the largest and most diverse superfamily of transmembrane receptors that transmit signals across cell membranes and mediate a large number of cellular responses required by human physiology. A variety of GPCRs are involved in the control of blood pressure and the maintenance of normal function of cardiovascular system. Hypertension contributes to the damages of heart, brain, kidney, intestine and other organs. Many GPCRs are expressed in various organs to regulate blood pressure. Although many GPCRs have been used as therapeutic targets for hypertension, their efficacy has not been fully studied. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the role of GPCRs in blood pressure regulation and its distribution in target organs. The relationship between GPCRs related to intestinal microorganisms and blood pressure is emphasized. It is proposed that traditional Chinese medicine may be a new way to treat hypertension by regulating the related GPCRs via intestinal microbial metabolites.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , GTP-Binding Proteins , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Hypertension/genetics , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878450

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aims to investigate the effect of the regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) on the proliferation and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells and its potential molecular mechanism. Metho⁃ds The expression status and clinical significance of RGS2 in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and matched adjacent normal tissues were evaluated using TCGA database. Three OSCC cell lines (i.e., SCC-9, Cal27, and Fadu) were overexpressed with RGS2, and the effect of RGS2 on cell proliferation and invasion was determined using the Transwell, clone formation, and cell counting kit (CCK)-8 assays. Moreover, the yeast two-hybrid scree-ning and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays were conducted to detect the correlation of RGS2, four and a half LIM domains protein 1 (FHL1), and damage DNA-binding protein 1 (DDB1).@*RESULTS@#The expression level of RGS2 in OSCC was significantly lower than that in matched adjacent normal tissues (@*CONCLUSIONS@#RGS2 plays an important role in the inhibition of OSCC proliferation and invasion. The structure stability of RGS2 is competitively regulated by FHL1 and DDB1.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , GTP-Binding Proteins , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , LIM Domain Proteins , Mouth Neoplasms , Muscle Proteins , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(3): 353-362, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090612

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Testicular germ cells tumor (TGCT) are associated with a high cure rate and are treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. However, a group of testicular cancer patients may have a very unfavorable evolution and insensitivity to the main therapeutic agent chemotherapy (CT) cisplatin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of recurrence and overall survival related to the expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), transglutaminase 2 (TG2) and excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) in patients with TGCT treated with platinum combinations. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was performed with TGCT patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed and the expression was correlated with clinical and laboratory data. Results: Fifty patients were included, the mean age was 28.4 years (18 to 45), and 76% were non-seminoma. All patients were treated with standard cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin or cisplatin, and etoposide. Patient's analyzed immunodetection for NF-κB, TG2, and ERCC1 were positive in 76%, 54% and 42%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified that positive expressions to ERCC1 and NF-κB are independent risk factors for higher recurrence TGCT after chemotherapy (RR 2.96 and 3.16, respectively). Patients with positive expression of ERCC1 presented a poor overall survival rate for 10-year follow (p=0.001). Conclusions: The expression of ERCC1 and NF-κB give a worse prognosis for relapse, and only ERCC1 had an influence on the overall survival of TGCT patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. These may represent markers that predict poor clinical outcome and response to cisplatin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Testicular Neoplasms , Transglutaminases/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms , Prognosis , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Retrospective Studies , Cisplatin , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/physiology , DNA-Binding Proteins , DNA Repair , Endonucleases
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719488

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause serious respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia, asthma, and bronchiolitis in infants and elderly or immunocompromised individuals. An RSV vaccine has yet to be developed; only prophylactic anti-RSV antibody is commercially available. So, we investigated whether our vaccine candidate is able to induce type 1 CD4+ T helper (Th1), CD8+ T-cell responses, and protective immunity without vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) against RSV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used RSV G protein fragment (Gcf A) with recombinant baculovirus capable of expressing the RSV M2 protein (Bac M2) as a vaccine candidate, and injected this vaccine (Gcf A/Bac M2) intramuscularly, and challenged with RSV intranasally into mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, plaque assay, and weight measurement were performed to confirm humoral immunity, cellular immunity, and protective immunity. RESULTS: The Gcf A/Bac M2 formulation induced a stronger IgG response to Gcf A than Gcf A inoculation alone, and the ratio of IgG1/IgG2a indicated that the responses shifted predominantly to Th1. In addition, both RSV G-specific Th1 responses and RSV M2-specific CD8+ T-cell responses were induced, and G protein-associated eosinophilic infiltration was suppressed compared to the control group. Moreover, the Gcf A/Bac M2 group showed effective protection after an RSV challenge. CONCLUSION: Bac M2 could serve as a vaccine with intrinsic adjuvant activity, and the Gcf A/Bac M2 shows promise as a vaccine candidate for inducing protective immunity without inciting VED.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Asthma , Baculoviridae , Bronchiolitis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophils , Flow Cytometry , GTP-Binding Proteins , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Mice , Pneumonia , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , T-Lymphocytes
5.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 628-641, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763784

