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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 531-541, Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339195

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A estratificação de risco continua sendo clinicamente desafiadora em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC) de etiologia não isquêmica. A galectina-3 é um marcador sérico de fibrose que pode ajudar no prognóstico. Objetivo: Determinar o papel da galectina-3 como preditora de eventos arrítmicos graves e mortalidade total. Métodos: Este é um estudo de coorte prospectivo que incluiu 148 pacientes com IC não isquêmica. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a uma avaliação clínica e laboratorial abrangente para coleta de dados de referência, incluindo níveis de galectina-3 sérica. O desfecho primário foi a ocorrência de síncope arrítmica, intervenções apropriadas do cardioversor desfibrilador implantável, taquicardia ventricular sustentada ou morte súbita cardíaca. O desfecho secundário foi a morte por todas as causas. Para todos os testes estatísticos, considerou-se significativo o valor p<0,05 (bicaudal). Resultados: Em seguimento mediano de 941 dias, os desfechos primário e secundário ocorreram em 26 (17,5%) e 30 (20%) pacientes, respectivamente. A galectina-3 sérica>22,5 ng/mL (quartil mais alto) não foi preditora de eventos arrítmicos graves (HR: 1,98; p=0,152). Os preditores independentes do desfecho primário foram diâmetro diastólico final do ventrículo esquerdo (DDFVE)>73 mm (HR: 3,70; p=0,001), ventilação periódica durante o exercício (VPE) no teste de esforço cardiopulmonar (HR: 2,67; p=0,01) e taquicardia ventricular não sustentada (TVNS)>8 batimentos na monitorização por Holter (HR: 3,47; p=0,027). Os preditores de morte por todas as causas foram: galectina-3>22,5 ng/mL (HR: 3,69; p=0,001), DDFVE>73 mm (HR: 3,35; p=0,003), VPE (HR: 3,06; p=0,006) e TVNS>8 batimentos (HR: 3,95; p=0,007). A ausência de todos os preditores de risco foi associada a um valor preditivo negativo de 91,1% para o desfecho primário e 96,6% para a mortalidade total. Conclusões: Em pacientes com IC não isquêmica, níveis elevados de galectina-3 não foram preditores de eventos arrítmicos graves, mas foram associados à mortalidade total. A ausência de preditores de risco revelou um subgrupo prevalente de pacientes com IC com excelente prognóstico.


Abstract Background: Risk stratification remains clinically challenging in patients with heart failure (HF) of non-ischemic etiology. Galectin-3 is a serum marker of fibrosis that might help in prognostication. Objective: To determine the role of galectin-3 as a predictor of major arrhythmic events and overall mortality. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study that enrolled 148 non-ischemic HF patients. All patients underwent a comprehensive baseline clinical and laboratory assessment, including levels of serum galectin-3. The primary outcome was the occurrence of arrhythmic syncope, appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy, sustained ventricular tachycardia, or sudden cardiac death. The secondary outcome was all-cause death. For all statistical tests, a two-tailed p-value<0.05 was considered significant. Results: In a median follow-up of 941 days, the primary and secondary outcomes occurred in 26 (17.5%) and 30 (20%) patients, respectively. Serum galectin-3>22.5 ng/mL (highest quartile) did not predict serious arrhythmic events (HR: 1.98, p=0.152). Independent predictors of the primary outcome were left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD)>73mm (HR: 3.70, p=0.001), exercise periodic breathing (EPB) on cardiopulmonary exercise testing (HR: 2.67, p=0.01), and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT)>8 beats on Holter monitoring (HR: 3.47, p=0.027). Predictors of all-cause death were galectin-3>22.5 ng/mL (HR: 3.69, p=0.001), LVEDD>73mm (HR: 3.35, p=0.003), EPB (HR: 3.06, p=0.006), and NSVT>8 beats (HR: 3.95, p=0.007). The absence of all risk predictors was associated with a 91.1% negative predictive value for the primary outcome and 96.6% for total mortality. Conclusions: In non-ischemic HF patients, elevated galectin-3 levels did not predict major arrhythmic events but were associated with total mortality. Absence of risk predictors revealed a prevalent subgroup of HF patients with an excellent prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Defibrillators, Implantable , Galectin 3/blood , Heart Failure , Prognosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Death, Sudden, Cardiac
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 248-256, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153000

