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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928147

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the mechanism of the Tibetan patent medicine Ershiwuwei Shanhu Pills(ESP) in alleviating Alzheimer's disease in mice via Akt/mTOR/GSK-3β signaling pathway. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into a blank control group, a model group, low(200 mg·kg~(-1)), medium(400 mg·kg~(-1)) and high(800 mg·kg~(-1)) dose groups of ESP, and donepezil hydrochloride group. Except the blank control group, the other groups were given 20 mg·kg~(-1) aluminum chloride by gavage and 120 mg·kg~(-1) D-galactose by intraperitoneal injection for 56 days to establish Alzheimer's disease model. Morris water maze was used to detect the learning and memory ability of mice. The level of p-tau protein in mouse hippocampus and the levels of superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA), catalase(CAT), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in hippocampus and serum were detected. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Nissl staining were performed for the pathological observation of whole brain in mice. TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling(TUNEL) staining was employed for the observation of apoptosis in mouse cortex. Western blot was adopted to detect the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-Akt, and GSK-3β in the hippocampus. Compared with the model group, the ESP groups showcased alleviated pathological damage of the whole brain, decreased TUNEL positive cells, reduced level of p-tau protein in hippocampus, and risen SOD, CAT, and T-AOC levels and declined MDA level in hippocampus and serum. Furthermore, the ESP groups had up-regulated protein levels of p-mTOR and p-Akt while down-regulated protein level of GSK-3β in hippocampus. Therefore, ESP can alleviate the learning and memory decline and oxidative damage in mice with Alzheimer's disease induced by D-galactose combined with aluminum chloride, which may be related to Akt/mTOR/GSK-3β signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Aluminum Chloride/adverse effects , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Animals , Galactose/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Plant Extracts , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , tau Proteins
2.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(3): e677, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126771

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La malabsorción de glucosa y de galactosa es una enfermedad genética autosómica recesiva debida a una mutación que afecta al cotransportador de sodio-glucosa. Objetivo: Describir una asociación infrecuente entre el síndrome de Down y la mala absorción de glucosa y de galactosa. Presentación del caso: Niño desnutrido de 3 ½ meses de edad con síndrome de Down, de padres consanguíneos. Presentó precozmente diarrea explosiva, vómitos con deshidratación. Se mejoró tras la eliminación de la alimentación oral y la perfusión hidroelectrolítica y empeoró con la utilización de las sales de rehidratación oral y las fórmulas lácteas, sin proteínas de leche de vaca. El estudio de las heces mostró un pH fecal /5, presencia de glucosa, ionograma de las 24 horas fue: sodio 0,5 mEq (1-10), potasio 2,6 mEq (8-22) y el cálculo realizado para distinguir entre diferentes causas de diarrea dio aumentado: 168 mOsm/kg (50-125). Ante este cuadro clínico se consideró el diagnóstico de malabsorción de glucosa y de galactosa sobre todo tras la mejora de la sintomatología bajo dieta exclusivamente azucarada con fructosa. Conclusiones: Es importante tener en cuenta la malabsorción de glucosa y de galactosa dentro de los diagnósticos diferenciales de las diarreas acuosas congénitas. El diagnóstico precoz y la dieta adecuada con fructosa evitan deshidratación y malnutrición. La particularidad de nuestro caso es la asociación de la malabsorción de glucosa y de galactosa con el síndrome de Down, que, según nuestro conocimiento, es la primera vez que se describe y podría aumentar la morbilidad(AU)