ABSTRACT

Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) has been reported to play critical roles in the proliferation of various cancer cells. However, the roles of LGR5 in brain tumors and the specific intracellular signaling proteins directly associated with it remain unknown. Expression of LGR5 was first measured in normal brain tissue, meningioma, and pituitary adenoma of humans. To identify the downstream signaling pathways of LGR5, siRNA-mediated knockdown of LGR5 was performed in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells followed by proteomics analysis with 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). In addition, the expression of LGR5-associated proteins was evaluated in LGR5-inhibited neuroblastoma cells and in human normal brain, meningioma, and pituitary adenoma tissue. Proteomics analysis showed 12 protein spots were significantly different in expression level (more than two-fold change) and subsequently identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. A protein association network was constructed from the 12 identified proteins altered by LGR5 knockdown. Direct and indirect interactions were identified among the 12 proteins. HSP 90-beta was one of the proteins whose expression was altered by LGR5 knockdown. Likewise, we observed decreased expression of proteins in the hnRNP subfamily following LGR5 knockdown. In addition, we have for the first time identified significantly higher hnRNP family expression in meningioma and pituitary adenoma compared to normal brain tissue. Taken together, LGR5 and its downstream signaling play critical roles in neuroblastoma and brain tumors such as meningioma and pituitary adenoma.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Cell Proliferation , Dermatoglyphics , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , GTP-Binding Proteins , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Meningioma , Neuroblastoma , Pituitary Neoplasms , Proteomics
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763050

ABSTRACT

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane receptors whose agonist-induced dynamic conformational changes trigger heterotrimeric G protein activation, followed by GRK-mediated phosphorylation and arrestin-mediated desensitization. Cytosolic regions of GPCRs have been studied extensively because they are direct contact sites with G proteins, GRKs, and arrestins. Among various cytosolic regions, the role of helix 8 is least understood, although a few studies have suggested that it is involved in G protein activation, receptor localization, and/or internalization. In the present study, we investigated the role of helix 8 in dopamine receptor signaling focusing on dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). D1R couples exclusively to Gs, whereas D2R couples exclusively to Gi. Bioinformatic analysis implied that the sequences of helix 8 may affect GPCR-G protein coupling selectivity; therefore, we evaluated if swapping helix 8 between D1R and D2R changed G protein selectivity. Our results suggest that helix 8 is not involved in D1R-Gs or D2R-Gi coupling selectivity. Instead, we observed that D1R with D2R helix 8 or D1R with an increased number of hydrophobic residues in helix 8 relative to wild-type showed diminished β-arrestin-mediated desensitization, resulting in increased Gs signaling.


Subject(s)
Arrestin , Arrestins , Computational Biology , Cytosol , Dopamine , Family Characteristics , GTP-Binding Proteins , Membranes , Phosphorylation , Receptors, Dopamine D1 , Receptors, Dopamine D2 , Receptors, Dopamine
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To report on a case of 10p15.3 microdeletion syndrome and to explore its clinical and molecular characteristics.@*METHODS@#The patient was subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES), with his clinical features discussed in the light of literature review.@*RESULTS@#The patient presented with global developmental delay, hypotonia, autistic-like traits, mild facial dysmorphism and other features including short stature, small hands and feet, congenital heart disease and feeding difficulty. WES has detected deletions of ZMYND11, DIP2C, LARP4B, TUBB8, GTPBP4, IDI2, IDI1, WOR37 and ADARB2 genes on the short arm of chromosome 10. Among these, ZMYND11 gene been previously associated with intellectual disability.@*CONCLUSION@#The patient's phenotype was closely correlated with that of 10p15.3 microdeletion syndrome. Haploinsufficiency of the ZMYND11 gene may underlie the manifestations of 10p15.3 microdeletion syndrome.