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento As características histopatológicas da doença de Chagas (DCC) são: presença de miocardite, destruição das fibras cardíacas e fibrose miocárdica. A Galectina-3 (Gal-3) é um biomarcador envolvido no mecanismo de fibrose e inflamação que pode ser útil para a estratificação de indivíduos com DCC por risco. Objetivos Nosso objetivo foi avaliar se níveis elevados de Gal-3 estão associados a formas graves de cardiomiopatia chagásica (CC) e são preditivos de mortalidade. Métodos Estudamos doadores de sangue (DS) positivos para anti-T. cruzi: não-CC-DS (187 DS sem CC com eletrocardiograma [ECG] e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo [FEVE] normais); CC-Não-Dis-DS (46 DS com CC e apresentando ECG anormal, mas FEVE normal); e 153 controles negativos correspondentes. Esta amostra foi composta por 97 pacientes com CC grave (CC-Dis). Usamos as correlações de Kruskall-Wallis e Spearman para testar a hipótese de associações, assumindo um p bicaudal <0,05 como significativo. Resultados O nível de Gal-3 foi de 12,3 ng/mL para não-CC-DS, 12,0 ng/mL para CC-Não-Dis-DS, 13,8 ng/mL para controles e 15,4 ng/mL para CC-Dis. FEVE <50 foi associada a níveis mais elevados de Gal-3 (p=0,0001). Em nosso modelo de regressão linear ajustado, encontramos associação entre os níveis de Gal-3 e os parâmetros do ecocardiograma em indivíduos positivos para T. cruzi. Nos pacientes CC-Dis, encontramos uma associação significativa de níveis mais elevados de Gal-3 (≥15,3 ng/mL) e morte ou transplante cardíaco em acompanhamento de cinco anos (Hazard ratio - HR 3,11; IC95% 1,21- 8,04; p=0,019). Conclusões Em pacientes com CC, níveis mais elevados de Gal-3 estiveram significativamente associados a formas graves da doença e maior taxa de mortalidade em longo prazo, o que significa que pode ser um meio efetivo para identificar pacientes de alto risco. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):248-256)


Abstract Background The histopathological characteristics of Chagas disease (ChD) are: presence of myocarditis, destruction of heart fibers, and myocardial fibrosis. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a biomarker involved in the mechanism of fibrosis and inflammation that may be useful for risk stratification of individuals with ChD. Objectives We sought to evaluate whether high Gal-3 levels are associated with severe forms of Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC) and whether they are predictive of mortality. Methods We studied anti-T. cruzi positive blood donors (BD): Non-CC-BD (187 BD without CC with normal electrocardiogram [ECG] and left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]); CC-Non-Dys-BD (46 BD with CC with abnormal ECG but normal LVEF); and 153 matched serum-negative controls. This cohort was composed of 97 patients with severe CC (CC-Dys). We used Kruskall-Wallis and Spearman's correlation to test hypothesis of associations, assuming a two-tailed p<0.05 as significant. Results The Gal-3 level was 12.3 ng/mL for Non-CC-BD, 12.0 ng/mL for CC-Non-Dys-BD, 13.8 ng/mL for controls, and 15.4 ng/mL for CC-Dys. LVEF<50 was associated with higher Gal-3 levels (p=0.0001). In our linear regression adjusted model, we found association between Gal-3 levels and echocardiogram parameters in T. cruzi-seropositive subjects. In CC-Dys patients, we found a significant association of higher Gal-3 levels (≥15.3 ng/mL) and subsequent death or heart transplantation in a 5-year follow-up (Hazard ratio - HR 3.11; 95%CI 1.21-8.04; p=0.019). Conclusions In ChD patients, higher Gal-3 levels were significantly associated with severe forms of the disease and more long-term mortality, which means it may be a useful means to identify high-risk patients. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):248-256)


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Cardiomyopathy , Chagas Disease , Stroke Volume , Biomarkers , Ventricular Function, Left , Galectin 3
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 315-322, fev. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152998

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A doxorrubicina está associada à cardiotoxicidade e à morbidade cardíaca tardia. O heme está relacionado ao stress oxidativo celular. Entretanto, sua regulação específica em cardiomiócitos sob os efeitos de doxorrubicina ainda não foi documentada. Objetivo Nosso objetivo é avaliar as alterações de enzimas limitantes de velocidade no caminho metabólico do heme sob o efeito de doxorrubicina. Métodos Cardiomiócitos H9c2 com doxorrubicina em concentrações diferentes (1, 2, 5, 10μM respectivamente). Os testes de PCR em tempo real e Western Blot foram usados para determinar a expressão de proteína e mRNA para quatro enzimas cruciais (ALAS1, ALAS2, HOX-1, e HOX-2) que regulam o metabolismo do heme celular, e os níveis de heme foram detectados por ELISA. Um p<0,01 foi considerado significativo. Resultados Observamos um padrão com alteração dependendo da dose nos níveis de heme nas células H9c2 com o nível mais alto na concentração de 5μM de doxorrubicina, o que ocorreu sincronicamente com o nível mais alto de regulação para cima de ALAS1, bem como as enzimas degenerativas HOX-1 e HOX-2 na expressão de proteína e mRNA. Em contraste, observamos que a ALAS2 foi regulada para baixo gradualmente, inversamente proporcional às concentrações de doxorrubicina. Conclusão O aumento da expressão de ALAS1 pode ter um papel na elevação do nível do heme quando o cardiomiócito H9c2 for exposto à doxorrubicina, e pode ser um alvo terapêutico para a toxicidade miocárdica induzida por doxorrubicina. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):315-322)