Introduction: Malabsorption of glucose and galactose is a genetic autosomic recesive disease caused by a mutation that affects the co-transportator of sodium-glucose. Objective: To describe an unfrequent relation between the Down syndrome and the malabsortion of glucose and galactose. Case presentation: Undernourished child, 3 and half months old with Down syndrome from parents by blood. He early presented explosive diarrhea and vomiting with dehydration. He improved his state after elimination of oral feeding and a hydroelectrolitic perfusion, and his state worsened with the use of oral rehydration salts and dairy formula, even without cow´s milk proteins. The study of feces showed a fecal pH /5, presence of glucose, and the ionogram after 24 hours showed: sodium 0,5mEg (1-10), potasium 2,6 mEg (8-22) and the calculation made to identify the different causes of diarrhea was increased: 168 mOsm/kg (50-125). Having this clinical records, it was considered a diagnostic of glucose and galactose malabsorption, mainly after the improvement of the symptoms under a diet exclusively sugared with fructose. Conclusions: It is important to take into account glucose and galactose malabsortion in the differential diagnosis of congenital watery diahrrea. The early diagnosis and an adequate diet with fructose avoid dehytration and malnutrition. The particularity of this case is the relation of glucose and galactose malabsorption with Down syndrome, that according to our knowledge is the first time it is described and it can increase the morbility(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Down Syndrome/complications , Glucose Intolerance/complications , Malabsorption Syndromes/complications , Galactose/analysis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the role of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in the pathogenesis of childhood Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) and the correlation between them.@*METHODS@#A total of 36 children with newly-diagnosed HSP were enrolled. They were divided into two groups: HSP nephritis (HSPN) group with 11 children and non-HSPN group with 25 children according to the presence or absence of HSPN. Another 15 children who underwent physical examination at the outpatient service were enrolled as the healthy control group. Flow cytometry was used to measure the proportion of Tfh cells (CD4CXCR5ICOS) in peripheral blood. ELISA was used to measure the levels of interleukin-21 (IL-21) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in peripheral blood and the serum levels of IgA1 and Gd-IgA1. A Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation of serum Gd-IgA1 concentration with Tfh cells and related factors expression in the children with HSP.@*RESULTS@#Both the HSPN and non-HSPN groups had significantly higher proportion of Tfh cells and expression levels of IL-21 and IL-6 in peripheral blood than the healthy control group (P<0.05). The HSPN group had significant increases in the above indices compared with the non-HSPN group (P<0.05). Both the HSPN and non-HSPN groups had significantly higher serum levels of IgA1 and Gd-IgA1 than the healthy control group (P<0.05). The HSPN group had significantly higher serum levels of IgA1 and Gd-IgA1 than the non-HSPN group (P<0.05). In the children with HSP, serum Gd-IgA1 level was positively correlated with Tfh cells proportion and IL-21 and IL-6 levels (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Tfh cells and related cytokines and serum Gd-IgA1 are involved in the development of HSP/HSPN. Tfh cells may mediate the increased production of Gd-IgA1.


Subject(s)
Child , Galactose , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , IgA Vasculitis , Receptors, CXCR5 , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 78-83, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053493

ABSTRACT

Background: Mathematical modeling is useful in the analysis, prediction, and optimization of an enzymatic process. Unlike the conventional modeling methods, Monte Carlo method has special advantages in providing representations of the molecule's spatial distribution. However, thus far, Monte Carlo modeling of enzymatic system is namely based on unimolecular basis, not suitable for practical applications. In this research, Monte Carlo modeling is performed for enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose for the purpose of real-time applications. Results: The enzyme hydrolysis of lactose, which is conformed to Michaelis­Menten kinetics, is modeled using the Monte Carlo modeling method, and the simulation results prove that the model predicts the reaction kinetics very well. Conclusions: Monte Carlo modeling method can be used to model enzymatic reactions in a simple way for real-time applications.