Subject(s)
Carrier Proteins , Chromosome Deletion , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 , Exome , GTP-Binding Proteins , Humans , Intellectual Disability , Nuclear Proteins , Phenotype , Tubulin , Whole Exome Sequencing
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758889

ABSTRACT

Platelet activation has a major role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Various agonists including adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and thrombin interact with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) which transduce signals through various G proteins. Recent studies have elucidated the role of GPCRs and their corresponding G proteins in the regulation of events involved in platelet activation. However, agonist-induced platelet activation in companion animals has not been elucidated. This study was designed to characterize the platelet response to various agonists in dog platelets. We found that 2-methylthio-ADP-induced dog platelet aggregation was blocked in the presence of either P2Y₁ receptor antagonist MRS2179 or P2Y₁₂ receptor antagonist AR-C69931MX, suggesting that co-activation of both the P2Y₁ and P2Y₁₂ receptors is required for ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Thrombin-induced dog platelet aggregation was inhibited in the presence of either AR-C69931MX or the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, suggesting that thrombin requires secreted ADP to induce platelet aggregation in dog platelets. In addition, thrombin-mediated Akt phosphorylation was inhibited in the presence of GF109203X or AR-C69931MX, indicating that thrombin causes Gi stimulation through the P2Y₁₂ receptor by secreted ADP in dog platelets. Unlike human and murine platelets, protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4)-activating peptide AYPGKF failed to cause dog platelet aggregation. Moreover, PAR1-activating peptide SFLLRN or co-stimulation of SFLLRN and AYPGKF failed to induce dog platelet aggregation. We conclude that ADP induces platelet aggregation through the P2Y₁ and P2Y₁₂ receptors in dogs. Unlike human and murine platelets, selective activation of the PAR4 receptor may be insufficient to cause platelet aggregation in dog platelets.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Diphosphate , Animals , Blood Platelets , Dogs , GTP-Binding Proteins , Hemostasis , Humans , Pets , Phosphorylation , Platelet Activation , Platelet Aggregation , Receptors, Proteinase-Activated , Thrombin , Thrombosis
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761800

ABSTRACT

Gα(q)-coupled receptor stimulation was implied in the activation process of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)1/4 and TRPC1/5 heterotetrameric channels. The inactivation occurs due to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PI(4,5)P₂) depletion. When PI(4,5)P₂ depletion was induced by muscarinic stimulation or inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (Inp54p), however, the inactivation by muscarinic stimulation was greater compared to that by Inp54p. The aim of this study was to investigate the complete inactivation mechanism of the heteromeric channels upon Gα(q)-phospholipase C β (Gα(q)-PLCβ) activation. We evaluated the activity of heteromeric channels with electrophysiological recording in HEK293 cells expressing TRPC channels. TRPC1/4 and TRPC1/5 heteromers undergo further inhibition in PLCβ activation and calcium/protein kinase C (PKC) signaling. Nevertheless, the key factors differ. For TRPC1/4, the inactivation process was facilitated by Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, and for TRPC1/5, activation of PKC was concerned mostly. We conclude that the subsequent increase in cytoplasmic Ca²⁺ due to Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and activation of PKC resulted in a second phase of channel inhibition following PI(4,5)P₂ depletion.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Cytoplasm , Endoplasmic Reticulum , GTP-Binding Proteins , HEK293 Cells , Inositol , Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate , Phospholipases , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinase C , Transient Receptor Potential Channels , Type C Phospholipases
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(11): 991-999, Nov. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973476

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To determine whether the absence of transglutaminase 2 enzyme (TG2) in TG2 knockout mice (TG2-/-) protect them against early age-related functional and histological arterial changes. Methods: Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured using non-invasive Doppler and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured in awake mice using tail-cuff system. Thoracic aortas were excised for evaluation of endothelial dependent vasodilation (EDV) by wire myography, as well as histological analyses. Results: PWV and MAP were similar in TG2-/-mice to age-matched wild type (WT) control mice. Old WT mice exhibited a markedly attenuated EDV as compared to young WT animals. The TG2-/-young and old mice had enhanced EDV responses (p<0.01) as compared to WT mice. There was a significant increase in TG2 crosslinks by IHC in WT old group compared to Young, with no stain in the TG2-/-animals. Optical microscopy examination of Old WT mice aorta showed thinning and fragmentation of elastic laminae. Young WT mice, old and young TG2-/-mice presented regularly arranged and parallel elastic laminae of the tunica media. Conclusion: The genetic suppression of TG2 delays the age-induced endothelial dysfunction and histological modifications.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Aorta, Thoracic/physiology , Aging/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Transglutaminases/physiology , GTP-Binding Proteins/physiology , Vasodilation/physiology , Immunohistochemistry , Age Factors , Mice, Knockout , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Pulse Wave Analysis , Arterial Pressure/physiology
11.
Actual. osteol ; 14(1): 31-35, Ene - Abr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116836

