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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 77-87, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360119

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A cardiomiopatia hipertrófica (CMH) e a hipertrofia ventricular esquerda (HVE) secundária à hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) podem estar associadas a anormalidades funcionais do átrio esquerdo (AE). Objetivos Caracterizar a mecânica do AE na CMH e na HAS e avaliar qualquer correlação com a extensão da fibrose ventricular esquerda medida por ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) em pacientes com CMH. Métodos A função longitudinal do AE derivada do ecocardiograma bidimensional com speckle tracking foi adquirida a partir de cortes apicais de 60 pacientes com CMH e 34 indivíduos controles, pareados por idade. Pacientes com CMH também foram submetidos à RMC, com medida da extensão do realce tardio por gadolínio. A associação com parâmetros de strain do AE foi analisada. Valores p < 0,05 foram definidos como estatisticamente significativos. Resultados A média da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo não foi diferente entre os grupos. A razão E/e' estava comprometida no grupo CMH e preservada no grupo controle. A mecânica do AE estava significativamente reduzida na CMH em comparação aos pacientes com HAS. O strain rate do AE nas fases de reservatório (SRrAE) e na fase contrátil (SRctAE) foram os melhores parâmetros de discriminação de CMH com uma área sob a curva (AUC) de 0,8, seguido do strain do AE na fase de reservatório (SrAE) (AUC 0,76). O SRrAE e o SRctAE apresentaram elevada especificidade (89% e 91%, respectivamente), e o SrAE apresentou sensibilidade de 80%. Um decréscimo de 2,79% no strain rate do AE na fase de condução (SRcdAE) foi preditor de um aumento de 1 cm na extensão do RT pelo gadolínio (r2=0,42, β 2,79, p=0,027). Conclusões O SRrAE e o SRctAE foram os melhores fatores de discriminação de HVE secundária à CMH. O SRcdAE foi preditor do grau de fibrose ventricular esquerda avaliada por RMC. Esses achados sugerem que a mecânica do AE pode ser um potencial preditor de gravidade de doença na CMH.


Abstract Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) secondary to systemic hypertension (HTN) may be associated with left atrial (LA) functional abnormalities. Objectives We aimed to characterize LA mechanics in HCM and HTN and determine any correlation with the extent of left ventricular (LV) fibrosis measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in HCM patients. Methods Two-dimensional speckle tracking-derived longitudinal LA function was acquired from apical views in 60 HCM patients, 60 HTN patients, and 34 age-matched controls. HCM patients also underwent CMR, with measurement of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) extension. Association with LA strain parameters was analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results Mean LV ejection fraction was not different between the groups. The E/e' ratio was impaired in the HCM group and preserved in the control group. LA mechanics was significantly reduced in HCM, compared to the HTN group. LA strain rate in reservoir (LASRr) and in contractile (LASRct) phases were the best discriminators of HCM, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.8, followed by LA strain in reservoir phase (LASr) (AUC 0.76). LASRr and LASR-ct had high specificity (89% and 91%, respectively) and LASr had sensitivity of 80%. A decrease in 2.79% of LA strain rate in conduit phase (LASRcd) predicted an increase of 1cm in LGE extension (r2=0.42, β 2.79, p=0.027). Conclusions LASRr and LASRct were the best discriminators for LVH secondary to HCM. LASRcd predicted the degree of LV fibrosis assessed by CMR. These findings suggest that LA mechanics is a potential predictor of disease severity in HCM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/complications , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media , Fibrosis , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/complications , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/diagnostic imaging , Gadolinium
2.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 758-767, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349985

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Contrast-enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely performed in children with central precocious puberty (CPP). We evaluated the value of a dedicated sellar MRI protocol without contrast enhancement in girls with CPP. Subjects and methods: This study included 261 girls diagnosed with CPP. We performed sellar MRI scanning without gadolinium enhancement of the hypothalamic-pituitary area (HPA) at the pituitary level, including additional T2-weighted imaging of whole-brain scans to check for other lesions. We evaluated the prevalence of intracranial lesions via this MR protocol. In addition,the correlation between the clinical parameters and morphology of the pituitary gland on the images was assessed. Results: Intracranial lesions were detected in 17 (6.5%) of the 261 girls. Of the 17 girls with abnormalities, 16 (94.1%) had findings in brain areas other than the HPA. The weight, height, Tanner stage of patients were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the group with greater pituitary height. Patient weight and height, Tanner stage of breast development, and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in those with a higher pituitary grade as determined on sellar MRI. Conclusion: A dedicated unenhanced sellar MRI protocol provides valuable information on brain lesions and pituitary morphology. We found a significantly low prevalence of brain lesions among girls with CPP. Analysis of the height or shape of the pituitary gland on sellar MRI revealed significant correlations with the weight, height, Tanner stage, and LH levels of the patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Puberty, Precocious/epidemiology , Puberty, Precocious/diagnostic imaging , Luteinizing Hormone , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prevalence , Contrast Media , Gadolinium
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(5): 988-996, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350009