Subject(s)
Monte Carlo Method , Enzymes/metabolism , Hydrolysis , Lactose/metabolism , Time Factors , Kinetics , beta-Galactosidase/metabolism , Enzymes, Immobilized , Galactose/metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the value of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in the early diagnosis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) in children.@*METHODS@#A total of 67 hospitalized children who were definitely diagnosed with HSPN between January and April 2018 and 58 hospitalized children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) were enrolled in the study. Twenty children undergoing routine physical examinations served as controls. The levels of serum and urine Gd-IgA1 were determined using ELISA. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to analyze the value of serum Gd-IgA1 and urine Gd-IgA1/urine creatinine ratio in the diagnosis of HSPN.@*RESULTS@#The level of serum Gd-IgA1 and urine Gd-IgA1/urine creatinine ratio in children with HSP or HSPN were significantly higher than those in healthy control group (P<0.01), with a significantly greater increase observed in children with HSPN (P<0.01). Serum Gd-IgA1 ≥1 485.57 U/mL and/or urine Gd-IgA1/urine creatinine ratio ≥105.74 were of favorable value in the diagnosis of HSPN. During the six-month follow-up of the 49 children with HSP, the incidence of HSPN was 47% (23/49), which included a 100% incidence in children with serum Gd-IgA1 ≥1 485.57 U/mL and a 73% incidence in children with urine Gd-IgA1/urine creatinine ratio ≥105.74.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Serum and urine Gd-IgA1 is of favorable clinical value in the early diagnosis of HSPN.


Subject(s)
Child , Early Diagnosis , Galactose , Glomerulonephritis, IGA , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , IgA Vasculitis
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773180

ABSTRACT

In order to provide a foundation for the development and application of Ophiocordyceps gracilis and increase the new resources of cordyceps,an asexual Paraisaria dubia was isolated from an O. gracilis fruit body. After 10 days of liquid fermentation,white globular mycelium and clear transparent fermentation were produced. The mycelium was extracted by hot water and precipitated with ethanol to obtain intracellular crude polysaccharide. The protein was deproteinized to obtain deproteinized polysaccharide. The intracellular pure polysaccharide was purified by Sepharose 4 B column chromatography and were analyzed by UV,IR,1 H-NMR,and13 CNMR data,as well as GC and HPLC. The results showed that the intracellular polysaccharide of P. dubia was composed of glucose,galactose and mannose with a molar ratio of 25. 54 ∶2 ∶1. It was a β-configuration glycosylic bond,containing pyranoside. The initial connection of polysaccharide was β(1→2)(1→4)(1→6) connection. This experiment provides a theoretical basis for the development and application of P. dubia.


Subject(s)
Fungal Polysaccharides , Chemistry , Galactose , Glucose , Hypocreales , Chemistry , Mannose , Mycelium , Chemistry
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774562

ABSTRACT

To explore the effects and molecular mechanisms of mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis(MCs)improving renal tubular epithelial cells aging induced by D-galactose,the renal proximal tubular epithelial cells(NRK-52E cells)of rats in vitro were divided into the normal group(N),the D-gal model group(D),the low dose of MCs group(L-MCs),the medium dose of MCs group(M-MCs)and the high dose of MCs group(H-MCs),and treated by the different measures,respectively.More specifically,the NRK-52E cells in each group were separately treated by 1%fetal bovine serum(FBS)or D-galactose(D-gal,100 mmol·L~(-1))or D-gal(100 mmol·L~(-1))+MCs(20 mg·L~(-1))or D-gal(100 mmol·L~(-1))+MCs(40 mg·L~(-1))or D-gal(100 mmol·L~(-1))+MCs(80 mg·L~(-1)).After the intervention for24 h or 48 h,firstly,the effects of D-gal on the protein expression levels of klotho,P27 and P16,the staining of senescence-associatedβ-galactosidase(SA-β-gal)and the activation of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase(AMPK)/uncoordinated 51-like kinase 1(ULK1)signaling in the NRK-52E cells were detected,respectively.Secondly,the effects of MCs on the activation of the NRK-52E cells proliferation were investigated,respectively.Finally,the effects of MCs on the protein expression levels of klotho,P27,P16and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3),the staining of SA-β-gal and the activation of AMPK/ULK1 signaling in the NRK-52E cells exposed to D-gal were examined severally.The results indicated that,for the NRK-52E cells,D-gal could cause aging,induce the protein over-expression levels of the phosphorylated AMPK(p-AMPK)and the phosphorylated ULK1(p-ULK1)and activate AMPK/ULK1 signaling pathway.The co-treatment of MCs at the medium and high doses and D-gal could significantly ameliorate the protein expression levels of klotho,P27,P16 and the staining of SA-β-gal,suggesting the anti-cell aging actions.In addition,the cotreatment of MCs at the medium and high doses and D-gal could obviously improve the protein expression levels of LC3,p-AMPK,and p-ULK1,inhibit the activation of AMPK/ULK1 signaling and increase autophagy.On the whole,for the renal tubular epithelial cells aging models induced by D-gal,MCs not only has the in vitro actions of anti-aging,but also intervenes aging process by inhibiting autophagy-related AMPK/ULK1 signaling activation,which may be the novel molecular mechanisms of MCs protecting against aging of the renal tubular epithelial cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Cordyceps , Epithelial Cells , Galactose , Mycelium , Rats
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714656