Abstract Background Doxorubicin is associated with cardiotoxicity and late cardiac morbidity. Heme is related to cellular oxidative stress. However, its specific regulation in cardiomyocytes under doxorubicin effects has not yet been documented. Objective This study seeks to evaluate the changing profiles of rate-limiting enzymes in the heme metabolism pathway under the effect of doxorubicin. Methods H9c2 cardiomyocytes were incubated with doxorubicin at different concentrations (1,2,5,10μM respectively). The real-time PCR and Western Blot were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression for four pivotal enzymes (ALAS1, ALAS2, HOX-1, and HOX-2) regulating cellular heme metabolism, as well as the levels of heme were detected by ELISA. p<0.01 was considered significant. Results This study observed a dose-dependent changing pattern in heme levels in H9c2 cells with the highest level at the 5μM concentration for doxorubicin, which occurred synchronously with the highest upregulation level of ALAS1, as well as the degradative enzymes, HOX-1, and HOX-2 in mRNA and protein expression. By contrast, ALAS2, contrary to the increasing concentrations of doxorubicin, was found to be progressively down-regulated. Conclusion The increase in ALAS1 expression may play a potential role in the heme level elevation when H9c2 cardiomyocyte was exposed to doxorubicin and may be a potential therapeutic target for doxorubicin-induced myocardial toxicity. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):315-322)


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Cardiomyopathy , Chagas Disease , Stroke Volume , Biomarkers , Ventricular Function, Left , Galectin 3
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(12): 1010-1017, Dec. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1155040

ABSTRACT

Canine melanoma is a frequently-occuring neoplasm in dogs and presents as malignant and highly metastatic in this context, studies that contribute to the understanding of the tumor microenvironment in melanoma include the role of galectins. Galectins are proteins of the family of animal lectins that display carbohydrate recognition domains. Galectin-1 and galectin-3 are associated with neoplastic transformation, neoplastic cell survival, angiogenesis, immune system evasion, and metastasis. The goal of this study was to establish a correlation between expression patterns of galectin-1 and galectin-3 and the different degrees of aggressiveness of canine melanoma, as well as to determine serum concentration of galectin-3 in dogs with melanoma. Galectin-1 and galectin-3 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 30 canine melanomas, six melanocytomas and nine metastatic lymph nodes from patients whose primary tumors were also processed and analyzed. Serum samples from 30 dogs were collected and galectin-3 concentration was determined by ELISA and compared to the samples of 10 healthy dogs. Canine melanoma samples expressed galectin-1 in the cytoplasm and presented a variable pattern of galectin-3 staining depending on melanoma aggressiveness. We observed a decrease in the percentage of cells with cytoplasmic galectin-3 immunolabeling simultaneous to the increased nuclear staining intensity, while there was also a decrease in the percent frequency of nuclear galectin-3 immunolabeled cells according to progression of melanoma, comparing the least to the most aggressive cases. Dogs with melanoma had increased serum levels of galectin-3 when compared to healthy animals, suggesting its potential biomarker of patients with melanoma.(AU)


O melanoma canino é uma neoplasia frequente em cães que apresenta um potencial maligno e metastático. Neste contexto, investigar o microambiente tumoral é fundamental para compreender os mecanismos intercelulares e intracelulares envolvidos no desenvolvimento e progressão da doença. Neste estudo, destacamos as galectinas, proteínas da família das lectinas animais que exibem domínios de reconhecimento à carboidratos; a galectina-1 e a galectina-3 estão associadas a transformação neoplásica, sobrevivência de células neoplásicas, angiogênese, evasão do sistema immune e desenvolvimento de metástases. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os padrões de expressão de galectina-1 e galectina-3 em diferentes graus de agressividade do melanoma canino, bem como dosar a concentração sérica de galectina-3 em cães com melanoma e comparar com cães saudáveis. A expressão de galectina-1 e galectina-3 foi analisada em 30 melanomas caninos, seis melanocitomas e nove linfonodos metastáticos. A galectina-3 sérica foi mensurada em 30 cães com melanoma e comparada a 10 cães saudáveis. No melanoma canino a expressão de galectina-1 foi citoplasmática e a expressão de galectina-3 foi variável de acordo com o grau de agressividade. Notou-se uma redução na porcentagem de células com imunomarcação de galectina-3 citoplasmática e um aumento simultâneo da intensidade de imunomarcação nuclear, enquanto houve também uma diminuição na frequência percentual de células com imunomarcação nuclear de acordo com a progressão do melanoma comparando-se os casos menos com os mais agressivos. Cães com melanoma apresentaram níveis séricos aumentados de galectina-3 quando comparados a animais saudáveis, mostrando seu uso potencial como biomarcador em pacientes com melanoma.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Immunohistochemistry , Galectin 1 , Galectin 3 , Dogs/abnormalities , Melanoma , Lectins
7.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5105, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090040