ABSTRACT

Statins are a widely prescribed class of medications that inhibit similar pathways as the anti-resorptive bisphosphonate drugs. Statins target the mevalonate pathway by blocking HMG-CoA reductase. Several recent meta-analyses concluded statins are osteoprotective in the general population. Here we present current literature exploring the mechanisms underlying the putative osteoprotective effects of statins. We also review recent clinical studies, ranging from observational cohort studies to randomized clinical trials, testing the effect of statins on bone health in various populations. (AU)


Las estatinas son un grupo de drogas prescriptas en forma habitual, con la capacidad de bloquear vías de señalización similares a las inhibidas por los amino-bisfosfonatos. Las estatinas inhiben la vía del mevalonato, a través del bloqueo de diferentes enzimas. Varios metaanálisis recientes llevaron a la conclusión de que las estatinas tienen capacidad osteoprotectora en la población general. En esta revisión presentamos la literatura actual describiendo los mecanismos que subyacen en el potencial efecto osteoprotector de las estatinas, como así también estudios observacionales y clínicos aleatorizados sobre el efecto de estatinas en la salud ósea en diversas poblaciones. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mice , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Bone Density/drug effects , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Osteoclasts/drug effects , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Postmenopause/drug effects , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , GTP-Binding Proteins/drug effects , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Atorvastatin/administration & dosage , Mevalonic Acid/pharmacology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717992

ABSTRACT

Fasiglifam (TAK-875) a G-protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) agonist, significantly improves hyperglycemia without hypoglycemia and weight gain, the major side effects of conventional anti-diabetics. Unfortunately, during multi-center Phase 3 clinical trials, unexpected liver toxicity resulted in premature termination of its development. Here, we investigated whether TAK-875 directly inflicts toxicity on hepatocytes and explored its underlying mechanism of toxicity. TAK-875 decreased viability of 2D and 3D cultures of HepG2, a human hepatocarcinoma cell line, in concentration- (>50 μM) and time-dependent manners, both of which corresponded with ROS generation. An antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, attenuated TAK-875-mediated hepatotoxicity, which confirmed the role of ROS generation. Of note, knockdown of GPR40 using siRNA abolished the hepatotoxicity of TAK-875 and attenuated ROS generation. In contrast, TAK-875 induced no cytotoxicity in fibroblasts up to 500 μM. Supporting the hepatotoxic potential of TAK-875, exposure to TAK-875 resulted in increased mortality of zebrafish larvae at 25 μM. Histopathological examination of zebrafish exposed to TAK-875 revealed severe hepatotoxicity as manifested by degenerated hypertrophic hepatocytes with cytoplasmic vacuolation and acentric nuclei, confirming that TAK-875 may induce direct hepatotoxicity and that ROS generation may be involved in a GPR40-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine , Cell Line , Cytoplasm , Fibroblasts , GTP-Binding Proteins , Hepatocytes , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia , Larva , Liver , Mortality , Reactive Oxygen Species , RNA, Small Interfering , Weight Gain , Zebrafish
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714741

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is one of the main causes of pathologic pain. Knowledge of the molecular links between inflammatory signals and pain-mediating neuronal signals is essential for understanding the mechanisms behind pain exacerbation. Some inflammatory mediators directly modulate the excitability of pain-mediating neurons by contacting the receptor molecules expressed in those neurons. For decades, many discoveries have accumulated regarding intraneuronal signals from receptor activation through electrical depolarization for bradykinin, a major inflammatory mediator that is able to both excite and sensitize pain-mediating nociceptor neurons. Here, we focus on the final effectors of depolarization, the neuronal ion channels, whose functionalities are specifically affected by bradykinin stimulation. Particular G-protein coupled signaling cascades specialized for each specific depolarizer ion channels are summarized. Some of these ion channels not only serve as downstream effectors but also play critical roles in relaying specific pain modalities such as thermal or mechanical pain. Accordingly, specific pain phenotypes altered by bradykinin stimulation are also discussed. Some members of the effector ion channels are both activated and sensitized by bradykinin-induced neuronal signaling, while others only sensitized or inhibited, which are also introduced. The present overview of the effect of bradykinin on nociceptor neuronal excitability at the molecular level may contribute to better understanding of an important aspect of inflammatory pain and help future design of further research on the components involved and pain modulating strategies.