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Em associação às estatinas, os inibidores da pró-proteína convertase subtilisina/kexina tipo 9 (PCSK9) demonstraram ser eficazes na redução de eventos cardiovasculares em pacientes de alto risco. Objetivo: Analisar a custo-efetividade da implementação de evolocumabe para pacientes com alto risco de eventos cardiovasculares no contexto do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) no Brasil. Métodos: Um modelo de Markov foi utilizado, baseando-se em uma amostra ambulatorial de pacientes com doença arterial coronariana. Os desfechos primários analisados foram infarto agudo do miocárdio, acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCi), revascularização do miocárdio e morte cardiovascular. O resultado foi expresso por meio da razão de custo-efetividade incremental (RCEI), considerando-se uma taxa de desconto de 5% ao ano, e uma análise de sensibilidade foi realizada, tendo em vista a imprecisão de valores. Resultados: Selecionaram-se 61 pacientes com risco cardiovascular estimado em 35% em 10 anos, se em uso de atorvastatina 80mg/dia, e em 22,75%, se adicionado o evolocumabe. O custo global por paciente no período de 10 anos foi de R$ 46.522,44 no grupo em monoterapia com atorvastatina versus R$ 236.141,85 na terapia combinada, com uma efetividade global de 0,54 e 0,73, respectivamente. Isso resultou em uma RCEI R$ 1.011.188,07 (R$ 864.498,95 a R$ 1.296.748,43) por desfecho cardiovascular evitado. Conclusões: Apesar de não existirem padrões nacionais para custo-efetividade, os dados encontrados sugerem que a estratégia de associação do evolocumabe à terapia com estatina não é, no momento, custo-efetiva.


Abstract Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) secondary to systemic hypertension (HTN) may be associated with left atrial (LA) functional abnormalities. Objectives: We aimed to characterize LA mechanics in HCM and HTN and determine any correlation with the extent of left ventricular (LV) fibrosis measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in HCM patients. Methods: Two-dimensional speckle tracking-derived longitudinal LA function was acquired from apical views in 60 HCM patients, 60 HTN patients, and 34 age-matched controls. HCM patients also underwent CMR, with measurement of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) extension. Association with LA strain parameters was analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Mean LV ejection fraction was not different between the groups. The E/e' ratio was impaired in the HCM group and preserved in the control group. LA mechanics was significantly reduced in HCM, compared to the HTN group. LA strain rate in reservoir (LASRr) and in contractile (LASRct) phases were the best discriminators of HCM, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.8, followed by LA strain in reservoir phase (LASr) (AUC 0.76). LASRr and LASR-ct had high specificity (89% and 91%, respectively) and LASr had sensitivity of 80%. A decrease in 2.79% of LA strain rate in conduit phase (LASRcd) predicted an increase of 1cm in LGE extension (r2=0.42, β 2.79, p=0.027). Conclusions: LASRr and LASRct were the best discriminators for LVH secondary to HCM. LASRcd predicted the degree of LV fibrosis assessed by CMR. These findings suggest that LA mechanics is a potential predictor of disease severity in HCM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/prevention & control , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , State Medicine , Brazil , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/prevention & control , Contrast Media , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/economics , Gadolinium , Anticholesteremic Agents/economics
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 678-687, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345250

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção reduzida (ICFEr) é uma doença de alta prevalência que requer hospitalizações repetidas e causa morbimortalidade significativa. Portanto, o reconhecimento precoce de preditores de resultados desfavoráveis é essencial para o manejo do paciente. Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo é investigar a relação entre realce tardio pelo gadolínio (RTG) detectado por ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) e os parâmetros de repolarização, como o intervalo QT corrigido (QTc), intervalo Tp-e, ângulo QRS-T frontal detectado pelo eletrocardiograma (ECG) de 12 derivações na ICFEr. Método Neste estudo observacional, retrospectivo, de centro único, foram incluídos 97 pacientes consecutivos com ICFEr submetidos à RMC. A população do estudo foi dividida em dois grupos, de acordo com a presença de RTG. Foram registradas medidas ecocardiográficas e de RMC e características demográficas. Os intervalos QTc, intervalos Tp-e, e ângulos QRS-T frontais foram calculados a partir do ECG. Um valor de p <0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados O RTG foi detectado em 52 (53,6%) de 97 pacientes com ICFEr. Os intervalos QTc (p=0,001), intervalos Tp-e (p<0,001), e os ângulos QRS-T frontais (p<0,001) foram significativamente maiores no grupo RTG quando comparados ao grupo não-RTG. Na análise de regressão univariada realizada para investigar os preditores de RTG na ICFEr, todos os três parâmetros de repolarização alcançaram valores significativos, mas na análise multivariada o único parâmetro de repolarização que permaneceu significativo foi o intervalo Tp-e (OR = 1,085 IC 95% 1,032-1,140, p=0,001). Conclusão Com o prolongamento do intervalo Tp-e, pode-se prever a presença de fibrose miocárdica, a qual é um substrato arritmogênico, em pacientes com ICFEr.