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the density of anti-galectin-3-immunostained cells, collagen percentage, mast cell density and presence of pathological processes in intestinal muscle biopsies of patients. Methods Thirty-five patients who underwent intestinal biopsy were selected from 1997 to 2015. Patients were divided into three groups: chagasic patients with mucosal lesion (n=13), chagasic patients with intact mucosa (n=12) and non-chagasic patients with no mucosal lesion (n=10). Histological processing of the biopsied fragments and immunohistochemistry for galectin-3 were performed. Additional sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to evaluate the general pathological processes, picrosirius for evaluation of collagen and toluidine blue to evaluate the mast cell density. Results Patients of mucosal lesion group had a significantly higher frequency of ganglionitis and myositis when compared to the chagasic patients with intact mucosa and non-chagasic group. The density of anti-galectin-3-immunostained cells was significantly higher in the chagasic patients with intact mucosa group when compared to the non-chagasic group. The group of chagasic patients with intact mucosa presented a higher percentage of collagen in relation to the patients with mucosal lesion and to the non-chagasic group, with a significant difference. There was no significant difference in mast cell density among the three groups. Conclusion The higher density of anti-galectin-3-immunostained cells in patients in the chagasic patients with intact mucosa group suggested the need for greater attention in clinical evaluation of these patients, since this protein is associated with neoplastic transformation and progression.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a densidade de células imunomarcadas por anti-galectina-3, a percentagem de colágeno, a densidade de mastócitos e a presença de processos patológicos na musculatura intestinal de pacientes biopsiados. Métodos Foram selecionados 35 pacientes submetidos à biópsia de intestino entre 1997 a 2015. Os pacientes foram divididos em três grupos: chagásicos com lesão de mucosa (n=13), chagásicos com mucosa íntegra (n=12) e não chagásicos sem lesão de mucosa (n=10). Foram realizados processamento histológico dos fragmentos biopsiados e imunohistoquímica para galectina-3. Cortes adicionais foram corados por hematoxilina e eosina, para avaliar os processos patológicos gerais, pelo picrosírius, para avaliação do colágeno, e pelo azul de toluidina, para avaliar a densidade de mastócitos. Resultados Os pacientes do grupo chagásicos com lesão de mucosa apresentaram frequência significativamente maior de ganglionite e miosite quando comparados aos dos grupos chagásico com mucosa íntegra e não chagásicos. A densidade das células imunomarcadas por anti-galectina-3 foi significativamente maior no grupo chagásicos com mucosa íntegra quando comparada ao grupo não chagásico. O grupo de chagásicos com mucosa íntegra apresentou maior percentagem de colágeno em relação aos grupos chagásicos com mucosa lesada e ao grupo de não chagásicos, com diferença significativa. Não houve diferença significativa com relação à densidade de mastócitos entre os três grupos. Conclusão A maior densidade de células imunomarcadas por anti-galectina-3 nos pacientes do grupo chagásico com mucosa íntegra sugere a necessidade de maior atenção na avaliação clínica desses pacientes, uma vez que essa proteína está associada com transformação e progressão neoplásica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colonoscopy/methods , Chagas Disease/pathology , Galectin 3/analysis , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Megacolon/pathology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis , Biopsy , Fibrosis , Immunohistochemistry , Case-Control Studies , Cell Count , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance , Collagen/analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Galectin 3/immunology , Mast Cells/pathology , Middle Aged , Myositis/pathology
8.
Actual. osteol ; 15(3): 180-191, Sept-Dic. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104226

ABSTRACT

Bone metabolism disorders are characterized by an imbalance of bone resorption and formation in the bone remodeling process. Glucocorticoids that are used to treat kidney diseases exacerbate these disorders. P-selectin and galectin-3 are molecules involved in the sclerotic process in kidney, whereas bone resorption is regulated by the interaction between the nuclear factor activator kappa b receptor (RANK), its ligand (RANKL) and the RANKL decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of disruption of bone remodeling regulation processes, reflected by intercellular mediators (RANKL, OPG, P-selectin and galectin-3) in chronic kidney disease experimental model treated with glucocorticoids. Rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. The first group, the control group, included intact animals. The second group consisted of rats with impaired bone remodeling resulting from chronic kidney disease (experimental group (CKD). The third group was a group of animals with impaired bone remodeling due to exposure to glucocorticoids (experimental group (GCs)). The fourth group consisted of rats with impaired bone remodeling in chronic kidney disease, followed by exposure to glucocorticoids (experimental group (CKD + GCs)). The effects of CKD and glucocorticoid were evaluated biochemically, histologically and by measuring bone density. An enzymelinked immunoassay was used to measure intercellular mediator levels in the serum. The bone density in the experimental groups was reduced compared to the control group. RANKL levels in animals of three experimental groups were higher than in intact animals. Serum levels of OPG were higher in CKD and GCs groups than in intact animals. At the same time, in the animals' blood serum of the CKD + GCs group, the levels of OPG were lower, than those in animals from the control group. The levels of galectin-3 in the serum of the experimental groups GCs and CKD + GCs were lower than in intact animals. The serum levels of galectin-3 in animals of the CKD group were higher than those in animals from the control group. The levels of P-selectin were lower in the serum of the GCs group than in intact animals. At the same time, the levels of P-selectin were higher in the CKD and CKD + GCs groups, than those in animals from the control group. In conclusion, the study of the complex system of bone remodeling regulation, which includes many factors and their interactions, may lead to the development of new methods for treating patients with chronic kidney disease in order to prevent osteoporosis in the future. (AU)