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: D-galactose has been commonly used in rodent models to induce accelerated effects of aging, including those on learning, memory, and muscular tone and coordination. This is normally seen on chronic administration of D-galactose. However, there is minimal suggestive evidence on the short-term effects of the same. The aim of the study was to study the acute and chronic effects of D-galactose on learning and memory in Wistar rats. METHODS: Twenty four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the control, standard (rivastigmine), oral D-galactose (200 mg/kg/day) and subcutaneous D-galactose (200 mg/kg/day) for a total duration of 8 weeks. Effects on learning and memory were assessed at 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks by Morris water maze model and passive avoidance testing. RESULTS: Both oral and subcutaneous D-galactose showed positive effects on learning and memory on acute dosing, whereas this beneficial effect was lost during chronic dosing. CONCLUSION: Short-term administration of D-galactose showed positive effects, while long-term administration nullified these effects.


Subject(s)
Aging , Alzheimer Disease , Galactose , Humans , Learning , Male , Memory , Rats, Wistar , Rivastigmine , Rodentia , Water
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776583

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Deoxygedunin on Aβ deposition, learning memory, and oxidative stress induced by D-galactose combined with AlCl in model rats with Alzheimer's disease and its possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#Male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups (=12):control group, model group (AD) and intervention group (AD+Deo). Morris water maze test was used to detect learning/memory and cognitive function in rats.Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in homogenate of hippocampus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Tau protein expression in rat cerebral cortex was detected by immunohistochemistry.Western blot was used to detect the expressions of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1(ERK1), protein kinase B (PKB) and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) on TrkB signaling pathway.@*RESULTS@#The results of water maze test showed that D-galactose combined with AlCl induced a significant increase in the escape latency compared with the control group (<0.05).Deoxygedunin could reverse the increase of the escape latency of the model group (<0.05).On the 7th day after removal of the platform, the model group showed an increase in escape latency compared with the control group and the intervention group (<0.01), and the number of crossing platforms was declined (<0.05); The results of immunohistochemistry and ELISA showed that the expressions of Aβ and tau protein in the model group were increased significantly compared with those of the control group (<0.01).The activities of SOD and GSH-Px were decreased significantly and the content of MDA was increased significantly.Compared with the model group, Deoxygedunin could reverse the increase of the expressions of Aβ and tau protein (<0.01), the decrease of SOD and GSH-Px activities (<0.05) and the increase of the MDA content (<0.05).Western blot results showed that Deoxygedunin treatment reversed the decreased phosphorylation levels of TrkB, AKT and ERK1 in hippocampus of the model group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Supplement of Deoxygedunin can significantly reverse Aβ deposition, oxidative stress and cognitive deficits by activating the TrkB signal transduction pathway, which suggest that Deoxygedunin may serve as a promising therapeutic candidate for attenuating AD-like pathological dysfunction induced by D-galactose combined with AlCl.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Galactose , Hippocampus , Limonins , Male , Maze Learning , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
10.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 39(4): 423-430, Oct. - Dec. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-878455