Abstract Background Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is a highly prevalent disease that requires repeating hospitalizations, causes significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, early recognition of poor outcome predictors is essential for patient management. Objective The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) detected by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and repolarization parameters such as corrected QT (QTc) interval, Tp-e interval, frontal QRS-T angle detected by 12 lead electrocardiograph (ECG) in HFrEF. Method In this single-center, retrospective observational study included 97 consecutive HFrEF patients who had CMR scan. Study population was divided into two groups according to the presence of LGE. Echocardiographic and CMR measurements and demographic features were recorded. QTc intervals, Tp-e intervals, frontal QRS-T angles were calculated from the ECG. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results LGE was detected in 52 (53.6%) out of 97 HFrEF patients. QTc intervals (p=0.001), Tp-e intervals (p<0.001), frontal QRS-T angles (p<0.001) were found to be significantly higher in LGE group when compared to non-LGE group. In univariate regression analysis which was performed to investigate the predictors of LGE in HFrEF, all three repolarization parameters were reached significant values but in multivariate analysis the only repolarization parameter remained significant was Tp-e interval (OR=1.085 95% CI 1.032-1.140, p=0.001). Conclusion With the prolongation of the Tp-e interval, the presence of myocardial fibrosis which is an arrhythmogenic substrate, can be predicted in patients with HFrEF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gadolinium , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Predictive Value of Tests , Contrast Media
5.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 91(2): 196-201, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248785

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: La fibrosis endomiocárdica (FE) es una cardiomiopatía restrictiva infrecuente. En América Latina son escasos los reportes. En el presente trabajo se realiza una descripción de una serie de pacientes diagnosticados de FE en Colombia. Método: Realizamos una búsqueda en los registros de imágenes de resonancia magnética (RM) cardiaca realizadas en nuestra institución entre 2016 y 2019 en busca de pacientes con diagnóstico de FE. Se describieron sus características sociodemográficas, clínicas y de imagen. Resultados: Nueve pacientes fueron diagnosticados de FE (el 66.7% mujeres), con una edad promedio de 69 años. Los pacientes presentaron un promedio de 2.6 años de evolución. El principal síntoma referido fue disnea, seguido de síncope, dolor torácico y palpitaciones. En ninguno de ellos se sospechó FE como diagnóstico inicial. En cuanto a los hallazgos ecocardiográficos, se identificó compromiso predominante del ventrículo izquierdo, seguido de compromiso biventricular. Todos los pacientes presentaron patrón de llenado restrictivo con dilatación auricular izquierda severa. En el análisis retrospectivo se cumplieron los criterios de Mocumbi para el diagnóstico de FE en el 100% de los pacientes con gravedad moderada (77.8%). Las imágenes de RM mostraron función sistólica biventricular y volúmenes preservados. Se observó depósito focal de gadolinio subendocárdico a nivel apical y se confirmó la presencia de trombo en el 66% de los casos Conclusión:: La FE es una cardiomiopatía restrictiva infrecuente circunscrita a países tropicales. La mayoría de los pacientes en nuestra serie presentaron compromiso aislado del ventrículo izquierdo, seguido de compromiso biventricular, con función ventricular usualmente preservada.


Abstract Objective: Endomyocardial fibrosis (EF) is an unusual restrictive cardiomyopathy. In Latin America there are few reports. Here, we made a description of patients diagnosed with EF in Colombia. Method: We conducted a search in the records of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed in our institution between 2016-2019 looking for patients with a diagnosis of EF; sociodemographic, clinical and imaging characteristics were described. Results: Nine patients were diagnosed with EF (66.7% female), with an average age of 69 years. Patients presented an average evolution of 2.6 years. The main reported symptom was dyspnea, followed by syncope, chest pain, and palpitations. None of them was initially suspected for EF. Regarding echocardiographic findings, predominant left ventricular involvement was identified, followed by bi-ventricular involvement. All the patients presented a restrictive filling pattern with severe left atrial dilation. In a retrospective analysis, Mocumbi criteria for diagnosis of EF were met in 100% of the patients, majority with moderate severity (77.8%). Cardiac MRI showed biventricular systolic function and volumes preserved. Focal subendocardial late gadolinium enhancement was observed on the apex and apical thrombus was confirmed in 66% of the patients Conclusion: FE is an uncommon restrictive cardiomyopathy limited to tropical countries. Most of patients in our series presented isolated involvement of left ventricle, followed by bi-ventricular involvement, with ventricular function usually preserved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiomyopathy, Restrictive/etiology , Cardiomyopathy, Restrictive/diagnostic imaging , Endomyocardial Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Colombia , Contrast Media , Gadolinium
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e10692, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153536