Las enfermedades metabólicas óseas se caracterizan por un desequilibrio en el proceso de remodelación ósea en los que participan mediadores tales como receptor del activador del factor nuclear- kappa- b (RANK), su ligando (RANKL) y la osteoprotegerina (OPG). Los glucocorticoides, recuentemente empleados en el tratamiento de la enfermedad renal crónica, exacerban este desequilibrio. En la enfermedad esclerótica renal, las moléculas de adhesión celular P-selectina and galectina-3 tienen un rol fundamental. El objetivo de esta trabajo fue estudiar las alteraciones en los mediadores de la remodelación ósea (RANKL, OPG, P-selectina and galectina-3) en un modelo de enfermedad renal crónica con tratamiento glucocorticoideo. Ratas Wistar hembras fueron divididos en 4 grupos: control (C); enfermedad renal crónica con afección de la remodelación ósea (ERC); animales con afección de la remodelación ósea expuestos a glucocorticoides (GC); enfermedad renal crónica con afección de la remodelación ósea tratados con glucocorticoides (ERC+GC). Los efectos de la ERC y los GC fueron evaluados bioquímicamente, histológicamente y por medición de la densidad ósea. RANKL, OPG, Pselectina and galectina-3 se cuantificaron en muestras de sangre venosa empleando enzimoinmuno análisis. En los 3 grupos experimentales la densidad ósea se evidenció reducida y los niveles séricos de RANKL elevados respecto al grupo control. Los niveles de OPG en los grupos ERC y GC fueron superiores mientras que en el grupo ERC+GC menores respecto a los animales controles. Galectina 3 plasmática en GC y ERC+GC se encontró reducida y aumentada en los animales ERC, en comparación con los animales controles. La concentración sérica de P-selectina sérica fue mayor en los grupos ERC y ERC+GC, y menor en los animales GC respecto a los niveles plasmáticos de los animales intactos. El avance del conocimiento sobre la regulación de la remodelación ósea a través de la interacción de mediadores sistémicos, en un futuro, puede conducir al desarrollo de nuevas estrategias terapéuticas para la prevención de la osteoporosis en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/chemically induced , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diagnosis , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Bone Density/drug effects , Chloroform/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , P-Selectin/drug effects , P-Selectin/blood , Galectin 3/drug effects , Galectin 3/blood , RANK Ligand/drug effects , RANK Ligand/blood , Osteoprotegerin/drug effects , Osteoprotegerin/blood , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Glycerol/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(3): 348-354, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011117

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Galectin 3 is a unique ~31 kDa protein that recognizes the N-acetyl-lactosamine structure of several glycoconjugates. It mainly occurs in epithelial and myeloid cells, but is also found in a variety of human cell types. In view of the crucial role played by galectin 3 in the regulation of cellular processes of essential importance and in the pathogenetic mechanisms of diverse disorders, it is not surprising that, particularly in the last three decades, the attention of the scientific community has been increasingly drawn to this extraordinary and multifunctional galectin. In this paper the authors summarize current knowledge on the expression of galectin 3 in normal and diseased human skin, its implications in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and prognosis of cutaneous disorders, and the perspectives of a novel approach to the treatment of the latter using galectin 3 or its inhibitors/antagonists.


Subject(s)
Humans , Galectin 3/metabolism , Galectin 3/therapeutic use , Dermatitis/metabolism , Dermatitis/drug therapy , Dermatitis/therapy , Amino Sugars
10.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(1): 37-45, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003636

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: Atletas altamente entrenados muestran cambios cardíacos estructurales como adaptación a la sobrecarga, producto del ejercicio repetitivo y extenuante. Se han evidenciado elevación de biomarcadores de remodelado y fibrosis miocárdica posterior al ejercicio intenso en atletas. Sin embargo, el comportamiento de estos biomarcadores según el nivel de entrenamiento previo no se ha evaluado. Objetivo: Investigar biomarcadores de fibrosis y función ventricular derecha en maratonistas con distinto nivel de entrenamiento previo. Métodos: Se incluyeron 36 maratonistas hombres, sanos, que completaron 42 km en la maratón de Santiago. Se dividieron según entrenamiento previo en dos grupos, Grupo 1 (G1): ≥100 km/semana y Grupo 2 (G2): <100 km/semana. Se realizó ecocardiografía transtorácica y se evaluaron niveles plasmáticos de galectina-3 y del propéptido amino terminal del procolágeno tipo III (PIIINP) en la semana previa a la carrera e inmediatamente posterior a ésta. Resultados: Posterior a la maratón, la función sistólica del ventrículo derecho disminuyó en el grupo G2 junto con un aumento significativo de los niveles plasmáticos de PIIIPNP (61±16 a 94±24 ng/mL, p=0,01). Estos cambios no se observaron en el grupo G1 (65 ± 11 a 90±29 ng/mL, p=0,10). Los niveles plasmáticos de galectina-3 aumentaron significativamente en ambos grupos posterior al ejercicio (6,8±2,2 a 19,7±4,9 ng/mL, p 0,012 y 6,0±1,1 a 19,4 ± 5,9 ng/mL, p 0,01) en los grupos G1 y G2, respectivamente). Conclusiones: Atletas con menor grado de entrenamiento, presentan posterior a una maratón un significativo aumento de productos de degradación del colágeno (PIIIPNP) asociado a disminución de la función del ventrículo derecho. Los niveles de galectina-3 plasmática aumentan significativamente en ambos grupos post-esfuerzo independiente del entrenamiento previo.