ABSTRACT

The seaweeds are bio-resource rich in sulfated and neutral polysaccharides. The tropical seaweed species used in this study (Solieria filiformis), after dried, shows 65.8% (w/w) carbohydrate, 9.6% (w/w) protein, 1.7% (w/w) lipid, 7.0% (w/w) moisture and 15.9% (w/w) ash. The dried seaweed was easily hydrolyzed under mild conditions (0.5 M sulfuric acid, 20 min.), generating fermentable monosaccharides with a maximum hydrolysis efficiency of 63.21%. Galactose and glucose present in the hydrolyzed were simultaneously fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae when the yeast was acclimated to galactose and cultivated in broth containing only galactose. The kinetic parameters of the fermentation of the seaweed hydrolyzed were Y(P/S) = 0.48 ± 0.02 g.g−1, PP = 0.27 ± 0.04 g.L−1.h−1, η = 94.1%, representing a 41% increase in bioethanol productivity. Therefore, S. filiformis was a promising renewable resource of polysaccharides easily hydrolyzed, generating a broth rich in fermentable monosaccharides for ethanol production.


As algas marinhas são recursos naturais ricos em polissacarídeos sulfatados e neutros. A espécie de macroalga tropical utilizada neste estudo (Solieria filiformis) apresentou teores de carboidratos de 65,8% (m/m), proteínas de 9,6% (m/m), lipídios de 1,7% (m/m), umidade de 7,0% (m/m) e 15,9 % (m/m) de cinzas. A macroalga seca foi facilmente hidrolisada em condições brandas, na presença de ácido sulfúrico 0,5 M, por 20 min, produzindo monossacarídeos fermentáveis com uma eficiência de hidrólise máxima de 63,21%. A galactose e a glicose presentes no hidrolisado foram fermentadas simultaneamente por Saccharomyces cerevisiae, após aclimatação da levedura cultivada em meio contendo apenas galactose como fonte de carbono. Os parâmetros cinéticos da fermentação do hidrolisado algáceo pela levedura aclimatada a galactose foram Y(P/S) = 0,48 ± 0,02 g.g-1, PP = 0,27 ± 0,04 g.L- 1.h-1, η = 94,1%. Portanto, a macroalga S. filiformis se mostrou um recurso renovável promissor como fonte de polissacarídeos facilmente hidrolisados, gerando um meio nutritivo rico em glucose e galactose para a produção de etanol.


Subject(s)
Carrageenan , Cellulose , Fermentation , Galactose , Seaweed , Sulfuric Acids
11.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (3 [Special]): 1179-1183
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189332

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to observe and analyze effects of Codonopsis pilosula water extract on micro RNA [miRNA] expression profile in liver tissue of senile mice. The 110 Konminmice were randomly divided into five groups, including D-galactose-induced senile model group, normal control group, and low, middle and high dose intervention groups. Continuous modeling lasted 40 days. General symptoms and changes of body mass of the model mice were monitored and observed. The levels of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase [ALT] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP] of mice were compared, and miRNA of differential expression during aging of D-galactose-induction and high-dose Codonopsis pilosula intervention was analyzed. The serum ALT and ALP levels in the aging model group were significantly higher than those in the normal control group [P<0.05]. The serum ALT and ALP levels of Codonopsis pilosula intervention group were lower than those of aging model group, and decrease in ALP value of high dose intervention group was higher [P<0.05]. The expression profile of miRNA in the aging model group was significantly different from that in normal control group and high-dose Codonopsis pilosula intervention group, and miRNA expression profile in high-dose Codonopsis pilosula intervention group was clustered with that in the normal control group. The differentially expressed miRNAs of D-galactose-induced senescence and Codonopsis pilosula anti-aging usually belong to 7 miRNA clusters. The target gene function of the differentially expressed miRNAs during senescence process was enriched in 29 signal pathways. There were 67 regulatory signal pathways in differentially expressed miRNA target genes during Codonopsis pilosula intervention. The effect of miRNA targeting may play an important role during D-galactose-induced senescence and Codonopsis pilosula anti-aging period


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , MicroRNAs , Plant Extracts , Water , Gene Expression , Galactose , Mice , Aging
12.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 283-290, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101365