ABSTRACT

Fibrosis caused by the increase in extracellular matrix in cardiac fibroblasts plays an important role in the occurrence and development of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hsa-miR-4443 in AF, human cardiac fibroblast (HCFB) proliferation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. TaqMan Stem-loop miRNA assay was used to measure hsa-miR-4443 expression in patients with persistent AF (n=123) and healthy controls (n=100). Patients with AF were confirmed to have atrial fibrosis by late gadolinium enhancement. At the cellular level, after hsa-miR-4443 mimic and inhibitor were transfected with HCFBs, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were analyzed. Lastly, hsa-miR-4443-targeted gene and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/α-SMA/collagen pathway were evaluated by dual-luciferase reporter assay and western blot, respectively. In patients with AF, hsa-miR-4443 decreased significantly and collagen metabolism level increased significantly. Logistic regression analysis showed that low hsa-miR-4443 level was a risk factor of AF (P<0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that hsa-miR-4443 was useful for predicting AF (area under the curve: 0.828, sensitivity: 0.71, specificity: 0.78, P<0.001). In HCFBs, hsa-miR-4443 targeted thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) and downregulated TGF-β1/α-SMA/collagen pathway. The inhibition of hsa-miR-4443 expression promoted HCFB proliferation, migration, invasion, myofibroblast differentiation, and collagen production. The significant reduction of hsa-miR-4443 can be used as a biomarker for AF. hsa-miR-4443 protected AF by targeting THBS1 and regulated TGF-β1/α-SMA/collagen pathway to inhibit HCFB proliferation and collagen synthesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation , MicroRNAs/genetics , Fibrosis , Collagen , Contrast Media , Thrombospondin 1/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Fibroblasts , Gadolinium
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(4): 627-635, Abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131190

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is known to induce atrial remodeling, which promotes fibrosis related to arrhythmogenesis. Accordingly, since scars induced by catheter ablation (CA) can reduce unablated fibrotic areas, greater extent of left atrial (LA) scarring may be associated with less AF recurrence after CA. Objectives: This study aims to investigate, through systematic review and meta-analysis, whether the amount of LA scarring, seen on late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging, is associated with less AF recurrence after CA. Methods: The recommendations of the MOOSE guideline were followed. Database search was conducted in PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (comentário 1) until January 2019 (comentário 2). Two authors performed screening, data extraction, and quality evaluation. All studies were graded as good quality. A funnel plot was generated, showing no publication bias. Statistical significance was defined as p value < 0.05. Results: Eight observational studies were included in the systematic review, four of which were included in the meta-analysis. Six of the eight studies included in the systematic review showed that greater extension of LA scarring is associated with less AF recurrence after CA. Meta-analysis showed that greater extension of LA scarring is associated with less AF recurrence (SMD = 0.52; 95% CI 0.27 - 0.76; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Greater extension of LA scarring is possibly associated with less AF recurrence after CA. Randomized studies that explore ablation methods based on this association are fundamental.


Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação atrial (FA) é conhecida por induzir o remodelamento atrial, que promove fibrose, provocando, por sua vez, mais arritmogênese. Dessa forma, visto que as cicatrizes induzidas pela ablação por cateter (AC) podem reduzir as áreas fibróticas, uma maior extensão de cicatrizes do átrio esquerdo (AE) pode estar associada a uma menor recorrência da FA após AC. Objetivos: Por meio de revisão sistemática e metanálise, o presente estudo visa investigar se a extensão total de cicatriz do AE, visualizada na ressonância magnética com realce tardio de gadolínio após a ablação, está associada a uma menor recorrência de FA após AC. Métodos: Foram seguidas as recomendações das diretrizes MOOSE. A busca foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials até Janeiro de 2019. Dois autores realizaram triagem, extração de dados e avaliação da qualidade dos estudos. Em relação à qualidade, todos os estudos foram classificados como bons. Foi gerado um gráfico de funil, o qual não mostrou viés de publicação. Foi adotado nível de significância p < 0,05. Resultados: Oito estudos observacionais foram incluídos na revisão sistemática, dos quais quatro foram incluídos na metanálise. Dos oito estudos incluídos na revisão, seis mostraram que maior extensão de cicatrização do AE está associada a uma menor recorrência de FA após AC. A metanálise também demonstrou que maior extensão de cicatrização do AE está associada a uma menor recorrência de FA (SMD = 0,52; IC 95% 0,27 - 0,76; p < 0,0001). Conclusão: Uma maior extensão de cicatrização do AE está possivelmente associada a uma menor recorrência de FA após AC. Estudos randomizados que explorem métodos de ablação baseados nessa associação são fundamentais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation , Catheter Ablation , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Heart Atria
8.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(2): 165-173, March-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132565