Subject(s)
Bradykinin , GTP-Binding Proteins , Inflammation , Ion Channels , Neurons , Nociceptors , Pain Perception , Phenotype
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728611

ABSTRACT

Recent human genetic studies have shown that Gβ5 is related to various clinical symptoms, such as sinus bradycardia, cognitive disability, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although the calcium signaling cascade is closely associated with a heterotrimeric G-protein, the function of Gβ5 in calcium signaling and its relevance to clinical symptoms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the in vitro changes of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) with exogenous expression of Gβ5. The cells expressing Gβ5 had enhanced SOCE after depletion of calcium ion inside the endoplasmic reticulum. Gβ5 also augmented Stim1- and Orai1-dependent SOCE. An ORAI1 loss-of-function mutant did not show inhibition of Gβ5-induced SOCE, and a STIM1-ERM truncation mutant showed no enhancement of SOCE. These results suggested a novel role of GNB5 and Stim1, and provided insight into the regulatory mechanism of SOCE.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Bradycardia , Calcium , Calcium Signaling , Endoplasmic Reticulum , GTP-Binding Proteins , Humans , In Vitro Techniques
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739490

ABSTRACT

The small GTP-binding protein Rab25 is associated with tumor formation and progression. However, recent studies have shown discordant effects of Rab25 on cancer cell progression depending on cell lineage. In the present study, we elucidate the underlying mechanisms by which Rab25 induces cellular invasion. We demonstrate that Rab25 increases β1 integrin levels and subsequent activation of EGFR and upregulation of VEGF-A expression, leading to increased Snail expression, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer cell invasiveness. Strikingly, we identify that Snail mediates Rab25-induced cancer cell invasiveness through fascin expression and that ectopic expression of Rab25 aggravates metastasis of ovarian cancer cells to the lung. We thus demonstrate a novel role of a β1 integrin/EGFR/VEGF-A/Snail signaling cascade in Rab25-induced cancer cell aggressiveness through induction of fascin expression, thus providing novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for Rab25-expressing cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Cell Lineage , Ectopic Gene Expression , GTP-Binding Proteins , Lung , Neoplasm Metastasis , Ovarian Neoplasms , Snails , Up-Regulation , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
16.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 296-309, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: β-arrestin2 (β-arr2) basically regulates multiple signaling pathways in mammalian cells by desensitization and internalization of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). We investigated impacts of β-arr2 on survival, mobility, and tube formation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) obtained from wild-type (WT) mouse (CPC-WT), and β-arr2 knock-out (KO) mouse (CPC-KO) cultured in presence or absence of serum and oxygen as non-canonical roles in GPCR system. METHODS: CPCs were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium/Nutrient Mixture F-12 -based media containing fetal bovine serum and growth factors. Survival of 2 types of CPCs in hypoxia and/or serum deprivation was measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Wound healing ability, and tube formation ability on Matrigel of 2 kinds of CPCs were compared in normoxic and hypoxic cultures. Protein expression related to survival and mobility were measured with the Western blot for each culture conditions. RESULT: CPC-KO showed significantly worse mobility in the wound healing assay and in tube formation on Matrigel especially in hypoxic culture than did the CPC-WT. Also, CPC-KO showed significantly higher apoptosis fraction in both normoxic and hypoxic cultures than did the CPC-WT. Expression of proteins associated with cell survival and mobility, e.g., protein kinase B (Akt), β-catenin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) was significantly worse in CPC-KO. CONCLUSIONS: The CPC-KO had significantly worse cell mobility, tube formation ability, and survival than the CPC-WT, especially in the hypoxic cultures. Apparently, β-arr2 is important on CPC survival by means of mobility and tube formation in myocardial ischemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Cell Movement , Cell Survival , Eagles , Flow Cytometry , Glycogen Synthase , GTP-Binding Proteins , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Mice , Myocardial Ischemia , Oxygen , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Stem Cells , Wound Healing
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742182