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we examined the effects of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille leaf extract (DML) on D-galactose-induced morphological changes in microglia and cytokines, including pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in the hippocampus. Administration of DML to D-galactose-treated mice significantly improved D-galactose-induced reduction in escape latency, swimming speed, and spatial preference for the target quadrant. In addition, administration of DML to D-galactose-treated mice significantly ameliorated the microglial activation and increases of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus. Administration of D-galactose significantly reduced IL-4 levels in the hippocampus, while administration of DML to D-galactose-treated mice significantly increased IL-4 level. However, we did not observe any significant changes in IL-10 levels in hippocampal homogenates. These results suggest that DML reduces D-galactose-induced mouse senescence by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, as well as increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Cytokines , Galactose , Hippocampus , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6 , Memory Disorders , Memory , Mice , Microglia , Swimming , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , United Nations
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vascular dementia (VaD) caused by reduced blood supply to the brain manifests as white matter lesions accompanying demyelination and glial activation. We previously showed that arabinoxylan consisting of arabinose and xylose, and arabinose itself attenuated white matter injury in a rat model of VaD. Here, we investigated whether larch arabinogalactan (LAG) consisting of arabinose and galactose could also reduce white matter injury. MATERIALS/METHODS: We used a rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), in which the bilateral common carotid arteries were exposed and ligated permanently with silk sutures. The rats were fed a modified AIN-93G diet supplemented with LAG (100 mg/kg/day) for 5 days before and 4 weeks after being subjected to BCCAO. Four weeks after BCCAO, the pupillary light reflex (PLR) was measured to assess functional consequences of injury in the corpus callosum (cc). Additionally, Luxol fast blue staining and immunohistochemical staining were conducted to assess white matter injury, and astrocytic and microglial activation, respectively. RESULTS: We showed that white matter injury in the the cc and optic tract (opt) was attenuated in rats fed diet supplemented with LAG. Functional consequences of injury reduction in the opt manifested as improved PLR. Overall, these findings indicate that LAG intake protects against white matter injury through inhibition of glial activation. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study support our hypothesis that cell wall polysaccharides consisting of arabinose are effective at protecting white matter injury, regardless of their origin. Moreover, LAG has the potential for development as a functional food to prevent vascular dementia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia , Arabinose , Brain , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Artery, Common , Cell Wall , Corpus Callosum , Dementia, Vascular , Demyelinating Diseases , Diet , Functional Food , Galactose , Larix , Models, Animal , Optic Tract , Polysaccharides , Rats , Reflex , Silk , Sutures , White Matter , Xylose
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311369

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant and anti-aging effects of Silybum marianum protein hydrolysate (SMPH) in D-galactose-treated mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>D-galactose (500 mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally injected daily for 7 weeks to accelerate aging, and SMPH (400, 800, 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively) was simultaneously administered orally. The antioxidant and anti-aging effects of SMPH in the liver and brain were measured by biochemical assays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the ultrastructure of liver mitochondri.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>SMPH decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the D-galactose-treated mice. It significantly elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), which were suppressed by D-galactose. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as well as the concentrations of caspase-3 and 8-OHdG in the liver and brain were significantly reduced by SMPH. Moreover, it increased Bcl-2 levels in the liver and brain. Furthermore, SMPH significantly attenuated D-galactose-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction by improving the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and fluidity. TEM showed that the degree of liver mitochondrial damage was significantly decreased by SMPH.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results indicated that SMPH protects against D-galactose-induced accelerated aging in mice through its antioxidant and anti-aging activities.</p>


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Brain , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Galactose , Toxicity , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Glutathione Peroxidase , Metabolism , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Maze Learning , Mice , Milk Thistle , Chemistry , Mitochondria, Liver , Oxidative Stress , Plant Proteins , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Protein Hydrolysates , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-273725