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Meniere's disease is associated with impaired hearing, tinnitus, vertigo, and aural fullness. Many anatomical studies have suggested idiopathic endolymphatic hydrops as the pathological basis of Meniere's disease, which now can be visualized by using gadolinium -enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear. Objective: To investigate the development of endolymphatic hydrops in Meniere's disease by monitoring the vestibules and cochleae of affected patients. Methods: Inner ears of 178 patients with definite unilateral Meniere's disease diagnosis were visualized by 3-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and three-dimensional real inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging following bilateral gadolinium intratympanic injection. The scans were used to evaluate the presence and degree of endolymphatic hydrops in the vestibules and cochlear structures, including the cochlear apical turn, the cochlear middle turn, and the cochlear basal turn. The correlation of endolymphatic hydrops occurrence between the various parts of the inner ear was determined. Results: Symptomatic endolymphatic hydrops was detected on the affected side in all patients, whereas asymptomatic endolymphatic hydrops was detected on the unaffected contra-lateral side in 32 patients (18.0%). On the affected side, the cochlear apical turn and the cochlear middle turn demonstrated significantly higher rates of endolymphatic hydrops than the cochlear basal turn and the vestibule. The severity of endolymphatic hydrops gradually decreased from the cochlear apical turn to the cochlear basal turn. On the contra lateral side, the incidence and degree of the detected asymptomatic endolymphatic hydrops were significantly greater in the cochleae than in the vestibules (p < 0.05), with no significant difference detected between the cochlear turns. Conclusion: Progression of endolymphatic hydrops appears to be directional, initiated in the cochlea. The order of endolymphatic hydrops severity gradually decreases from the cochlear apical turn to the cochlear basal turn and then to the vestibule. Endolymphatic hydrops in the vestibule is associated with symptomatic Meniere's disease.


Resumo Introdução: A doença de Ménière está associada a deficiência auditiva, zumbido, vertigem e plenitude auricular. Muitos estudos anatômicos sugerem hidropsia endolinfática idiopática como a base patológica da doença, que agora pode ser visualizada através de estudo por imagem da orelha interna por ressonância magnética com gadolínio. Objetivo: Investigar o desenvolvimento da hidropsia endolinfática na doença de Ménière com monitoramento dos vestíbulos e das cócleas dos pacientes afetados. Métodos: Orelhas internas de 178 pacientes com diagnóstico definitivo de doença de Ménière unilateral foram visualizados através de imagem de recuperação de inversão atenuada por fluidos em ressonância magnética tridimensional, 3-D FLAIR, e por inversão real após injeção intratimpânica bilateral de gadolínio. Os exames foram usados para avaliar a presença e o grau de hidropsia endolinfática nos vestíbulos e nas estruturas cocleares, inclusive o giro coclear apical, o giro coclear médio e o giro coclear basal. A correlação da ocorrência de hidropsia endolinfática entre as várias partes da orelha interna foi determinada. Resultados: Hidropsia endolinfática sintomática foi detectada no lado afetado em todos os pacientes, enquanto hidropsia endolinfática assintomática foi detectada no lado contralateral não afetado em 32 pacientes (18,0%). No lado afetado, o giro apical da cóclea e o giro coclear médio demonstraram taxas significativamente mais altas de hidropsia endolinfática do que o giro basal e o vestíbulo. A gravidade da hidropsia endolinfática diminuiu gradualmente do giro apical da cóclea para o giro basal. No lado contralateral, a incidência e o grau da hidropsia endolinfática assintomática detectada foram significantemente maiores nas cócleas do que nos vestíbulos (p < 0,05), sem diferença significante entre os giros cocleares. Conclusões: A progressão da hidropsia endolinfática parece ser direcional, iniciando-se na cóclea. A sua ordem da gravidade diminui gradualmente do giro apical da cóclea para o giro basal e, em seguida, para o vestíbulo. A hidropsia endolinfática no vestíbulo está associada à doença de Ménière sintomática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Endolymphatic Hydrops/etiology , Endolymphatic Hydrops/diagnostic imaging , Gadolinium/administration & dosage , Meniere Disease/complications , Meniere Disease/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(3): 540-551, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088881

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A fisiopatologia e o prognóstico não estão claramente determinados nos pacientes com fenômeno do fluxo coronário lento (FCL). Esses pacientes apresentam várias condições clínicas, que variam desde quadro assintomático até internação hospitalar com morte cardíaca súbita. Objetivos Nosso objetivo foi avaliar os achados da ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) com o realce tardio pelo gadolínio (RTG), como um indicador de fibrose miocárdica. Também buscamos determinar a relação entre a presença de fibrose miocárdica e os níveis de NT-proBNP em pacientes com FCL na artéria coronária descendente anterior esquerda (DAE). Métodos Ao todo, 35 pacientes, entre 31 e 75 anos de idade, foram incluídos. Os pacientes estudados (n=19) apresentaram artérias coronárias epicárdicas normais na angiografia, mas tinham FCL na DAE. O grupo controle de pacientes (n=16) apresentou artérias coronárias epicárdicas normais e níveis de escore TIMI normais na angiografia. Em ambos os grupos, os pacientes foram examinados com RMC para a detecção de presença de fibrose miocárdica. Além disso, níveis plasmáticos de NT-proBNP foram medidos. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados A taxa de fibrose miocárdica foi significativamente maior na RMC para os pacientes com FCL (p=0.018). Uma quantidade variável de tecido cicatricial foi detectada no ápice ventricular esquerdo em 7 pacientes e nas regiões inferior e inferolateral em 3 pacientes. Não foram observadas diferenças nos níveis de NT-proBNP nos pacientes com FCL. Entretanto, os níveis de NT-proBNP foram maiores nos pacientes com FCL, que apresentaram fibrose miocárdica na RMC (p=0.022). Conclusões Em suma, o RTG na RMC mostrou que a cicatriz miocárdica isquêmica pode estar presente nos pacientes com FCL. Esses resultados indicam que o FCL pode nem sempre ser inofensivo. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 114(3):540-551)