ABSTRACT

All drugs have both favorable therapeutic and untoward adverse effects. Conventional opioid analgesics possess both analgesia and adverse reactions, such as nausea, vomiting, and respiratory depression. The opioid ligand binds to µ opioid receptor and non-selectively activates two intracellular signaling pathways: the G protein pathway induce analgesia, while the β-arrestin pathway is responsible for the opioid-related adverse reactions. An ideal opioid should activate the G protein pathway while deactivating the β-arrestin pathway. Oliceridine (TRV130) has a novel characteristic mechanism on the action of the µ receptor G protein pathway selective (µ-GPS) modulation. Even though adverse reactions (ADRs) are significantly attenuated, while the analgesic effect is augmented, the some residual ADRs persist. Consequently, a G protein biased µ opioid ligand, oliceridine, improves the therapeutic index owing to increased analgesia with decreased adverse events. This review article provides a brief history, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and ADRs of oliceridine.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Analgesics, Opioid , Animals , Bias , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , GTP-Binding Proteins , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Ligands , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Nausea , Patient Safety , Pharmacokinetics , Receptors, Opioid , Receptors, Opioid, mu , Respiratory Insufficiency , Vomiting
18.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 200-204, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741897

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Seasonal affective disorder and seasonal changes in mood and behavior are associated with several genes that regulate circadian rhythms. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the C825T polymorphism of the G-protein β3 subunit and seasonal variations in mood and behavior in a young healthy Korean population. METHODS: A total of 507 young Korean participants were recruited through a newspaper advertisement, and their seasonality was evaluated by the Korean version of the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire to assess the global seasonality score (GSS). We analyzed the CC, CT, and TT genotypes and their association with the GSS score and subscales. RESULTS: T allele carriers of the GNB3 C825T polymorphism were more likely to score higher on body weight and GSS. In the female group, the T allele carriers obtained significantly high total GSS and its subscale scores for mood, body weight, energy level, and appetite; however, differences in genotypes and allele carriers were also observed in the male participants. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that GNB3 C825T polymorphism plays a role in seasonal variations in mood, body weight, energy level, and appetite in a Korean population, particularly in females.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Appetite , Body Weight , Circadian Rhythm , Female , Genotype , GTP-Binding Proteins , Humans , Male , Seasonal Affective Disorder , Seasons
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713575

ABSTRACT

G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is expressed in the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract, and its activation promotes insulin secretion in the beta cells of the pancreatic islets as well as the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in intestinal L cells, consequently improving glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Due to this dual mechanism of action, the development of small-molecule GPR119 agonists has received significant interest for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We newly synthesized 1,2,4-triazolone derivatives of GPR119 agonists, which demonstrated excellent outcomes in a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) assay. Among the synthesized derivatives, YH18968 showed cAMP=2.8 nM; in GLUTag cell, GLP-1secretion=2.3 fold; in the HIT-T15 cell, and insulin secretion=1.9 fold. Single oral administration of YH18968 improved glucose tolerance and combined treatment with a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor augmented the glucose lowering effect as well as the plasma level of active GLP-1 in normal mice. Single oral administration of YH18968 improved glucose tolerance in a diet induced obese mice model. This effect was maintained after repeated dosing for 4 weeks. The results indicate that YH18968 combined with a DPP-4 inhibitor may be an effective therapeutic candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate , Administration, Oral , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diet , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 , Enteroendocrine Cells , Gastrointestinal Tract , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Glucose , GTP-Binding Proteins , Insulin , Islets of Langerhans , Mice , Mice, Obese , Pancreas , Plasma
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713226

ABSTRACT

Olfactory receptors (ORs) in mammals are generally considered to function as chemosensors in the olfactory organs of animals. They are membrane proteins that traverse the cytoplasmic membrane seven times and work generally by coupling to heterotrimeric G protein. The OR is a G protein–coupled receptor that binds the guanine nucleotide-binding G(αolf) subunit and the Gβγ dimer to recognize a wide spectrum of organic compounds in accordance with its cognate ligand. Mammalian ORs were originally identified from the olfactory epithelium of rat. However, it has been recently reported that the expression of ORs is not limited to the olfactory organ. In recent decades, they have been found to be expressed in diverse organs or tissues and even tumors in mammals. In this review, the expression and expected function of olfactory receptors that exist throughout an organism's system are discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Membrane , Ectopic Gene Expression , GTP-Binding Proteins , Guanine , Mammals , Membrane Proteins , Olfactory Mucosa , Rats
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