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in different brain regions of aging rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty male SD rats were randomized equally into negative control group, D-galactose group, EPO treatment group, and positive control group. Rat models of subacute aging were established by continuous subcutaneous injection of 5% D-galactose. Immunohistochemical staining was used to analyze the variation of BDNF expressions in different brain regions of the aging rats with different treatments.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Significant brain region-specific differences in BDNF expression were found among the rats in different groups. Compared with those in the negative control group, the numbers of BDNF-positive cells in the hippocampal CA1 region, CA3 region, dentate gyrus (DG) and frontal cortex were all decreased obviously in D-galactose group (P<0.05) but increased in both EPO group and the positive control group (P<0.05) without significant differences between the latter two groups. In the rats in the same group, the number of BDNF-positive cells varied markedly in different brain regions (P<0.05), and the expression level of BDNF was the highest in the frontal cortex followed by the hippocampal CA3 region and the dentate gyrus, and was the lowest in the hippocampal CA1 region.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Treatment with rhEPO enhances the expression of BDNF in rat neural cells, suggesting that rhEPO may protect the nervous system from aging by regulating the BDNF pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Metabolism , CA1 Region, Hippocampal , Metabolism , CA3 Region, Hippocampal , Metabolism , Dentate Gyrus , Metabolism , Erythropoietin , Pharmacology , Frontal Lobe , Metabolism , Galactose , Humans , Male , Neurons , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Recombinant Proteins , Pharmacology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121460

ABSTRACT

Aluminum (Al) accumulation increases with aging, and long-term exposure to Al is regarded as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of Al and/or D-galactose on neural stem cells, proliferating cells, differentiating neuroblasts, and mature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. AlCl3 (40 mg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally administered to C57BL/6J mice for 4 weeks. In addition, vehicle (physiological saline) or D-galactose (100 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected to these mice immediately after AlCl3 treatment. Neural stem cells, proliferating cells, differentiating neuroblasts, and mature neurons were detected using the relevant marker for each cell type, including nestin, Ki67, doublecortin, and NeuN, respectively, via immunohistochemistry. Subchronic (4 weeks) exposure to Al in mice reduced neural stem cells, proliferating cells, and differentiating neuroblasts without causing any changes to mature neurons. This Al-induced reduction effect was exacerbated in D-galactose-treated mice compared to vehicle-treated adult mice. Moreover, exposure to Al enhanced lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus and expression of antioxidants such as Cu, Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase in D-galactose-treated mice. These results suggest that Al accelerates the reduction of neural stem cells, proliferating cells, and differentiating neuroblasts in D-galactose-treated mice via oxidative stress, without inducing loss in mature neurons.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aging , Aluminum , Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Antioxidants , Dentate Gyrus , Galactose , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lipid Peroxidation , Mice , Nestin , Neural Stem Cells , Neurons , Oxidative Stress , Risk Factors , Superoxide Dismutase
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65948

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Diabetic complications are a major concern to manage progression of diabetes. Production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) due to high blood glucose is one of the mechanisms leading to diabetic complications. Multiple pharmacologic AGE inhibitory agents are currently under development, but clinical applications are still limited due to safety issues. Thus, it is necessary to identify a safe anti-glycation agent. It is known that burdock roots have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory role of burdock roots on the formation of high glucose-induced glycation of bovine serum albumin (BSA). METHODS: In this study, glycation of BSA by glucose, galactose, or fructose at 37℃ for 3 weeks was assessed based on levels of α-dicarbonyl compounds (early-stage glycation products), fructosamine (intermediate products of glycation), and fluorescent AGEs (late-stage glycation products). In order to compare the inhibitory actions of burdock root extract in AGE formation, aminoguanidine (AG), a pharmacological AGE inhibitor, was used as a positive control. RESULTS: BSA glycation by glucose, fructose, and galatose was dose- and time-dependently produced. Burdock root extract at a concentration of 4 mg/mL almost completely inhibited glucose-induced BSA glycation. The results demonstrate that burdock root extract inhibited AGE formation with an IC₅₀ value of 1.534 mg/mL, and inhibitory activity was found to be more effective than the standard anti-glycation agent aminoguanidine. This study identified a novel function of burdock root as a potential anti-glycation agent. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that burdock root could be beneficial for preventing diabetic complications.