Abstract Background Pathophysiology and prognosis are not clearly determined in patients with the coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP). These patients present with various clinical conditions ranging from being asymptomatic to being admitted with sudden cardiac death. Objectives We aimed at assessing the findings of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) as an indicator of myocardial fibrosis. We also aimed at determining the relationship between the presence of myocardial fibrosis and NT-proBNP levels in patients with CSFP in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Methods A total of 35 patients were enrolled within an age range of 31-75. The study patients (n=19) had normal epicardial coronary arteries at angiography, but they presented with CSFP in the LAD. The control group patients (n=16) had normal epicardial coronary arteries and TIMI scores at normal levels in angiography. In both groups, the patients were examined with CMR for the presence of myocardial fibrosis. In addition, plasma NT-proBNP levels were measured. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The rate of myocardial fibrosis was significantly higher in CMR in the patients with CSFP (p=0.018). A variable amount of myocardial scar tissue was detected at the left ventricular apex in 7 patients and at the inferior and inferolateral regions in 3 patients. There was no difference in the level of NT-proBNP in patients with CSFP. However, the NT-proBNP levels were higher in patients with CSFP, who had scar tissue in CMR (p=0.022). Conclusions In conclusion, LGE in CMR showed that ischemic myocardial scarring may exist in patients with CSFP. These results indicate that CSFP may not always be innocent. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 114(3):540-551)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cicatrix , No-Reflow Phenomenon , Peptide Fragments , Contrast Media , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Gadolinium
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(7): 485-492, July 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011371

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Because of the need for a standardized and accurate method for detecting multiple sclerosis (MS) inflammatory activity, different magnetic resonance (MR) acquisitions should be compared in order to choose the most sensitive sequence for clinical routine. Objective To compare the sensitivity of a T1-weighted image to a single dose of gadolinium (Gd) administration both with and without magnetization transfer to detect contrast enhancement in active demyelinating focal lesions. Methods A sample of relapsing-remitting MS patients were prospectively examined separately by two neuroradiologists using a 1.5 Tesla scanner. The outcome parameters were focused on Gd-enhancement detection attributed to acute demyelination. All MR examinations with at least one Gd-enhancing lesion were considered positive (MR+) and each lesion was analyzed according to its size and contrast ratio. Results Thirty-six MR examinations were analyzed with a high inter-observer agreement for MR+ detection (k coefficient > 0.8), which was excellent for the number of Gd-enhancing lesions (0.91 T1 spin-echo (SE), 0.88 T1 magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) sequence and 0.99 magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient-echo (MPRAGE). Significantly more MR+ were reported on the T1 MTC scans, followed by the T1 SE, and MPRAGE scans. Confidently, the T1 MTC sequence demonstrated higher accuracy in the detection of Gd-enhancing lesions, followed by the T1 SE and MPRAGE sequences. Further comparisons showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the contrast ratio and area of Gd-enhancement on the T1 MTC images when compared with both the SE and MPRAGE images. Conclusion Single-dose Gd T1 MTC sequence was confirmed to be the most sensitive acquisition for predicting inflammatory active lesions using a 1.5 T magnet in this sample of MS patients.


RESUMO No que se refere à necessidade de um método preciso e padronizado para a detecção de atividade inflamatória em esclerose múltipla (EM), diferentes aquisições de RM devem ser comparadas com objetivo de escolher a sequência mais sensível para a rotina clínica. Objetivo Comparar a sensibilidade das sequências ponderadas em T1 após a administração endovenosa de uma única dose de gadolínio, com e sem a adição da transferência de magnetização, para detectar a impregnação das lesões desmielinizantes focais agudas. Métodos Uma amostra de pacientes com EM-RR foi prospectivamente avaliada separadamente por dois neurorradiologistas em um equipamento de RM de 1,5 Tesla. Os parâmetros de desfecho foram direcionados para a avaliação da detecção de impregnação pelo Gd atribuída à desmielinização aguda. Todos os exames de RM que demonstraram ao menos uma lesão com impregnação pelo Gd foram considerados positivos (RM+) e cada lesão foi analisada de acordo com suas dimensões e contraste. Resultados Trinta e seis exames de RM foram analisados. Os avaliadores demonstraram elevada concordância para a detecção de RM+ (coeficiente> 0,8), sendo excelente quanto ao número de lesões com impregnação pelo Gd (0,91 SE, 0,88 T1 MTC e 0,99 MPRAGE). A sequência T1 MTC apresentou número significativamente maior de RM+, seguida pelas sequências T1 SE e MPRAGE. De forma análoga, a sequência T1 MTC demonstrou maior acurácia na detecção de lesões com impregnação pelo Gd, seguida pelas sequências T1 SE e MPRAGE. As demais comparações demonstraram aumento estatisticamente significativo na relação de contraste e na área de impregnação pelo Gd nas imagens T1 MTC quando comparadas às imagens SE e MPRAGE. Conclusão A sequência T1 MTC com uma única dose de Gd confirmou ser a sequência mais sensível em demonstrar lesões inflamatórias agudas em equipamento de 1,5 T nessa coorte de pacientes com EM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Brain/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Demyelinating Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media/administration & dosage , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/diagnostic imaging , Gadolinium/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Demyelinating Diseases/etiology , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/complications , Multiple Sclerosis
11.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(2): 177-189, mar.-abr. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-988239