Abstracts: Introduction: Highly trained athletes show structural cardiac changes as adaptation to overload. Rise in remodeling biomarkers and myocardial fibrosis after intense exercise in athletes has been evidenced; however, the behavior of these biomarkers according to pre-competition training level has not been evaluated. Objective: To evaluate fibrosis biomarkers levels and right ventricle function in marathon runners according to their previous training level, in the period prior to a marathon race and immediately after it. Methods: Thirty-six healthy male marathon runners were included. Subjects were grouped according to their previous training level: Group 1 (G1): ≥100 km/week and Group 2 (G2): <100 km/week. Transthoracic echocardiography along with plasmatic levels of galectin-3 and amino terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were measured one week previous and immediately after the marathon. Results: Post-effort right ventricle systolic function decreased in G2, together with a significant elevation of PIIIPNP (61±16 to 94±24 ng/mL, p=0.01). These changes were not observed in G1 (from 65±11 to 90±29 ng/mL, p=0.10). Plasma galectin-3 increased significantly in both groups immediately post-exercise (6.8±2.2 to 19.7±4.9 ng/mL, p=0.012, and 6.0±1.1 to 19.4±5.9 ng/mL, p=0.01, in G1 and G2. respectively). Conclusion: Less trained athletes evidenced higher post marathon levels of PIIIPNP which is associated with a decreased global right ventricle function. Plasma galectin-3 levels increased significantly after intense exertion regardless of the intensity of previous training.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Running/physiology , Fibrosis/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Ventricular Function, Right , Heart Injuries/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Fibrosis/physiopathology , Exercise/physiology , Single-Blind Method , Chile , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Procollagen/blood , Galectin 3/blood , Athletes
11.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(2): 152-157, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-988204

ABSTRACT

Background: Galectin-3 is the designation given to the protein that binds to ß-galactosides, expressed by activated macrophages and described as a cardiac fibrosis mediator. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), myocardial fibrosis is an independent predictor of adverse outcome; however, the association between Galectin-3 and myocardial fibrosis has not been studied in this cardiopathy. Objective: To evaluate the association of Galectin-3 and the presence of myocardial fibrosis in a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods: Galectin-3 was measured in automated equipment using the Elisa technique in 100 participants divided into two groups: 50 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 50 healthy control subjects. All patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy underwent magnetic nuclear resonance with the late enhancement technique to investigate myocardial fibrosis. For the statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Galectin-3 levels were low and did not show significant differences between patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and the control group,10.3 ± 3.1 ng/dL and 11.3 ± 2.6 ng/dL (p = 0.12) respectively. Myocardial fibrosis was a common finding and was identified in 84% (42/50) of patients with HCM, but no differences were observed between Galectin-3 levels when comparing patients with and without fibrosis, 10.3 ± 2.4 ng/dL and 10.1 ± 2.1 ng/dL (p = 0.59). Conclusion: The results did not show an association between Galectin-3 and myocardial fibrosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, suggesting that non-inflammatory mechanisms of myocardial fibrosis formation and cardiac remodeling are involved in this cardiopathy


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/diagnostic imaging , Galectin 3 , Endomyocardial Fibrosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Statistical Analysis
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762157

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Chironomids (nonbiting midges) are widely and abundantly distributed near ponds, rivers, and artificially dammed pools used for irrigation. Chironomids contain allergens and cause airway allergy in humans. In this study, we aimed to examine the allergic potential of chironomids in inhabitants living near artificially dammed pools. METHODS: We examined immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity to chironomid extracts in the sera of residents living around installed dams and assessed the correlations of IgE responses between chironomids (Chironomus flaviplumus, Chironomus kiiensis, Cricotopus bicinctus) and house dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae). In addition, we identified potential IgE binding proteins specific for adult C. bicinctus, a popular species in Korea. Specific IgE antibodies in sera collected from the participants against the extracts were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The average IgE-positive rates were 10.4%, 8.1%, and 8.2% in C. bicinctus, C. flaviplumus, and C. kiiensis, respectively. The IgE-positive rate and IgE titer of C. bicinctus antigen were higher in residents living around installed dams than in those who lived other places (P = 0.013). Western blotting using sera having high IgE titers to C. bicinctus in ELISA showed the presence of a protein of approximately 42 kDa that was homologous to the actin protein isoform in C. bicinctus extracts as demonstrated using mass spectrometry. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that people living near installed dams were more sensitized to C. bicinctus and that the 42 kDa IgE-binding protein could be useful for further studies on chironomid allergic disease and clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Actins , Adult , Allergens , Antibodies , Blotting, Western , Chironomidae , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Galectin 3 , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Korea , Mass Spectrometry , Ponds , Pyroglyphidae , Rivers
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 819-826, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The early identification of heart failure (HF) risk may favorably affect outcomes, and the combination of multiple biomarkers may provide a more comprehensive and valuable means for improving the risk of stratification. This study was conducted to assess the importance of individual cardiac biomarkers creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), galectin-3 (Gal-3) and soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2 (sST2) for HF diagnosis, and the predictive performance of the combination of these four biomarkers was analyzed using random forest algorithms.@*METHODS@#A total of 193 participants (80 patients with HF and 113 age- and gender-matched healthy controls) were included from June 2017 to December 2017. The correlation and regression analysis were conducted between cardiac biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters. The accuracy and importance of these predictor variables were assessed using random forest algorithms.@*RESULTS@#Patients with HF exhibited significantly higher levels of CK-MB, BNP, Gal-3, and sST2. BNP exhibited a good independent predictive capacity for HF (AUC 0.956). However, CK-MB, sST2, and Gal-3 exhibited a modest diagnostic performance for HF, with an AUC of 0.709, 0.711, and 0.777, respectively. BNP was the most important variable, with a remarkably higher mean decrease accuracy and Gini. Furthermore, there was a general increase in predictive performance using the multi-marker model, and the sensitivity, specificity was 91.5% and 96.7%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The random forest algorithm provides a robust method to assess the accuracy and importance of predictor variables. The combination of CK-MB, BNP, Gal-3, and sST2 achieves improvement in prediction accuracy for HF.