Subject(s)
Arctium , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Complications , Fructosamine , Fructose , Galactose , Glucose , Glycation End Products, Advanced , Hyperglycemia , Serum Albumin, Bovine
18.
Mycobiology ; : 48-53, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729454

ABSTRACT

Lenzites betulinus, known as gilled polypore belongs to Basidiomycota was isolated from fruiting body on broadleaf dead trees. It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07, and 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed, respectively. This fungus relatively exhibited a good ethanol production from xylose at 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. However, the ethanol conversion rate of arabinose was relatively low (at 0.07 g of ethanol per gram sugar). L. betulinus was capable of producing ethanol directly from rice straw and corn stalks at 0.22 g and 0.16 g of ethanol per gram of substrates, respectively, when this fungus was cultured in a basal medium containing 20 g/L rice straw or corn stalks. These results indicate that L. betulinus can produce ethanol efficiently from glucose, mannose, and cellobiose and produce ethanol very poorly from galactose and arabinose. Therefore, it is suggested that this fungus can ferment ethanol from various sugars and hydrolyze cellulosic materials to sugars and convert them to ethanol simultaneously.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arabinose , Basidiomycota , Biomass , Carbohydrates , Cellobiose , Ethanol , Fruit , Fungi , Galactose , Gills , Glucose , Mannose , Trees , Xylose , Zea mays
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 457-467, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337451

ABSTRACT

Ensilage is a traditional way of preserving fresh biomass. However, in order to apply ensilage to the ethanol biorefinery, two parameters need to be evaluated: quantity and quality changes of the biomass; and its effects on bioconversion process. To study these two aspects, switchgrass harvested on three different time points (Early, mid and late fall) were used as feedstock. The early fall harvested biomass was ensiled at 5 moisture levels ranging from 30% to 70%. Silage of 40% moisture and 3 other raw switchgrass were pretreated with liquid hot water, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis as well as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. After 21 days storage pH values of all silages decreased below 4.0 and the dry matter losses were less than 2.0%, and structural sugars contents did not change dramatically. Liquid hot water caused more hemicellulose dissolution in the silage than in unensiled switchgrass. However, ensilage also increased the risk of releasing more sugar degradation products; After enzymatic hydrolysis, silage obtained higher total glucose, xylose and galactose yields than raw materials; After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, ethanol concentration in silage was 12.1 g/L, higher than the unensiled switchgrass (10.3 g/L, 9.7 g/L and 10.6 g/L for early, mid and late fall respectively). Our results suggest that ensilage helps increase pretreatment efficiency and sugar yield, which increases final ethanol production.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Ethanol , Chemistry , Fermentation , Galactose , Chemistry , Glucose , Chemistry , Hot Temperature , Hydrolysis , Panicum , Chemistry , Polysaccharides , Chemistry , Silage , Water , Xylose , Chemistry
20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 86-92, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320012

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-aging effects and reveal the underlying mechanism of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi ethanol extract (SBG) in D-galactose-induced rats. Fifty rats were randomly divided into five groups: vehicle control group, D-galactose group, and D-galactose combined with 50, 100, 200 mg x kg(-1) SBG. A rat aging model was induced by injecting subcutaneously D-galactose (100 mg x kg(-1)) for ten weeks. At the tenth week, the locomotor activity (in open-field test) and the learning and memory abilities (in Morris water maze test) were examined respectively. The urine was collected using metabolic cages and analyzed by high-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy combined with multivariate statistical analyses. The SBG at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg x kg(-1) treatments groups could significantly ameliorate aging process in rats' cognitive performance. The 50, 100, 200 mg x kg(-1) SBG regulated citrate, pyruvate, lactate, trimethylamine (TMA), pantothenate, β-hydroxybutyrate in urine favorably toward the control group. These biochemical changes are related to the disturbance in energy metabolism, glycometabolism and microbiome metabolism, which is helpful to further understanding the D-galactose induced aging rats and the therapeutic mechanism of SBG.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Galactose , Memory , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Plant Extracts , Pharmacokinetics , Urine , Rats , Scutellaria baicalensis , Chemistry
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