ABSTRACT

Amyloidosis is a disease caused by extracellular deposition of insoluble protein fibrils, that results in changes in tissue architecture and consequently modification of the organ structure. Cardiac involvement is common in amyloidosis. Two major types of systemic amyloidosis affect the myocardium ­ immunoglobulin light chain and transthyretin amyloidosis ­ each leading to different prognosis. Early detection and diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis are the main objectives in the assessment of the disease. New techniques of magnetic resonance imaging have minimized the need for biopsies for the diagnosis. Late gadolinium enhancement technique, and more recently T1 mapping, have allowed a simplified evaluation of amyloid deposits and extracellular volume. The aim of this review was to describe basic concepts and updates of the use of magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis amyloidosis and evaluation of its severity


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Amyloidosis/diagnosis , Amyloidosis/therapy , Prognosis , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Biomarkers , Immunoglobulin Light Chains , Contrast Media , Plaque, Amyloid/diagnostic imaging , Electrocardiography/methods , Gadolinium , Heart Ventricles , Myocarditis/pathology
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the predictive value of myocardial scar mass in malignant ventricular arrhythmia (MVA) after myocardial infarction.@*METHODS@#Thirty myocardial infarction patients with complete electrophysiology and cardiac MRI data admitted from January 2012 to August 2017 were enrolled in the study. According to the results of intracavitary electrophysiological study, MVA developed in 16 patients (MVA group) and not developed in 14 patients (non-MVA group). The qualitative and quantitative analysis of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVFE) and scar mass was performed with CV post-processing software and predictive value of myocardial scar and LVEF for MVA after myocardial infarction was analyzed using ROC curves.@*RESULTS@#LVEF in MVA group was significantly lower than that in non-MVA group, and scar mass in MVA group was significantly higher than that in non-MVA group (all <0.05). Regression analysis showed that LVEF (=1.580) and scar mass (=6.270) were risk factors for MVA after myocardial infarction. For predicting MVA, the area under ROC curve () of LVEF was 0.696 with a sensitivity of 0.786 and the specificity of 0.685; the of the scar mass was 0.839 with a sensitivity was 0.618 and the specificity of 0.929; the of LVEF combined with scar mass was 0.848 with a sensitivity of 0.688 and specificity of 0.857.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Myocardial scar assessed by late gadolinium enhancement MRI is more effective than LVEF in predicting MVA after myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Diagnosis , Cicatrix , Diagnostic Imaging , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Myocardial Infarction , Diagnostic Imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Ventricular Function, Left
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719590

ABSTRACT

Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are commonly used for enhancement in MR imaging and have long been considered safe when administered at recommended doses. However, since the report that nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is linked to the use of GBCAs in subjects with severe renal diseases, accumulating evidence has suggested that GBCAs are not cleared entirely from our bodies; some GBCAs are deposited in our tissues, including the brain. GBCA deposition in the brain is mostly linked to the specific chelate structure of the GBCA: linear GBCAs were responsible for brain deposition in almost all reported studies. This review aimed to summarize the current knowledge about GBCA brain deposition and discuss its clinical implications.


Subject(s)
Brain , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Nephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740163

ABSTRACT

Gadolinium contrast agents (CAs) are integral components of clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, safety concerns have arisen regarding the use of gadolinium CAs, due to their association with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Furthermore, recently the long-term retention of Gd²⁺-based CAs in brains patients with normal renal function raised another possible safety issue. The safety concerns of Gd²⁺-based CAs have been based on the ligand structure of Gd²⁺-based CAs, and findings that Gd²⁺-based CAs with linear ligand structures showed much higher incidences of NSF and brain retention of CAs than Gd²⁺-based CAs with macrocyclic ligand structure. In the current study, we report the in vivo biodistribution profile of a new highly stable multifunctional Gd²⁺-based CA, with macrocyclic ligand structure (HNP-2006). MR imaging using HNP-2006 demonstrated a significant contrast enhancement in many different organs. Furthermore, the contrast enhanced tumor imaging using HNP-2006 confirmed that this new macrocyclic CA can be used for detecting tumor in the central nervous system. Therefore, this new multifunctional HNP-2006 with macrocyclic ligand structure shows great promise for whole-body clinical application.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Incidence , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Nephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy
15.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 119-133, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738772