Subject(s)
Adult , Algorithms , Biomarkers , Blood , Metabolism , Creatine Kinase, MB Form , Blood , Metabolism , Echocardiography , Female , Galectin 3 , Blood , Metabolism , Heart Failure , Blood , Metabolism , Pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Blood , Metabolism
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774112

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the correlation of galectin-3 level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) load and cellular immunity of neutrophils and macrophages in the airway in children with refractory MP pneumonia (RMPP).@*METHODS@#A total of 64 children with RMPP who were hospitalized from January 2013 to January 2017 were enrolled. In addition to the conservative medical treatment, all the 64 children with RMPP were given bronchoalveolar lavage in the acute stage (5-7 days after admission) and 48 out of the 64 children were given bronchoalveolar lavage in the recovery stage (10-14 days after admission). Four milliliters of BALF of the affected lung lobe or segment were collected. ELISA was used to measure the level of galectin-3 in BALF supernatant. RT-PCR was used to measure MP load. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to measure the percentage of neutrophils and macrophages. Six children with bronchial foreign bodies were enrolled as the control group.@*RESULTS@#The RMPP group had a significantly higher level of galectin-3 in BALF in both the acute and recovery stages than the control group (P0.05). The RMPP group had a significantly higher MP load in BALF in both the acute and recovery stages than the control group (P<0.01), and the MP load in the acute stage was significantly higher than in the recovery stage (P<0.01). In the children with RMPP, galectin-3 level in BALF in the acute stage was positively correlated with MP load and the percentage of neutrophils (r=0.789 and 0.726 respectively; P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Galectin-3 is involved in the process of airway inflammation in children with RMPP, and the level of galectin-3 in BALF is positively correlated with MP load. RMPP is a cellular immune inflammatory lesion with the increase of neutrophils and the reduction in macrophages. Galectin-3 is closely associated with neutrophil chemotaxis and luminal infiltration in children with RMPP. MP load gradually decreases with the recovery from RMPP, but it is not completely eliminated by the immune system in the recovery stage. MP infection can increase the consumption of macrophages in children with RMPP.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Child , Galectin 3 , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The level of Galectin-3 (Gal-3) protein purportedly reflects an ongoing cardiac fibrotic process and has been associated with ventricular remodeling, which is instrumental in the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Gal-3 in improved characterization of the grades of diastolic dysfunction as defined by echocardiography. METHODS: Seventy HFpEF patients undergoing routine echocardiography were prospectively enrolled in the present monocentric study. Blood samples for measurements of Gal-3 and amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were collected within 24 hours pre- or post-echocardiographic examination. The classification of patients into subgroups based on diastolic dysfunction grade permitted detailed statistical analyses of the derived data. RESULTS: The Gal-3 serum levels of all patients corresponded to echocardiographic indices, suggesting HFpEF (E/A, P=0.03 and E/E', P=0.02). Gal-3 was also associated with progressive diastolic dysfunction, and increased levels corresponded to the course of disease (P=0.012). Detailed analyses of ROC curves suggested that Gal-3 levels could discriminate patients with grade III diastolic dysfunction (area under the curve [AUC]=0.770, P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Gal-3 demonstrates remarkable effectiveness in the diagnosis of patients suffering from severe grade diastolic dysfunction. Increasing levels of Gal-3 possibly reflect the progressive course of HFpEF, as classified by the echocardiographic grades of diastolic dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Classification , Diagnosis , Echocardiography , Galectin 3 , Heart Failure , Humans , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Ventricular Remodeling
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver biopsies have been partially replaced by noninvasive methods for assessing liver fibrosis. We explored the usefulness of four novel biomarkers, enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF), glycosylation isomer of Mac-2 binding protein (M2BPGi), galectin-3, and soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2), in association with liver fibrosis. METHODS: ELF, M2BPGi, galectin-3, and sST2 were assayed in 173 patients with chronic liver diseases. The results were analyzed according to fibrosis grade (F0/1, F2, and F3/4) by transient elastography (TE). RESULTS: ELF, M2BPGi, galectin-3, and sST2 values differed significantly according to TE grade; ELF and M2BPGi values were higher in F2 and F3/4 than in F0/1 (P≤0.001, all), sST2 values were higher in F3/4 than in F0/1 and F2 (P < 0.05), and galectin-3 values were higher in F3/4 than in F0/1 (P=0.0036). ELF and M2BPGi showed good TE fibrosis detection performance (area under the curves [AUC], 0.841 and 0.833 for ≥F2; and 0.837 and 0.808 for ≥F3). The sensitivity and specificity for predicting TE grade F≥2 were 84.1% and 76.7% for ELF and 63.6% and 91.5% for M2BPGi. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to compare the liver fibrosis assessment of four novel biomarkers: ELF, M2BPGi, galectin-3, and sST2. The biomarkers varied significantly according to TE grade, and each biomarker showed a different trend. ELF and M2BPGi seem to have comparable good performance for detecting liver fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Biopsy , Carrier Proteins , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Fibrosis , Galectin 3 , Glycosylation , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , Liver , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 87(4): 278-285, oct.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887537