ABSTRACT

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology. The annual incidence of systemic sarcoidosis is estimated at 10–20 per 100,000 individuals. Owing to the recent advances in imaging modalities, cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is diagnosed more frequently. The triad of CS includes conduction abnormality, ventricular tachycardia, and heart failure. Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias are caused by either inflammation or scar formation. Inflammation should be treated with immunosuppression and antiarrhythmic agents and scar formation should be treated with antiarrhythmics and/or ablation, in addition to implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation, if necessary. Ablation can provide a good outcome, but it might require bipolar ablation if the critical portion is located mid-myocardium. Late recurrence might be caused by reactivation of sarcoidosis, which would need to be evaluated by positron emission tomography-computed tomography imaging. Risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with advanced atrioventricular block is not low, and ICD implantation could be considered instead of a pacemaker. For risk stratification for SCD, late gadolinium enhancement by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or program stimulation is often used.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Atrioventricular Block , Catheter Ablation , Cicatrix , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Defibrillators , Defibrillators, Implantable , Electrons , Gadolinium , Heart Failure , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Incidence , Inflammation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Recurrence , Sarcoidosis , Tachycardia, Ventricular
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764173

ABSTRACT

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas. Cardiac involvement is known to have poor prognosis because it can manifest as a serious condition such as the conduction abnormality, heart failure, ventricular arrhythmia, or sudden cardiac death. Although early diagnosis and early treatment is critical to improve patient prognosis, the diagnosis of CS is challenging in most cases. Diagnosis usually relies on endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), but its diagnostic yield is low due to the incidence of patchy myocardial involvement. Guidelines for the diagnosis of CS recommend a combination of clinical, electrocardiographic, and imaging findings from various modalities, if EMB cannot confirm the diagnosis. Especially, the role of advanced imaging such as cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and positron emission tomography (PET), has shown to be important not only for the diagnosis, but also for monitoring treatment response and prognostication. CMR can evaluate cardiac function and fibrotic scar with good specificity. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in CMR shows a distinctive enhancement pattern for each disease, which may be useful for differential diagnosis of CS from other similar diseases. Effectively, T1 or T2 mapping techniques can be also used for early recognition of CS. In the meantime, PET can detect and quantify metabolic activity and can be used to monitor treatment response. Recently, the use of a hybrid CMR-PET has introduced to allow identify patients with active CS with excellent co-localization and better diagnostic accuracy than CMR or PET alone. However, CS may show various findings with a wide spectrum, therefore, radiologists should consider the possible differential diagnosis of CS including myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, amyloidosis, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Radiologists should recognize the differences in various diseases that show the characteristics of mimicking CS, and try to get an accurate diagnosis of CS.


Subject(s)
Amyloidosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia , Biopsy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic , Cicatrix , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Early Diagnosis , Electrocardiography , Electrons , Gadolinium , Granuloma , Heart Defects, Congenital , Humans , Incidence , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocarditis , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prognosis , Sarcoidosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764168

ABSTRACT

Hyperglycemia-induced hemichorea (HGHC) is a rare but characteristic hyperkinetic movement disorder involving limbs on one side of the body. In a 75-year-old woman with a left-sided HGHC, conventional brain MR imaging showed very subtle T1-hyperintensity and unique gadolinium enhancement in the basal ganglia contralateral to movements. Multi-parametric MRI was acquired using pulse sequence with quantification of relaxation times and proton density by multi-echo acquisition. Myelin map was reconstructed based on new tissue classification modeling. In this case report of multi-parametric MRI, quantitative measurement of myelin change related to HGHC in brain structures and its possible explanations are presented. This is the first study to demonstrate myelin loss related to hyperglycemic insult in multi-parametric quantitative MR imaging.


Subject(s)
Aged , Basal Ganglia , Brain , Classification , Extremities , Female , Gadolinium , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Hyperkinesis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Movement Disorders , Myelin Sheath , Protons , Relaxation
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763101

ABSTRACT

Hemangioblastoma (HBL) in the suprasellar region is very rare and a few cases have been reported. Suprasellar HBL without von Hippel-Lindau disease is much rarer. A 76-year old male patient presented progressively deteriorating visual disturbance. MRI demonstrated solid suprasellar mass of 20 mm in diameter, broadly based to planum sphenoidale and diaphragm sella and dural tail sign after the administration of gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Preoperative diagnosis was meningioma. Total resection of the tumor was not accomplished because of massive hemorrhage, and the histopathologic examination revealed the tumor to be HBL. The visual disturbance of the patient was not improved. The authors reviewed the literature and considered a differential diagnosis of suprasellar tumors and treatment of suprasellar HBL.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Diaphragm , Gadolinium , Hemangioblastoma , Hemorrhage , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Meningioma , Tail , Temazepam , von Hippel-Lindau Disease
19.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1562-1582, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786373

ABSTRACT

This document is the third part of the guidelines for the protocol, the interpretation and post-processing of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) studies. These consensus recommendations have been developed by the Consensus Committee of the Korean Society of Cardiovascular Imaging to standardize the requirements for image interpretation and post-processing of CMR. This third part of the recommendations describes tissue characterization modules, including perfusion, late gadolinium enhancement, and T1- and T2 mapping. Additionally, this document provides guidance for visual and quantitative assessment consisting of “What-to-See,” “How-To,” and common pitfalls for the analysis of each module. The Consensus Committee hopes that this document will contribute to the standardization of image interpretation and post-processing of CMR studies.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Gadolinium , Hope , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Perfusion
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