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objectives: To establish a relationship between global longitudinal strain (GLS) and Galectin-3 in pre-clinical heart failure in diabetic patients. Galectin-3 is a biomarker in heart failure with depressed ejection fraction (HFdEF). The hypothesis is presented that Galectin-3 is related to GLS and can detect left ventricular dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Methods: Galectin-3 and GLS were measured in 121 asymptomatic individuals: 14 diabetics with mild depressed ejection fraction (mdEF) (LVEF 47.0 ± 6.9); 76 diabetics with preserved ejection fraction (LVEF 61 ± 5.5), and 31 controls (61.7 ± 5.1). Results: Galectin-3 was elevated in all diabetics vs controls (3.46 ± 1.36 ng/ml vs 2.78 ± 0.91 ng/ml; p = .003). It was also elevated in mdEF (3.76 ± 1.12 ng/ml vs 2.78 ± 0.9 ng/ml; p = .009) and pEF subjects (3.41 ± 1.40 ng/ml vs 2.78 ± 0.9 ng/ml; p = .058), respectively, vs controls. No difference in Gal-3 was found between diabetic groups (p = .603). Diabetics had lower GLS than controls (-18.5 ± 3.9 vs -20 ± 2.6; p = .022). Diabetics with mdEF had lower GLS than those with pEF (-13.3 ± 3.41 vs -19 ± 3.2; P<.001). There was no difference in GLS with pEF compared to controls (-19.4 ± 3.2 vs -20 ± 2.6; p = .70). Conclusions: Galectin-3 is elevated in diabetic patients with mdEF, and is associated with a diminished GLS. GLS could be an early marker of left ventricular dysfunction as well as evidence of diabetic cardiomyopathy.


Resumen: Objetivos: Establecer una asociación entre deformación longitudinal global (DLG) y galectina-3 en insuficiencia cardiaca preclínica en pacientes diabéticos. Galectina-3 es un biomarcador en insuficiencia cardiaca con fracción de eyección deprimida. Nuestra hipótesis es que la DLG y galectina-3 correlacionan y pueden detectar disfunción ventricular en insuficiencia cardiaca con FEVI preservada. Métodos: Se midieron galectina-3 y DLG en 121 individuos asintomáticos: 14 diabéticos con FEVI deprimida leve (FEdl) (FEVI 47 ± 6.9); 76 diabéticos con FEVI preservada (FEp) (FEVI 61 ± 5.5) y 31 sujetos controles (FEVI 61.7 ± 5.1). Resultados: Galectina-3 se encontró elevada en todos los diabéticos vs controles (3.46 ± 1.36 ng/ml vs 2.78 ± 0.91 ng/ml; p = 0.003). Está elevada en sujetos con FEdl (3.76 ± 1.12 vs 2.78 ± 0.9 vs ng/ml p = 0.009) y FEp (3.41 ± 1.40 vs 2.78 ± 0.9 ng/ml p = 0.058), respectivamente vs controles; no encontramos diferencia en galectina-3 en ambos grupos de diabéticos (p = 0.603). Los diabéticos tienen menor DLG que los controles (-18.5 ± 3.9 vs -20 ± 2.6; p = 0.022). Los diabéticos con FEdl tienen DLG más disminuida que aquellos con FEp (-13.3 ± 3.41 vs -19 ± 3.2; p < 0.001). No existe diferencia en DLG con FEp y controles (-19.4 ± 3.2 vs -20 ± 2.6; p = 0.70). Conclusiones: Galectina-3 está elevada en diabéticos con FEdl y correlaciona DLG disminuida. DLG podría ser un marcador temprano de disfunción ventricular y evidencia en miocardiopatía diabética.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Stroke Volume , Galectin 3/blood , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/blood , Blood Proteins , Echocardiography , Biomarkers/blood , Galectins , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging
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